Received: February 25, 2005 Accepted: July 4, 2005 Published online: May 31, 2006
J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. V.12, n.2, p.172-201, 2006. Original paper - ISSN 1678-9199.
EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus)
SHALABY A. M. (1), KHATTAB Y. A. (2), ABDEL RAHMAN A. M. (3)
(1) Fish Hatchery and Reproductive Physiology Department, Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, Abbassa, Abo-Hammad, Sharkia, Egypt; (2) Fish Nutrition Department, Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, Abbassa, Abo-Hammad, Sharkia, Egypt; (3) Fish Health Department, Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, Abbassa, Abo-Hammad, Sharkia, Egypt.
ABSTRACT: We studied and compared the effects of chloramphenicol antibiotic and garlic (Allium sativum), used as immunostimulants and growth promoters, on some physiological parameters, growth performance, survival rate, and bacteriological characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish (7±1g/fish) were assigned to eight treatments, with three replicates each. Treatment groups had a different level of Allium sativum (10, 20, 30, and 40g/kg diet) and chloramphenicol (15, 30, and 45mg/kg diet) added to their diets; the control group diet was free from garlic and antibiotic. Diets also contained 32% crude protein (CP) and were administered at a rate of 3% live body weight twice daily for 90 days. Results showed that the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR) of O. niloticus increased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. The highest growth performance was verified with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER) with all treatments, except with 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. No changes in the hepatosomatic index and survival rate were observed. Crude protein content in whole fish increased significantly in the group fed on 30g Allium sativum / kg diet, while total lipids
A. M. Shalaby et al. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis., 2006, 12, 2, p.173
decreased significantly in the same group. Ash of whole fish showed significantly high values with 30g Allium sativum and 15mg chloramphenicol / kg diet while the lowest value was observed in the control group. Blood parameters, erythrocyte count (RBC), and hemoglobin content in fish fed on diets containing 40g Allium sativum and all levels of chloramphenicol were significantly higher than in control. Significantly higher hematocrit values were seen with 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were no significant differences in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Plasma glucose decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum but increased significantly with increasing levels of chloramphenicol. Total lipids were significantly reduced with diets containing 40g Allium sativum and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet, while total plasma protein content was significantly higher in fish fed on diets containing 10, 20, and 30g Allium sativum, and 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in plasma decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. All Allium sativum and chloramphenicol levels decreased total bacteria and coliforms in water, muscles and intestine when compared to the control group. Treated groups had lower mortality rate than the control group during the challenge test. In conclusion, it can be suggested that adding 3% Allium sativum to fish diet can promote growth, reduce total bacteria, and improve fish health.
KEY WORDS: Allium sativum, chloramphenicol, Nile tilapia, growth parameter, hematology, biochemistry, Aeromonas hydrophila.
CORRESPONDENCE TO: ADEL M. SHALABY, Fish Hatchery and Reproductive Physiology Department, Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, 44662, Abbassa, Abo-Hammad, Sharkia, Egypt. Email: email@example.com
A. M. Shalaby et al. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis., 2006, 12, 2, p.174
INTRODUCTION Recently, the use of immunostimulants in fish farming has become popular for enhancing the activity of non-specific defense systems and conferring protection against diseases. Many antibiotics are commonly used to promote growth and health in carp, trout, and Nile tilapia (22). Also, artificial feeds supplemented with antibiotics were used to prevent the spread of diseases and improve FCR (54). The use of antibiotics and other chemotherapeutics has several shortcomings including the risk of resistant pathogens, the problem of drug residue in treated fish, and the impact on environmental pollution. Therefore, using immunostimulants seems to be an attractive alternative to control fish diseases (52, 59). Allium sativum was used as a growth promoter in O. niloticus (18), in which it increased body gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency (1). It was shown to have broad spectrum activities against bacterial agents (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) studied in vitro as well as in vivo (1) and the greatest antihelminitic activity. Minced garlic together with other biological extraction (Bio-Gamma mix) can be prophylactic against most fish pathogens (30). Moreover, as a herbal remedy, it reduces a multitude of risk factors which play a decisive role in the genesis and progression of arteriosclerosis (61). Allium sativum decreases both total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in addition to reducing blood pressure (4). The consumption of its powder may decrease the accumulation of lipids in the liver, increase the excretion of total bile acids in feces, and increase the antioxidant capacity in hamsters (75). Chloramphenicol is a potent antibiotic effective against most bacteria such as rickettsia and the psittacosislymphogranuloma group. It suppresses anaerobic bacteria and most Gram-negative bacteria growth (65). Chloramphenicol antibiotic is generally used in fish feed to promote health, but its use for long periods may cause blood dyscrasias such as aplastic anemia, and it has recently been incriminated as carcinogenic. This problem led to the use of other natural products, such as garlic, which has the same effect as chloramphenicol. So this study was carried out to compare the effects of Allium sativum, as an antibiotic, and chloramphenicol on growth performance, bacterial growth and hematology of Nile tilapia.
Control diet was free from both Allium sativum and antibiotic. Toxins incl.m. p.. 30. which was imported from Denmark. They were transformed into pellet form by Spaghetti Machine. the pellets were transferred to plastic bags and stored in a freezer at -20°C until immediately prior to feeding.
Experimental system and fish The feeding experiment was carried out in twenty-four glass aquaria. Venom. and 1 p. Fresh tap water was stored in fiberglass tanks for 24h under aeration in order to dechlorinate the water. Each aquarium was 75X40X50cm with a total volume of 100l. Garlic without skin was purchased from the local market and dried in a Freeze Drier Model (LABCONCO) for 70 hours.175
MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental diets Eight experimental diets were formulated to contain different levels of Allium sativum powder (10. Sharkia. Aquaria were daily cleaned. Abbassa. 12. which replaced cornstarch. La Parmigiana. At the end of the
. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE. except for fishmeal. Each group (represented by three aquaria) was fed on one of the experimental diets. Experimental aquaria were supplied with well-aerated freshwater using compressed air via an airstone. 2006. All diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric (Table 1). Abu-Hammad. Italy.A. each aquarium was refilled to a fixed volume also using stored and well-aerated freshwater. Model D45LE. Fish were biweekly weighted and the amounts of daily given feed were readjusted according to increases in their body weight. M. Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings were obtained from the nursery ponds of Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research. 2. Then. J. and the water exchange rate per day. Dis. was approximately 25% of the total volume. Trop. Anim. After being dried. including fish feces and remaining food. 20. Diets were given at a rate of 3% live body weight two times a day (9 a.m. then ground to become powder. Diets were formulated from ingredients commercially available in Egypt. The water temperature was adjusted (26-27°C) by a thermostat column heater in each aquarium. The initial average fish weight was 7±1g/fish. Shalaby et al. and 40g/kg diet) and chloramphenicol antibiotic (15. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). They were acclimated under wet laboratory conditions for two weeks and randomly distributed at a stocking density of 20 fish per aquarium. and 45mg/kg diet). 30.).
Growth parameters: 1 . and stored in a freezer for analysis. Venom. p. Shalaby et al. and T = time in day). 12. Ash was detected by weighting samples in a porcelain crucible placed in a furnace at 550°C for 4h. %/day) = ln Wt ln W0/ T X 100 (ln = natural
logarithm.25) as per the Kjeldahl method (7). filtered on Whatman paper No. Crude lipid was determined by using Soxhlet apparatus. 1 for 1/2 hour to eliminate water. Dis. a part of each diet was mixed with 0. To measure the apparent nutrient digestibility. Crude protein was indirectly measured by analysis of total nitrogen (CP = N X 6.
Analytical methods Chemical analysis of feed ingredients. Six hours after feeding.Feed efficiency ratio (FER) = live weight gained (g) / dry feed given (g) X 100. fish feces were collected by siphoning on a fine mesh net. 3 .Protein efficiency ratio (PER) = wet weight gained (g) / amount of protein consumed (g). EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE.Specific growth rate (SGR. M. Moisture content was determined by oven drying at 105°C for 10h (constant weight).
.5% chromic oxide and stored until apparent nutrient digestibility measurement. Different growth parameters were calculated according to Khattab (39). Fish were fed on the same diets once a day in the morning.Feed conversion ratio (FCR) = total dry feed consumed (g) / total wet weight gained (g). and fish body composition was performed as recommended by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (7).
In another experiment under the same conditions..A. which lasted 90 days. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). Toxins incl. 2006. Wt = final weight. 2 . Crude fiber was estimated according to Goering and Van Soest (28). 2. feces. dried. chromic oxide was determined in feces and diets using the methods of Furukawa and Tsukahara (26). Anim.176
experiment. W0 = initial weight. 4 . fish in each aquarium were weighted and counted. Trop. J.
Table 1: Constituents and proximate chemical composition of experimental diets (dry matter basis).99 449.50 1. lipid.11kcal/g for protein.50 0.10 9. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE. hemoglobin content (72) and hematocrit value (11)
.34 2.22 0 10. iron.98 8.00 40 10.23 8. biotin.71 448. ** NFE (Nitrogen free extract) = 100 . iodine.48 42. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). B1.00 20 10.00 2. 55g.50 0. B12.35
* Vit.50 0.34 5. choline chloride. manganese.00 5. Shalaby et al. Anim. 500mg. 4g.00 23. B2. † GE (Gross energy) = Calculated as 5.50 1.06 1. Blood was used for erythrocyte count (15). & Min.00 4.87 8. 10g.50 34.00 23.00 2.00 3.06 1. Venom.39 43. p.50 1.01 8. 2MIU.33 41.00 Allium sativum diets (g/kg diet) 10 10.5kg contains vitamins A. 20g.5g. 30g.00 15. Control Ingredients Herring fish meal (72%) Poultry byproduct (60%) Soybean meal (44%) Wheat bran (16.34 4.06 1. folic acid. pantothenic acid.20 8.60 34. nicotinic acid.60 36.37 91.00 15.38 448.06 1.50 1.00 5.41 5.80 33.00 23. Dis.60 36.37 91.5%) Cornstarch Garlic powder Fish and corn oil (1:1) Vit.64. 2006.(protein + lipid + ash + fiber).76 448.76 41.00 5.30 8. 10g. blood samples were collected from the fish caudal vein by a sterile syringe containing EDTA as an anticoagulant. Trop.4%) Yellow corn (8.10 35.26 5.00 2. 1. 50g.00 5.00 23.66 5.34 1.
Hematological analysis At the end of the experiment.61 41. 12 Million International Units (MIU).60 36.00 2.44 and 4.81 91. 2g.50 1.81 9.00 5.00 2. zinc.80 8.00 30 10. & Min.. and selenium. B6. 10g.54 9. and NFE.00 1. 1g. Toxins incl. 55g. K. copper. 1g.00 15. 12.34 3.60 36.00 15.9 92.00 23. M. D3.00 15.50 0.60 36. 2. respectively.00 35.40 5. premix* Ascorbic acid Carboxymethyl cellulose Chemical analysis (%) Dry matter Crude protein Crude fat NFE** Crude fiber Ash GE† 92.00 2. J.60 5.00
451. 0.A. premix (Vitamins and minerals premix): each 2.1g. 10g. 1g.06 1. E.50 0.
12. the colonies were counted using colony counter. After incubation of water and fish sample dishes.. mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Toxins incl. Fish samples (muscles and intestine) were collected at the end of the experimental period for bacteriological examination with thorough asepsis. and the other half was incubated at 22±2°C for 48h.1% was used for serial dilution. Each diluent (1ml) was poured in three Petri dishes.A. Anim. 1ml of water sample was added to 9ml sterile peptone water to 10-1 and then diluted to 10-4. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus).178
determination. M. Each diluent (1ml) was poured in three Petri dishes.
. 2. p. (43).. Glucose concentration was measured according to Trinder (71). and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were calculated using the formulae mentioned by Dacie and Lewis (15). Plasma was obtained by centrifugation at 3000rpm for 15min and the non-hemolyzed plasma was stored in a freezer at -20°C until analysis. Petri dish of total coliforms count and half of the dishes of total bacterial count were incubated at 35±2°C for 24h. using Boehring Mannheium kits. According to the American Public Health Association (6). J. (33). 2006. The incubation periods were 24h at 35±2°C and 48h at 22±2°C. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE. Venom. according to Reitman and Frankel (55). the third Petri dish received MacConky agar for total coliforms count according to Hitchins et al. One ml of the suspension was diluted by peptone water to 10-4. Trop. Dis. one gram of both muscles and intestine was grained with 9ml sterile peptone water in the mortar. Petri dishes were gently tapped on the sides for a few times. Peptone water 0. Plasma protein content was determined by the Biuret method described by Wootton (74). Mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Shalaby et al. two of them also received plate count agar for total bacterial count using the pure plate count method according to the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (6). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined calorimetrically using kits supplied by Diamond Diagnostics. from which two received plate count agar and the other received MacConky agar. Total lipids were determined colorimetrically using a kit supplied by El Nasr Pharmaceutical Chemical Co. according to Knight et al.
Microbiological analysis Water samples from the aquaria were monthly collected in sterile glass bottles.
weight gain. PER increased with increasing Allium sativum doses up to 30g / kg diet (1.
Statistical analysis Data were analyzed by analysis of variance using the SAS program (58). Dis. respectively. Results in Table 2 show that FCR decreased significantly to 1. and there were no significant differences (p<0. Shalaby et al.02).05).
RESULTS Growth performance Growth performances of the animals after 90 days of feeding are summarized in Table 2.5ml of 107 Aeromonas hydrophila of 24 hours living. 240 O. p.179
At the end of the experiment. 20..62±0. The highest amounts of dry feed intake (g/fish/day) were seen in fish groups fed on 30g/kg garlic and 30mg/kg chloramphenicol.09). Toxins incl. while the opposite trend was found with chloramphenicol diets.03) and slightly increased with doses up to 45 mg chloramphenicol / kg diet (1. niloticus (30 from each treatment) were challenged by intraperitoneal route with 0. M. and 40g/kg garlic and among those fed on chloramphenicol levels (p<0.34±0.27±0. There were no significant differences in the final weight among fish groups fed on diets with 10. compared to the control group (2. 2. Anim.77±0. and SGR than fish fed on other levels of garlic and chloramphenicol. Feed efficiency ratio (FER) increased with garlic doses up to 30g/kg. respectively. Trop.A. J.04 and 1.05) in the hepatosomatic index between treatments and control. Venom.25 in O.05) between FER of fish group fed on diet containing 30g garlic / kg diet and that of the other fish groups. fish group fed on 30g/kg garlic had higher final weight.65±0. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE. niloticus fed on 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 15mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. Duncan’s multiple-range test (19) was used to verify significance of the mean differences among treatments.
. 12. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). Also. There was a significant difference (p<0. 2006.
77 1.41 ± 0.92cb 0.02d 0.43 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.46bc 20 7.17bc 0.11b 12.02a 20.19 50. † FCR (Feed conversion ratio) = Total dry feed consumed (g) / Total wet weight gained (g).44 1.67 100.72a 0.03a FER‡ 44.02a 19.01a 19.34b 12.02bc 0.11 ± 0. niloticus) fed on experimental diets during 90 days.67bc 30 7.67 96.17 ± 0. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE.15 ± 0.33 rate (%) ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 1.69 (n=10) ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.52b 0.29 intake ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± (g/fish) 0.12 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.25cb 1.
.44b 12.08 ± 0.03b 0. Toxins incl.17 1.05 ± 0. M.30bc 30 7.98 1.69 1.14b 45 7.09a 0.18 1.05a Survival 96.4 ± 0.05bc 0.0 100.03a 0.07 ± 0.03 2.180
Table 2: Effects of garlic and antibiotic on growth parameters and survival rate of Nile tilapia (O.01a 0.56cb 1.09 49.01a 20.70 1.92ab 0.16ª 0.07bc 0.07 ± 0.03a 0. Trop.7 ± 0.44d
Allium sativum levels (g/kg diet)
10 7.03a 0.01a 22.25 50.53 ± 0.62 1.11 ± 0.05d 0.40 1. Shalaby et al.43c 11.20 1.03bc 0. Venom.01d 2.25c 0.03bc 0.04bc 0.07ad 0.0a 1.66 ± 0.10d 0.01ab 0. and T = time.74 51.40b 13.96 47.16 55.68 1. Control
Items 0 Initial average weight (g/fish) Final average weight (g/fish) Average weight gained (g/fish) SGR* (%/day) 7.05 1.10c
1.31 0.04 ± 0.02b 0.80 1.01ab 0.97 100.67 1. 2.02bc 0.01d 0.04bc 0.23 1.36 ± 0.29ab 0. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). Dis. J.00a 0.05ab 0.03a 19.05). Wt = final weight. Wo = initial weight.05 ± 0.07 ± 0. ¦ HIS (Hepatosomatic index) = Liver weight / fish body weight.29 0.64 ± 0.15c † 2.0b Means with the same letters in the same row were not significantly different (p<0.01a 0.67 1.107cd 0. 2006.A. p.1ª 18.02c 0.65 2.03 1.39bc
Chloramphenicol levels (mg/kg diet )
15 7.29 48.26 1.12 FCR ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.06 ± 0.06 ± 0.02bc 0.07 2.28 0.47 ± 0.39 1.20 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 1.09ª 0.0a 0.66b 13..54 1. 12.0 100. Anim.01a 0.27 2. ‡ FER (Feed efficiency ratio) = Live weight gained (g) / Dry feed given (g) X 100.08 ± 0.05ab 0.41 1.14 1.19a 0.01a 0.28 0.0 96.0 94.02cd HIS¦ 1.29d 15.28 0.66bd 13.30 0.29 0.03cd PER§ 1.30a 40 7. *SGR (Specific growth rate) = ln Wt ln Wo / T X 100.01cd Dry feed 0.13 1.0a 1. § PER (Protein efficiency ratio) = Wet weight gained (g) / Amount of protein fed (g).09d 0.49 1.01a 20.42 ± 0.32 ± 0.93ab 1.
87a 0.40d AGED
Chloramphenicol levels (mg/kg diet)
(g/kg diet) 10 86.47 ± 0.54cd 31.73c 81. p.31 33.66a 0.74b 0. and control (Table 4).63b 82.68 81. Control Allium sativum levels Items (0) APD* 84. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus).54b 0.70 85. Anim.82b 0.97 ±
0.53cd 0.12 87. †† AGED (Apparent Gross Energy Digestibility).60de
Means with the same letters in the same row were not significantly different (p<0.53 ± 0.05) between the group fed on 30g garlic / kg diet and the other groups. Shalaby et al. apparent carbohydrate digestibility (ACHOD).21 ± ± ± 62.181
Table 3 shows that apparent protein digestibility (APD).53 93.27 ± 0.38e ACHOD† 27.68 ± ± ±
30 89.64d 63.
.69c 66.85d 67. Trop.36 72. niloticus) during the experimental period.99 ±
45 86.93 ± 0.05).95 ± 0.75a 0.57cd 0.53de 0. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE.05d AFD** 78.
Protein content in fish body was significantly higher in the group fed on diet containing 30g / kg diet of Allium sativum (60.(100 X %Cr2O3 in feed / %Cr2O3 in feces X %protein in feces / %protein in feed).59 ± 0.68e
0. M.89bc 0. 2006.83b 33.A. with significant differences (p<0.29 ± 0.52cd 84.02 ±
89.95 40. apparent fat digestibility (AFD). and apparent gross energy digestibility (AGED) were higher in treated groups than in control. %) = 100 . † ACHOD (Apparent Carbohydrate Digestibility). Venom.10 ± ± ± 79..79 ±
0. 2. **AFD (Apparent Fat Digestibility).64 ±
61.12 ± 33.70cd 0. Toxins incl.56 ± 0.25 ± 0.68bc 0. Data are represented as mean SE (n=3).44c 81.13 ± 20 30 40
15 85.53de 28.92%) than in all other groups of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol treatments.59a 1. J.36 ± 0.89 ± 1. *APD (Apparent Protein Digestibility.06b 0.
Table 3: Apparent nutrients digestibility (%) for garlic and antibiotic diets administered to Nile tilapia (O. 12. Dis.21cd 0.89 bc 65.43 64.01 ± 1.69 ± ± ± 28.
18ab 59.59b Allium sativum levels (g/kg diet) 10 75.96 ± 0.76 ± 0.35 ± 0. 30.15 ± 0.98 ± 0. J.50abc 59.32 ± 0. Shalaby et al. Anim. It shows that diets containing 20.32 ± 0. hemoglobin content. Venom.22bc 19.95 ± 0. 2006.42a 30 76. and 40g/kg diet of Allium sativum and all levels of chloramphenicol increased all the examined blood parameters.59b Ether extract 22.24b 22. which were significantly different from those of control.35 ± 0. p<0.32c 59.24b 21.45 ± 0.
Hematological variables Results of erythrocytes count (RBC).25b 30 76. except in the fish group fed on 10g Allium
. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus).35abc 58.51 ± 0.36c 20. Ash content was significantly higher (20.35%.14 ± 0.84 ± 0.52ab 19.56 ± 0.25 ± 0. M.51ab
Means with the same letters in the same row were not significantly different (p<0.30ab 19. p<0. Erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content increased significantly in fish fed on diets containing all levels of garlic and chloramphenicol.182
Contrarily. and hematocrit percentage are given in Table 5.25ab Chloramphenicol levels (mg/kg diet) 15 74. Toxins incl.
Table 4: Chemical composition of whole body (% dry matter basis) of Nile tilapia (O.31a Ash 18.35a 40 75.72 ± 0.41ab 20.39 ± 0.31ab 45 75.05) in fish fed on 30g Allium sativum.67ab 22.92 ± 0.54 ± 0.29 ± 0.28a 18. total lipids content in fish body decreased significantly (18.96 ± 0. Dis.05) in fish fed on 30g Allium sativum / kg diet.71 ± 0.19 ± 0.48ab 21.19ab 20 76.
Control Items (0) Moisture 75.16ab 19.62b 21.90 ± 0.37 ± 0.18 ± 0.05).32ab 19. 2.33a 60.36bc 58.31abc Crude protein 59.A.51 ± 0.09 ± 0.73 ± 0.20ab 18.06 ± 0. p. niloticus) under different treatments. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE. Moisture content in fish body was not significantly affected with treatments.19ab 58. while in all other groups of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol it was similar to control. Trop.14 ± 0.23%. 12. and the lowest values were obtained with 20g/kg Allium sativum and control..23 ± 0.
77 30 1.452 5.23a ±0. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE.74 ±0.0 ±0. Dis. J.072 7. 30 and 45 mg chloramphenicol / kg diet.09d ±0. niloticus fed on diets containing different levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. 2006. n=5
The blood indices calculated from the mean values of blood parameters are presented in Table 6.04c 5. MCH and MCHC were significantly different among fish fed on diets containing all levels of Allium sativum.6 21.58a
±0.25cb ±0.0 16.05a ±0. Similarly.165 8. Anim. p.18 30 2.20b ±0. While.21ac ±0.4 16.784 7.142 6.06d ±0.26e ±0.040.32 ±0.74b
±0. M.2 21. Shalaby et al.24±0..
Table 5: Erythrocytes count.37e
Means with the same letters in the same row were not significantly different
Data are represented as mean ± SE.94 15 2. respectively.64±0.57
Allium sativum levels (g/kg diet) 10 1. Venom.509% and 21.4 12.374% in fish fed on 20g Allium sativum. It shows that MCH and MCHC were significantly reduced in O.44a ±0.86a ±0.13b ±0.52 20 1. 21. Trop. 2.183
sativum.06a 5.08db 5.4±0. hemoglobin. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus).74b ±0. niloticus fed on diets containing high levels of chloramphenicol. MCV. Toxins incl. Treatments Control (0) 1.86
Chloramphenicol levels (mg/kg diet) 40 1. 12.50e ±0.
Parameters Erythrocyte count (c/mm ) Hemoglobin (g/100ml) Hematocrit values (%)
. and hematocrit values of O.83a 15.24 45 2. hematocrit values increased significantly to 19.22a 14.04bc ±0.
40 87.35a 32. n=5
Biochemical parameters Table 7 shows significant decreases of plasma glucose in fish fed on diets containing 20.80b 36. and 5.21a 33.184
Table 6: Changes of mean corpuscular volume (MCV).45 ± 1. Dis.67
±4. On the other hand.74 ±4. it increased significantly in fish fed on 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. Anim.80ac 36. and 40g Allium sativum / kg diet.0 ± .11 g/l) in fish fed on diets containing 30 and 40g Allium sativum and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet.18a 32.67 32.62ac ±.906 37.7±0.98b 37. J. This level decreased significantly (7.17
30 96. On the other hand. Toxins incl. and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in the blood of O.58
20 100.45 ±1. niloticus diets for 90 days are also shown in Table 7. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE.2±0.106b 36.1±0.56abc ±4.64 ± . Mean values of total plasma protein after incorporation of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol antibiotic to O.26b ±3.85c ±0.78
MCV (µm3) MCH (pg) MCHC (%)
30 85. these values were significantly higher in fish administered with higher levels of chloramphenicol (30 and 45mg / kg diet).65ac ±1.
150 74.26a ± . mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). 30.42a ± . 2006.58b 27. 12. 2. Shalaby et al. The mean value of total plasma lipid in control was 7. Data are represented as mean ± SE.62a ± . p.50ª 33..40
10 81.91a 41.6±0. Trop. respectively.10. It can be observed that these values increased significantly in all groups when compared to control group.11 ± 1.73 ±1. M. except for those fed on 40g Allium sativum and 15mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus).46 ±0. in which the increase was not significant.69
45 100.05).26a 34.A. 6.
Allium sativum levels (g/kg diet)
Chloramphenicol levels (mg/kg diet)
(0) 93.16g/l.05b 34. niloticus fed on diets containing different levels of Allium sativum and
Means with the same letters in the same row were not significantly different (p>0.18a 27.
13 133.66. and 15mg chloramphenicol group.64
±4. p<0.33 IU/l. Anim.64 IU/l) was recorded in fish fed on diets containing 10.22
±0. p<0. total protein (g/100).13bc 7. 31.18
±0.10c ±0.10b ±0.
The changes in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in plasma are shown in Table 8.05 8.16a 7.4±2.2±1. Dis.19d ±006a
±0. and 111. while the lowest ones were obtained with 30g and 40g of Allium sativum.38.49a Total Protein Total Lipids 2.89 7.51 106. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE.4±1.63 ±0. AST activity decreased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol.05. and 40g garlic. 30.99 3. respectively.58a ±1.185
Table 7: Changes of glucose concentration (mg/l).75
136.. p.A.14d 5.10bc ±0.31 30 45
±0. respectively. Treatments Control Allium sativum levels (g/kg diet) Parameters Glucose (0) 10 20 30 82. Venom.4±0.74e 2. niloticus fed on diets containing different levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol.05). 64.11e ±0.90. 28.66. 2006.
. The highest values were obtained in control group.59 3.13e
Means with the same letters in the same row were not significantly different (p>0. n=5. 2.83.33e ±4. 30mg.54 ±0.01 ±0. 12.28ab
±0.73 ±016b 8.3 ±3. Toxins incl. Data are represented as mean ± SE.05).58a ±1.05).97. M.49e 2.87. 81. and total lipids (g/l) in the blood of O.84 ±2. without significant differences (111.10a ±0.20b ±0. 20.30 3. Trop.49 85. and 45mg chloramphenicol with significant differences (82. p<0. 105. Shalaby et al.204 Chloramphenicol levels (mg/kg diet) 15 129. respectively.73c 2.82.56 40 61.18b ±1. and 75. and 26. Plasma ALT activity after treatment with Allium sativum and chloramphenicol varied significantly between groups. The same happened with fish fed on 30 and 45mg of chloramphenicol / kg diet.12a 6. J.83 IU/l. 10g Allium sativum group. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). whereas a significant reduction (33.63 10.55b ±0.42 3.
06 24. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus).83 ±4. In muscles. n=5.66 40 81.35e 25.8X106cfu/g among chloramphenicol levels.57a 41.78a ±2.4
Means with the same letters in the same row were not significantly different (p>0.18X104cfu/ml) than in all groups of Allium sativum (2.14X104cfu/ml). respectively).2X103-1.63b ±1. Total bacterial count in intestine ranged from 0.6X106cfu/g among Allium sativum levels and from 0.87 ±2.83 ±2.06X106 and 0. 2. It shows that total bacterial count was higher in the control group (4.91c 31.4X103-2. and 40 g/kg diet. it ranged from 2. Trop.84a 10 105. the highest dose of Allium sativum (40g/kg diet) and 30mg/kg diet chloramphenicol were more effective in reducing total bacteria in the intestine (0. Also. 12.14X104.01X106 to 0.82bc
±1. Results of total bacterial count from muscles and intestine of O. 0. Total bacterial counts in water samples were 2. M.2X104 cfu/ml with all Allium sativum levels (10. while in the control group it ranged from 2.2 28. J.
.50ab 33.4X104-8.4X104-8.56X104.A.8X1048.3X103cfu/g with Allium sativum treatments and from 0.1X106-0.05). 2. Anim. Shalaby et al. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE.4
111. and 0.97b 20 95.70 ±0.83 30 82. it ranged from 50 to 0. 20.90b ±0. respectively). and the most effective level was 30g/kg diet.1X106 to 0. Toxins incl.9X104.4 ±2.3X103cfu/g). The levels 40g Allium sativum and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet were more effective in reducing total bacteria in muscles (60cfu/g and 25cfu/g.33 64. which was lower than in control (1.14d 45.8X104-8. Treatments Control Allium sativum levels (g/kg diet) Parameters AST (IU/l) ALT (IU/l) (0) 111.95c 26.3X106cfu/g.186
Table 8: Changes of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) in the blood of O. respectively). 30. Data are represented as mean ± SE.. Venom. 2006.0 to 90cfu/g with chloramphenicol treatments.091c ±1.6X104-7.
Bacteriological results Results of total bacterial count from water of the aquaria where the treatments were applied are illustrated in Table 9. Dis. niloticus fed on diets containing different levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol.77bc ±1. p.1X106 to 3X106cfu/g.66 ±5.4 Chloramphenicol levels (mg/kg diet) 15 30 45 75.32a ±2.37 ±2.48
±2.67X104-4.4X104cfu/ml. With chloramphenicol diets. niloticus are also shown in Table 9.01X106-0.
0. niloticus. respectively.04X105.12X10 1. 2. 0.
Treatment Control Allium sativum levels (g/kg diet) Item Water Muscles Intestine (0) 3.6X103. 20.06X106 0. Trop.0 0. 30. and 1.9X10
Chloramphenicol (mg/kg diet)
10 0. and 0.6X103 0. 20.
chloramphenicol diets. respectively. Anim.6 X104 0. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE.4X104
10 0.0 0. niloticus.8X106 2. In intestine.01X10
30 0.24 X106 0. 30.1X106 0.0 25 0.9 X104 4.4X104
30 0.45X105 and 0. Venom. 2006.12X103.4X103cfu/ml). 0.4X103 2. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). and 45mg chloramphenicol. M.4X104 2.0 0.3 X103 0. 0.3X103. niloticus fed on Allium sativum and chloramphenicol diets are illustrated in Table 10.18X104 8.12X103.3X103 0.8X104
0.4X104 8. It also decreased in those groups fed on chloramphenicol diets (15.2X106 0. and 40g/kg diet): 0.2X103 1. intestine and water among treated O.4X104
30 0.2X106 2. 12.9X105cfu/g). coliforms count in fish groups fed on 10.9X104
Coliforms count from water.
Table 10: Effects of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol on total coliforms count in muscles.A. 0.0 0.45X10
40 0. Coliforms from water decreased in all groups fed on Allium sativum diets (10.2X104 8.02X10 0. compared to control (5.03X10
30 60 90
15 9 90 0..8X105. respectively. Toxins incl.0 0.14X104
7. and in those fed on 15.6X103 0.6X103cfu/ml. it was 0.4X10 10 5.1X10 0.6X105.0 0.6X10 5. and muscles of O. and 45mg/kg diet): 0.5 0.4X10
15 0.18X104 8.28X105
. from compared was to not control detected diets with (3. while with Allium sativum diets it ranged from 0-5cfu/g.56X104 2.3X10 0.4X105cfu/g. 30.07X103. and 40g/kg Allium sativum was 0. 30.
Treatments Items Control Allium sativum levels (g/kg diet) Chloramphenicol (mg/kg diet) 40 50 60
Muscles 35ºC 22ºC 35ºC Intestine 22ºC 35ºC Water 22ºC
(0) 1. and 0.03X10
45 1.67X104 0.3X10
45 25 90 0. p. Dis.3X103 2.05X10
20 0. intestine and water of treated O.187
Table 9: Effects of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol on total bacteria from muscles.2X103 0. Shalaby et al.07X10 0.6X106 2. 0.12X10 4. Coliforms count respectively.1X10 3X106 4. J.28X105cfu/g.8X10
except for the first level of Allium sativum (10g/kg diet). It is used as food for humans as well as some animals and as remedy for several diseases. as reported in folk medicine. 12. not promoting acquisition of antibiotic resistance. J. 2.
. direct intragastric effects are feasible because Allium sativum antimicrobials are not affected by acid environments (45)..A. Control Treatment (0) Number injected fish Mortality (N) Mortality (%) 15 50 12 40 9 30 9 30 9 30 10 33 9 30 9 30 of 30 Allium sativum levels Chloramphenicol levels (mg/kg diet) 30 30 40 30 15 30 30 30 45 30
(g/kg diet) 10 30 20 30
DISCUSSION Allium sativum might provide a suitable basis for new anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies due to its well-established antimicrobial action (12). Trop. We can conclude that diets with Allium sativum and chloramphenicol showed the same effect on the mortality rate of O. Garlic is an important vegetable extensively cultivated in many countries. hydrophila.188
Results of the challenge test in Table 11 reveal that mortality rate was 30% with all levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. Anim. Antibiotics are largely used for prophylaxis and treatment to eliminate or reduce bacterial contamination to a degree that enhances host defense mechanism (63). chemical complexity and broad-spectrum action. Venom. Toxins incl. The mortality rate in control group was 50%. M. Dis. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE. hydrophila injected by intraperitoneal route and mortality rate among O. 2006. niloticus treated with Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. In addition. otherwise the gastric juice enhances the antimicrobial activity of Allium sativum constituents (24).
Table 11: Challenge test of A. Chloramphenicol supplementation as a feed additive antibiotic has a greater effect than diets without antibiotics in improving live body weight and feed conversion efficiency in broiler chicks. which showed a mortality rate of 40%. Shalaby et al. p. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). niloticus challenged with A.
68% to 93. The highest growth performance was observed in fish fed on 30g garlic and 30mg chloramphenicol.7% to 77. Addition of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol to the diet of Nile tilapia increased AGED from 62. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). 30. Degani et al.8%.5% garlic / kg diet. AFD improved with garlic and chloramphenicol supplementation to Nile tilapia diets (from 81.64% to 72. So. PER. these parameters are used to assess protein utilization and turnover.87%). and body composition (crude protein. FCR.6% to 83. niloticus body composition showed that CP and ash increased significantly with diets containing 30g Allium sativum and 15mg
. weight gain. Also.189
The current experiment aimed to study the effects of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol on the health of Nile tilapia. and their effects are presented in Table 2. ether extract. J. (29) in rainbow trout (from 85. who obtained the highest growth performance in O. Allium sativum was used at the levels 10. 12. 2. Venom.. This indicates that the final weight. and 45mg/kg diet. Shalaby et al. Trop. (42) in carp (Cyprinus carpio) may be due to the fatty acids composition and to the melting point of the fat having a strong influence on digestibility. ash. On the other hand. which showed an increase from 63. These results partially agree with those mentioned by Diab et al. Feed intake increased with increasing Allium sativum and chloramphenicol levels. (18). 2006. niloticus with 2. similar results were obtained by Gomes et al. and Khattab (40) in Nile tilapia (from 85. (16) in hybrid tilapia (from 85. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE. and 40g/kg diet and chloramphenicol at 15. (41).68%). Dis. APD was improved with increasing levels of garlic (from 85.8%). Toxins incl.6%) was obtained by Khattab (40) in Nile tilapia.43%). p.70%). In this study. Anim.8% to 90. 20. These results are also in agreement with those obtained by Khattab et al.79% to 90.A. M.65% to 92. the low mean (80%) of AFD recorded by Kirchgessner et al.25%).02% to 92. A similar improvement (from 78. and SGR increased significantly with all treatments of both Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. niloticus biomass and SGR. results of O. The present results agree with those obtained by Goddard and Mclean (27) in O. Feed conversion ratio decreased with increasing Allium sativum levels and increased with increasing chloramphenicol levels. 30.43%. In this study. aureus. Goddard and Mclean (27) in Oreochromis aureus (from 76. and moisture) in fish. Feed efficiency ratio and PER are used as quality indicators for fish diet and amino acid balance. Abou-Zeid (3) showed that Allium sativum supplementation positively affected O. who found that the dietary of Biogen® increased feed intake. Also.02 to 87.
12. including evaluation of erythrocytes count. Faisal (23) reported significantly increased values of erythrocyte count. 2. which occurs by stimulation of erythropoiesis. MCH and MCHC) are particularly important for the diagnosis of anemia in most animals (13). (41). and hematocrit in catfish Clarias garepinus at the 1st and 3rd days after administration of ciprofloxacin. 2006. Trop.190
chloramphenicol. Changes in the physiological state often reflect alteration of hematologic and blood biochemical values. hemoglobin content. M. So.A. partly because of the lack of reference intervals for various fish species. Clinical chemical analysis is a fundamental tool used to diagnose and predict the outcome of diseases and to monitor the effects of therapeutic. which agrees with the results of Martins et al. Diab et al. Anim. hematocrit and leucocytes count. Allium sativum has some constituents that may play a role in the immune system stimulation and in the function of organs related to blood cell formation such as thymus. Dis. amoxycillin and ampicillin. hematocrit value. Toxins incl. who verified that addition of Allium sativum to fish diets increased erythrocytes number. While total lipid content decreased significantly with the same levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). p. hemoglobin content. and also because changes in blood analysis associated with specific diseases and metabolic
. hemoglobin content. These results reflect the health status of fish cultured with all treatments. Blood biochemical values are not commonly used as a diagnostic tool in fish medicine. it is assumed that the decrease or increase of blood indices may be attributed to a defense reaction against chloramphenicol. This study showed a significant decrease of MCH and MCHC in fish fed on the highest level of chloramphenicol.. leucocytes. and bone marrow (37). On the other hand. The present study revealed that administration of garlic or antibiotic induced significant increases in all blood parameters (erythrocyte count. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE. spleen. and hematocrit value) in treated fish. and thrombocytes. These results agree with those obtained by Abdelhamid et al. Venom. The employment of hematological techniques. (2) and Khattab et al. hemoglobin concentration. J. Shalaby et al. (18) reported that there were no significant changes in fish body composition caused by different garlic levels. Blood indices (MCV. has provided valuable knowledge for fishery biologists in the assessment of fish health (9) and in monitoring stress responses (64). who found that inclusion of Biogen® in the diet increased fish protein content and decreased whole body fat in fish. nutritional and environmental management in human and veterinary medicine. (47). Also.
temperature.001) plasma glucose level in fish administered with all doses of chloramphenicol. and season are factors that demand total serum protein complement in fish. M. spawning.. Dis. Increased blood glucose levels might have been due to a glucose shift from tissue to blood or to an impairment of glucose mobilization. Our results agree with those of Tarter (68) and Faisal (23). 2006. High serum
. Anim. age. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). hibernation hormones. On the other hand. Plasma or serum glucose level is often used as an indicator of non-specific stress (34). osmotic pressure. compared with control. Trop. Venom. p. clinical biochemical analysis could be developed to detect metabolic disorders and sublethal diseases that affect the production efficiency. thus. 2. who verified that plasma glucose concentration in catfish (Clarias garepinus) increased significantly after oral administration of ciprofloxacin. Shalaby et al. the significant elevated (p<0. plasma glucose concentration reduced significantly in fish fed on diets containing the highest levels of Allium sativum (30 and 40g/kg diet). Lower levels of plasma glucose in fish have also been reported in the assessment of physiological effects of Allium sativum (60). who showed that serum total protein content was elevated in Male Albino rats after administration of garlic oil. who found that feeding mice with 45mg garlic / kg body weight for 28 days induced significant decrease of serum glucose levels.191
disorders are not well characterized with sufficient background data. Increase in the serum total protein level in hyperlipidemic rats treated with Allium sativum oil could be attributed to the increase in the immunoglobulin level and total globulin concentration (35). light. Total plasma protein was not significantly high. precisely reflecting the condition of the organism and the changes happening to it under influence of internal and external factors. Blood serum protein is a fairly labile biochemical system. In the present study. indicated that this antibiotic affects glucose dynamics in O. 12.A. These results agree with those of Kumar and Reddy (44). which agrees with the results of Hussein et al. food. except in those that received 40g garlic / kg diet and the two highest levels of chloramphenicol. Faisal (23) found that serum total protein increased significantly in Clarias garepinus after administration of both ciprofloxacin and amoxycillin antibiotics. (36). Also. oxygen depletion. Significant
hyperproteinemia was observed in all fish groups administered with garlic. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE. amoxycillin and ampicillin. J. Toxins incl. niloticus in order to obtain more energy to withstand and overcome the existing stress condition. Booke (10) showed that sex. and Thomson (69).
(36) found that the serum total lipid decreased significantly in albino rats after administration of garlic. Trop. These results can be attributed to Allium sativum. and physiological factors or by a disturbance in the Kreb’s cycle. who reported that fat content in muscles of Nile tilapia increased significantly after administration of 10g flavomycin / kg diet. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE. It is also considered to be important in assessing the state of the liver and some other organs (73). 53). thereby. Also. Therefore. and ALP) in serum of rats decreased significantly when they were fed on a diet containing 5% Allium sativum. Furthermore. thereby allowing interplay between carbohydrate and protein metabolism during the fluctuating energy demands of the organism in various adaptive situations. who verified that serum total lipid and total cholesterol decreased significantly in men treated with garlic and fish oil alone or combined. attention has been focused on the changes in AST. Venom. who found that the lipid parameters and enzyme activities (AST. which may cause stabilized cell membrane and protect the liver against deleterious agents and free radical-mediated toxic damages to the liver cells. J. (2). PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). On the other hand. (21) and Augusti et al. Results of this study showed that serum AST and ALT activities decreased significantly in the fish group fed on all levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. niloticus fed on diets containing high doses of Allium sativum (30 and 40g/kg diet) is in agreement with the study by Adler and Holub (4). as well as on the changes in aminotransferase activities in the liver (32.192
protein levels have been reported to be indicative of osmoregulatory dysfunction. 2006. ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. 12. AST and ALT activities might be altered by a variety of chemical. M. Faisal (23) mentioned reduced AST in serum of catfish after ampicillin administration. niloticus after administration of 45mg antibiotic / kg diet. ALT. Transamination represents one of the main pathways for synthesis and domination of amino acid.A. Toxins incl. or tissue damage surrounding blood vessels (31). Hussein et al. the present study showed elevation of plasma lipid in O. Also. hemodilution. Reduction of total lipid in plasma of O. These data agree with those reported by El-Shater et al. Shalaby et al. Dis. These results agree with those of Abdelhamid et al. Decreased activity of the Kreb’s cycle cause a decrease in its intermediates. p. (8). biological. ALT and AST compensate by providing a-ketoglutarate (56).. which promote gluconeogenesis from amino acid. 2. Anim. This is reflected in the
3X106cfu/ml in tanks with a stocking density of 11.
. In the beginning of spring and autumn and with temperature changes. for controlling bacterial infection (50). M. Allium sativum helps the liver to maintain its normal function by accelerating the regenerative capacity of its cells. chloramphenicol is also highly effective in marine organisms (70). we studied the effectiveness of garlic as an antibacterial or as a preventive measure for fish diseases in comparison with chloramphenicol. 12. and disagreed with those of Al-Harbi and Uddin (5). Chloramphenicol is a potent antibiotic that is effective against most bacteria. which is considered carcinogenic and teratogenic. orally.8X103 to 2. showing reproductive toxicity and many problems of antibiotic resistance (38. 66). Shalaby et al. suppressing the growth of anaerobic and most Gram-negative bacteria (65).5±0. Results of total bacterial count revealed that bacterial load in the aquarium water was more affected by Allium sativum diets than by chloramphenicol and control diets. who reported that aerobic plate counts in fish growing water were 6. Allicin treatment seems to be an enhancing effect for antibody activity (14). 57. EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE. J. Sugita et al.193
reduction of liver enzymes. 2006. Dis. 2. which causes most diseases of freshwater fish (20. Anim.16×104cfu/ml. so antibiotics are used for treatment and prevention of diseases. It is more effective than other antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila. Microbiology Safety Standards have not been established for fish culture facilities in the United States nor in any other producing country (48) and total bacteria counts or coliforms counts with antibiotic or garlic treatments have never been detected. in bath or by injection.A.4±1.2X103cfu/ml in pond water without any treatment. who showed that total viable bacterial count in water supplied by the dental unit water systems varied from not detected to 2. these values were lower than total bacterial counts in our control. total bacterial counts with the later diets were lower in number than those found by Nedoluha and Westhoff (51). Venom.4g fish / gallon (3g fish/l). however. 46). fish are affected by bacteria and fungi. (67) found that bacterial count in growing water of pufferfish (Fugu niphobles) housed in glass aquaria ranged from 104-105cfu/ml. Total bacterial counts in muscles and intestine of fish fed on diets supplemented by Allium sativum and chloramphenicol were lower than in those of the control group. p.. (25). Thus. Toxins incl. who reported that counts of total viable bacteria were in the range of 5. Trop. Our results were similar to those of Fulford et al. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). This antibiotic is one of the major drugs used in fish farming.
Diets with Allium sativum and chloramphenicol showed the same effect on the mortality rate of O.750 cells / gram from the intestine of O. niloticus challenged intraperitonealy with A. 12. (18).03X105 . 2006.194
Diets with chloramphenicol were more effective in reducing total bacteria in muscles and intestine than diets with garlic. Venom. which was higher than that of our study. Coliforms count from water with fish fed on Allium sativum and chloramphenicol was lower than that from water with the control group. Allium sativum had antibacterial activity antagonized by A. On the other hand. Total coliforms count in water with fish fed on Allium sativum and chloramphenicol diets was lower than that reported by Mckeon et al.710 cells / gram in muscular tissue of O. niloticus. [8. 2.16X105cfu/100ml. Dis. J.. which agreed with the results in this study. which showed mortality rate of 40%. chloramphenicol diets were more effective in reducing coliforms in water than were garlic diets. Allium sativum and chloramphenicol groups had lower coliforms count in muscular tissue (0.8±0. muscles and intestine showed that chloramphenicol diets were more effective than Allium sativum diets. Coliforms count in water. Shalaby et al. Diets with the second level of chloramphenicol (30mg/kg diet) and garlic (20g/kg diet) were more effective than those with the other levels. Finally.0-5cfu/g and 0. Trop.8X105 (cfu/g). hydrophila.8X106 5. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). p. but in filtered water it was 0.9X105 (cfu/g). EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND CHLORAMPHENICOL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE.4.6X105 . (48) in prefiltered water of recirculating systems (106cfu/100ml).0cfu/g. Anim. Results of the challenge test shown in Table 11 revealed that the mortality rate was 30% with all doses of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. the second level of chloramphenicol and the fourth level of Allium sativum were the most effective levels. Al-Harbi and Uddin (5) reported that total bacterial count from intestine of tilapia reared in earthen pond was 3. niloticus] (49). respectively) than did the control group (10cfu/g) and the results of Molinari et al.4±1. Also. Coliforms count from the intestine of fish fed on garlic diets was 0. (49).4X107cfu/g.A. M. hydrophila in fresh water as reported by Diab (17) and Diab et al. who reported coliforms count of 1. Toxins incl. from the obtained results it could be recommended that garlic (Allium sativum) may be used as a growth promoter and antibiotic for the treatment or
. except for the first dose (10g/kg diet) of Allium sativum. and in fish fed on chloramphenicol diets it was 0. the mortality rate of control was 50%.2. being higher than that in the control group but lower than that in the study by Molinari et al.
7 ASSOCIATION OF OFFICIAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTS.. PILLAI LS.. Washington: American Public Health Association. The effect of some medical plant on reproductive and productive performance of Nile tilapia fish...207-30. 39. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SURVIVAL OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus). therefore garlic powder should be added to the diets of freshwater fish. 1984. p. SIVADASAN R.ed. EL-BARBERY MI. Indian J. EBRAHEEM K. 12. 17. UDDIN N. Faculty of Agriculture. Feeding Nile tilapia on biogen to detoxify aflatoxin diet.
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