Name: Abū ‘Alī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham Title: Ibn al-Haytham and Alhacen Birth: 965

[1] Death: c. 1040[1] Ethnicity: Arab and/or Persian Region: Iraq (Mesopotamia) and Egypt

Anatomy, Astronomy, Engineering, Mathematics, Mechanics, Main Medicine, Optics, Ophthalmology, Philosophy, Physics, interests: Psychology, Science Pioneer in optics, scientific method, experimental science, Notable experimental physics, experimental psychology, visual ideas: perception, phenomenology, analytic geometry, nonPtolemaic astronomy, celestial mechanics Book of Optics, Doubts Concerning Ptolemy, On the Works: Configuration of the World, The Model of the Motions, Treatise on Light, Treatise on Place Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Galen, Muhammad, Banū Mūsā, Influences: Thabit ibn Qurra, al-Kindi, Ibn Sahl, al-Qūhī Khayyam, al-Khazini, Averroes, Roger Bacon, Witelo, Pecham, Farisi, Theodoric, Gersonides, Alfonso, von Influenced: Peuerbach, Taqi al-Din, Risner, Clavius, Kepler, John Wallis, Saccheri

Muslim scientist

Ibn al-Haytham drawing taken from a 1982 Iraqi 10-dinar note. Name: Abū ‘Alī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham Title: Ibn al-Haytham and Alhacen Birth: 965[1] Death: c. 1040[1] Ethnicity: Arab and/or Persian Region: Iraq (Mesopotamia) and Egypt Anatomy, Astronomy, Engineering, Mathematics, Mechanics, Medicine, Optics, Main interests: Ophthalmology, Philosophy, Physics, Psychology, Science Pioneer in optics, scientific method, experimental science, experimental physics, Notable ideas: experimental psychology, visual perception, phenomenology, analytic geometry, nonPtolemaic astronomy, celestial mechanics Book of Optics, Doubts Concerning Ptolemy, On the Configuration of the World, The Works: Model of the Motions, Treatise on Light, Treatise on Place Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Galen, Muhammad, Banū Mūsā, Thabit ibn Qurra, al-Kindi, Ibn Influences: Sahl, al-Qūhī Khayyam, al-Khazini, Averroes, Roger Bacon, Witelo, Pecham, Farisi, Theodoric, Influenced: Gersonides, Alfonso, von Peuerbach, Taqi al-Din, Risner, Clavius, Kepler, John Wallis, Saccheri

For the Moon crater, see Alhazen (crater). For the asteroid, see 59239 Alhazen. Note: This text uses special characters.

1039 in Cairo). to carry out this operation. and to science in general with his introduction of the scientific method. dying there at age 76.[4] He made significant contributions to the principles of optics.)البصري‬after his birthplace in the city of Basra. He is also recognized so for his experiments on optics.[34] as well as for the microscope and the use of optical aids in Renaissance art. he assumed that he could regulate the floods of the Nile. and retired from engineering. Moreover.[33] In his optical research. part of present-day Iraq and part of Buyid Persia at that time.[29] He described the attraction between masses and was aware of the magnitude of acceleration due to gravity at-a-distance.[13][15] Due to his formulation of a modern quantitative and empirical approach to physics and science.2 Legacy 2 Book of Optics o 2. refraction.[30] He stated that the heavenly bodies were accountable to the laws of physics and also presented a critique and reform of Ptolemaic astronomy.[23] for starting a revolution in optics[24] and visual perception. psychology. mathematics.[5] He was also nicknamed Ptolemaeus Secundus ("Ptolemy the Second")[6] or simply "The Physicist"[7] in medieval Europe.[11] He studied binocular vision and the Moon illusion.ابو علی، حسن بن حسن بن الهيثم‬ Persian: ‫ .[25] Ibn al-Haytham's achievements include many advances in physics and mathematics. He enunciated Fermat's principle of least time and the concept of inertia (Newton's first law of motion).[35] Contents [hide] • • 1 Overview o 1. He is sometimes called al-Basri (Arabic: ‫ .[6] Ibn al-Haytham is regarded as the "father of modern optics"[10] for his influential Book of Optics (written while he was under house arrest). he laid the foundations for the later development of telescopic astronomy.2 Scientific method . Fearing for his life.c. Sabra to be the founder of experimental psychology[21] for his approach to visual perception and optical illusions. visual perception. including experiments on lenses. physics. during and after which he devoted himself to his scientific work until his death.[8] After being ordered by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. He was the first to state Wilson's theorem in number theory. reflection. the sixth ruler of the Fatimid caliphate. he is considered the pioneer of the modern scientific method[16][17] and the originator of the experimental nature of physics[18] and science.[28] and developed the concept of momentum. mirrors. he feigned madness[1][9] and was placed under house arrest.[19] Author Bradley Steffens describes him as the "first scientist". which correctly explained and proved the modern intromission theory of vision. and the dispersion of light into its constituent colours.[22] and a pioneer of the philosophical field of phenomenology or the study of consciousness from a first-person perspective.1 Biography o 1. he formulated and solved Alhazen's problem geometrically using early ideas related to calculus and mathematical induction. and he formulated the Lambert quadrilateral[31] and a concept similar to Playfair's axiom[32] now used in non-Euclidean geometry. Born circa 965.[20] He is also considered by A.[6] Over-confident about practical application of his mathematical knowledge. described the finite speed[12][13] of light. He gave the first clear description[26] and correct analysis[27] of the camera obscura. in Basra. astronomy.1 Optics o 2. he quickly perceived the impossibility of what he was attempting to do.ابن هيثم‬Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 in Basra . medicine. was an Arab[2] or Persian[3] polymath. His Book of Optics has been ranked with Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica as one of the most influential books in the history of physics. ophthalmology. I. Egypt. and argued that it is made of particles[14] travelling in straight lines. philosophy. as well as to anatomy.[1] he lived mainly in Cairo. engineering.Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (Arabic: ‫.

3 Mechanics 4 Astronomical works o 4. </ref>.2 Secondary literature o o • 11 External links Overview Biography Alhazen. the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate.[36] During his time in Iraq.1 Primary literature o 10. Egypt. and the focus of the "high point of Islamic civilization".4 Theology 7 Works 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading o 10. Abū ‘Alī al-Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham (and known in Europe as Alhacen or Alhazen) was born in Basra in present-day Iraq.3 Alhazen's problem 2.2 Engineering o 6. the great Islamic polymath.3 Philosophy o 6.4 Other astronomical works 5 Mathematical works o 5. a task requiring an .4 Other contributions 3 Other works on physics o 3.• • • • • • • • 2.3 Model of the Motions of Each of the Seven Planets o 4.2 Astrophysics o 3. to regulate the flooding of the Nile. ruler of the Fatimid Caliphate.1 Doubts Concerning Ptolemy o 4.2 On the Configuration of the World o 4.[36] and he was educated there and in Baghdad.[5] One account of his career has him summoned to Egypt by the mercurial Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.1 Optical treatises o 3.1 Geometry o 5. During the Islamic Golden Age. he worked as a civil servant and read many theological and scientific books. He probably died in Cairo. Basra was a "key centre of learning".1 Influence of Melodies on the Souls of Animals o 6.2 Number theory 6 Other works o 6.

[47] and on Johannes Kepler. he became associated with Al-Azhar University. Ibn al-Haytham's work on optics is credited with contributing a new emphasis on experiment. the father of the history of science. 1320) in the latter's Kitab Tanqih al-Manazir (The Revision of [Ibn al-Haytham's] Optics). or was even in Basra when he pretended to be insane. and on optics in particular. ca. who cites him by name. [edit] Legacy Ibn al-Haythem made significant improvements in optics. has been held in high esteem and. both in theory and practice. arguably initiated as a result of Ibn al-Haytham's influence. he feigned madness.[43] and Professor Jim AlKhalili also considers him the "world's first true scientist". ushered in a new era in optical research.[6] and fearing the caliph's anger. which was a library "second in importance" to Baghdad's House of Wisdom.[11] The scientific method is considered to be so fundamental to modern science that some—especially philosophers of science and practising scientists—consider earlier inquiries into nature to be pre-scientific. His work on catoptrics also contains the problem known as "Alhazen's problem". physics. It brought about a great progress in experimental methods.[22][49] The correct explanations of the rainbow phenomenon given by al-Fārisī and Theodoric of Freiberg in the 14th century depended on . until today.[5] During his time in Cairo."[45] At a scientific conference in February 2007 as a part of the Hockney-Falco thesis. Although there are stories that Ibn al-Haytham fled to Syria. he left several outstanding books on these subjects.[11] Meanwhile in the Islamic world.[37] After his field work made him aware of the impracticality of this scheme. Kitab al-Manazir (Book of Optics). mathematics. He made the observation that the ratio between the angle of incidence and refraction does not remain constant. Elliot considers Ibn al-Haytham to be "one of the ablest students of optics of all times. His research in catoptrics (the study of optical systems using mirrors) centred on spherical and parabolic mirrors and spherical aberration.[35] Recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics Abdus Salam considered Ibn-al-Haytham "one of the greatest physicists of all time. in fact. and the scientific method which influenced the development of science for over five hundred years after his death. Falco said that his and David Hockney's examples of Renaissance art "demonstrate a continuum in the use of optics by artists from circa 1430. he wrote scores of other treatises on physics. [38] During this time. ventured into Baghdad later in his life."[42] The author Bradley Steffens considers him to be the "first scientist". Falco argued that Ibn al-Haytham's work on optics may have influenced the use of optical aids by Renaissance artists. His influence on physical sciences in general. but by all means the greatest of mediaeval times. he wrote his influential Book of Optics. Ibn al-Haytham's work influenced Averroes' writings on optics."[46] The Latin translation of his main work. it is certain that he was in Egypt by 1038 at the latest. He was kept under house arrest from 1011 until al-Hakim's death in 1021. which included optics. Charles M. During this period.[48] and his legacy was further advanced through the 'reforming' of his Optics by Persian scientist Kamal al-Din al-Farisi (d. medicine. he had ample time for his scientific pursuits. and investigated the magnifying power of a lens.[39] known as Dar Al-Hekma (House of Knowledge).[44] The Biographical Dictionary of Scientists wrote that Ibn al-Haytham was "probably the greatest scientist of the Middle Ages" and that "his work remained unsurpassed for nearly 600 years until the time of Johannes Kepler. astronomy and mathematics. He later traveled to Islamic Spain."[41] Robert S. exerted a great influence on Western science: for example."[28] George Sarton. on the work of Roger Bacon. as well the city's "House of Wisdom". wrote that "Ibn Haytham's writings reveal his fine development of the experimental faculty" and considered him "not only the greatest Muslim physicist. and the development of scientific methods. physical science.[5] After his house arrest ended.[40] Richard Powers nominated Ibn al-Haytham's scientific method and scientific skepticism as the most influential idea of the second millennium.early attempt at building a dam at the present site of the Aswan Dam.

Even some of his treatises on optics survived only through Latin translation. The second theory. who believed that sight worked by the eye emitting rays of light. A research facility that UN weapons inspectors suspected of conducting chemical and biological weapons research in Saddam Hussein's Iraq was also named after him. the intromission theory supported by Aristotle and his followers. Other manuscripts are preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford and in the library of Leiden.[57] Risner is also the author of the name variant "Alhazen". Kitab alManazir (Book of Optics). with the title Opticae thesaurus: Alhazeni Arabis libri septem. nuncprimum editi. During the Middle Ages his books on cosmology were translated into Latin.[55] It has been ranked alongside Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica as one of the most influential books in physics[23] for introducing an early scientific method. was supported by such thinkers as Euclid and Ptolemy. [edit] Optics Ibn al-Haytham proved that light travels in straight lines using the scientific method in his Book of Optics (1021).[56] It was printed by Friedrich Risner in 1572.[51] He wrote around 200 books.[58] This work enjoyed a great reputation during the Middle Ages. although very few have survived. the emission theory. Sedillot. before Risner he was known in the west as Alhacen. which he proved . He instead developed a highly successful theory which explained the process of vision as rays of light proceeding to the eye from each point on an object. He reasoned that a ray could not proceed from the eyes and reach the distant stars the instant after we open our eyes. Eiusdem liber De Crepusculis et nubium ascensionibus.[53][54] [edit] Book of Optics Main article: Book of Optics Ibn al-Haytham's most famous work is his seven volume Arabic treatise on optics. The first theory. The crater Alhazen on the Moon is named in his honour[16]. and for initiating a revolution in optics[24] and visual perception. which is the correct transcription of the Arabic name. Hebrew and other languages.[25] Optics was translated into Latin by an unknown scholar at the end of the 12th century or the beginning of the 13th century.Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics. written from 1011 to 1021. Two major theories on vision prevailed in classical antiquity. nor through physical forms entering it. had physical forms entering the eye from an object. A.[53] and on 10 dinar notes from 1982.[50] The work of Ibn al-Haytham and al-Fārisī was also further advanced in the Ottoman Empire by polymath Taqi al-Din in his Book of the Light of the Pupil of Vision and the Light of the Truth of the Sights (1574). as was the asteroid "59239 Alhazen". He also appealed to common observations such as the eye being dazzled or even injured if we look at a very bright light.000 dinars banknote issued in 2003. Works by Ibn al-Haytham on geometric subjects were discovered in the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris in 1834 by E.[52] Ibn al-Haytham is featured on the obverse of the Iraqi 10. Ibn al-Haytham argued that the process of vision occurs neither by rays emitted from the eye.

but did not quantify it and derive the law mathematically.[65] He described the process of sight. but correctly hinted at the retina being involved in the process. 2.[64] Ibn al-Haytham discussed the topics of medicine. While Aristotle.[59] His unification of geometrical optics with philosophical physics forms the basis of modern physical optics."[16][72] Ibn al-Haytham developed rigorous experimental methods of controlled scientific testing to verify theoretical hypotheses and substantiate inductive conjectures.[63] In addition to physical optics. and carried out various experiments with lenses.[64] and viewed the pupil as being similar to an aperture. Theon of Alexandria. Ibn al-Haytham was the first to demonstrate this with his lamp experiment where several different light sources are arranged across a large area. his experimental directives rested on combining classical physics ('ilm .[30] Ibn al-Haytham's scientific method was very similar to the modern scientific method and consisted of the following procedures:[73] 1.[67] and improved on the theories of binocular vision. ophthalmology.through the use of experimentation.[68] [edit] Scientific method Neuroscientist Rosanna Gorini notes that "according to the majority of the historians alHaytham was the pioneer of the modern scientific method. mirrors. and the visual system. he incorrectly agreed with Avicenna that the lens was the receptive organ of sight. image formation in the eye. 3. and binocular disparity. Moreover.[70] or optical instrument. anatomy and physiology.[68][69] His most original anatomical contribution was his description of the functional anatomy of the eye as an optical system. He also described what became known as Hering's law of equal innervation. which was a fundamental development in geometric optics. which forms the basis of physiological optics. The Book of Optics also gave rise to the field of "physiological optics". He was thus the first to successfully project an entire image from outdoors onto a screen indoors with the camera obscura. which included commentaries on Galenic works. refraction. As he conceptualized the essential principles of pinhole projection from his experiments with the pinhole camera.[71] Regarding the process of image formation. 5. and reflection.[62] Ibn al-Haytham also gave the first clear description[26] and correct analysis[27] of the camera obscura and pinhole camera. none of them suggested that what is being projected onto the screen is an image of everything on the other side of the aperture. 7. Euclid and Ptolemy. vertical horopters. he considered image inversion to also occur in the eye. His experiments with the camera obscura provided sufficient empirical grounds for him to develop his theory of corresponding point projection of light from the surface of an object to form an image on a screen.[60] Ibn al-Haytham proved that rays of light travel in straight lines. 4. motion perception and horopters previously discussed by Aristotle. 6.[61] He also discovered a result similar to Snell's law of sines. Observation Statement of problem Formulation of hypothesis Testing of hypothesis using experimentation Analysis of experimental results Interpretation of data and formulation of conclusion Publication of findings An aspect associated with Ibn al-Haytham's optical research is related to systemic and methodological reliance on experimentation (i'tibar) and controlled testing in his scientific inquiries.[11] He was also the first to reduce reflected and refracted light rays into vertical and horizontal components.[66] the structure of the eye. It was his comparison between the eye and the camera obscura which brought about his synthesis of anatomy and optics. Al-Kindi (Alkindus) and Chinese philosopher Mozi had earlier described the effects of a single light passing through a pinhole.

His theories regarding knowledge and perception. For example.[77] In philosophy.[33] Ibn al-Haytham eventually solved the problem using conic sections and a geometric proof. he states that therefore "the extramission of [visual] rays is superfluous and useless. and that vision and perception are subjective. though many after him attempted to find an algebraic solution to the problem. by using an early proof by mathematical induction. geometry in particular) in terms of devising the rudiments of what may be designated as a hypothetico-deductive procedure in scientific research.[78] In Islamic psychology.[76] [edit] Other contributions Chapters 15–16 of the Book of Optics covered astronomy. It was an attempt to the solve the problem of the Moon appearing larger near the horizon than it does while higher up in the sky. and came close to finding a general formula for the integrals of any polynomials." This leads to an equation of the fourth degree. De aspectibus or Perspectivae) and grounded his theories of vision. This mathematical-physical approach to experimental science supported most of his propositions in Kitab al-Manazir (The Optics. Sabra.tabi'i) with mathematics (ta'alim. Arguing .[22][49] The concept of Occam's razor is also present in the Book of Optics. psychology and mental functions. He also discovered that the heavens are less dense than the air. its main application in optics is to solve the problem. Thus. led to a philosophy of existence based on the direct observation of reality from the observer's point of view.[32] which was finally found in 1997 by the Oxford mathematician Peter M. light and colour.[22] In the Book of Optics. he developed a method that can be readily generalized to find the formula for the sum of any integral powers. as well as his research in catoptrics and dioptrics (the study of the refraction of light).[22] He came up with a theory to explain the Moon illusion. It comprises drawing lines from two points in the plane of a circle meeting at a point on the circumference and making equal angles with the normal at that point. linking the domains of science and religion. Ibn al-Haytham is considered a pioneer of phenomenology. Ibn al-Haytham was the first scientist to argue that vision occurs in the brain.[5][75] This eventually led Ibn al-Haytham to derive the earliest formula for the sum of fourth powers. first formulated by Ptolemy in 150 AD. This is equivalent to finding the point on the edge of a circular billiard table at which a cue ball at a given point must be aimed in order to canon off the edge of the table and hit another ball at a second given point. which played an important role in the scientific tradition of medieval Europe. after demonstrating that light is generated by luminous objects and emitted or reflected into the eyes. Ibn al-Haytham was the first to discover that the celestial spheres do not consist of solid matter. Ibn al-Haytham is considered the founder of experimental psychology by A. He applied his result of sums on integral powers to find the volume of a paraboloid through integration. This was fundamental to the development of infinitesimal and integral calculus. Neumann. 1320) in the latter's Kitab Tanqih al-Manazir (The Revision of [Ibn al-Haytham's] Optics). find the point on the mirror were [sic] the light will be reflected to the eye of an observer."[74] [edit] Alhazen's problem His work on catoptrics in Book V of the Book of Optics contains a discussion of what is now known as Alhazen's problem. He was thus able to find the integrals for polynomials up to the fourth degree. He articulated a relationship between the physical and observable world and that of intuition. I. His legacy was further advanced through the 'reforming' of his Optics by Kamal al-Din al-Farisi (d. He pointed out that personal experience has an effect on what people see and how they see. ca.[21] for his pioneering work on the psychology of visual perception and optical illusions. These views were later repeated by Witelo and had a significant influence on the Copernican and Tychonic systems of astronomy. rather than the eyes. "Given a light source and a spherical mirror.

and magnifying lenses. Ibn al-Haytham formulated the theory that the heaviness of bodies varies with their distance from the centre of the Earth. He discussed the theory of attraction between masses. which he wrote some time before his famous Book of Optics. He also carried out further examinations into anatomy of the eye and illusions in visual perception. The text contained further investigations on the properties of luminance and its radiant dispersion through various transparent and translucent media. Ibn al-Haytham wrote several other treatises on optics. in particular. there are no intervening objects. dioptrics.against Ptolemy's refraction theory. Therefore. there is no evidence that he used quantitative psychophysical techniques and the claim has been rebuffed. twilight. the Moon illusion gradually came to be accepted as a psychological phenomenon.[11] [edit] Astrophysics In astrophysics and the celestial mechanics field of physics." he built an "ingenious experimental device. except for what is known through the later works of al-Khazini in the 12th century. and it seems that he was also aware of the magnitude of acceleration due to gravity at a distance. spherical mirrors. and celestial mechanics. rather than real. [81] Ibn al-Haytham's Mizan al-Hikmah (Balance of Wisdom) covered statics. Through works by Roger Bacon.[30] In his treatise. he redefined the problem in terms of perceived. Ibn al-Haytham discussed the density of the atmosphere and related it to altitude. was the first successful attempt at combining mathematical astronomy with physics. His Risala fi l-Daw’ (Treatise on Light) is a supplement to his Kitab al-Manazir (Book of Optics)." To prove that "light is emitted from every point of the Moon's illuminated surface. Various celestial phenomena (including the eclipse. Ibn al-Haytham. and moonlight) were also examined by him. In this treatise. Ibn al-Haytham had formulated a clear conception of the relationship between an ideal mathematical model and the complex of observable phenomena.[82] Another treatise. catoptrics. Little is known about the work. He said that judging the distance of an object depends on there being an uninterrupted sequence of intervening bodies between the object and the observer. With the Moon however. He also studied atmospheric refraction. and the earliest attempt at applying the experimental method to astronomy and astrophysics.[80] [edit] Other works on physics [edit] Optical treatises Besides the Book of Optics. He also made investigations into refraction. and investigated the meteorology of the rainbow and the density of the atmosphere. since the size of an object depends on its observed distance. in his Epitome of Astronomy. the Moon appears larger on the horizon. a subdiscipline and precursor to modern psychology. He analyzed the camera obscura and pinhole camera.[79] Omar Khaleefa has argued that Ibn al-Haytham should also be considered the founder of psychophysics. with Ptolemy's theory being rejected in the 17th century. enlargement. He discovered that the twilight only ceases or begins when the Sun is 19° below the horizon and attempted to measure the height of the atmosphere on that basis.[21] Although Ibn alHaytham made many subjective reports regarding vision."[83] According to Matthias Schramm. Maqala fi daw al-qamar (On the Light of the Moon). he was the first to make a systematic use of the method of varying the experimental conditions in a constant and uniform manner. discovered that the heavenly bodies "were accountable to the laws of physics". astrophysics.[30] His Maqala fi'l-qarastun is a treatise on centres of gravity. which is in this case inaccurate. in an experiment . He disproved the universally held opinion that the Moon reflects sunlight like a mirror and correctly concluded that it "emits light from those portions of its surface which the sun's light strikes. Mizan al-Hikmah (Balance of Wisdom). John Pecham and Witelo based on Ibn alHaytham's explanation.

Ibn al-Haytham disagreed with Aristotle's view that nature abhors a void.[86][87] Ibn al-Haytham further criticized Ptolemy's model on other empirical. variously translated as Doubts Concerning Ptolemy or Aporias against Ptolemy. and then formulated as Newton's first law of motion. the introduction of frictional force. Ibn al-Haytham commented on the difficulty of attaining scientific knowledge: Truth is sought for itself [but] the truths.[29] [edit] Astronomical works [edit] Doubts Concerning Ptolemy In his Al-Shukūk ‛alā Batlamyūs. Avicenna (Ibn Sina). published at some time between 1025 and 1028. Ibn al-Haytham's Risala fi’l-makan (Treatise on Place) discussed theories on the motion of a body. including the Almagest.[30] This was similar to the concept of inertia. and he thus used geometry to demonstrate that place (al-makan) is the imagined three-dimensional void between the inner surfaces of a containing body. failed to satisfy the physical requirement of uniform circular motion. especially the equant. observational and experimental grounds. pointing out various contradictions he found in these works. and wrote a scathing critique of the physical reality of Ptolemy's astronomical system. but rather the one who suspects his faith in them and . which Ibn al-Haytham did not approve of due to his insistence on scientific demonstration. Planetary Hypotheses.[89] In his Aporias against Ptolemy. was eventually made centuries later by Galileo Galilei. the seeker after the truth is not one who studies the writings of the ancients and.[83] [edit] Mechanics In the dynamics and kinematics fields of mechanics.showing that the intensity of the light-spot formed by the projection of the moonlight through two small apertures onto a screen diminishes constantly as one of the apertures is gradually blocked up. but was largely a hypotheses that was not verified by experimentation. whom he greatly respected) are] not immune from error…[8] He held that the criticism of existing theories—which dominated this book—holds a special place in the growth of scientific knowledge: Therefore. following his natural disposition. He considered that some of the mathematical devices Ptolemy introduced into astronomy. puts his trust in them.[28] Also in his Treatise on Place.[84] Ibn al-Haytham also discovered the concept of momentum (now part of Newton's second law of motion) around the same time as his contemporary. and to imagine the planet moving in it does not bring about the planet's motion. He maintained that a body moves perpetually unless an external force stops it or changes its direction of motion. Unlike some later astronomers who criticized the Ptolemaic model on the grounds of being incompatible with Aristotelian natural philosophy. and the fact that this arrangement produces in his imagination the motions that belong to the planets does not free him from the error he committed in his assumed arrangement. for the existing motions of the planets cannot be the result of an arrangement that is impossible to exist… [F]or a man to imagine a circle in the heavens. Ibn al-Haytham criticized many of Ptolemy's works. noting the absurdity of relating actual physical motions to imaginary mathematical points. lines and circles:[85] Ptolemy assumed an arrangement (hay'a) that cannot exist. and Optics.[88] such as Ptolemy's use of conjectural undemonstrated theories in order to "save appearances" of certain phenomena. Ibn al-Haytham was mainly concerned with empirical observation and the internal contradictions in Ptolemy's works. The key breakthrough in classical mechanics. [he warns] are immersed in uncertainties [and the scientific authorities (such as Ptolemy.

Following on from his Doubts on Ptolemy and The Resolution of Doubts. is to make himself an enemy of all that he reads. Ibn al-Haytham continued to accept the physical reality of the geocentric model of the universe. numerous and close together" and that the "ignition takes place in the upper part of the atmosphere. was a book on astronomy.[97] and the centres of motion were geometric points without any physical significance. and reduce physical entities to geometric entities. hence the work has not yet been published in modern times. attack it from every side.[96] separate natural philosophy from astronomy. applying his mind to the core and margins of its content. The surviving manuscript of this work has only recently been discovered. fixed in it and not moving in any direction nor moving with any of the varieties of motion.[8] [edit] On the Configuration of the World In his On the Configuration of the World. so that he may avoid falling into either prejudice or leniency. if learning the truth is his goal. Aristotle believed the Milky Way to be caused by "the ignition of the fiery exhalation of some stars which were large. It is stationary in its [the world's] middle. Ibn al-Haytham described the first non-Ptolemaic model in The Model of the Motions.[94] His reformed empirical model was the first to reject the equant[95] and eccentrics.[100] Ibn al-Haytham also wrote a treatise entitled On the Milky Way. This work was eventually translated into Hebrew and Latin in the 13th and 14th centuries and subsequently had an influence on astronomers such as Georg von Peuerbach[1] during the European Middle Ages and Renaissance. it .[98] In the text. His reform was not concerned with cosmology. He should also suspect himself as he performs his critical examination of it. the one who submits to argument and demonstration. free celestial kinematics from cosmology. with much of it still missing. in the region of the world which is continuous with the heavenly motions. Thus the duty of the man who investigates the writings of scientists.[101] in which he solved problems regarding the Milky Way galaxy and parallax. he developed the concept of a single orb (falak) for each component of Ptolemy's planetary motions. [90] presenting a detailed description of the physical structure of the celestial spheres in his On the Configuration of the World: The earth as a whole is a round sphere whose center is the center of the world. Ibn al-Haytham also describes an early version of Occam's razor. due to the methods used by astrologers being conjectural rather than empirical. and also due to the views of astrologers conflicting with that of orthodox Islam. as he attempts to eliminate from his planetary model the cosmological hypotheses that cannot be observed from the Earth. as he developed a systematic study of celestial kinematics that was completely geometric. The model also propounded the Earth's rotation about its axis. This in turn led to innovative developments in infinitesimal geometry. but always at rest. where he employs only minimal hypotheses regarding the properties that characterize astronomical motions.[91] While he attempted to discover the physical reality behind Ptolemy's mathematical model. like Johannes Kepler's model centuries later.[92][93] [edit] Model of the Motions of Each of the Seven Planets Ibn al-Haytham's The Model of the Motions of Each of the Seven Planets.questions what he gathers from them. and he refuted the study of astrology."[103] Ibn al-Haytham refuted this and "determined that because the Milky Way had no parallax.[99] [edit] Other astronomical works Ibn al-Haytham distinguished astrology from astronomy.[102] In antiquity. written in 1038. and. and not to the sayings of a human being whose nature is fraught with all kinds of imperfection and deficiency. despite his criticisms directed towards Ptolemy.

Ibn al-Haytham attempted to solve the problem of squaring the circle using the area of lunes (crescent shapes). However.[108] Ibn al-Haytham made the first attempt at proving the Euclidean parallel postulate. He systemized conic sections and number theory. were the first theorems on elliptical geometry and hyperbolic geometry. or when one looks at it simultaneously from two distant places from the surface of the earth.[5] Ibn al-Haytham solved problems involving congruences using what is now called Wilson's theorem. Ibn al-Haytham was the first to realize that every even perfect number is of the form 2n−1(2n − 1) where 2n − 1 is prime."[104] He wrote that if the Milky Way was located around the Earth's atmosphere. some of which he was the first to solve. His work had a considerable influence on its development among the later Persian geometers Omar Khayyám and Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī.[107] [edit] Geometry In geometry. Ibn al-Haytham built on the mathematical works of Euclid and Thabit ibn Qurra. such as Playfair's axiom. then it does not belong to the atmosphere. Ibn al-Haytham used a geometric proof to prove the formula.[110] He formulated the Lambert quadrilateral. carried out some early work on analytic geometry. but he was not able to prove this result successfully (Euler later proved it in the 18th century).[109] where he introduced the concept of motion and transformation into geometry. in his Shigarf-nama. and the European geometers Witelo. the "verification of this claim seems to be impossible.was very remote from the earth and did not belong to the atmosphere. Ibn al-Haytham developed analytical geometry and established a link between algebra and geometry. In his Opuscula. Alfonso. Gersonides. can be seen as marking the beginning of non-Euclidean geometry.[8] [edit] Number theory His contributions to number theory includes his work on perfect numbers.[107] Ibn al-Haytham also discovered a formula for adding the first 100 natural numbers (which may later have been intuited by Carl Friedrich Gauss as a youth). In his Analysis and Synthesis.[31] and his attempted proof also shows similarities to Playfair's axiom. Muhammad Wali ibn Muhammad Ja'far.[106] [edit] Mathematical works In mathematics. claimed that Ibn alHaytham wrote a treatise Maratib al-sama in which he conceived of a planetary model similar to the Tychonic system where the planets orbit the Sun which in turn orbits the Earth. John Wallis. using a proof by contradiction. These theorems." He described two methods to determine the Milky Way's parallax: "either when one observes the Milky Way on two different occasions from the same spot of the earth. including the Lambert quadrilateral. and determined that since the Milky Way had no parallax. [112] In elementary geometry. ." This in turn had an influence on the development of René Descartes's geometric analysis and Isaac Newton's calculus.[32] His theorems on quadrilaterals." since the treatise is not listed among the known bibliography of Ibn al-Haytham. which Boris Abramovich Rozenfeld names the "Ibn al-Haytham–Lambert quadrilateral". but later gave up on the impossible task. the fifth postulate in Euclid's Elements.[5] Ibn al-Haytham also tackled other problems in elementary (Euclidean) and advanced (Apollonian and Archimedean) geometry. Ibn al-Haytham considers the solution of a system of congruences. "one must find a difference in position relative to the fixed stars.[105] In 1858. Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri[111] and Christopher Clavius." He made the first attempt at observing and measuring the Milky Way's parallax. and worked on "the beginnings of the link between algebra and geometry. along with his alternative postulates.

[113] [edit] Engineering In engineering. and he soon feigned madness so he could avoid punishment from the Caliph. however. foreshadowing René Descartes's concept of place in the Extensio in the 17th century.[115] [edit] Philosophy In early Islamic philosophy. In "tying the visual perception of space to prior bodily experience. Ibn al-Haytham also wrote a treatise providing a description on the construction of a water clock. Alhacen unequivocally rejected the intuitiveness of spatial perception and. and he drew plans for building a dam.and gives two general methods of solution.[5] [edit] Other works [edit] Influence of Melodies on the Souls of Animals In psychology and musicology. Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. but experiments since then have vindicated Ibn al-Haytham's view that music does indeed have an effect on animals. Ibn al-Haytham's Risala fi’l-makan (Treatise on Place) presents a critique of Aristotle's concept of place (topos). He carried out a detailed scientific study of the annual inundation of the Nile River.[114] According to Al-Khazini. In the treatise. later criticized the work in Fi al-Radd ‘ala Ibn al-Haytham fi al-makan (A refutation of Ibn al-Haytham’s place) for its geometrization of place. at the site of the modern-day Aswan Dam. Abd-el-latif. later made him aware of the impracticality of this scheme. a supporter of Aristotle's philosophical view of place. His first method. His field work. Aristotle's Physics stated that the place of something is the two-dimensional boundary of the containing body that is at rest and is in contact with what it contains. which Ibn al-Haytham rejected on mathematical grounds. Ibn al-Haytham's Treatise on the Influence of Melodies on the Souls of Animals was the earliest treatise dealing with the effects of music on animals. in opposition to Aristotle's philosophical concept of place. experimenting with horses. the autonomy of vision. a majority of scholars in the Western world continued to believe that music was a distinctly human phenomenon.[84] Ibn al-Haytham also discussed space perception and its epistemological implications in his Book of Optics. Ibn alHaytham's Qawl fi al-Makan (Discourse on Place) was a treatise which presents geometric demonstrations for his geometrization of place. therefore. to regulate the flooding of the Nile River. one account of his career as a civil engineer has him summoned to Egypt by the Fatimid Caliph. sight can tell us next to nothing about such things.[55] though it is uncertain which branch of Islam he followed. Following on from his Treatise on Place. Ibn al-Haytham disagreed and demonstrated that place (almakan) is the imagined three-dimensional void between the inner surfaces of the containing body. contrary to the previous emission theory of vision supported by Euclid and Ptolemy. the canonical method. He showed that place was akin to space. Without tangible notions of distance and size for correlation. and shows other examples of how music can affect animal behaviour and animal psychology. he demonstrates how a camel's pace could be hastened or retarded with the use of music. His experimental proof of the intromission model of vision led to changes in the way the visual perception of space was understood. birds and reptiles. while his second method involved a version of the Chinese remainder theorem. Through to the 19th century. He may have been either a follower of the orthodox Ash'ari school of Sunni Islamic ."[116] [edit] Theology Ibn al-Haytham was a devout Muslim. involved Wilson's theorem.

[128] His pioneering work on number theory. Johannes Kepler. I. so that he may avoid falling into either prejudice or leniency.[107] According to medieval biographers. it is necessary to eliminate human opinion and error. also had an influence on René Descartes's geometric analysis and Isaac Newton's calculus.[101][130] . placed a strong emphasis on empiricism. if learning the truth is his goal. applying his mind to the core and margins of its content. may the blessing of God be upon them. He should also suspect himself as he performs his critical examination of it.[101] Ibn al-Haytham attributed his experimental scientific method and scientific skepticism to his Islamic faith. But it is not the way that mathematicians have faith in specialists in the demonstrative sciences. John Pecham.[126] Ibn al-Haytham described his search for truth and knowledge as a way of leading him closer to God: I constantly sought knowledge and truth. is to make himself an enemy of all that he reads. 23 of them are on astronomy. in which he discussed prophethood and developed a system of philosophical criteria to discern its false claimants in his time. Nearly half of his surviving works are on mathematics. but some of the ones that have are given below.[73] He wrote in his Doubts Concerning Ptolemy: Therefore. Witelo. and. that is how experts in the prophetic tradition have faith in Prophets. the one who submits to argument and demonstration. there is no better way than that of searching for truth and knowledge. in the following comparison between the Islamic prophetic tradition and the demonstrative sciences: From the statements made by the noble Shaykh. without relying on a demonstration or calling on a proof. where Salah prayers are directed towards. the seeker after the truth is not one who studies the writings of the ancients and.[127] [edit] Works Ibn al-Haytham was a pioneer in many areas of science. attack it from every side. and 14 of them are on optics. following his natural disposition. making significant contributions in varying disciplines. Sabra[120] (specifically the Ismaili branch). Thus the duty of the man who investigates the writings of scientists.[121] Ibn al-Haytham wrote a work on Islamic theology. and allow the universe to speak for itself. but rather the one who suspects his faith in them and questions what he gathers from them.[8] In The Winding Motion. and not to the sayings of a human being whose nature is fraught with all kinds of imperfection and deficiency. but by pure imitation (taqlid). analytic geometry.[119] or a follower of Shia Islam according to A.[118] a follower of the Mu'tazili school of Islamic theology according to Peter Edward Hodgson. in which he discussed finding the Qibla. He reasoned that to discover the truth about nature. mathematically. The Islamic holy book the Qur'an.[123][124][125] He also believed that human beings are inherently flawed and that only God is perfect. but more than 50 of them have survived to some extent. Ibn al-Haytham wrote more than 200 works on a wide range of subjects.[129] Not all his surviving works have yet been studied. it is clear that he believes in Ptolemy's words in everything he says.[122] He also wrote a treatise entitled Finding the Direction of Qibla by Calculation. for example. puts his trust in them. His optical writings influenced many Western intellectuals such as Roger Bacon. Most of his works are now lost. and it became my belief that for gaining access to the effulgence and closeness to God. and the link between algebra and geometry.[73] of which at least 96 of his scientific works are known.theology according to Ziauddin Sardar[117] and Lawrence Bettany[118] (and opposed to the views of the Mu'tazili school). Ibn al-Haytham further wrote that faith (or taqlid "imitation") should only apply to prophets of Islam and not to any other authorities. with a few on other subjects.

Nehrich & Voran 1973. Shuter & Taylor 1992. ^ a b c d e (Lorch 2008) 2. ^ (Hamarneh 1972): A great man and a universal genius. long neglected even by his own• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Book of Optics Analysis and Synthesis Balance of Wisdom Corrections to the Almagest Discourse on Place Exact Determination of the Pole Exact Determination of the Meridian Finding the Direction of Qibla by Calculation Horizontal Sundials Hour Lines Doubts Concerning Ptolemy Maqala fi'l-Qarastun On Completion of the Conics On Seeing the Stars On Squaring the Circle On the Burning Sphere On the Configuration of the World On the Form of Eclipse On the Light of Stars On the Light of the Moon On the Milky Way On the Nature of Shadows On the Rainbow and Halo Opuscula Resolution of Doubts Concerning the Almagest Resolution of Doubts Concerning the Winding Motion The Correction of the Operations in Astronomy The Different Heights of the Planets The Direction of Mecca The Model of the Motions of Each of the Seven Planets The Model of the Universe The Motion of the Moon The Ratios of Hourly Arcs to their Heights The Winding Motion Treatise on Light Treatise on Place Treatise on the Influence of Melodies on the Souls of Animals[113] [edit] Notes 1. Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth ed. 164) (Samuelson Crookes.html. . p.).encyclopedia. 70) (Dessel. p. ISBN 0787650757. Columbia. retrieved on 23 January 2008 3. 497) 4. p. (Bettany 1995): Ibn ai-Haytham provides us with the historical personage of a versatile universal genius. "Ibn al-Haytham". http://www. ^ (Child. ^ (Smith 1992) (Grant 2008) (Vernet 2008) Paul Lagasse (2007).

p. pp. ^ a b c d e (Steffens 2006). ^ a b c (Smith 1992) 33. He enunciated that a ray of light. 382) 40. ^ a b (Powers 1999) 36. ^ (Grant 2008) 10. ^ a b c d e (Sabra 2003) 9. ^ (Rashed 2002b) 38. Part V of Roger Bacon's "Opus Majus" is practically an annotation to Ibn al Haitham's Optics. ^ (Rashed 2007. pp. 190–202): What we call science arose as a result of new methods of experiment." 15. He enunciated the law of inertia. p. 65) 32. ^ a b c d e (Dr. ^ (Verma 1969) 11. Milone & Aveni 2005): "The first clear description of the device appears in the Book of Optics of Alhazen. 331) 8. ^ (Lindberg 1967. and measurement. ^ a b (Wade & Finger 2001): "The principles of the camera obscura first began to be correctly analysed in the eleventh century. ^ a b (Whitaker 2004) 37. ^ a b (Rozenfeld 1988. 149) 7. in passing through a medium. ^ (O'Connor & Robertson 2002) 16. retain only properties that can be treated by geometry and verified by experiment. p. observation. 85–118) 25. ^ (Briffault 1928. ^ (Van Sertima 1992. as he calls them. ^ a b (Hamarneh 1972. they lack all sensible qualities except energy. ^ a b (Nasr 2003) 30. p. ^ a b c (Gorini 2003) 17. Chapter 5 23. takes the path which is the easier and 'quicker'.5. ^ (Thiele 2005) 19. ^ a b (Katz 1995. In this he was anticipating Fermat's Principle of Least Time by many centuries. 165-9 & 173-4) 34. ^ (Agar 2001) 18. ^ (Marshall 1950) 35. ^ (Steffens 2006) 21. ^ a b (Hatfield 1996. ^ a b (Sabra & Hogendijk 2003. p. 500) 26. ^ a b (Kelley. ^ a b c d e (El-Bizri 2006) 31. ^ a b c (Khaleefa 1999) 22. p. which were introduced into Europe by the Arabs. ^ a b c (Salam 1984): Ibn-al-Haitham (Alhazen. ^ (MacKay & Oldford 2000) 13. ^ (Omar 1977) 20. He made experimental contributions of the highest order in optics. later to become Newton's first law of motion. p." 27. ^ a b c d e f g h (O'Connor & Robertson 1999) 6. p. […] Science is the most . 29. Al Deek 2004) 12. 119) 14. 19): "In his optics ‘‘the smallest parts of light’’. Al-Amri & El Gomati 2005) 24. 965–1039 CE) was one of the greatest physicists of all time. ^ a b (Salih. when they were outlined by Ibn al-Haytham. ^ the Great Islamic Encyclopedia 39. ^ a b c d (Corbin 1993." 28.

Chapter 1: Alhazen was one of the ablest students of optics of all times and published a seven-volume treatise on this subject which had great celebrity throughout the medieval period and strongly influenced Western thought. 41. but its fruits were slow in ripening. it owes its existence…The ancient world was.stm 45. It was not science only which brought Europe back to life. His tables of corresponding angles of incidence and refraction of light passing from one medium to another show how closely he had approached discovering the law of constancy of ratio of sines. of the development of mathematics. as we saw. 46. measurement. ^ a b (Murphy 2003) 54. Ibn Haytham's writings reveal his fine development of the experimental faculty. Haq 1997)) 42. BBC. ^ (Topdemir 2007a. observation. ^ (Falco 2007) 47. ^ a b (El-Bizri 2005a) (El-Bizri 2005b) 50. notably that of Roger Bacon and Kepler. ^ (Sarton 1927). (cf. […] The debt of our science to that of the Arabs does not consist in startling discoveries or revolutionary theories. in a form unknown to the Greeks. and considered refraction and the magnifying power of lenses. p. but by all means the greatest of mediaeval times. and not in the eye. ^ (Lindberg ^ (Topdemir 1999) (cf. Jim (January 2008). generalized and theorized. rise in his might. but the patient ways of investigations. Zahoor & Dr. "The 'first true scientist'". ^ (Elliott 1966). at the commencement of the phenomenon in the mornings or at its termination in the evenings. ^ "Alhazen". NASA (2006-03-22). estimating the sun's depression to be 19 degrees below the horizon. ^ "59239 Alhazen (1999 CR2)". Retrieved on 2008-09-20. which study led Alhazen to the belief that light consists of rays which originate in the object seen. (Topdemir 2008)) 52. ^ Al-Khalili. detailed and prolonged observation and experimental inquiry were altogether alien to the Greek temperament. anticipated Fermat's law of least time.momentous contribution of Arab civilization to the modern world. 75): He was probably the greatest scientist of the Middle Ages and his work remained unsurpassed for nearly 600 years until the time of Johannes Kepler. Other and manifold influences from the civilization of Islam communicated its first glow to European life. That spirit and those methods were introduced into the European world by the Arabs. The astronomy and mathematics of Greeks were a foreign importation never thoroughly acclimatized in Greek culture. He accounted correctly for twilight as due to atmospheric refraction. later attributed to Snell. 43. It contained a remarkably lucid description of the optical system of the eye. The Greeks systematized. p. ^ (Topdemir 2007a. a view contrary to that of Euclid and Ptolemy. ^ (Burns 1999) . of new methods of experiment. ^ (Steffens 2006) 44. passim 48. 11). "The Time of Al-Biruni": [Ibn al-Haytham] was not only the greatest Muslim physicist. Not until long after Moorish culture had sunk back into darkness did the giant to which it had given birth. […] What we call science arose in Europe as a result of new spirit of enquiry. p. 77) 49. the minute methods of science. in (Abbott 1983. science owes a great deal more to Arab culture. 53. pre-scientific. This treatise discussed concave and convex mirrors in both cylindrical and spherical the accumulation of positive knowledge. http://news. (Dr. 83) 51.

p. n. 463–4) 84. pp. 773) 73.55. 20 & 32–33) 98. 19–21) 78. ^ (Steffens 2006) (cf. 300) 89. ^ Gul A. p. pp. in (Morelon & Rashed 1996) 72. ^ (Weisstein) 76. Ezine Articles) 74. 438–9) 90. 147. 22. p. p. pp. 121. 695-8. 2) 57. ^ "Alhazen (965-1040): Library of Congress Citations". p. Gonzalez 2002) 79. ^ Some writers.) 66. 20 & 53) 96. ^ (Professor Abattouy 2002) 83. 58. 2. ^ (Rashed 2007) 103. ^ (Rashed 2007. pp. Steffens. in (Morelon & Rashed 1996) 65. 88. n. 60–7) 60. ^ (Steffens 2006). 21) 94.First Scientist" (200612-01). 13) 87. ^ "Nicolaus Copernicus". 476) 67. pp. (Mihas 2005. 5)) 63. ^ a b (El-Bizri 2007) 85. 34–41) 93. 9–10) 80. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2005-04-18). p. pp. Chapter Five 64. argue that Alhazen's critique constituted a form of heliocentricity (see (Qadir 1989. however. p. ^ a b c (Topdemir 2007b) 102. Retrieved on 2008-01-23. p. ^ (Langerman 1990). ^ Gul A. in (Morelon & Rashed 1996) 71. pp. Zghal & Lakhdar 2005) . "Emergence of Physiological Optics". 51–2) 99. Russell. "Review by Sulaiman Awan". Retrieved on 2008-01-23. 35–6) 100. ^ (Langerman 1990. 8–10) 86. ^ (Sabra 1981) (cf. 691. ^ (Pines 1986. Russell. ^ (Rashed 2002a. ^ (Gondhalekar 2001. ^ (Montada 2007) 104. chap.) 56. xxi) 59. ^ (Crombie 1971. ^ a b (Steffens 2006) (cf. Who Was the First Scientist?. ^ (Smith 2001. ^ (Toomer 1964) 61. pp. ^ (Bouali. ^ a b c (Steffens 2006) (cf. sect. Malaspina Great Books. Azaizeh & Said 2005. ^ (Rashed 2007. ^ (Highfield 1997) 77. p. ^ (Dr. ^ a b Gul A. ^ (Rosen 1985. 28) 82. 5–6 & 10)). Bradley. Russell. "Emergence of Physiological Optics". pp. pp. ^ (Rashed 2007. p. 91. ^ (Saad. 61 92. ^ (Aaen-Stockdale 2008) 81. Retrieved on 2008-01-23. ^ a b (Toomer 1964. p. ^ (Duhem 1969. pp. ^ (Rashed 2007. p. p. ^ a b (Wade 1998) 69. ^ (Hershenson 1989. pp. 372 & 408) 75. "Critical Praise for Ibn al-Haytham . Retrieved on 2008-01-23. "Emergence of Physiological Optics". ^ (Smith 2001. ^ (Lindberg 1976. pp. ^ (Rashed 2007) 95. 60 & 67–69) 101. ^ (Sabra 1998. p. 689. ^ (Sabra 1978b. ^ (Saliba 1994. ^ (Howard & Wade 1996) 70. ^ (Langerman 1990. ^ (Howard 1996) 68. 33–4) 97. ^ (Rashed 2007. p. ^ (Heeffer 2003) 62.

[…] Al-Haytham’s contributions to geometry and number theory went well beyond the Archimedean tradition. ^ (Qadir 1990. p. 247)) . p. 54) 121. 122. II. pp. embodied the first few theorems of the hyperbolic and the elliptic geometries. 24-5): "Muslims are inspired in the first instance by the numerous verses of the Quran which invite believers to observe nature and reflect over it.made by Witelo. ^ (Hassan 2007) 116." (cf. Wallis's and G. Institute of Ismaili Studies (2007-07-18). and by the above-mentioned Alfonso from Spain directly border on Ibn al-Haytham's demonstration. who lived in southern France. p. (Bettany 1995. 219–40) 117. Pt. ^ (Plott 2000). ^ (Sabra 1978a. 53) 120. pp.was undoubtedly prompted by Arabic sources. Khayyam and al-Tusi. 112. The proofs put forward in the fourteenth century by the Jewish scholar Gersonides. 5–24) ^ a b c (Faruqi 2006. Ibn al-Haytham. 110. pp. ^ (Smith 2005. 395–6): In seventeenth century Europe the problems formulated by Ibn al-Haytham (965–1041) became known as 'Alhazen's problem'. ^ (Mohamed 2000. ^ a b (Plott 2000. Chapter 1 ^ (Eder 2000) ^ (Katz 1998. physics and astronomy during the latter half of the tenth century. p. Pt. pp. Saccheri's studies of the theory of parallel lines. 107. pp. 49-50) ^ (Arjomand 1997. ^ "The Ismaili Community". 106. p. 470): Three scientists. Al-Haytham was a scientist who made major contributions to the fields of mathematics. It is extremely important that these scholars established the mutual connection between tthis postulate and the sum of the angles of a triangle and a quadrangle. p. p. Their other proposals showed that various geometric statements were equivalent to the Euclidean postulate V. 464 123.105. 459 115. Above. had made the most considerable contribution to this branch of geometry whose importance came to be completely recognized only in the nineteenth century. while revising Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics (Kitab al-Manazir) . ^ (Rottman 2000). 108. By their works on the theory of parallel lines Arab mathematicians directly influenced the relevant investigations of their European counterparts. The first European attempt to prove the postulate on parallel lines . p. 111. Al-Haytham also worked on analytical geometry and the beginnings of the link between algebra and geometry. 93) 113. II. we have demonstrated that Pseudo-Tusi's Exposition of Euclid had stimulated borth J. p. p. In essence their propositions concerning the properties of quadrangles which they considered assuming that some of the angles of these figures were acute of obtuse. Subsequently. this method characterized parallel lines as lines always equidisant from one another and also introduced the concept of motion into geometry. 251) 119. Retrieved on 2008-08-06. 269): In effect. 461) 114. this work led in pure mathematics to the harmonious fusion of algebra and geometry that was epitomised by Descartes in geometric analysis and by Newton in the calculus. 109. ^ (Rozenfeld & Youschkevitch 1996. ^ a b (Bettany 1995. ^ (Sardar 1998) 118. ^ (Rozenfeld & Youschkevitch 1996. ^ (Hodgson 2006. ^ (Plott 2000). the Polish scientists of the thirteenth century.

in the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth. and you are responsible for using them. and the brain. ^ “Behold! In the creation of the heavens and the earth. in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the benefit of mankind. in the rain which Allah sends down from the skies. I have given you the hearing. in the change of the winds. and the life which He gives therewith to an earth that is dead. ^ “You shall not accept any information. unless you verify it for yourself. and the clouds which they trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth – (Here) indeed are signs for a people that are wise. in the alternation of the night and the day.”[Qur'an 2:164] • .”[Qur'an 17:36] 125.124. the eyesight.

.ليے وقف کردیا‬ ‫ابن ابی اصيبعہ “عيون النباء فی طبقات الطباء” ميں کہتے ہيں: “ابن الہيثم فاضل النفس، سمجھدار اور علوم کے فن‬ ‫کار تھے، ریاضی ميں ان کے زمانے کا کوئی بھی سائنسدان ان کے قریب بھی نہيں پھٹک سکتا تھا، وہ ہميشہ کام ميں‬ ‫.نہيں کرسکی‬ ‫ابن الہيثم نے آنکھ کا ایک دھوکا یا وہم بھی دریافت کيا جس ميں مخصوص حالت ميں نزدیک کی چيز دور اور دور‬ ‫..‫ابن ال ہیثم‬ ‫پيدائش: 569 ء‬ ‫وفات: 9301 ء‬ ‫ابن الہيشم عراق کے تاریخی شہر بصرہ ميں پيدا ہوا۔ وہ طبعيات ، ریاضی ، انجنئرنگ ،فلکيات اورادویات کے مایہ ناز‬ ‫محقق تھے۔ 699 ء ميں وہ فاطمی خلفت مصر کے دربار سے منسلک ہو گيا۔ اس نے دریائے نيل پر اسوان کے‬ ‫قریب تين طرف بند باندھ کر پانی کا ذخيرہ کرنے کی تجویز پيش کی ليکن ناکافی وسائل کی وجہ سے اسے ترک کرنا‬ ‫پڑا۔ اب اسی جگہ مصر کا سب سے بڑا ڈیم یعنی اسوان ڈیم قائم ہے۔‬ ‫حالت‬ ‫ان کا نام “ابو علی الحسن بن الہيثم” ہے، ابن الہيثم کے نام سے مشہور ہيں، ان کی پيدائش عراق کے شہر بصرہ ميں‬ ‫غالبا 453 ہجری اور وفات 034 ہجری کو ہوئی، وہ مصر چلے گئے تھے اور اپنی وفات تک وہيں رہے، قفطی کی‬ ‫ً‬ ‫:“اخبار الحکماء” ميں ابن الہيثم کی زبانی یہ الفاظ نقل کيے گئے ہيں‬ ‫”لو کنت بمصر لعملت بنيلھا عمل یحصل النفع فی کل حالہ من حالتہ من زیادہ ونقصان“‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ترجمہ: “اگر ميں مصر ميں ہوتا تو اس کی نيل کے ساتھ وہ عمل کرتا کہ اس کے زیادہ اور نقصان کے تمام حالت ميں‬ ‫”نفع ہی ہوتا‬ ‫ان کے کہنے کا مقصد یہ تھا کہ وہ نیل کے پانی کو آبپاشی کے ليے سال کے بارہ مہينے دستياب کر سکتے تھے، ان کا یہ‬ ‫قول مصر کے حاکم الحاکم بامر اللہ الفاطمی کو پہنچا تو انہوں خفيہ طور پر کچھ مال بھيج کر انہيں مصر آنے کی‬ ‫دعوت دی جو انہوں نے قبول کرلی اور مصر کی طرف نکل کھڑے ہوئے جہاں الحاکم بامر اللہ نے انہيں اپنی کہی گئی‬ ‫بات پر عمل درآمد کرنے کو کہا، ابن الہيثم نے نيل کے طول وعرض کا سروے شروع کيا اور جب اسوان تک پہنچے‬ ‫جہاں اس وقت “السد العالی” )السد العالی ڈیم( قائم ہے اور اس کا بھرپور جائزہ لينے کے بعد انہيں اندازہ ہوا کہ ان کے‬ ‫زمانے کے امکانات کے حساب سے یہ کام نا ممکن ہے اور انہوں نے جلد بازی ميں ایک ایسا دعوی کردیا جسے وہ‬ ‫پورا نہيں کرسکتے تھے، چنانچہ الحاکم بامر اللہ کے پاس جاکر معذرت کر لی جسے الحاکم بامر اللہ نے قبول کرکے‬ ‫انہيں کوئی منصب عطا کردیا، مگر ابن الہيثم نے الحاکم بامر اللہ کی ان سے رضا مندی کو ایک ظاہری رضا مندی‬ ‫سمجھی اور انہيں یہ ڈر لحق ہوگيا کہ کہيں یہ الحاکم بامر اللہ کی کوئی چال نہ ہو، چنانچہ انہوں نے پاگل پن کا مظاہرہ‬ ‫شروع کردیا اور الحاکم بامر اللہ کی موت تک یہ مظاہرہ جاری رکھا اور اس کے بعد اس سے باز آگئے اور اپنے گھر‬ ‫سے نکل کر جامعہ ازہر کے پاس ایک کمرے ميں رہائش اختيار کر لی اور اپنی باقی زندگی کو تحقيق وتصنيف کے‬ ‫.کی چيز نزدیک نظر آتی ہے‬ ‫ف ہرست کتب‬ . ان کی سب سے اہم دریافتوں ميں آنکھ کی مکمل تشریح بھی ہے.”لگے رہتے تھے، وہ نہ صرف کثير التصنيف تھے بلکہ زاہد بھی تھے‬ ‫ان کی کتاب “کتاب المناظر” بصریات کی دنيا ميں ایک کليدی حيثيت رکھتی ہے، کيونکہ ابن الہيثم نے بطلیموس‬ ‫کے نظریات قبول نہيں کيے، بلکہ انہوں نے بطليموس کے روشنی کے حوالے سے بہت سارے نظریات کی مخالفت کی‬ ‫اور انہيں رد کردیا، ان کی روشنی کے حوالے سے دریافتيں جدید سائنس کی بنياد بنيں، مثال کے طور پر بطليموس کا‬ ‫نظریہ تھا کہ دیکھنا تب ہی ممکن ہوتا ہے جب شعاع آنکھ سے کسی جسم سے ٹکراتی ہے، بعد کے سائنسدانوں نے اس‬ ‫نظریہ کو من وعن قبول کيا، مگر ابن الہيثم نے کتاب المناظر ميں اس نظریہ دھجياں بکھير دیں. انہوں نے ثابت کيا کہ‬ ‫معاملہ اس کے بالکل بر عکس ہے اور شعاع آنکھ سے نہيں بلکہ کسی جسم سے دیکھنے والے کی آنکھ سے ٹکراتی‬ ‫. انہوں نے‬ ‫آنکھ کے ہر حصہ کے کام کو پوری تفصيل کے ساتھ بيان کيا ہے جس ميں آج کی جدید سائنس بھی رتی برابر تبدیلی‬ ‫..ہے‬ ‫ابن الہيثم نے روشنی کا انعکاس اور روشنی کا انعطاف یعنی مڑنا دریافت کيا، انہوں نے نظر کی خاميوں کو دور‬ ‫کرنے کے ليے عدسوں کا استعمال کيا.

مقالہ فی برکار الدوائر والعظام‬ ‫.کتب فی تحليل المسائل الہندسيہ‬ ‫.کتاب فی الہالہ وقوس قزح‬ ‫.رؤیہ الکواکب ومنظر القمر‬ ‫.کتاب المناظر‬ ‫.کتاب صورہ الکسوف‬ ‫.کتاب فی ہيئہ العالم‬ ‫31‬ ‫41‬ ‫51‬ ‫61‬ ‫71‬ ‫81‬ ‫91‬ ‫02‬ ‫12‬ ‫22‬ ‫32‬ ‫42‬ ‫.مسألہ فی الحساب‬ ‫.کتاب الجامع فی اصول الحساب‬ ‫.مسألہ فی الکرہ‬ ‫.کتاب فی الشکال الہلليہ‬ ‫.مقالہ فی الحساب الہندی‬ ‫.کقالہ فی کيفيہ الظلل‬ ‫.مقالہ فی الکرہ المحرقہ‬ ‫.اختلف مناظر القمر‬ ‫.کتاب فی حساب المعاملت‬ ‫.مقالہ فی المرایا المحرقہ بالدوائر‬ ‫1‬ ‫2‬ ‫3‬ ‫4‬ ‫5‬ ‫6‬ ‫7‬ ‫8‬ ‫9‬ ‫01‬ ‫11‬ ‫21‬ ‫.مقالہ فی الضوء‬ ‫.مقالہ فی التحليل والترکيب‬ ‫.کتاب شرح اصول اقليدس فی الہندسہ والعدد‬ ‫.مقالہ فی المرایا المحرقہ بالقطوع‬ ‫.بعض محققين کا خيال ہے کہ ابن الہيثم نے طب، فلسفہ اور الہيات پر بھی تصانيف چھوڑی ہيں‬ ‫اس نے سب سے پہلے روشنے کو حرارتی توانائی قرار دیا۔ روشنی کو شعاع کی وہ نہایت صحيح تعریف کرتا ہے۔‬ ‫یعنی ثقالہ ایجاد کيا۔ )‪ (pin hole camera‬ابن الہيثم نے سوئی چھید کیمرہ‬ ‫روشنی کی بار ے میں نظری ہ‬ ‫اس نے نظر کی کرنوں کا قدیم مفروضہ غلط ثابت کر کے ثابت کيا کہ جب روشنی کسی جسم پر پڑتی ہے تو کچھ‬ ‫کرنيں پلٹ کر فضا ميں پھيل جاتی ہيں۔ ان ميں شے بعض شعاعيں دیکھنے والے کی آنکھ ميں داخل ہو جاتی ہيں جس‬ ‫سے وہ شے نظر آتی ہے۔ اس نےریٹينا کو‬ ‫اسکی مشہور کتاب "کتاب المناظر" ہے۔ اس کے علوہ اس نے پہلی بار آنکھ کا تراشہ بھی بنایا۔‬ .ارتفاعات الکواکب‬ ‫.سمت القبلہ بالحساب‬ ‫.مقالہ فی خواص المثلث من جہہ العمود‬ ‫.‫جيسا کہ ابن ابی اصيبعہ نے کہا وہ واقعی کثير التصنيف تھے، سائنس کے مختلف شعبوں ميں ان کی 732 تصنيفات‬ ‫:شمار کی گئی ہيں جن ميں کچھ یہ ہيں‬ ‫.

. where he was asked to find ways of controlling the flood of the Nile. He also studied atmospheric refraction. and speculated on the physical nature of light. he has been considered as the father of modern optics. medicine and development of scientific methods on each of which he has left several outstanding books. This would seem equivalent to the first law of motion. According to him the rays originate in the object of vision and not in the eye. Known in the west as Alhazen. both in theory and practice. He studied the mechanics of motion of a body and was the first to maintain that a body moves perpetually unless an external force stops it or changes its direction of motion. His is first to describe accurately the various parts of the eye and give a scientific explanation of the process of vision. the rainbow. He also discussed the theories of attraction between masses. as also his book dealing with the colours of sunset. He discovered that the twilight only ceases or begins when the sun is 19˚ below the horizon and attempted to measure the height of the atmosphere on that basis. he went to Egypt. Ibn Al-Haitham’s influence on physical sciences in general. which included optics. In his book Mizan Al-Hikmah. In mathematics. physics. and it seems that he was aware of the magnitude of acceleration due to gravity. during this period. eclipses. He contradicted Ptolemy’s and Euclid’s theory of vision that objects are seen by rays of light emanating from the eyes. and optics in particular. he had ample time for his scientific pursuits. He is known for the earlier use of the camera obscura. He also traveled to Spain and. it ushered in a new era in optical research. in fact. and was educated in Basra and Baghdad. has been held in high esteem and. He also carried out the first experiments on the dispersion of light into its constituent colours. His book Kitab AlManathir was translated into Latin in the Middle-Ages.Abu Ali Hassan Ibn Al-haitham was one of the most eminent physicists. He made a thorough examination of the passage of light through various media and discovered the laws of refraction. Thereafter. Ibn al-haitham was born in 965 AD in Basra. he developed analytical geometry by establishing linkage between algebra and geometry. He also attempted to explain binocular vision. His contribution to mathematics and physics was extensive. Through these extensive researches on optics. Being unsuccessful in this. he feigned madness until the death of Caliph Al-Hakim. Ibn Al-Haitham discussed the density of the atmosphere and developed a relation between it and the height. He dealt at length with the theory of various physical phenomena like shadows. mathematics. and gave a correct explanation of the apparent increase in size of the sun and the noon when near the horizon. whose contributions to optics and the scientific methods are outstanding.

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