This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
A hybrid vehicle (HV) is a vehicle using an onboard rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fuelled power source for vehicle propulsion. The HV pollutes less and uses less fuel. The different propulsion power systems may have common subsystems or components. The HV provides better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle because the engine is smaller and may be run at speeds providing more efficiency
DEPT OF ECE
VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE
• • •
INTRODUCTION HISTORY TYPES OF HYBRID
3 4 7 7 9 10 16 17 19 20 22 26 27 28 31 32
SERIES PARALLEL FULL HYBRID
HYBRIDS TYPES BASED ON FUNCTION HYBRID COMPONENTS HYBRID STRUCTURE HYBRIDS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE ENGINES & FUEL SOURCES BENEFITS INCENTIVES TRADE OFFS CONCLUTION REFERENCE
• • • • • • • •
DEPT OF ECE
VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE
A hybrid vehicle (HV) is a vehicle using an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fuelled power source for vehicle propulsion. The HV pollutes less and uses less fuel. The different propulsion power systems may have common subsystems or components. The HV provides better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle because the engine is smaller and may be run at speeds providing more efficiency. The term most commonly refers to petroleum-electric hybrid vehicles, also called Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) which use internal combustion engines and electric batteries to power electric motors. Modern mass-produced hybrids prolong the charge on their batteries by capturing kinetic energy via regenerative braking. As well, when cruising or in other situations where just light thrust is needed, "full" hybrids can use the combustion engine to generate electricity by spinning a generator (often a second electric motor) to either recharge the battery or directly feed power to an electric motor that drives the vehicle. This contrasts with all-electric cars which use batteries charged by an external source such as the grid, or a range extending trailer. Nearly all hybrids still require gasoline and diesel as their sole fuel source though other fuels such as ethanol or plant based oils have also seen occasional use. A number of other hybrid vehicles use hydrogen fuel. The term hybrid when used in relation with cars also has other uses. Prior to its modern meaning of hybrid propulsion, the word hybrid was used in the United States to mean a vehicle of mixed national origin; generally, a European car fitted with American mechanical components. This meaning has fallen out of use. In the import scene, hybrid was often used to describe an engine swap. Some have also referred to flexible-fuel vehicles as hybrids because they can use a mixture of different fuels — typically gasoline and ethanol alcohol fuel.
DEPT OF ECE
VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE
Wouk's work with electric hybrid vehicles in the 1960s and 1970s earned him the title as the "Godfather of the Hybrid"). but the program was killed by the EPA in 1976 while Eric Stork. Although sales of the Kilowatt were dismal. Henney Coachworks. and also won the Exelberg Rally in 1901 with Porsche himself driving. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . the head of the EPA at the time. However this is more an example of electrical transmission than a hybrid vehicle. The 1915 Dual Power made by the Woods Motor Vehicle electric car maker had a four cylinder internal combustion engine and an electric motor.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS HISTORY In 1898 Ferdinand Porsche designed the Lohner-Porsche carriage. Since then. and the Eureka Williams Company. There have also been air engine hybrids where a small petrol engine powered a compressor. The Henney Kilowatt was the first modern production electric vehicle and was developed by a cooperative effort between National Union Electric Company. About 600 were made up to 1918. Renault. was accused of a prejudicial coverup. Over 300 of the Lohner-Porsche carriages were sold to the public. a series-hybrid vehicle that broke several Austrian speed records. the development of the Kilowatt served was a historical "who's who" of electric propulsion technology. hobbyists have continued to build hybrids but none was put into mass production by a major manufacturer until the waning years of the twentieth century. Several types of air engines also increased the range between fill-ups with up to 60% by absorbing ambient heat from its surroundings. Wouk installed a prototype electric-hybrid drivetrain into a 1972 Buick Skylark provided by GM for the 1970 Federal Clean Car Incentive Program. In 1959 the development of the first transistor-based electric car—the Henney Kilowatt—heralded the development of the electronic speed control that paved the way for modern hybrid electric cars. Below 15 mph (25 km/h) the electric motor alone drove the vehicle and above this speed the "main" engine cut in to take the car up to its 35 mph (55 km/h) top speed. A more recent working prototype of the electric-hybrid vehicle was built by Victor Wouk (one of the scientists involved with the Henney Kilowatt and also brother of author Herman Wouk ).
It is also used in diesel-electric submarines. was developed by Electrical Engineer David Arthurs around 1978 using off-the shelf components and an Opel GT. General Motors. NRC reviewers questioned whether the “Big Three” would be able to move from the concept phase to cost effective. The focus of the FreedomCAR initiative being to fund research too high risk for the private sector to engage in with the long term goal of developing emission / petroleum free vehicles. though a number of nations continue to rely on diesel-electric fleets. which operate in essentially the same manner as hybrid electric cars.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS The regenerative-braking hybrid. The vehicle exhibited ~75 mpg fuel efficiency and plans for it (as well as somewhat updated versions) are still available through the Mother Earth News web site. the core design concept of most production hybrids. Arthurs'. Ford. as called for under Goal 2. the DoE. Since then. However the voltage controller to link the batteries. as set out in Goal 3. pre-production prototype vehicles by 2004. USCAR. The program was replaced by the hydrogen focused FreedomCAR initiative of George W. which can operate underwater indefinitely. many submarines have moved to nuclear power. in this case the goal was to allow operation underwater without consuming large amounts of oxygen. The Mother Earth News' own 1980 version claimed nearly 84 mpg. Based on information received from automakers. However. The Bill Clinton administration initiated the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program in September 29. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . Bush's administration in 2001. The NRC cited automakers’ moves to produce hybrid electric vehicles as evidence that technologies developed under PNGV were being rapidly adopted on production lines. the widest use of hybrid technology was actually in diesel-electric locomotives. rather than economizing on fuel. In the intervening period. motor (a jet-engine starter motor). and other various governmental agencies to engineer the next efficient and clean vehicle. and DC generator was Mr. 1993 that involved Chrysler.
Toyota and Ford entered into a licensing agreement in March 2004 allowing Ford to use 20 patents from Toyota related to hybrid technology. although Ford's engine was independently designed and built. Nissan announced the release of the Altima hybrid (technology supplied by Toyota) around 2007. but delivers about 50 US mpg (4. often appearing and performing identically to their non-hybrid counterparts while delivering 50% better fuel efficiency. Toyota also plans to add hybrid drivetrains to every model it sells in the coming decade. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . is still being produced and has a devoted base of owners. USA. The redesigned 2004 Toyota Prius improved passenger room. cargo area. It will be built in Kentucky. for instance. The Honda Insight. while not matching the demand of the Prius. For 2007 Lexus offers a hybrid version of their GS sport sedan dubbed the GS450h with "well in excess of 300hp". Ford Motor Company's Ford Escape Hybrid. The 2007 Camry Hybrid has been announced and is slated to launch in late Spring as a 2007 model. Honda has also released a hybrid version of the Accord. 2005 saw the first hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV) released. Ford licensed patents involving their European diesel engines to Toyota.7 L/100km). Toyota announced model year 2005 hybrid versions of the Toyota Highlander and Lexus RX 400h with 4WD-i which uses a rear electric motor to power the rear wheels negating the need for a differential. The Honda Civic Hybrid appears identical to the non-hybrid version.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS The Prius has been in high demand since its introduction. In exchange for the hybrid licences. and power output. while increasing energy efficiency and reducing emissions. Also. Newer designs have more conventional appearance and are less expensive.
use regenerative braking to recover energy when slowing down the vehicle. Some provision must be made. This may change if capacitators (Super or Ultracaps) are used to act as short term storage which is the case for shunting locomotives in the US by Rail Power Technologies  and motorized units at JR-East. Many designs also shut off the internal combustion engine when it is not needed in order to save energy. Furthermore. for accessories such as air conditioning which are normally driven by the engine. This simply involves driving a motor so it acts as a generator. and thus can not be called "hybrid" vehicles. Also. A series hybrid is similar to an electric car which is recharged by electricity from a stationary fossil fuel power plant. except that as of 2006. Subaru pioneered this feature in the early 1980s. thus reducing the engine's efficiency. the internal combustion engine is not directly connected to the drivetrain at all. start and stop cycles may reduce the engine's ability to operate at its optimum temperature. the frequent starting and stopping of such systems reduce the lifespan of the engine considerably. the overwhelming majority of dieselelectric locomotives do not store auxiliary power in batteries for use in propulsion. however. since it is upon startup that the majority of engine wear occurs. though parallel designs are most common today. the lubrication systems of internal combustion engines are inherently least effective immediately after the engine starts. except that the power plant is carried on board. and the Volkswagen Lupo 3L is one example of a conventional vehicle that shuts off its engine when at a stop. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE .SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS TYPES OF HYBRID Electric-Internal Combustion Hybrid . That concept is not unique to hybrids. Series In a series design. no matter the specific type. Most hybrids. but powers an electrical generator instead. Two major categories are series hybrids and parallel hybrids. This is similar to the operation of diesel-electric train locomotives.
Series hybrids are the most efficient in driving cycles that incorporate many stops and starts. In such vehicle use. For long-distance highway driving however. The internal combustion engine can also be finely tuned to operate at its most efficient speed whenever it is running. where it may facilitate the adoption of an all-low-floor design. for a great gain in efficiency. and therefore simplifies traction control. transmission shafts. mechanical brakes need to be fitted to the wheels for safety reasons. electricity comes from both the battery pack and the engine-generator section. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . offsetting the efficiency gains that might otherwise be realized. when the motor is integrated into the wheel. differential). and similar features. this design removes or reduces the need for a complex transmission. The advantage of this type of hybrid is the flexibility afforded by the lack of a mechanical link between the internal combustion engine and the wheels. it increases the unsprung masses and for better ride characteristics the motors may be fixed to the vehicle body. A weakness of a series hybrid system. is that series hybrids require separate motor and generator portions. the combustion engine can deliver power at a constant and more efficient rate. When large amounts of power are required. Additionally. The use of wheel motors is particularly interesting in vehicles such as urban buses. However. urban buses or stop and go city driving. which can be combined in some parallel hybrid designs. Separate small electric motors installed at each wheel are featured in some prototypes and concept cars. however. the combined efficiency of the motor and generator will be lower than that of a conventional transmission. and excess energy can be used to charge batteries. the addition of losses in the electric transmission comes forward and a parallel hybrid may be more advisable. as well as in all-wheel drive vehicles such as military vehicles (up to 8x8) where it simplifies mechanical design. The use of one motor per wheel eliminates the conventional mechanical transmission elements (gearbox. Because electrical motors can operate quite efficiently over a wide range of speeds. which requires the use of flexible couplings to the wheels. the power delivered to the wheels by a series hybrid is limited by the electric motor(s) (which can be overloaded for a limited time however). whereas in a parallel hybrid both the combustion engine and the electric motor can provide power to the wheels. all wheel drive. such as for delivery vehicles. this allows the possibility of easily controlling the power delivered to each wheel.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS Electricity from the generator is fed to the motor or motors that actually move the car. Also.
SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS Fuel cell vehicles are often fitted with a battery or supercapacitor to deliver peak acceleration power and to reduce the size and power constraints on the fuel cell. connect both the electrical and internal combustion systems to the mechanical transmission. with the motor turning on only when a boost is needed. by modulating the electrical power delivered to these systems. this offers the possibility of further efficiency gains. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . They can be subcategorized depending upon how balanced the different portions are at providing motive power. the internal combustion engine is the dominant portion and is used for primary power. In some cases. Most designs combine a large electrical generator and a motor into one unit. often situated between the internal combustion engine and the transmission. in the location of the flywheel. which are most commonly produced at present. replacing both the conventional starter motor and the generator or alternator. this is effectively also a series-style setup. A large battery pack is required. Others can run with just the electric system operating alone. so that they continue to function when the internal combustion engine is stopped. rather than having them run directly from the engine at a speed which depends on engine speed. Accessories such as power steering and air conditioning are powered by electric motors. providing a higher voltage than the normal automotive 12 volts. Parallel Parallel systems.
DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . determining which half should be running. or a combination of both. the vehicles use a differential-style linkage between the engine and motor connected to the head end of the transmission. is a vehicle that can run on just the engine. or where the batteries are discharged. at some cost in complexity. or if both should be in use.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS Full hybrid A full hybrid. results in 80%–100% gains in fuel economy compared to four-door conventional cars of similar weight and size. These vehicles have a split power path that allows more flexibility in the drivetrain by interconverting mechanical and electrical power. The normal mode of operation is on electrical power alone. which is being used in the Prius. The Prius and Escape Hybrids are examples of this. Highlander sport-utility vehicle (SUV). The hybrid drivetrain of the Prius. shutting off the internal combustion engine when the electric motor is sufficient to provide the power. in combination with aerodynamics and optimizations in the engine itself to reduce drag. A computer oversees operation of the entire system. as both cars can be moved forward on battery power alone. A large. The Toyota brand name for this technology is Hybrid Synergy Drive. high-capacity battery pack is needed for battery-only operation. just the batteries. To balance the forces from each portion. sometimes also called a strong hybrid. with the gasoline engine running only in cases where the extra power is required. and Camry.
Interesting variations of that simple theme. On the other hand. lead to a low efficiency of that path (~0. the need for reasonably rapid acceleration from a standing start results in an engine which is much larger than required for steady speed cruising. rpm characteristics of the internal combustion and electrical motors operate synergistically. an electrical motor exhibits maximum torque at stall. Thus. an internal combustion engine's torque is minimal at lower RPMs. which is designed for maximum efficiency (often using variations of the conventional Otto cycle. as multiple conversions. less flexible engine may be used. as very well known (implemented in the Toyota Prius) are the • addition of a fixed gear second planetary gearset as used in the Lexus RX400h and Toyota Highlander Hybrid. the efficiency of the transmission is heavily dependent on the amount of power being transmitted over the electrical path. ie. This in turn makes this setup very simple in mechanical terms. each with their own. therefore this engine is well suited to complement the internal combustion engine's torque deficiency at low RPMs. due to the fact that a fixed amount of torque is transferred via the electrical path from the engine to the wheels. The main principle behind this system is the more-orless complete decoupling of the power supplied by the engine (or other primary source) from the power demanded by the driver.98). This contributes significantly to the higher overall efficiency of the vehicle. Also. higher power density DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . such as the Miller or Atkinson cycle). allowing the use of a much smaller and therefore more fuel efficient engine. The differing torque vs. but does have some drawbacks of its own. less than perfect efficiency.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS Input-split Hybrid The Toyota Hybrid System THS / Hybrid Synergy Drive mode of operation with only a single power split device (incorporated as a single 3 shaft planetary gearset) is more generically called Input-Split Hybrid. since the engine must be its own air pump.7) compared with the purely mechanical path (~0. This allows for a motor with less torque but higher power (and higher maximum rotary speed). with regenerative braking playing a much smaller role. Especially in higher speed regimes (>120 km/h or 70 mph) the efficiency (of the transmission alone) therefore drops below that of a generic automatic transmission with hydrodynamic coupler. For example the maximum speed is mainly limited by the speed of the smaller electric motor. Thus a smaller.
The technology will be released in 2008 on the Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid. no diagrams could be obtained so far explaining the 4 gear-ratios (and why that would impose limits on the concurrent use of both electric motors or not). and DaimlerChrysler are working together on a so-called Two-Mode Hybrid system which is a full hybrid plus additional efficiency improvements. BMW.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS • addition of a ravigneux-type planetary gear (planetary gear with 4 shafts instead of 3) and two clutches as used in the Lexus GS450h. The main difference to the Input-Split Hybrid is the addition of a second planetary gearset. either for higher torque or higher speed (up to 250 km/h / 155 mph) while sustaining better transmission efficiency. only smaller electrical motors with much less power and torque can be used. the gear ratio from MG2 (the "drive" motor) to the wheel shaft is switched. electrically transmitted power.and high-speed regimes. The system was also featured on the GMC Graphite SUV concept vehicle at the 2005 North American International Auto Show in Detroit. This enables the switching (two-modes) of the percentage of mechanically vs. Combined-Split Hybrid General Motors. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . By switching the clutches. However. an additional. and the addition of two clutches (which can actually operate as one). and in order to cope both with low. Most likely. 3rd ravigneux-like planetary gear with additional clutches is used for shifting between distinct final gear ratios.
Honda's hybrids including the Insight use this design. which operates not only when the engine needs to be turned over. Starting with the 2006 Civic Hybrid. A variation on this type of hybrid is the Saturn VUE Green Line hybrid system that uses a smaller electric motor (mounted to the side of the engine). but also when the driver "steps on the gas" and requires extra power. Another variation on this type is Mazda's e-4WD system. with a torque-boosting electric motor also connected to a largely conventional powertrain. offered on the Mazda Demio sold in Japan. However. Assist hybrids differ fundamentally from full hybrids in that they cannot run on electric power alone. since the amount of electrical power needed is much smaller. and battery pack than the Honda IMA. leveraging their reputation for design of small. the size of the battery systems is reduced. is essentially a very large starter motor. mounted between the engine and transmission. This front-wheel drive vehicle has an electric motor which can drive the rear wheels when extra traction is needed. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . arguing that the Escape's full hybrid design is more efficient. so it does not enhance performance or economy. the IMA system now can propel the vehicle solely on electric power during medium speed cruising. but functions similarly. efficient gasoline engines. The system is entirely disengaged in all other driving conditions. However. The electric motor.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS Assist hybrid Engine compartment of a 2006 Mercury Mariner Hybrid Assist hybrids use the engine for primary power. their system is dubbed Integrated Motor Assist (IMA). assist hybrids should not be confused with actual mild hybrids like the Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid. Ford has dubbed Honda's hybrids "mild" in their advertising for the Escape Hybrid.
DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . General Motors followed the pickup truck hybrid with their Belt alternator starter (BAS) hybrid system. and as in other hybrid designs. used in the 2007 Saturn VUE Green Line. For its "start-stop" functionality. or stopped. yet restart quickly and cleanly. A major example is the 2005 Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS Mild hybrid Engine compartment of a 2006 GMC Sierra Hybrid Mild hybrids are essentially conventional vehicles with oversized starter motors. braking. Many people do not consider these to be hybrids at all. the BAS can also be considered an Assist hybrid. Mild hybrids often use 42 volt systems to supply the power needed for the startup motor. as well as to compensate for the increasing number of electronic accessories on modern vehicles. and these vehicles do not achieve the fuel economy of full hybrid models. it operates similarly to the system in the Silverado. Chevrolet was able to get a 10% improvement on the Silverado's fuel efficiency by shutting down and restarting the engine on demand. the motor is used for regenerative braking to recapture energy. thus. But the GM BAS has broader hybrid functionality as the electric motor can also provide modest assist under acceleration and during steady driving. and captures regenerative braking. resulting in a 20% improvement in fuel efficiency. a full-size pickup truck. Accessories can continue to run on electrical power while the engine is off. The larger motor is used to spin up the engine to operating rpm speeds before injecting any fuel. allowing the engine to be turned off whenever the car is coasting.
They are also called gas-optional. Light Trucks are also offered by Micro-Vett SPA the so called Daily Bimodale. hydroelectric power. the PRIUS+ achieves roughly double the gasoline mileage of a standard Prius and can make trips of up to 10 miles using only electric power. With the addition of 300 lb of lead-acid batteries.S. Their main benefit is that they can be gasolineindependent for daily commuting. California's grid is primarily natural gas. biodiesel. Particular interest in PHEVs is in California where a "million solar homes" initiative is under way. DaimlerChrysler is currently building PHEVs based on the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter van. The Electric Power Research Institute's research indicates a lower total cost of ownership for PHEVs due to reduced service costs and gradually improving batteries. the Renault Kangoo. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . Prototypes of PHEVs. or hydrogen. notably at Prof. The "well-to-wheel" efficiency and emissions of PHEVs compared to gasoline hybrids depends on the energy sources of the grid (the US grid is 50% coal. or griddable hybrids. have been built in the U.. and wind power).000 more for a plug-in hybrid car increased from 17% in 2005 to 26% in 2006. The California Cars Initiative has converted the '04 and newer Toyota Prius to become a prototype of what it calls the PRIUS+. able to run in electric-only mode. with larger batteries and the ability to recharge from the electric power grid. went on sale in France in 2003. Plug -in Hybrid are like Series Hybrids. with the electric power supplemented by diesel. with larger battery packs that can be recharged from the power grid. but also have the extended range of a hybrid for long trips. A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a full hybrid. Andy Frank's Hybrid Center at UC Davis and one production PHEV. and global warming legislation has been enacted.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS Plug-in hybrid The number of US survey respondents willing to pay $4. They can also be multi-fuel.
• which allow for driving with electrical energy over short distances Smart Electronic start/stop System In the micro hybrid category. Mild hybrids are equipped with an electric motor of up to 25 KKW output.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS Hybrid Types based on function Mainly there are three type of hybrid system • Micro hybrids with start/stop function • Mild hybrids with boost effect • Strong hybrid. The system requires the least modification input for existing vehicles. that is to say a “boost” effect. he simply steps on the clutch pedal and the system re-starts the engine quickly and conveniently. This results in a greater torque of up to 400 Newton meters from standstill. It is equipped with a stronger power motor of up to 75 KW. This may increase fuel efficiency by as much as 8%. The Micro Hybrid System will then automatically shut off the engine. as well as potential fuel savings of more than 20 percent on average. and the combination of combustion engine and energy reclaiming results in fuel savings up to 15percent. This relatively small power motor offers another vehicle. vehicles more often than nor are stopped by red traffic lights or simply because of traffic congestion. 0developers are baking mostly on the cost efficient “smart electronic start/stop system” which works with a reinforced starter. In city traffic. The same is also true for the strong hybrid. which offers a chance for deployment in large unit numbers in the near future. Once the driver can move on again. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . in some cases with even more power. Strong hybrids by for greater driving fun Both mild and strong hybrids contain the benefits offered by the micro hybrid system. The system furthermore allows for driving shorter distances with just electrical power and thus zero emissions locally.
Gasoline has a much higher energy density than batteries do.The fuel tank in a hybrid is the energy storage device for the gasoline engine. Electric motor . like the Toyota Prius.The hybrid car has a gasoline engine much like the one you will find on most cars.The electric motor on a hybrid car is very sophisticated. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank. the electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into the batteries as well as draw energy from them. when it needs to. it can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries. Transmission .The generator is similar to an electric motor. However. But acting as a generator. but it acts only to produce electrical power. the engine on a hybrid will be smaller and will use advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase efficiency.The batteries in a hybrid car are the energy storage device for the electric motor. like the Honda Insight. which can only power the gasoline engine. It is used mostly on series hybrids. which we’ll talk about later. it can draw energy from the batteries to accelerate the car. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . Fuel tank .000 pounds of batteries to store as much energy as 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gasoline. Some hybrids. For example. have conventional transmissions. Others. have radically different ones. Batteries . Generator . For example.The transmission on a hybrid car performs the same basic function as the transmission on a conventional car.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS Hybrid Components Hybrid cars contain the following parts: • • • • • • Gasoline engine . Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator. it takes about 1.
SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE .
SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS HYBRID STRUCTURE DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE .
For a more complete list. a Toyota affiliate. Hybrid light trucks were introduced 2004 by Mercedes (Hybrid Sprinter) and Micro-Vett SPA (Daily Bimodale). Peugeot. International Truck and Engine Corp. Honda. in January 2005.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS HYBRIDS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE Automobiles and light trucks A number of manufacturers currently produce hybrid automobiles and light trucks. The Whispering Wheel bus is another hybrid. The Blue Ribbon City Hybrid bus was presented by Hino. Nissan. In mid 2005 Isuzu introduced the Elf Diesel Hybrid Truck on the Japanese Market. New Flyer and Gillig produce hybrid buses using Allison's electric drive system. In 2003 GM introduced a diesel hybrid military (light) truck. have been selected to manufacture dieselelectric hybrid trucks for a US pilot program serving the utility industry in 2004. trucks and buses In May 2003 JR East started test runs with the so called NE (new energy) train and validated the system's operability (series hybrid with lithium ion battery) in cold regions. mostly route buses are using Hinos HIMR (Hybrid Inverter Controlled Motor & Retarder) system. In May 2003 GM started to tour with hybrid buses developed together with Allison. RailPower Technologies had been running pilots in the US with the so called Green Goats which led to orders by the Union Pacific and Canadian Pacific Railways starting in early 2005. Renault and Toyota. see Production hybrid vehicles (organized by manufacturer). including Ford. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . and Eaton Corp. Several hundreds of those buses have entered into daily operation in the US. Toyota claims to have started with the Coaster Hybrid Bus in 1997 on the Japanese market. equipped with a diesel electric and a fuel cell auxiliary power unit. Mazda. General Motors. They claim that approximately 300 vehicles. In 2004. Also in 2005 GE introduced its hybrid shifters on the market. Trains.
SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS A promising but as-yet unseen application for hybrid vehicle technology would be in garbage trucks. in tunnels with emission limits). Locomotives Railpower offers hybrid road switchers. because power is delivered both via a conventional or electric motor and the rider's muscles (see also Electric bicycle). in which case they are better classified as dual-mode vehicles. Taxicabs In 2005. Two-wheeled vehicles Mopeds and Power-assisted bicycles can be considered hybrid vehicles in a sense. unless they are fed with electricity via a collector for short distances (for example. Other military vehicles The United States Army's manned ground vehicles of the Future Combat System all use a hybrid electric drive consisting of a diesel engine to generate electrical power for mobility and all other vehicle subsystems. not having energy storage on board.000 vehicles could be converted within five years. as does GE. Diesel-electric locomotives may not always be considered hybrids. New York City added six Ford Escape Hybrids to their taxi fleet and city officials said the entire fleet of 13. since these vehicles do stop-start driving and often stand idling. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE .
A basic efficiency problem of the ICE motor is that they must provide enough power for acceleration and this generally requires DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . and this includes the current hybrid-electric cars such as the Prius.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS ENGINES AND FUEL SOURCES ICE-ICE Hybrid Hybrid Synergy Drive on a 2004 Toyota Prius Ford Escape Hybrid Nearly all motor vehicles use some form of Internal Combustion Engine.
For simplicity. One of the worst design flaws of the ICE-Electric vehicles is overall vehicle weight in part due to heavy batteries.000 pound vehicle. the small motor could have a single fixed gear ratioed to run most efficiently at a defined speed range such as 60–75 mph (95–120 km/h). the amount of power needed for a typical 3.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS over 100 horsepower (75 kW). Aerodynamic). The small motor's horsepower could be chosen with a goal of ability to allow the vehicle to climb slopes up to five degrees since few roads are truly level for even short distances.000–5. Any time anyone claims superb energy efficiency. perhaps it is unpublished.e. usually those are based on driving on very flat ground. was crashworthy and carried 2 people. Also. because both of the these vehicles are only one-person wide they have a small frontal area coupled with a low drag shape. It is very inefficient to run a large spark-ignition (i. This might be wired into the common electric cruise control which many cars already have. However. the more energy it will take to move it. with no hills and no accelerating from a start. In 2002 Volkswagen showed its "One Litre Car" running concept which got over 200 mpg. watch out for wild claims of super-high mileage.000 pound (1. Making a large hybrid for single person commuting is a misleading waste no matter how clever the technology. The late Frank-Winchell of General Motors may have done work with the ICE-ICE hybrid. gasoline) engine under such a light load. This system would be more efficient than manufactured systems with cylinder shut-downs since those systems still have large amounts of friction—the shut-down cylinders are still running. in an ICE-ICE hybrid a second small motor might be used at cruising speeds. there is only one person in a 4–8 passenger 3. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE .7 kW) when running 60 mph (95 km/h) on level roads (one term for this is "Road-Horsepower"). and there is no magic method to avoid it. Keep in mind that the bigger something is. Advantages of ICE-ICE hybrids over Petroleum-Electric hybrids would be greater range and less weight. However. the acceleration was very slow—but with a second larger motor for acceleration it could actually be quite sporty and still use very little fuel—as an ICE-ICE hybrid.350 kg) vehicle may be less than 5 horsepower (3. But. A similar petroleum-electric ultralight tandem seater. So. weighed only about 600 pounds. the real waste is that 90% of the time. the 2005 Daihatsu UFE-III could be made into an ICE-ICE hybrid for far greater range without the anchor of batteries. So. both are Naero vehicles (Narrow.
DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . VW made a prototype diesel-electric hybrid car that achieved 2 litres/100 km (118 mpg US) fuel economy. and it has been difficult for car manufacturers to meet emissions levels given what is put into the engine. where greater restrictions have been in place for many years. Like most modern ICEpowered vehicles. have the advantage they can use 100% pure biofuels (biodiesel). Nowadays petroleum gasoline engines can use directly biobutanol Diesel One particularly interesting hybrid vehicle combination uses a diesel engine for power. and will likely remain dominant for the foreseeable future. Despite the "legally allowed" dirtier fuel. and therefore the diesel part of hybrids. Diesels are not widely used for passenger cars in the United States. ultra-low sulfur diesel is set to be mandated in the United States in October 2006. combined with hybrid technology. which would increase allowable ratios. the US has tough restrictions on exhaust. as US diesel fuel has long been considered very "dirty". While petroleumderived gasoline is the primary fuel. Manufacturers may move to flexible fuel engines. it is possible to mix in varying levels of ethanol created from renewable energy sources. PSA Peugeot Citroën offers PSA Peugeot Citroën has unveiled two demonstrator vehicles featuring a diesel-electric hybrid powertrain: the Peugeot 307 and Citroën C4 Hybride HDi (PDF). Nowadays most diesel vehicles. The Diesel engine's high torque. However. Diesels are excellent at delivering constant power for long periods of time. suffering less wear while operating at higher efficiency. so they can use but do not need petroleum at all.35 litres/100 km). but has yet to sell a hybrid vehicle. but no plans are in place at present.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS Gasoline Gasoline engines are used in most hybrid designs. hybrids can typically use up to about 15% bioethanol. General Motors has been testing the Opel Astra Diesel Hybrid. with relatively high levels of sulfur and other contaminants in comparison to the Eurodiesel fuel in Europe. may offer performance in a car of over 100 mpg US (2.
Gillig. such as cars modified to run on propane and diesels modified to run on waste vegetable oil. Hybrid fuel In addition to vehicles that use two or more different devices for creating motive power. Orion Bus Industries. • Some vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available. Current manufacturers of diesel-electric hybrid buses include New Flyer Industries.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS Hybrid Orion VI Metrobus So far. and North American Bus Industries. • Flexible-fuel vehicles can use a mixture of input fuel — typically gasoline and ethanol. production diesel-electric engines have mostly just appeared in mass transit buses. some also consider vehicles that use distinct energy input types (fuels) to be hybrids. In principle. no such design seems to have been announced. and DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . although to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above. NovaBus will add a diesel-electric hybrid option as well. these are better described as dual mode vehicles: • Some electric trolleybuses can switch between an onboard diesel engine and overhead electrical power depending on conditions (see dual mode bus. this could be combined with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus. Some bicycle conversion kits aided popularisation of "hybrid" vehicle bicycles that used electric hub motors and Wilderness internal combustion engines (such as the 1940s "Pixie" bicycle motor). Human power Motorized bicycles use human pedal power and an attached motor. though diesel-biodiesel and liquid petroleum gasnatural gas (LPG-NG) vehicles would also qualify. • Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and other human-powered vehicles are also included. In 2008. although as of 2006.
This statistic has a major implication for the reducing petroleum consumption and vehicle air pollution emissions worldwide • Reduced wear and tear on the gasoline engine. • Hybrids are much more energy efficient than traditional internal combustion engine vehicles because they generally provide greater fuel economy. that this is not always an advantage. In fact composite driving tests indicate total air pollution of carbon DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . for example. A standard combustion engine is required to operate over a range of speed and power. and the kinetic energy of the car is wasted as heat. people who are blind or visually-impaired. Benefits This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. the engine operates within its range of highest efficiency. and who rely on vehicle-noise while crossing streets. because the engine can be sized for slightly above average power demand rather than peak power demand. but in contrast to conventional vehicles. • Reduced noise emissions resulting from substantial use of electric engine at low speeds. • Reduced wear on brakes from the regenerative braking system use. braking is done by mechanical brakes. The power curve of electric motors is better suited to variable speeds and can provide substantially greater torque at low speeds compared with internal-combustion engines. which may often be simultaneously propelled by human and engine power. lighter. Such machines include electric bicycles and mopeds. TWIKE). In a conventional vehicle. braking in a hybrid is controlled in part by the electric motor which can recapture part of the kinetic energy of the car to partially recharge the batteries. • Reduced air pollution emissions due to less fuel consumed per travel mile. however. Benefits of the hybrid design include: • The internal-combustion engine in a hybrid vehicle is much smaller. More sophisticated constructions are three wheeled and provide at least a windscreen (ZAP EPOD. • Like many electric cars.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS pedal power. leading to improved human health with regard to respiratory and other illness. leading to roadway noise reduction and beneficial noise health effects. find it more difficult to do safely. and more efficient than the one in a conventional vehicle. yet its highest efficiency is in a narrow range of operation—in a hybrid vehicle. Note. You can comment on the removal. This is called regenerative braking and one of the reasons for the high efficiency of hybrid cars.
the deduction reduces by $500 each year until it reaches zero. exempt hybrid cars from the biennial smog inspection. • Hybrid purchases before January 1. The qualified owners do not have to pay for parking in any city garage or road side parking meters. • The city of San Jose. 2006 qualify for a tax deduction on the IRS 1040 form. 2006. 319 proposed the phasing out of the deduction to put on hold for the year 2004 and 2005. The experiment is an extension to an existing offer of free parking for all pure electrical vehicles. the purchase of hybrid cars qualifies for a tax credit up to $3400 on the purchaser's Federal Income Taxes. and 0% thereafter. • Increased driving range without refueling or recharging. HR 1308 Sec. to 25% ($850) in the fifth and sixth quarters.g. • Some states. several incentives have been made into law: United States • Starting January 1. • City of Los Angeles. compared with electric vehicles and perhaps even compared with internal-combustion vehicles. The tax credit is to be phased out two calendar quarters after the manufacturer reaches 60. 2005 when George W.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS monoxide and reactive hydrocarbons are 80 to 90 percent cleaner for hybrid versus conventional vehicles. 2004. •Many states give additional tax credits to hybrid car buyers • Certain states allow singly-occupied hybrid vehicles to enter the HOV lanes on the highway. Maryland started to offer discount on monthly parking in the city parking lots. California. 2005. Limitations in range have been a problem for traditional electric vehicles. the Federal Highway Administration ruled that this was a violation of federal statute until August 10. California offers free parking to all hybrid vehicles starting on October 1. the City of Baltimore.000 new cars sold in the following manner: it will be reduced to 50% ($1700) if delivered in either the third or fourth quarter after the threshold is reached.000 deduction. • Hybrid cars can go on certain toll roads for free. Incentives In order to encourage the purchase of hybrid vehicles. California issues a free parking tag for hybrid cars that were purchased at a San Jose dealership. e. • In October. and is considering free DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . Bush signed the Transportation Equity Act of 2005 into law. which costs over $50 (as of 2004). Initially. In 2003 hybrid owners qualified for a $2.
 Toyota announced in January. Canada can claim a rebate on the Provincial Retail Sales Tax of up to $2.  United Kingdom • Drivers of hybrid vehicles in the United Kingdom benefit from the lowest band of vehicle excise duty (car tax) which is based on CO2 emissions. Trade-offs In some cases. referred to above.000 CDN on the purchase or lease of a hybrid vehicle. these vehicles are also exempt from the £8 ($14) daily congestion charge in central London. In the future. 2006 that it was considering a "highefficiency" button. added performance) as they wish. the relative desirability of this concept rests on the deficiencies of the two underlying systems. On November 3. Hybrid drivers also benefit from a discount in their insurance if they are insured with "MORE TH>N" who recently announced a discount for hybrids drivers in the UK of up to 13 per cent. It has been observed that the success of the hybrid systems comes despite the need to carry two complete power systems. the unfavorable torque curve of the internal combustion engine.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS meter parking for hybrid vehicles. In London. internal combustion engine. manufacturers are producing hybrid vehicles that use the added energy provided by the hybrid systems to give vehicles a power boost. through a user-controlled setting. Canada • Residents in Ontario. manufacturers may provide hybrid-owners with the ability to set this balance (fuel efficiency vs. and the lack of a system of storing and delivering electrical power with anything near the energy density of combustible liquid fuels. • Annual vehicle registration fees in the District of Columbia are half ($36) that paid for conventionally vehicles ($72). so that a fuel tank. the Boston Globe reports that the city council of Boston is considering the same treatment for hybrid cars. and generator together DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . rather than significantly improved fuel efficiency compared to their traditional counterparts. 2005. although the Prius is lighter and more aerodynamic than many other cars. In fact. The trade-off between added performance and improved fuel efficiency is mainly something controlled by the software within the hybrid system. In a poorly designed car this might increase the weight and size and therefore greater losses in acceleration and aerodynamic drag.
Disposal is an additional issue. and another two hybrids are in the top ten . this would eliminate the advantage gained from regenerative braking and the low rpm torque boost of the electrical portion of the hybrid. Civic versus Civic Hybrid).SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS still represent a better source of electrical power than the equivalent weight and volume of batteries. the vehicle that has kept its resale value the best from 2004-2006 is a hybrid vehicle.g. The complexity may result in greater repair costs. the typical hybrid vehicle is more expensive than corresponding non-hybrids (e. so that the majority of automotive operation becomes steady speed cruising rather than stopping and starting. and hundreds of enthusiastic engineer-owners gather on the Internet and in clubs. By its nature. In fact. Somewhat less likely is the possibility of a change in the general popular mode of automobile use largely supplanting short trips by use of mass transportation. but the Toyota mechanics in Atlanta and other U. and the environmental effects of leachates from the small number of hybrid battery packs that are not recycled will be no worse than they are from ordinary automobile batteries. Skeptics claim that mechanics are not fond of working on hybrid vehicles due to added complexity. the more reactive the chemicals it contains.S. Hundreds of thousands are in use.. (The Prius battery pack is only a little larger than the starter battery. and allow very small forced induction internal combustion engines to become viable competitors of the heavier hybrid systems. However. the hybrid cars have limited power resources so often they can not be used for high power applications such as towing boats. These vehicles have been available for ten years and the lifespan and resale values are good. although hybrid manufacturers typically encourage buyers with generous warranties so this has not yet affected end users. the more power density the battery offers.) Finally. but Toyota reports very few problems with battery packs. the internal combustion portion of the hybrid will become superfluous. are recycled. In the event of relatively large leaps forward in battery or fuel cell technology. Although the variables involved are many. those more concerned about DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . a battery must be made of reactive chemicals. and rigorous regulations are in effect. One additional problem is the lack of towing hook. dealers and mechanics are trained for this. all discarded hybrid vehicles will be returned for proper recycling and disposal.S. Virtually all automobile batteries in the U. cities say they are delighted by the cars.
if advances in battery technology allow increased range at comparable cost to gasoline-powered vehicles. as they would result in a lower cost in most cases. the long suburban commutes common in the U. a pure electric vehicle will be responsible for more pollution (primarily sulfates and particulates) than a hybrid vehicle (Table 1). S. In areas where older coal-fired generators are the source of electrical power.S.S. The relative cost of gasoline to an equivalent amount of electrical energy will also be a critical factor in the electric vehicle market. vehicles are owner produced conversions of older conventional vehicles. make range an important criterion for electric vehicle design. Hybrids vs. Whether greenhouse gas emissions will be lower in such a case is still under debate DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE .) The major U.S. most U. (Most European electric vehicles are purchased from manufactures. However. manufacturers will likely mass-market electric vehicles. In addition. while due to unavailibilty of manufactured vehicles.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS economics than the environment might steer away from hybrids in favor of traditional economy vehicles. Another relevant factor is the ultimate source of power for the electric vehicles. electric vehicles Battery powered all-electric cars (BEVs) are more popular in Europe than in the U. automobile manufacturers argue that customer demand for pure electric cars is small.
and thus has much of its capacity idle most of the time. it would be advantageous to utilize that excess capacity and thereby generate a greater revenue for their fixed investment. to require consumers to refrain from recharging their vehicles during certain times may not be an easy idea to sell to them. On the other hand. DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE . to do so would require substantial upgrades to the capacity of the grid. For now. and again leave the utilities with excess capacity most of the time. However. this vision very pointedly does not allow for recharging of vehicles during peak usage times. Since it can't be scaled larger and smaller at will. For the electric utilities. rather than with expectations of production at any defiinite time.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS CONCLUTION The key to a hybrid car is that the gasoline engine can be much smaller than the one in a conventional car and therefore more efficient An advantage of the hybrid vehicle is in not requiring any upgrades to the electric power transmission grid. by selling power to consumers to recharge their vehicles. car manufacturers are focusing on fuel cell-based cars and hybrids. Fuel cell vehicles are being developed in a long-term research environment. Toyota intends all of its vehicles to have a hybrid option by 2012. the grid is sized so as to carry almost the maximum load with only occasional failures.and the similar ones to follow with even better efficiency & conservation rate are very much on the anvil in today’s energy deficit world. One can surely conclude that this concept.
com Auto India DEPT OF ECE VIMAL JYOTHI ENGG COLLEGE .hybrids.SEMINAR 2006 HYBRID CARS REFERENCE www.com www.howstuffworks.wickipedia.com www.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.