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Empirical Combustion

Modeling in SI Engines

FREDRIK LINDSTRÖM

Licentiate thesis TRITA – MMK 2005:19


Department of Machine Design ISSN 1400-1179
Royal Institute of Technology ISRN/KTH/MMK/R-05/19-SE
SE-100 44 Stockholm
TRITA – MMK 2005:19
ISSN 1400-1179
ISRN/KTH/MMK/R-05/19-SE
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines
Fredrik Lindström
Licentiate thesis
Academic thesis, which with the approval of Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, will be presented
for public review in fulfilment of the requirements for a Licentiate of Engineering in Machine
Design. The public review is held at Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Brinellvägen 23 in room
B1 at 13:00 on the 26th of September 2005.
ABSTRACT

This licentiate thesis concerns the modeling of spark ignition engine combustion for
use in one dimensional simulation tools. Modeling of knock is of particular interest
when modeling turbocharged engines since knock usually limits the possible engine
output at high load. The knocking sound is an acoustic phenomenon with pressure
oscillations triggered by autoignition of the unburned charge ahead of the propagating
flame front and it is potentially damaging to the engine. To be able to predict knock it
is essential to predict the temperature and pressure in the unburned charge ahead of
the flame front. Hence, an adequate combustion model is needed.
The combustion model presented here is based on established correlations of
laminar burning velocity which are used to predict changes in combustion duration
relative to a base operating condition. Turbulence influence is captured in empirical
correlations to the engine operating parameters spark advance and engine speed. This
approach makes the combustion model predictive in terms of changes in gas
properties such as mixture strength, residual gas content, pressure and temperature.
However, a base operating condition and calibration of the turbulence correlations is
still needed when using this combustion model.
The empirical models presented in this thesis are based on extensive
measurements on a turbocharged four cylinder passenger car engine. The knock
model is simply a calibration of the Arrhenius type equation for ignition delay in the
widely used Livengood-Wu knock integral to the particular fuel and engine used in
this work.

Keywords: spark ignited engines, combustion modeling, knock, 1D simulation, Wiebe, divided
exhaust period

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SAMMANFATTNING

Denna avhandling behandlar modellering av förbränning i ottomotorer med


endimensionella simuleringsverktyg. Knackmodellering är av särskilt intresse vid
simulering av turbomotorer eftersom dessa motorer oftast begränsas av knack vid
höga laster. Det knackande ljudet är ett akustiskt fenomen som uppstår då den
obrända bränsle-luftblandningen självantänder framför flamfronten. Knack kan skada
motorn. För att förutsäga knack är det av största vikt att känna till tryck och
temperatur i den obrända blandningen framför flamfronten, vilket leder till behovet av
en förbränningsmodell.
Förbränningsmodellen som presenteras är baserad på beprövade korrelationer
för laminär flamhastighet. Dessa används för att förutspå förändringar i
förbränningsduration relativt en referensförbränning. Turbulensens påverkan på
förbränningen fångas genom korrelationer mot tändvinkel och motorvarvtal. Med
detta tillvägagångssätt blir förbränningsmodellen prediktiv med avseende på
förändringar i temperatur, tryck, restgashalt och bränsle-luftförhållande. Ett
referenstillstånd och kalibrering av turbulensens påverkan på förbränningen behövs
dock fortfarande.
De empiriska modellerna som presenteras i denna avhandling baseras på
utförliga mätningar på en fyrcylindrig turbomotor. Knackmodellen är helt enkelt en
kalibrering av den Arrhenius-liknande funktionen för tändfördröjning i Livengood-
Wu’s knackintegral med det bränsle och den motor som användes i testerna.

Sökord: ottomotorer, förbränningsmodellering, knack, endimensionell simulering, Wiebe

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Where am I to start this display of gratitude towards colleagues and friends? From the
beginning of course! It all started with Emil Åberg, who had the patience to guide me,
a complete novice in the world of engines and a stranger to essential skills such as
welding and soldering, into the fascinating interior of the DEP engine. With the aid of
Emil, I could eventually start discussing engines with Hans-Erik Ångström, who never
stops to evolve his wonderful engine laboratory. The software support department, i.e.
Hans-Erik, has been impeccable; we once clocked the time from failure detection in
the Cell4 system to installed and working program update to just over 12 minutes!
Christel Elmqvist-Möller put me right into the business of research, as she
gave me a good chunk of the knock model to bite into just weeks after my first close
encounter with SI engines. I would also like to thank Christel for excellent project
management throughout this entire project.
The mechanics Henrik Nilsson at KTH and Jon Nilsson at GM Powertrain
Sweden kept the engines running even though we did our best to kill them (the
engines of course) at times. I thank lab manager Eric Lycke especially for talking me
out of disassembling the gear box of my car. As always, there was a much more
straightforward solution to the problem…
Gautam Kalghatgi has contributed a lot to the work on combustion and
knock modeling. Thank you for many interesting discussions and insights and for
being such a joyful person. But who is there to talk about knock modeling when
Gautam has left the building? Per Risberg and Fredrik Agrell! Thank you also Fredrik
for having enough confidence in me to let me present your work in Rio.
All colleagues at KTH have made the time here very rewarding. Fredrik
Westin’s immense knowledge of racing engines; Andreas Cronhjort for sharing
knowledge in filtering and electronics; fellow sailor Fredrik Wåhlin; fellow musician
Per Strålin. Thank you Ulrica and Niklas for finally taking the burden of being the
department junior off my shoulders.
Some people at GM Powertrain Sweden have contributed with valuable
comments and support along the way, in particular Börje Grandin, Eric Olofsson,
Lennarth Zander and Raymond Reinmann. The link to GM Powertrain has made the
work meaningful to me.

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And finally, thank you to friends and family, nieces and nephews, who
encouraged me every now and then along the way. I’ll let you in on a secret. It actually
started almost exactly 30 years ago on the outskirts of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Fredrik Lindström
Brasilia, August 2005

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LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

Paper I
Divided Exhaust Period – A Gas Exchange System for Turbocharged SI Engines by
Christel Elmqvist-Möller, Pontus Johansson, Börje Grandin and Fredrik Lindström.
SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1150 presented by Christel Elmqvist-Möller at the SAE
World Congress 2005 in Detroit, USA.

Paper II
Optimizing Engine Concepts by Using a Simple Model for Knock Prediction by
Christel Elmqvist-Möller, Fredrik Lindström, Hans-Erik Ångström, and Gautam
Kalghatgi. SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3123 presented by Christel Elmqvist-Möller
at the SAE Powertrain and Fluid Systems Conference 2003 in Pittsburg, USA.

Paper III
An Empirical SI Combustion Model Using Laminar Burning Velocity Correlations by
Fredrik Lindström, Hans-Erik Ångström, Gautam Kalghatgi and Christel
Elmqvist-Möller. SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-2106 presented by Fredrik Lindström
at the SAE Fuels & Lubricants Meeting 2005 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

All three papers are appended to the end of this thesis.

vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract ..............................................................................................................iii
Sammanfattning ................................................................................................. iv
Acknowledgements ............................................................................................. v
List of publications ........................................................................................... vii
Abbreviations, symbols and subscripts............................................................... x
Chapter 1 Introduction ..................................................................................1
1.1 Motivation ................................................................................................................2
1.2 Contributions ...........................................................................................................3
1.3 Thesis outline ...........................................................................................................4
Chapter 2 Combustion in spark ignition engines......................................... 5
2.1 Gas Exchange ..........................................................................................................5
2.1.1 Residual gases ......................................................................................................6
2.1.2 Fuel........................................................................................................................6
2.1.3 Turbulence ...........................................................................................................6
2.2 Combustion ..............................................................................................................7
2.2.1 Laminar burning velocity...................................................................................7
2.2.2 Cycle to cycle variations.....................................................................................8
2.3 Knock ........................................................................................................................9
2.3.1 Autoignition chemistry.......................................................................................9
2.3.2 Modes of Autoignition.....................................................................................11
2.3.3 Combustion Chamber Oscillation Modes ....................................................12
2.3.4 Measures of Knock...........................................................................................14
2.4 Combustion simulation ........................................................................................14
2.4.1 The Wiebe Function.........................................................................................17
2.4.2 Knock Simulation .............................................................................................17
Chapter 3 Experimental Method ................................................................ 23
3.1 Measurements ........................................................................................................23
3.1.1 Measurement system ........................................................................................23
3.1.2 Pressure measurement......................................................................................24
3.1.3 Temperature measurement..............................................................................25

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3.1.4 Other measurements ........................................................................................27
3.2 Data Acquisition ....................................................................................................29
3.2.1 Signal Conditioning ..........................................................................................30
3.2.2 FIR Low Pass Filter..........................................................................................32
3.2.3 FIR Band Pass Filtering ...................................................................................35
3.2.4 IIR Filtering for Knock Onset Detection.....................................................35
3.3 Heat release calculation.........................................................................................36
3.3.1 Thermodynamic properties of mixture .........................................................37
3.4 Experiment engines...............................................................................................42
3.4.1 Divided Exhaust Period...................................................................................42
3.4.2 Engine specifications........................................................................................43
Chapter 4 Knock Modeling......................................................................... 45
4.1 Experiments ...........................................................................................................45
4.2 Data Evaluation .....................................................................................................46
4.3 Knock Model Calibration.....................................................................................47
4.4 Discussion...............................................................................................................49
Chapter 5 Combustion Modeling Using the Wiebe Function.....................51
5.1 Existing Wiebe models .........................................................................................51
5.1.1 Structure of Existing Models ..........................................................................52
5.1.2 Model Identification Procedure......................................................................53
5.1.3 Csallner ...............................................................................................................53
5.1.4 Witt......................................................................................................................55
5.2 Experiments ...........................................................................................................55
5.3 Data Evaluation .....................................................................................................59
5.3.1 Wiebe Parameter Identification ......................................................................60
5.4 Combustion model calibration ............................................................................62
5.4.1 Modeling Speed Influence ...............................................................................63
5.5 Results .....................................................................................................................64
Chapter 6 Conclusions ................................................................................ 65
6.1 Future work ............................................................................................................66
References ......................................................................................................... 69

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ABBREVIATIONS, SYMBOLS AND SUBSCRIPTS

Abbreviations
SI Spark Ignition
HCCI Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition
PFI Port Fuel Injection
CA Crank Angle
TDC Top Dead Center
aTDC crank angles after combustion TDC
bTDC crank angles before combustion TDC
EVO Exhaust Valve Opening
IVC Inlet Valve Closing
IMEP Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, 720 CA
PMEP Pumping Mean Effective Pressure
EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation
MBT Maximum Brake Torque spark timing
CFR Cooperative Fuels Research octane rating engine
RON Research Octane Number
MON Motor Octane Number
PRF Primary Reference Fuel, iso-octane/n-heptane blend
NTC Negative Temperature Coefficient
FIR Finite Impulse Response filter
IIR Infinite Impulse Response filter
FS Full Scale, in measurement system errors
A/D Analogue to Digital
Symbols
A scaling factor in ignition delay correlation and cylinder heat transfer area
Ai constant in AVL expression for temperature dependent cp/cv
a scaling factor in Wiebe function
B cylinder bore and temperature coefficient in ignition delay correlation
Bm, Bλ constants in laminar burning velocity correlations
c speed of sound

x
Cp , CV molar heat capacity at constant pressure / volume
cp, cV specific heat capacity at constant pressure / volume
Fi, Gi, Hi influencing functions in Wiebe correlation
fi, gi, hi normalized influencing functions in Wiebe correlation
fLP low pass filter cutoff frequency in Hz
fm,n,k combustion chamber natural frequencies
hc heat transfer coefficient in Woschni equation for heat transfer
Jm Bessel’s function of the first kind
Kf number of periods of sinc function in FIR-filter kernel
m combustion mode parameter in Wiebe function
M molar mass
N engine speed in rpm
n pressure exponent in ignition delay correlation
p pressure
pm motored pressure
PR pressure ratio
Qch chemical energy released from fuel
q0 , q1 normalized cutoff frequencies in filters
R universal gas constant, 8.314 kJ/molK
SL laminar burning velocity
Sp piston mean velocity
T gas temperature
Tu unburned zone temperature
V volume, cylinder volume
Vd displaced volume
xb mass fraction burned
~
xr burned gas mole fraction

α, αg temperature exponent in laminar burning velocity correlations


αm,n zeros of Bessel’s function of the first kind
β, βg pressure exponent in laminar burning velocity correlations
β exponent for air/fuel ratio dependence in ignition delay
γ ratio of specific heats, cp/cv

xi
λ normalized air/fuel ratio
λm constant in laminar burning velocity correlations
θ crank angle and cylindrical angle coordinate
θ0 start of combustion aTDC
θd flame development period
∆θ total combustion duration
τ ignition delay time
Subscripts
EOC end of combustion ,ref
SOC start of combustion
b burned
exh exhaust
k longitudinal mode number
m circumferential mode number
n radial mode number
norm normalized
u unburned
0 and ref reference condition

xii
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

The internal combustion engine as we know it today was invented over a hundred
years ago by the likes of Otto and Diesel. Still today, however, there is progress and
improvements in the design and operation of internal combustion engines. One of the
key factors for the success of the internal combustion engine in the transport of
people is the reliability and flexibility as a mobile power source.
The focus for research and development has shifted over the years,
depending on trends and demand from society as a whole as well as on new enabling
technologies. From society, focus has shifted from reductions of the local emissions
towards the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, i.e. CO2 or the fuel efficiency.
Introduction of the three way catalyst and close loop fueling control basically solved
the problem of local emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and
nitrogen oxides for spark ignited engines. Today, with the introduction of direct fuel
injection with stratified charge to improve part load fuel economy, emissions of
nitrous oxides are again coming into focus since the three way catalyst doesn’t work in
the overall fuel lean conditions. A rising concern today is the future availability of
energy resources suitable for transportation which also brings focus to renewable
energy sources and efficiency in using the available energy.
State of the art spark ignited engine of today can benefit from technologies
such as: variable valve timing, which can replace throttling and reduce part load gas
exchange losses and also maximize power output by improving volumetric efficiency;
fuel injection with feedback control to maximize after treatment system efficiency;
knock sensors for optimal combustion phasing; turbocharging which increases power

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Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

density and enables downsizing of the engine with less friction losses and improved
part load efficiency as a result. Evolution in the fields of electronics and sensors gives
new opportunities to optimize the operation of internal combustion engines.
Developments in auxiliary units such as water pumps and oil pumps reduce parasitic
losses. New manufacturing methods and materials reduce the weight of engines.
Electric hybrid systems enable recovery of breaking energy in the vehicle. Many more
examples exist of parts of the engine or vehicle where improvements are being made
today, all serving to improve fuel efficiency. However, the general trend in passenger
cars is that passenger safety and comfort requirements lead to an increased vehicle
weight with increased need for power and higher fuel consumption as a result.
Statistics from the European Union [1] shows that during the period 1995 to 2002 the
average vehicle weight increased by 10 %, average power by over 20 % while average
vehicle CO2 emissions decreased by 12,1 % in new vehicles. The average CO2
emissions per kilometer is lower for diesel powered vehicles than for the equivalent
gasoline powered vehicle owing to higher average efficiency of the diesel engine An
increasing share of diesel powered vehicles explains some of the improvements in
average CO2 emissions. The gasoline powered vehicles did however decrease average
CO2 emissions per kilometer by 9,1 % in the EU statistics mentioned above.
Today, the fuel cell is put forward as an alternative for the internal
combustion engine in automotive applications. The technology still has some hurdles
to pass before it is a competitive alternative to internal combustion engines. In a
recent presentation at SAE Fuels & Lubricants Meeting and Exhibition in Rio de
Janeiro by Mitchell [2] the fuel efficiency of a fuel cell powered vehicle with on board
fuel reformer was stated to be approximately 46 %, some percentage points over the
best diesel powered vehicles. The cost for the fuel cell alone would however be several
thousand US dollars per kilowatt of power. The average EU car had 78 kW of power
in 2003. The conclusion from this has to be that efforts must be made to improve the
currently working technology, i.e. the internal combustion engine, parallel to
investigating new and perhaps better alternatives.

1.1 MOTIVATION
Simulation tools are becoming increasingly important in the development and
improvement of internal combustion engines. One dimensional simulation tools have
been used within this project to evaluate a new gas exchange system for SI engines,
the Divided Exhaust Period system. In one-dimensional simulation, equations for
conservation of mass, momentum and energy are solved in time and in one space
dimension along the main flow direction in the engine pipes. However, many

2
Chapter 1 - Introduction

phenomena in engines are three-dimensional in their nature. Additional models,


correlations or measurements are needed in one-dimensional codes to capture three-
dimensional phenomena such as flow in pipe bends and junctions, flow over valves
and combustion. [3][4]
One might think that the increasing use of simulation would decrease the
need for expensive engine prototypes and tests. This is not the case today since the
simulation models rely on test data to calibrate the sub-models describing three
dimensional phenomena. This is especially true for turbocharged engines, where
modeling of the turbine is singled out as one of the most difficult tasks [5]. In fact,
engine simulation has put new demands on the engine measurement technique,
requiring more crank angle resolved measurements of pressures at various positions
and more detailed measurements on components that the one dimensional flow
calculations fail to describe. For example Westin [5] and Gamma Technologies [4]
describe the measurement data needed for calibrating a simulation model.
The key focus of this work has been to improve the simulation models for
combustion and especially knocking combustion. Knock can be described as an
acoustic phenomenon where autoignition of the unburned gas ahead of the
propagating flame front triggers pressure oscillations in the combustion chamber. The
pressure waves give rise to the characteristic, potentially disturbing, sound which has
given knock its name. The pressure pulses can however also damage the engine, why
knock must be avoided. The Divided Exhaust Period concept is in part aimed at
improving the knock resistance of turbocharged spark ignited engines by reducing the
amount of hot residual gases that are trapped in the cylinder when the exhaust valves
close. Hot residuals increase the charge temperature and reduce the knock resistance
of the engine. To be able to investigate the potential improvement by using the
Divided Exhaust Period system, a knock model had to be used in the simulation
software. To be able to simulate knock, the in cylinder temperature and pressure have
to be predicted accurately which lead to the work with the empirical combustion
model. The overall target for this work has been to make the one dimensional
simulation model more predictive.

1.2 CONTRIBUTIONS
The main contribution of this work is the combustion model presented in Paper III.
The presented model combines the empirical approach of using the Wiebe function to
describe the heat release in SI engines with established correlations for laminar
burning velocity. This makes the presented model predictive in terms of changes in

3
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

gas properties such as temperature, pressure and composition. The model is still very
intuitive and easy to interpret or compare with engine tests.
As for the appended papers, my contributions to Paper I and Paper II have
been the experimental investigations involved in those papers along with analysis of
the experimental results. Paper I concerning Divided Exhaust Period was originally
written in two parts, a theoretical and simulation part with fellow licentiate candidate
Christel Elmqvist-Möller as main author, and an experimental part with me as main
author. In Paper III, I carried out all experiments and analysis with very valuable input
regarding how to model combustion from the co-authors. A fruitful team work was
developed between the simulation part of the project, i.e. Christel Elmqvist-Möller,
and the experimental part of the project.

1.3 THESIS OUTLINE


First of all, this thesis contains a short introduction to combustion in SI engines,
which serves as a background to the work presented in Paper II and Paper III. Some
factors influencing combustion are presented. The knock phenomenon is explored
both from an autoignition chemistry viewpoint and from the combustion chamber
acoustic viewpoint to help in understanding the measurement technique as well as the
knock model presented in Paper II.
Description of the measurement technique and measurement data processing
tools follows. Signal processing is an important part of combustion engine data
analysis. Measurements in internal combustion engines can easily produce several
megabytes of data in only a few seconds. With this amount of data automated analysis
is preferred. When performing this automated analysis it is important to know what
can go wrong and how to handle errors in the measured data. Therefore digital
filtering is explored. The algorithm used for calculating in cylinder heat release, i.e. the
release of chemical energy from the fuel, from measured cylinder pressure data is also
described.
Some additional comments to the appended papers are found last in the
thesis. These two works give simplified but practical descriptions of how combustion
and knock can be simulated in SI engines. With the lack of physical models which are
easy to use and calibrate, an empirical approach as in this work can give at least partly
predictive simulation tools.

4
Chapter 2
COMBUSTION IN SPARK IGNITED ENGINES

The following paragraphs contain a brief overview of the combustion in port fuel
injected spark ignition four stroke engines. This overview serves as a base for
understanding the simplifications made in the models presented later in this thesis.
Parameters that influence the combustion event and cycle-to-cycle variations are
summarized. The knock phenomenon is explored. Finally, combustion simulation is
discussed.

2.1 GAS EXCHANGE


The gas exchange process plays a major role for the combustion in spark ignition
engines. The mixture composition in the combustion chamber is set once the inlet
valves have closed. Residual gas fraction and air/fuel ratio are important parameters
affecting the combustion event. A large part of the residual gases are evacuated from
the cylinder during the blow-down phase of the exhaust process, during which the
cylinder pressure drops to the pressure in the exhaust manifold. The remaining
exhaust is pushed out from the cylinders by the piston during the exhaust stroke.
Scavenging of the cylinder is controlled by the pressure difference from intake to
exhaust system during the valve overlap period. A positive pressure difference, i.e.
higher pressure in the intake system than in the exhaust system, can be accomplished
at high load by exhaust and intake system tuning and design and by proper
turbocharger matching [6].

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Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

2.1.1 Residual gases


Residual gases that are trapped in the cylinder when the exhaust valves closes affect
the cylinder charge in several ways. The hot residual gases increase charge temperature
thereby decreasing charge density and volumetric efficiency. The increased charge
temperature reduces the knock resistance of the engine, since knock is highly
temperature dependent. Residual gases also have a minor effect on the ratio of specific
heats, γ. Residual gases have slightly lower γ than pure air. Vaporized hydrocarbon
fuel, on the other hand, has very low γ. Increased residual gases with constant air/fuel
ratio decreases the relative amount of fuel in the mixture. The overall result for
premixed SI engines is a slight increase in γ when residual gas content increases,
according to the frozen mixture gas model described in Chapter 3.1.1. Increased γ
leads to increased charge temperature during isentropic compression, but this effect is
very small compared to the temperature rise associated with the mixing of hot residual
gases with the fresh charge. Calculation of isentropic maximum temperature with the
heat release algorithms and assumptions described in Chapter 3 reveal that a 10%
increase of residual gases at one high load operating condition cause an increase from
683 K to 803 K in maximum temperature. Only 4 K, or 3,5% of the total increase in
temperature, is associated with the increase in γ.

2.1.2 Fuel
Fuel is usually injected in the inlet runner towards the inlet valves in port fuel injected
engines. Some of the injected fuel is deposited on the inlet runner walls, on the valve
stems and on the back face of the inlet valves to form a fuel film and puddles. Fuel
enters the cylinder during the intake stroke in vapor phase and in liquid phase. The
fuel evaporates and mixes with air and residual gases during the intake and
compression stroke.

2.1.3 Turbulence
The flow over the inlet valves creates turbulence. Large scale rotating charge motion is
created from the intake jet in the form of tumble, swirl or combinations thereof. As
shown for example by Söderberg [7], turbulence increases close to top dead center
due to tumble breakdown in tumbling engines. Late inlet valve closing combined with
low valve lift creates more turbulence around top dead center in the same work.
Piston motion during the compression stroke also creates a vortex near the cylinder
wall which further increases turbulence at TDC [8].

6
Chapter 2 – Combustion in spark ignited engines

2.2 COMBUSTION
The mixture in the combustion chamber is ignited by the spark discharge between the
electrodes of the spark plug and a flame kernel is formed. Exothermic chemical
reactions take place in the flame kernel. Diffusion of heat and radicals from the flame
kernel surface makes the kernel expand and start propagating in the combustion
chamber. A thin, smooth reaction sheet, with thickness in the order of 0.1 mm,
separates the burned gases from the unburned gases [8]. See Glassman [9] for a
thorough discussion about laminar flame propagation. The early flame has been
shown to propagate with a speed close to experimentally determined laminar burning
velocity [10].
The time between spark discharge and any measurable increase in pressure
due to combustion is sometimes referred to as the ignition delay period. The term
ignition delay is misleading because the flame kernel will usually have grown to a
significant size by this time. For example, Tagalian and Heywood [11] measured flame
radiuses of about 5 mm when 0,1 % of the charge mass was burned. A more correct
term would be flame development period. When the flame kernel has reached the size
of the smallest turbulent eddies, the reaction sheet is wrinkled, resulting in increased
surface area of the flame and increased burning velocity. The flame extinguishes when
the flame eventually reaches the relatively cold combustion chamber walls

2.2.1 Laminar burning velocity


Several correlations exist for laminar burning velocity SL of hydrocarbon/air mixtures.
Heywood [8] summarizes the findings of Metghalchi and Keck [12][13] in the
equation:
α β
⎛T ⎞ ⎛ p ⎞
S L = S L ,0 ⎜⎜ u ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ (2.1)
⎝ T0 ⎠ ⎝ p 0 ⎠
where T0 = 298 K and p0 = 101,3 kPa is reference temperature and pressure. The
exponents α and β are functions of equivalence ratio, i.e. the inverse of the
normalized air/fuel ratio λ:
(
α = 2,18 − 0,8 λ −1 − 1 ) (2.2)
β = −0,16 + 0,22 λ − 1( −1
)

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Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

The reference laminar burning velocity SL,0 is a function of equivalence ratio and
burned gas mole fraction ~
xr :

S L , 0 (λ , ~ (
x r ) = 1 − 2,06 ⋅ ~ ) ( )
x r0, 77 ⋅ ⎛⎜ Bm + Bλ λ −1 − λ −m1 ⎞⎟

2


(2.3)

Values for the constants in Equations (2.2) and (2.3) are found in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1 Constants for the laminar burning velocity correlations in Equations
(2.2) and (2.3) from [8].
Fuel λm Bm Bλ
[cm/s] [cm/s]
Methanol 1/1,11 36,9 -140,5
Propane 1/1,08 34,2 -138,7
Isooctane 1/1,13 26,3 -84,7
Gasoline 1/1,21 30,5 -54,9

An additional correlation for the temperature and pressure exponents in


Equation (2.1) for gasoline from the same source as the other correlations is:
α g = 2,4 − 0,271 ⋅ λ −3.51
(2.4)
β g = −0,357 + 0,14 ⋅ λ − 2, 77

2.2.2 Cycle to cycle variations


Variations in the local and global air/fuel ratio, residual gas content, mixing and
turbulence characteristics between cycles produce cycle to cycle variations. Turbulence
during the intake and compression strokes affects the mixing of air, fuel and residual
gases. The charge properties in the vicinity of the spark plug are of particular
importance [14]. Air/fuel ratio and residual gas content affect the laminar burning
velocity which in turn affects the ignition delay time. The time for developing a
turbulent flame is also affected by local variations in turbulence length scales and
intensity. Differences in ignition delay affect the turbulent flame speed during the
rapid combustion period, since the turbulence varies with time. The large scale charge
motion can move the flame in the combustion chamber, affecting the flame
interaction with the cylinder walls, hence affecting the flame area and unburned gas
temperature.

8
Chapter 2 – Combustion in spark ignited engines

2.3 KNOCK
The knock phenomenon has been extensively studied in the past. Grandin [15] gives
an interesting historical review of the evolution of knowledge in the field of knock
from the 1920’s an onwards. Knock is initiated by autoignition of the unburned
charge ahead of the flame front. Autoignition of the end gas leads to a pressure
disturbance in the combustion chamber which induces pressure oscillations. The
knocking sound associated with the combustion chamber pressure oscillations have
given knock its name. It is also the pressure oscillations, together with an increase in
heat transfer, that are potentially damaging to combustion chamber components.

2.3.1 Autoignition chemistry


The recent interest in HCCI combustion, where a homogenous air/fuel mixture is
compressed until it ignites, has caused renewed interest in autoignition research.
HCCI related research also improves the understanding of the knock phenomena,
since knock and HCCI combustion are practically the same.
Westbrook [16] describe the chemical mechanisms leading to end gas
autoignition in SI engines. Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is singled out as the most
important species for autoignition chemistry. The dominating reaction in autoignition
chemistry at typical engine temperatures below 1200 K is:

H 2 O 2 + M → OH + OH + M (2.5)

where M is a third body. H2O2 is accumulated during compression from low


temperature reactions. Ignition occurs as a result of the chain branching reaction
when H2O2 decomposes into two OH radicals. The decomposition of H2O2 is highly
temperature dependent and occurs at 900 to 950 K at typical engine conditions. The
rapid increase in concentration of the OH radical causes the remaining hydrocarbon
to react and ignite. Since the reaction involves a third body, increasing the pressure
will increase the probability for collisions and hence lower the critical temperature.
Westbrook [16] states that the dominating factor for autoignition is the time at which
the mixture reaches the critical temperature and anything that affects this time also
affects when autoignition occurs. Low temperature heat release, also called cool
flames or Negative Temperature Coefficient behavior (NTC), has strong influence on
the time to reach the critical temperature. It is clear from the reasoning in the above
paragraphs that the pressure and temperature history of the mixture influences the
instantaneous ignition delay time for a given air/fuel mixture.

9
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

NTC behavior and also low temperature heat release is more pronounced for
long unbranched paraffinic hydrocarbon chains such as n-Heptane. Risberg [17]
summarizes the principal reaction in the low temperature chemistry of some different
hydrocarbons. Iso-octane, or 2,2,4-tri-methyl-pentane, is more branched and displays
less low temperature heat release and less pronounced NTC behavior which is also
evident from Fieweger et. al. [18] where the ignition delay is measured in a shock tube
for different PRF mixtures, see Figure 2.1. An increase in temperature increases the
ignition delay time in a certain temperature range in the figure. Commercial multi
component fuels contain aromatics, olefins and perhaps also oxygenates and their
autoignition chemistry is different from that of paraffins [19].

Figure 2.1 Measured ignition delay times in n-Heptane iso-octane mixtures with
stronger NTC behavior for higher fractions of n-heptane. Figure 17 in [18].

A fuel’s resistance to autoignition is usually described by the two octane


numbers Research Octane number (RON) and Motor Octane number (MON).
Practical fuels are rated by comparing their behavior to a primary reference fuel (PRF)
in the RON and MON tests. A primary reference fuel is a mixture of iso-octane and
n-heptane and the volume percent of iso-octane is the octane number. The RON and
MON tests are carried out in a single cylinder CFR engine and the standardized
procedures define engine speed, intake air temperature, ignition angle and
compression ratio for the two tests. See for example Swarts et. al. [20] for further

10
Chapter 2 – Combustion in spark ignited engines

information on the octane rating of fuels in the CFR engine. However, the RON and
MON values alone are not sufficient to describe autoignition quality of a fuel. The
engine operating conditions, which influence the temperature and pressure history
experienced by the fuel, has to be accounted as well. This can be done by using the
Octane Index as described in [17][21][22].

2.3.2 Modes of autoignition


Pan and Sheppard [23] distinguishes three distinct combustion modes following end
gas autoignition; deflagration, developing detonation and thermal explosion. These
three basic modes of combustion are discussed in Glassman [9]. The temperature
gradient and inhomogeneity in the vicinity of the autoignition center determines which
mode is most likely to occur:
• In the case of highly inhomogeneous end gas, autoignition might simply result
in a second flame front propagating from the autoignition center, i.e.
deflagration.
• Completely homogeneous end gas should result in a thermal explosion, since
all unburned charge would ignite at the same time.
• With small end gas temperature gradients and small mixture inhomogeneities,
autoignition might result in a developing detonation. In this autoignition
mode the reaction front accelerates. Given sufficient time its speed can reach
the local speed of sound and there will be a detonation. In engines there is
never enough space and time for this to happen. Hence the term
“developing” detonation. Nevertheless in this mode very high pressures can
be generated.
The pressure wave from an initial deflagrative autoignition center might trigger
autoignition elsewhere in the end gas leading to secondary autoignition.
As described above, low temperature chemistry preceding ignition has been
shown to have a great influence on autoignition. Higher end gas temperatures
promote the low temperature chemistry which increases the probability of initial
deflagrative autoignition transforming into developing detonation. Simulations by Pan
and Sheppard [23] indicate that an initial deflagrative autoignition at conditions with
high mean end gas temperature is likely to result in secondary autoignition centers
developing into detonation even under highly inhomogeneous conditions. This is
explained by the low temperature chemistry preceding autoignition.
A developing detonation is potentially much more harmful to the engine than
deflagration or thermal explosion. The pressure wave amplitudes associated with a
developing detonation are high. Conditions in practical SI engines are always

11
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

inhomogeneous. The charge is cooled close to the wall or heated by hot spots, e.g.
soot particles.

2.3.3 Combustion chamber oscillation modes


Knock oscillation frequencies have been shown to correspond to the natural
frequencies of the combustion chamber, for example in Brunt et. al. [24] and Bengisu
[25]. The engines used in the present work were equipped with a pentroof shaped
combustion chamber which can be approximated by a cylinder in an attempt to
calculate the natural frequencies of the cylinder. The solution to the wave equation:
⎧ ∂ 2u 2
⎪⎪ 2 − c ∆u = 0
∂t (2.6)

⎪ ∂u = 0 on the boundary
⎪⎩ ∂n
in a cylindrical model of the combustion chamber with cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z)
has the eigenfunctions (possible vibration modes):
⎛ r ⎞ ⎛ z⎞
u m,n, k (r , θ , z , t ) = J m ⎜⎜ α m, n ⎟⎟ ⋅ cos(mθ ) ⋅ cos⎜ kπ ⎟ ⋅ sin (2πf m,n, k t ) (2.7)
⎝ B 2⎠ ⎝ h⎠
for the vibrational modes m, k = 0, 1, … and n = 1, 2, … where m is the
circumferential mode number, n is the radial mode number and k is the longitudinal
mode number. Jm denotes the Bessel function of the first kind, αm,n are the zeros of
the first derivative of Jm to satisfy the boundary conditions, B is the bore, h is the
instantaneous model cylinder height and fm,n,k are the natural frequencies:
2
⎛ α m,n
2
⎞ kπ ⎞
⎟⎟ + ⎛⎜
c
f m,n, k = ⎜⎜ ⎟ (2.8)
2π ⎝B2 ⎠ ⎝ h ⎠
The longitudinal modes are often not considered since the natural frequencies of these
modes are high close to top dead center, where knock usually occurs. Equation (2.8)
then reduces to:
c
f m,n = α m, n (2.9)
πB
For m > 0, the eigenvalues are double with cos(mθ) replaced by sin(mθ) in the
corresponding eigenfunctions.

12
Chapter 2 – Combustion in spark ignited engines

The speed of sound (transverse propagating wave) in an ideal gas is:


γRT
c= (2.10)
M
where γ is the ratio of specific heats, R is the universal gas constant, T is temperature
and M is molar mass. Since the speed of sound is proportional to the square root of
absolute temperature, the natural frequencies of the combustion chamber will
decrease during the expansion stroke when temperature decreases.
Table 2.2 gives natural frequencies and shows eigenfunctions for the six
modes with lowest natural frequency for the engines used in this work with a bore of
86 mm. Speed of sound was estimated to 950 m/s which correspond to a temperature
of approximately 2500 K. It should be observed that all modes except the first radial
mode have a nodal line in the combustion chamber center. This is important when
choosing cylinder pressure transducer position for the purpose of knock detection and
analysis.

Table 2.2 Predicted vibration modes with natural frequencies below 20 kHz for
a cylinder with 86 mm diameter and speed of sound c = 950 m/s.
Vibration 1st circumferential 2nd circumferential 1st radial
mode m = 1, n = 0 m = 2, n = 0 m = 0, n = 1
α m,n 1,84 3,05 3,83
f m,n [kHz] 6,47 10,7 13,5
um,n

Vibration 3rd circumferential 4th circumferential 1st combined


mode m = 3, n = 0 m = 4, n = 0 m = 1, n = 1
α m,n 4,20 5,32 5,33
f m,n [kHz] 14,8 18,7 18,75
um,n

13
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

This approximation of the acoustic vibration in the combustion chamber has


been shown to give accurate predictions of natural frequencies of pentroof shaped
combustion chambers. The first circumferential mode was in good agreement with
measured data and the second and third circumferential mode predictions were 10 %
higher than measurements in Brunt [24]. Bengisu [25] used a FEM model of a
pentroof combustion chamber to predict the natural frequencies and shows that the
nodal lines of the circumferential modes are aligned to or perpendicular to the
pentroof symmetry axis.

2.3.4 Measures of knock


Several definition exist for knock intensity based on either measured cylinder pressure
or calculated heat release. Worret et. al. [26] has explored different techniques for
detection of knock onset and knock intensity. They conclude that knock intensity
should be based on signal energy of the high pass filtered pressure signal or heat
release signal. A measure of the signal energy is obtained by integrating the squared
high pass filtered signal over a short interval after knock onset. They also conclude
that knock onset determined as the point where the signal exceeds a threshold value
generally gives too late identified knock onset. A new knock detection algorithm based
on high pass filtered heat release is described.
Knock onset determined from the cylinder pressure signal can not be more
accurate than the propagation time of a pressure wave from the knock center to the
pressure transducer. Assuming that the knock center is at a distance of half the bore
from the pressure transducer and that the speed of sound is 950 m/s this propagation
time can be calculated. With 86 mm bore, the maximum propagation time from the
knock center to a centrally located pressure transducer is 0,5 CA at 1000 rpm and
2,7 CA at 5000 rpm.

2.4 COMBUSTION SIMULATION


Several approaches to combustion simulations are used in one dimensional simulation
software. The simulation software GT-Power provides three predefined ways of
modeling SI engine combustion. First of all, a measured combustion profile can be
imposed. This is useful when measured data exists. The second approach is to define
the combustion profile by the Wiebe function, which will be described in more detail
below. The third approach is a turbulent flame model which also uses a model for in
cylinder turbulence to estimate flame propagation. Furthermore, a user defined
combustion model can be implemented or the one dimensional simulation can be
coupled to three dimensional simulation software. The turbulent flame model has the

14
Chapter 2 – Combustion in spark ignited engines

highest degree of physicality among the three predefined SI combustion models but
requires measured or estimated swirl and tumble coefficients and has several
multipliers for calibrating the simulated combustion to measured data. The simpler
approaches, measured combustion profile and Wiebe function, rely on measured data
but can be very useful in the absence of a physical model.
Three dimensional calculation of in cylinder flow and chemical reactions is
not practical today, in part because of computer execution time and because of the
complex flow field and complex chemical kinetics in the cylinder. State of the art
chemical kinetics codes can predict the oxidation of single component fuels, but the
research has not yet reached full insight when it comes to practical fuels.
It is important to note how the combustion profile, taken from measured
data or calculated by the Wiebe function, is handled in GT-Power. The combustion
profile in GT-Power defines the rate at which the charge enters a set of chemical
equilibrium equations. The equilibrium composition changes with temperature and
mixture strength, which causes the heat release rate to lag the burn rate in a GT-
Power simulation [4]. A simple example is shown in Figure 2.2 below. Wiebe
parameters fitted to experimental data were used as input to a GT-Power simulation.
The GT-Power burn rate in the figure is identical to the input Wiebe function, except
for the scaling which is due to a combustion efficiency set below 1 in the simulation.
Comparison of the 50 % heat released point and 10-90 % combustion duration of the
input and output heat release is given in Table 2.3. As seen in the table it is necessary
to adjust the Wiebe parameters to some extent before simulation since the Wiebe
parameters are interpreted as burn rate in GT-Power.

15
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

1.0

release and burn rate


0.8

Normalized heat
0.6

0.4
Measured heat release
Fitted Wiebe
0.2 GT-Power burn rate
spark timing GT-Power heat release
0.0

-15 0 15 30 45 60
Crank angle [aTDC]

Figure 2.2 Measured heat release and Wiebe function fitted to measured data
used as input to GT-Power together with GT-Power cumulative burn rate and
heat release.

Table 2.3 Wiebe combustion parameters for measured simulation model input
heat release and simulation model output heat release from GT-Power. The
difference is due to the interpretation of input combustion profile as burn rate as
described above.
50 % heat 10-90 % combustion Wiebe
released duration parameter m
[aTDC] [CA]
Input/measured heat
22,8 22,2 3,97
release
Simulation model output
24,8 23,9 3,64
heat release
Difference 2,0 1,7 -0,33

16
Chapter 2 – Combustion in spark ignited engines

2.4.1 The Wiebe function


One way of specifying the combustion rate in a two-zone combustion model is the
Wiebe function [27]. The Wiebe function is commonly used in SI engine simulation.
The functional form:

⎡ ⎛ θ − θ 0 ⎞ m +1 ⎤
xb (θ ) = 1 − exp ⎢− a⎜ ⎟ ⎥ (2.11)
⎢⎣ ⎝ ∆θ ⎠ ⎥⎦
is used to describe the fraction of fuel burnt xb based on considerations of chain
reactions in general. θ is the crank angle, θ0 is the start of combustion and ∆θ is the
total combustion duration. The parameter m is called the combustion mode parameter
and defines the shape of the combustion profile. m was introduced by Wiebe to
describe the time dependence of concentration of reaction centers by the function:

ρ = kt m (2.12)
where k is a constant. In a spherically expanding flame with constant flame speed one
would expect m to be 3. Accelerating flame speed should give higher values and vice
versa. Wiebe found m to be in the range 2-4 for SI engines. The value of the constant
a in Equation 5 follows from the chosen definition of end of combustion. With the
mass fraction burned xb,EOC = 99,9% at the end of combustion, a has the value:

a = − ln (1 − x b , EOC ) = − ln 0,001 = 6,90 (2.13)

2.4.2 Knock simulation


The knock simulation method used in this work and in Paper II is based on the
Livengood-Wu knock integral [28]:
tk
dt
1= ∫ (2.14)
0
τ
where τ is the ignition delay time as a function of temperature and pressure and tk is
the time of autoignition. The basic idea behind the Livengood-Wu knock integral is
best explained by considering a very simple system with constant autoignition delay
time τc at a given pressure and temperature. If the system is exposed to this pressure
and temperature for the time τc, it is expected to ignite. The value of the integral in
Equation (2.14) at the autoignition instant would be unity. It is assumed that this
reasoning holds also for a more complex system where pressure, temperature,
composition and ignition delay time vary with time. The ignition delay time in this

17
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

case is an aggregate ignition delay time for completion of the entire autoignition
mechanism as described previously. The instantaneous value of the integral is a
measure of the fraction of pre-autoignition reactions that have been completed. It is a
way of accounting for the pressure and temperature history of the unburned charge.
It is clear from the description of autoignition chemistry above that the
pressure and temperature history of the charge determines the current state of the
charge and influences the instantaneous ignition delay time for a given mixture.
Pressure and temperature history determines to what extent the low temperature
chemistry has been completed and also the concentration of the critical H2O2 species.
Nevertheless, an ignition delay time with only temperature and pressure dependence
has been used in Equation (2.10) by several authors, e.g. Douaud and Eyzat [29]. The
functional form used for this aggregate ignition delay time is:
⎛B⎞
τ = Ap − n exp⎜ ⎟ (2.15)
⎝T ⎠
The functional form is similar to the Arrhenius expression for chemical reaction rate
with a pressure dependence added. The constants in Equation (2.15) have been fitted
to several fuels from rapid compression machine test data as well as from engine test
data. Values of the constants from several references are summarized in Table 2.4.
Table 2.4 Reported values for the constants in Equation (2.15) from several
authors for temperature in K and pressure in bar. The value of the constant A
has been recalculated to metric units in some cases.
A n B
Fuel [s.barn] [K] Reference
PRF 95 1.62e-2 1,7 3800 Douaud, Eyzat [29]
PRF 100 1,87e-2 1,7 3800 Douaud, Eyzat [29]
Commercial RON 93, MON 82 1.02e-4 1,01 6220 Douaud, Eyzat [29]
PRF100 (isooctane) 1.68e-2 1,49 7457 By et.al. [30]
Gasoline/Ethanol, RON95 7.59e-3 1.325 3296 Current study

Measured ignition delay times for the reference gasoline RD387 and a
surrogate mixture with similar ignition delay behavior as gasoline from Gauthier et. al.
[31] are shown in Figure 2.3. The pressure exponential n was found to be 1,64 for
n-Heptane and 1,01 for the reference gasoline. The solid markers are ignition delay
without residual gases at λ = 1. Other markers are at various lean, stoichiometric and
rich mixtures with or without EGR. λ and EGR seem to affect ignition delay time.

18
Chapter 2 – Combustion in spark ignited engines

Gauthier et. al. [31] concludes that richer mixture gives shorter ignition delay at higher
pressures and lean mixture gives longer ignition delay. Increased EGR content
increases ignition delay. The test data in Gauthier et. al. [31] does not include the
region where NTC behavior is expected, compare with Figure 2.1, but it is clear that
temperature dependence decreases at lower temperature.

Temperature [K]
1250 1111 1000 909 833

current study
Douaud, Eyzat
1 (1978) PRF 87
Ignition delay at 5 MPa [ms]

Douaud, Eyzat (1978)


gasoline RON 92/MON 83

0.1

λ = 0,5 to 2,
0 to 30% EGR
Gasoline
λ = 1, no EGR Surrogate A
0.01
0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
-1
1000/T [K ]

Figure 2.3 Measured ignition delay time from shock tube experiments for a
reference gasoline RD387 with (RON + MON)/2 = 87 and a surrogate
mixture as reported in Gauthier et. al. [31]. Solid markers are λ = 1 and no
EGR. The lines are estimated aggregate ignition delay time according to
Equation (2.12) calibrated by engine tests with constants reported in Table 2.4.

Ignition delay time in Equation (2.15) is an attempt to fit a linear curve to


represent the data in Figure 2.3 in the region where the engine operates, i.e. at the
temperatures and pressures of the end gas at knocking conditions. Figure 2.4 shows
the temperature and pressure history from spark timing to detected knock from tests
used to calibrate the constants of Equation (2.15) in this work. This data is in the
region where the fuel is expected to have low or negative temperature dependence.
The estimated ignition delay time at 5 MPa from the calibration in this work as well as
from Douaud and Eyzat [29] is also shown as lines in Figure 2.3. The estimate from
this work fits the shock tube test data well in the relevant region at low temperatures
but can not be expected to predict ignition delay at higher temperatures.

19
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

It is also noticeable from the pressure and temperature data in Figure 2.5 that
knock occurs at temperatures slightly above 900 K which is a critical temperature for
the decomposition of H2O2 as described earlier. Also drawn in Figure 2.5 is an
isentropic compression line leading to one of the knocking cycles calculated with
γ = 1,25 which shows that the operating conditions for these knocking cycles were
quite similar, i.e. they are close to the same isentrop.
Unburned zone temperature [K]
909 833 769 714 667 625
10
Cylinder pressure [MPa]

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6


-1
1000/T [K ]
Figure 2.4 Pressure and temperature history for several knocking cycles at
different operating conditions from approximately 30 bTDC to knock onset.

20
Chapter 2 – Combustion in spark ignited engines

10.5

Cylinder pressure at knock [MPa]


10.0

9.5

9.0

8.5

8.0

7.5
890 900 910 920 930 940
Unburned zone temperature at knock [K]

Figure 2.5 Unburned zone temperature and pressure at knock for several
knocking cycles at different operating conditions. The dash-dotted line is an
isentrop drawn from one of the knocking cycles calculated with γ = 1,25.

In a recent work by Yates et. al. [32] an attempt has been made to model the
different regions of the ignition delay times by one Arrhenius type expression
according to Equation 2.15 for each of the three regions: low temperature region,
NTC-region and high temperature region. The total ignition delay time is formed by
the expression:

[
τ = (τ 1 + τ 2 )−1 + τ 3−1 ]
−1
(2.16)
with values for the constants for a model gasoline found in Table 2.5. The resulting
ignition delay surface is shown in Figure 2.6 with ignition delay histories for three
knocking cycles. It is evident from the figure that the knocking cycles just barely enter
the high temperature region for this test data, which explains why the single stage
ignition delay model shown in Figure 2.3 works well. Yates et. al. [32] also show that
fuel/air ratio can be modeled by the relationship:
τ (λ ) = τ λ =1λ β (2.17)
where β ≈ 0,67, identified from Figure A.1 in Yates et. al. [32].

21
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

Table 2.5 Constants for a model gasoline in three part ignition delay model from
Yates et. al. [32].
ln(A) n B
τ1, low temperature -19,7 -0,101 16196
τ2, NTC-region 11,33 -1,623 -3136
τ3, high temperature -11,02 -0,949 15250

Figure 2.6 Ignition delay surface from three part ignition delay model from Yates
et. al. [32] for a model gasoline with ignition delay trajectories for 3 knocking
cycles.

22
Chapter 3
EXPERIMENTAL METHOD

This chapter contains a summary of the measurement system used in the experimental
part of this work along with estimated errors in the measurements in order to give a
general idea of the measurement accuracy. A few paragraphs are devoted to signal
processing, which plays a key role in obtaining high quality measurement data. Finally,
the engines used in the experiments are described, including a brief overview of the
Divided Exhuast Period system.

3.1 MEASUREMENTS
The measurements conducted within this project had several key purposes. One of
the purposes was to be able to calibrate a simulation model of the Divided Exhaust
Period engine. The second purpose was to gain further understanding of how the
Divided Exhaust Period engine responds to different changes in operating conditions
and exhaust system geometries. Furthermore, measurements were used as a tool to
create and calibrate empirical models for knock and combustion in SI engines, as
described in Paper II and Paper III.

3.1.1 Measurement system


The test bed control and measurement system used was Cell4, developed by Professor
Hans-Erik Ångström. The system is very flexible and accepts analogue and digital
input signals which can be measured either as high frequency crank angle resolved
data or low frequency time resolved data. Slow measurements are accomplished
mainly through Nudam data acquisition modules [33] which accept voltage or

23
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

thermocouple input depending on model. A sampling frequency of approximately


1 Hz was possible for these measurement channels. Crank angle resolved
measurements were accomplished by a 12-bit PowerDAQ A/D card [34] with 1 MHz
total sampling frequency divided over a maximum of 16 input channels in the current
setup. PIC microcontrollers measured digital input, such as crank angle encoder pulses
and turbo speed signal, and produced control signals for test bed and engine control.
The PIC:s additionally produced single engine revolution averages for analogue inputs,
accomplished by buffering transducer input from external 12-bit A/D converters at
10 kHz and averaging the buffered data once every engine revolutions. Several custom
built signal amplifying units were used to drive transducers in the system and
condition transducer output signals.

3.1.2 Pressure measurement


Pressure was measured at several positions on the engine for the purpose of
calibrating the simulation model. On the intake side of the engine, pressures were
measured upstream and downstream of each major component, such as compressor,
charge air cooler and throttle. Flush mounted GEMS steel diaphragm gauge pressure
transducers [35] with 4 bar range were used for these measurements. In cylinder
pressures were measured in all four cylinders with near flush mounted AVL GM12D
uncooled miniature piezo-elecric transducers [36] and Kistler 5011 charge amplifiers
[37]. The transducers have M5 dimensions, which was the largest that could be fitted
in the Divided Exhaust Period cylinder head. Kistler 4045A10 piezoresistive pressure
transducers [37] were used in the exhaust manifold before and after the turbine,
primarily due to the availability of suitable cooling adapters, less thermal sensitivity
and higher natural frequency. GEMS transducers with cooling adapters were used at
several other positions in the exhaust manifolds.
Static calibration of the low pressure transducers, strain gauge and piezo-
electric, was accomplished by a traceably calibrated Druck DPI 705 pressure indicator
with a hand pump [38]. The entire measurement chain was calibrated at several
occasions and the resulting error ranged from ±0,5 - 1 % FS for the 4 bar GEMS
transducers and below ±0,08 % FS for the 10 bar Kistler transducers which translates
to absolute uncertainty in static measurements of ±2 - 4 kPa for the GEMS
transducers and 0,8 kPa for the Kistler transducers.
A dead weight tester, Ametek Hydralite [39], was used for cylinder pressure
transducer calibration in the range 0 - 10 MPa. Including the uncertainty for the dead
weight tester and A/D conversions, the linearity error for the measurement chain was
found to be below ±0,4 % FS or 40 kPa. The cyclic temperature shift according to the

24
Chapter 3 – Experimental method

transducer manufacturer is < ±60 kPa for the GM12D cylinder pressure transducers.
Cyclic temperature shift, i.e. thermal shock, typically leads to too low measured
pressure during combustion and during the following expansion stroke [40]. Lee et. al.
[41] have quantified the effects of thermal shock in an uncooled transducer with
similar properties as the ones used in this work and found that thermal shock
persisted through the exhaust stroke, ultimately affecting measured IMEP with up to
-4 %. One drawback with using the dead weight pressure tester at ambient
temperature, which was the case here, is that the sensitivity of the uncooled GM12D
transducers at ambient temperature might be different from the sensitivity at
operating temperatures in the engine cylinders. The manufacturer states the thermal
sensitivity shift to ±2 % in the temperature range 20 - 400° C. Both cyclic temperature
shift and thermal sensitivity shift can be kept lower for cooled transducers.

3.1.3 Temperature measurement


Shielded 3 mm type K thermocouples were used for most temperature measurements.
Cold junction correction was accomplished in the Nudam 6018 data acquisition
modules. Thermocouples measure the temperature of the probe tip, which is not
necessarily equal to the temperature of the surrounding gas or liquid. Heat transfer
along the stem of the thermometer and radiation to pipe walls decreases the measured
temperature in the case of hot fluid in a cooler pipe, which is typically the case in an
engine exhaust manifold. The fluid flow rate also affects the heat transfer to the
thermocouple. Long insertion lengths were used to minimize errors from conductive
heat transfer. [42][43]
The response time for a 3 mm thermocouples is several seconds. Hence, the
thermocouple signal is some kind of average temperature in typical engine conditions
with highly pulsating temperature. According to an investigation comparing
measurements and 1-D simulation of the gas temperature in the exhaust manifold of a
turbocharged engine in Westin [5], a 3 mm thermocouple with 100 mm insertion
length measures a temperature close to the mass averaged temperature of the gas.
The accuracy of class 1 type K thermocouples is the larger of 1.5° and 0,004
times the measured temperature. When testing the linearity of some thermocouples in
a IsoTech HTQuickCal block calibrator [44], the errors for the measurement chain
were found to be within the stated accuracy of the thermocouples.
Surface temperature of the aluminium inlet manifold was measured for
simulation model calibration with a Testo Quicktemp 860-T3 infrared pyrometer [45].
A pyrometer measures the radiation from an object which depends heavily on the

25
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

emissivity of the material. The emissivity is a measure of how close to a black body
radiator the material is and is a number between zero and unity. Many metals and
aluminium in particular has low emissivity. Aluminium has emissivity in the range of
about 0,05 to 0,2 depending on oxidation and alloy [46]. A small absolute error in
estimated emissivity will give large errors in measured temperature with this low
emissivity. Therefore, a small area on the manifold was painted with matte black paint
which should have an emissivity around 0,9.

26
Chapter 3 – Experimental method

3.1.4 Other measurements


Turbo speed was measured with a Micro-Epsilon eddy current probe [47] mounted in
the compressor housing. The probe senses the blade passages of the impeller and the
accompanying signal processing unit converts the signal to one digital pulse per
completed turbo revolution, which can be up to some 20 crank angles apart
depending on engine and turbo speed. The time between pulses is converted to turbo
speed and the timestamp of each pulse gives the corresponding crank angle. Any
disturbances on the transducer signal might be identified as a blade passage. When this
happens, the data analysis system will identify a too high turbo speed. The digital
measurement data evaluation algorithms currently used does not handle these errors
which, after interpolation to the crank angle basis of the other measurements, gives
quite bad results as seen in Figure 3.1.

91
measured data points
90 interpolated data
Turbo speed [1000 x rpm]

89

88

87 single cycle
(+1000 rpm)
86
average
error in corrected
85 average average
-180 -90 0 90 180 270 360 450 540
Crank angle [aTDC]
Figure 3.1 Error in measured turbo speed from disturbance detected as impeller
blade passage make large difference in the averaged data. Single cycle data (top)
has been shifted up 1000 rpm.

27
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

Lambda was measured with an ECM AFRecorder 2000A with the stated
accuray ±0.008 for 0,8 < λ < 1,2 [48]. Fuel mass flow was measured by weighing the
fuel in a small reservoir with approximately 2,5 dm3 volume. Calibration of the ASE
scales was performed by applying known weights to the scales. A measurements
accuracy of < ±0,1 % FS was obtained in static calibration, but the measured fuel flow
varied significantly over an emptying cycle of the reservoir with the engine running in
steady state. Typically, the measured fuel mass flow would decrease during each
emptying cycle as in the example in Figure 3.2. This highlights the difference between
static and dynamic calibration. The fuel flow measuring system behaved perfectly in
static condition, but quite poorly in dynamic conditions. Dynamic calibration has not
been performed for any of the measuring systems involved in this work.

6.6 1650

6.5 mass 1550


Fuel mass flow [g/s]

Fuel mass [g]


6.4 1450

6.3 1350

6.2 mass flow 1250

6.1 1150
0 20 40 60 80
Time [s]

Figure 3.2 Measured fuel flow and the fuel mass in the scales during steady state
engine operation.

28
Chapter 3 – Experimental method

3.2 DATA ACQUISITION


As already mentioned, a 12-bit A/D converter was used for crank angle resolved
measurements in the Cell4 measurement system. The input range for the A/D
converter was -10 V to +10 V, which was also the output range of the charge
amplifiers. The charge amplifiers was set to the physical range 1 V/MPa to be able to
measure 10 MPa peak pressure in this set-up. This leads to a quite coarse resolution in
the measured cylinder pressure during the gas exchange process, as shown in Figure
3.3. One A/D bit corresponds to 4,88 kPa with these cylinder pressure measurement
settings, or 0,049 % FS. The measuring uncertainty introduced by the A/D
conversion is small compared to the other error sources described above.

180
Cylinder pressure [kPa]

160

140

120

100

360 405 450 495 540


Crank angle [aTDC]

Figure 3.3 Cylinder pressure from a single cycle during intake stroke sampled
with 12-bit A/D converter. A 1,5 kHz FIR low pass filter has been applied to
the data. (3000 rpm, 1,49 MPa imep)

29
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

3.2.1 Signal conditioning


Signal filtering is important to obtain high quality measurements. Anti-aliasing low
pass filters should be applied to the analog measurement signal before sampling. The
cut-off frequency has to be below the Nyquist frequency, i.e. half the sampling
frequency. Transducer natural frequency should also be considered in the choice of
cut-off frequency for the anti-aliasing filter. The data displayed in Figure 3.3 was
sampled at 45 kHz and the built in 30 kHz filter in the charge amplifier was used to
limit aliasing. This means that frequencies between 15 and 22,5 kHz in the sampled
signal also contain aliased signals from the 22,5 to 30 kHz range in the real signal.
A more detailed study was made of the frequency content of the cylinder
pressure signals from one of the engines used in this work. The frequency content was
examined over the engine speed range with non-knocking combustion at high load. A
discrete Fourier transform of the measured signal from many consecutive cycles
shows peaks at every half engine revolution frequency, as should be expected from a
four stroke engine with combustion every second revolution. The frequency content
along with the envelope of the peak amplitudes is shown in Figure 3.4.

1000
Peak amplitude
envelope
Cylinder pressure [kPa]

100

10

0 2 4 6 8 10
Frequency [1/revolution]

Figure 3.4 Frequency content for several consecutive cycles at 1000 rpm and the
peak amplitude envelope.

30
Chapter 3 – Experimental method

The amplitudes of the peaks decrease at higher frequencies. Figure 3.5 shows
the peak frequency envelope for several engine speeds. The peak amplitudes on a per
engine revolution basis look very similar for all engine speeds and the peaks become
buried in noise above 30 times the engine revolution frequency, which leads to the
recommendation to low-pass filter the data with the cut-off frequency:
N N
f LP = 30 ⋅ = [Hz] (3.1)
60 2
with the engine speed N given in rpm.

1000 1000 rpm


2000 rpm
3000 rpm
Cylinder pressure [kPa]

100 4000 rpm


5000 rpm

10 suggested cut-off
frequency

0.1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Frequency [1/revolution]
Figure 3.5 Cylinder pressure frequency envelope per engine revolution at operating
conditions from 1000 rpm to 5000 rpm at high load. Several consecutive cycles at
steady state operation was used in the analysis.

Figure 3.6 shows the cylinder pressure frequency content again, with the
useful frequency range according to Equation (3.1) marked. It is noticeable from
Figure 3.6 that the natural frequencies of the combustion chamber, see Chapter 2.3.3,
show up at high engine speed, although there was very few knocking cycles in the data
set. Low amplitude combustion chamber pressure oscillations seem to be the result of
the rapid pressure rise with respect to time during combustion at high engine speed.

31
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

Pressure [kPa]
100 Cutoff frequency
0,75 kHz
1 1500 rpm

0.01

0 2 4 6 8 10

Pressure [kPa]
100 1,5 kHz
3000 rpm
1

0.01
0 5 10 15 20
Pressure [kPa]

100
2.25 kHz
4500 rpm
1

0.01
0 5 10 15 20
Frequency [kHz]
Figure 3.6 Cylinder pressure frequency content analyzed from several consecutive
cycles at steady state operation and suggested cut-off frequencies at 30 times the
engine rotational frequency.

3.2.2 FIR low pass filter


A Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter was implemented to filter the sampled pressure
data. The filter consists of a windowed sinc function, Equation 3.5, which is
convoluted with the data. The idea behind using convolution with the sinc function is
that multiplication with a transfer function in the frequency domain corresponds to
convolution with the impulse response in the time domain. In the frequency domain,
an ideal low pass filter transfer function has zero amplitude for all frequencies above
the cut-off frequency fLP and amplitude one with zero phase shift for frequencies
below the cut-off frequency. The impulse response of this step-like function in terms
of the normalized frequency q0
f LP
q0 = (3.2)
fs
is its inverse Fourier transform:

32
Chapter 3 – Experimental method

0,5
1
h(k ) = ∫ H (2πq )e
i 2πqk
dq = [H (2πq ), q > q0 ] =
2π − 0,5
q0
(3.3)
1 1
= ∫e
i 2πqk
dq = sin (2πq0 k ), k = −∞..∞
2π − q0
πk
which is an infinite sequence. The impulse response of the ideal low pass filter is
usually truncated with some kind of window function to make computation possible
and to limit the computation time. The Hanning window was chosen in this work. A
Hanning window with width 2M + 1 centered around k = 0 is given by:
⎛ k−M ⎞
w(k ) = 0,5 − 0,5 cos⎜ π ⋅ ⎟, k = − M ..M (3.4)
⎝ M ⎠
By introducing the sinc function:
⎧ sin (πk )
⎪ , k ≠0
sinc(k ) = ⎨ πk (3.5)
⎪⎩ 1 , k =0
Equation 3.3 can be simplified and the final normalized filter kernel is:
⎡ ⎛ k−M ⎞⎤
2q 0 ⋅ sinc(2q 0 k ) ⋅ ⎢0,5 − 0,5 cos⎜ π ⋅ ⎟⎥
⎣ ⎝ M ⎠⎦
g (k ) = h(k ) ⋅ w(k ) = , k = − M ..M
∑ g (k )
(3.6)
The filter length determines the steepness of the filter. The length of the filter
was chosen to get a filter kernel with Kf periods of the sinc function by setting the half
filter length M according to:
Kf
2πq 0 M = 2πK f ⇒ M = (3.7)
q0
Kf = 3 was used for most of the filtering in this work. A higher Kf, i.e. a longer filter
kernel, gives steeper filter characteristics at the cut-off frequency but also more
pronounced non-causal behaviour which shows up as ringing in the filtered signal
prior to steep changes in the raw signal. This can be undesired in for example band
pass filtering for knock onset detection, as described further below. Kf can be
explained as the number of oscillation periods in the filtered signal before and after a
step in the input signal.
Figure 3.7 shows an example of cylinder pressure data filtered with the
described windowed sinc filter. The suggested cut-off frequency from section 3.2.1 is

33
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

1,5 kHz, which seems to preserve the characteristics of the data. A lower cut-off
frequency removes significant frequency components and produces lower pressure
rise rates and lower peak pressure, as seen in the figure. A higher cut-off frequency
will attenuate less noise.

1,5 kHz filter A/D reading

Cylinder pressure [MPa]


5.2

5.0 1,0 kHz filter

4.8

4.6

25 30 35
Crank angle [aTDC]

Figure 3.7 Cylinder pressure filtered with zero phase shift FIR-filter with
1,0 kHz and 1,5 kHz cut-off frequency. (3000 rpm, 1,49 MPa imep)

Convolution of a data sequence of length n with a filter kernel of length


2M + 1 results in a filtered sequence of length n + 2M. 2M points at each end of the
data sequence contain data where the original data and the filter do not overlap
completely in the convolution. This causes transients in the filtered data sequence.
The original data sequence was extended at each end with data from the other end of
the sequence to avoid transients. Since the engine pressure data is of periodic nature
and all measurements were made at steady state this should be an adequate method of
extending the data sequence. A more elaborate method is to mirror, inverse and shift
the data set in the end points according to Equation (3.8), which eliminates possible
discontinuities due to non-steady state data or transducer drift.
⎧ 2 p(0 ) − p(− k ) , − M ≤ k ≤ −1

p extended (k ) = ⎨ p(k ) , 0 ≤ k ≤ n −1 (3.8)
⎪2 p(n − 1) − p(2n − k ) , n ≤ k ≤ n + M − 1

This extended data sequence can be convoluted with the filter kernel and the 2M
points at each end can be discarded.

34
Chapter 3 – Experimental method

3.2.3 FIR band pass filter


The frequency content in the cylinder pressure signal changes significantly during
knocking combustion. As described above, autoignition of the end gas induces
pressure oscillations in the combustion chamber with frequencies corresponding to
the natural frequencies of the combustion chamber. Knock amplitude and knock
onset had to be determined in the work with the knock model in Paper II. For this
purpose, the acquired cylinder pressure data was band pass filtered with the pass band
located around the lowest natural frequency of the combustion chamber. A FIR
bandpass filter can be designed as the difference between a high pass filter and a low
pass filter as described in the previous section. The resulting windowed filter kernel
with passband between q0 and q1 is:

⎡ ⎛ k − M ⎞⎤
2 ⋅ (q1 ⋅ sinc(2q1 k ) − q 0 ⋅ sinc(2q 0 k )) ⋅ ⎢0,5 − 0,5 cos⎜ π ⋅ ⎟
⎣ ⎝ M ⎠⎥⎦
g BP (k ) = , k = − M ..M
∑ g BP (k )
(3.9)
One major drawback with using this type of filter is the non-causal properties
of the filter. This will introduce ripple in the signal prior to the actual knock onset.
Using a short filter decrease the ripple but the filter steepness also decreases. A FIR
filter according to Equation (3.9) is good for evaluating knock level, but not for
detection of knock onset.

3.2.4 IIR filtering for detection of knock onset


A causal filter will not give any output before the actual knock onset, which should be
suitable for knock onset detection. Many different recursive filter structures exist of
which many are digital representations of common analogue filter structures such as
Bessel or Butterworth. These filters are referred to as infinite impulse respone filters
(IIR) since they have an infinitely long impulse response in the time domain. IIR filter
have phase distortion as opposed to the FIR filter described above with zero phase
distortion. The short filter lengths of recursive IIR filters make them very
computationally efficient compared to FIR-filters. With IIR forward and backward
filtering the phase distortion can be avoided [49]. No evaluation of the most
appropriate IIR-filter for detection of knock onset has been made in this work. A low
order filter should be preferable to a higher order filter to minimize phase distortion.

35
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

3.3 HEAT RELEASE CALCULATION


Heat release was calculated from measures cylinder pressure data based on the first
law of thermodynamics with a single temperature zone as described in for example
Heywood [8]. Heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls were calculated
according to Woschni’s correlations also summarized in Heywood [8]. Crevice effects
were not accounted for. The resulting equation for calculating rate of heat release is:
dQch γ dV 1 dp
= p + V + Ahc (T − Tw ) (3.10)
dθ γ − 1 dθ γ − 1 dθ
where Qch is the chemical energy released from the fuel. Calculation of the mixture and
temperature dependent ratio of specific heats in the mixture is described in detail in
section 3.3.1 below. T and Tw is the gas and wall temperatures and hc is the heat
transfer coefficient given by:
hc = 3,26 ⋅ B −0, 2 p 0,8T −0,55 w 0,8 (3.11)
where B is the bore, p is cylinder pressure, T is average gas temperature and w is the
average gas velocity in the cylinder, approximated by:
Vd Tref
w = C1 S p + C 2 ( p − pm ) (3.12)
p ref Vref
The first term in Equation (1.12) describes the gas velocity from the piston motion
and swirl and the second term describes the rise in average gas velocity due to
combustion. pm is the motored pressure.
The charge temperature and hence the trapped mass was determined at inlet
valve closing (IVC) as the weighted average of intake temperature and exhaust
temperature at inlet conditions:
*
TIVC = (1 − x r ) ⋅ Tinlet + x r ⋅ Texh (3.13)
Residual gas content xr was obtained from simulations. T*exh was calculated by
assuming isentropic expansion or compression from exhaust pressure and
temperature to inlet pressure:
γ exh −1
⎛ p ⎞ γ exh
*
Texh = Texh ⎜⎜ exh ⎟⎟ (3.14)
⎝ p inlet ⎠
with the average ratio of specific heats of the exhaust gases evaluated at inlet and
exhaust temperatures.

36
Chapter 3 – Experimental method

Charge temperature was calculated from measured pressure and cylinder


volume with the ideal gas law:
pV pV
T= = (3.15)
(mR )IVC p IVC ⋅ VIVC TIVC
Motored pressure pm was calculated from inlet valve closing to exhaust valve
opening by assuming isentropic compression and expansion of the charge, with ratio
of specific heats evaluated for unburned mixture at each time step. Motored pressure
was used in the calculation of heat transfer and the calculation of pressure ratio as
described below.

3.3.1 Thermodynamic properties of mixture


One key parameter for accurate estimation of heat release from pressure data is the
ratio of specific heats [50][51], which is the heat capacity at constant pressure divided
by the heat capacity at constant volume, γ = cp/cv,. Thermodynamic theory state that
γ is constant for a ideal monoatomic gas whereas γ is a function of temperature only
for a semi-perfect gas. The charge in the combustion chamber is a mixture of several
components, each of which can be considered as a semi-perfect gas. Several
approaches of modeling the thermodynamic properties of the cylinder charge have
been tested with the heat release calculation algorithm described above.
First of all the basic relationship between heat capacities is needed. Molar heat
capacity at constant volume and constant pressure are related by:
CV = C p − R [J/mol ⋅ K] (3.16)
where R is the gas constant with appropriate unit. Specific heat capacity is related to
molar heat capacity by the molecular mass M:
Cp
cp = [J/kg ⋅ K] (3.17)
M
CV of an ideal gas can be predicted by kinetic theory as:
df
CV = R (3.18)
2
where df are the degrees of freedom of motion of the molecules in the gas. For
monoatomic molecules only translation energy contributes to the internal energy
which gives three degrees of freedom. For diatomic gases two rotational degrees of
freedom are added and at high temperatures also vibration energy. For more complex
molecules such as the hydrocarbons in gasoline the vibration energy becomes more

37
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

important which gives an even higher CV. A high value of CV gives a low γ. This can
help in understanding the general trends γ of in the combustion chamber. During the
compression stroke in a PFI engine, the cylinder charge consists of air and fuel. Air
consists mainly of diatomic molecules with 5/2 degrees of freedom giving
γ = 7/2 = 1,4 at low temperature. The fuel has very high CV and γ close to 1, which
means that overall γ is dependent on air/fuel ratio. Residual gases contain carbon
dioxide and water, which are triatomic, giving a slightly lower γ than that of pure air.
Temperature rise during combustion decrease γ since vibrational energy becomes
important. Figure 3.8 shows CV/R for some of the gas molecules found in the
combustion chamber over the temperature range relevant to SI engines. Iso-octane is
included in the figure as an indication of the heat capacity of a hydrocarbon fuel.
80
11/2 CO2

CV / R (iso-octane)
9/2 60
H2O O2
CV / R

7/2

5/2 N2
40
H2
H
3/2
1/2 iso-octane 20
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Temperature [K]
Figure 3.8 CV/R for some molecules from JANAF tables [54].

The first investigated approach of estimating γ in the combustion chamber


was to consider the trapped charge as pure air, with a temperature dependent γ. A
second degree polynomial for the temperature dependence of γ in air is found in
Kanury [52]:
c p ,air = 917.4 + 0,2402 ⋅ T + 3,105 ⋅ 10 −5 ⋅ T 2 [J/kg ⋅ K]
(3.19)
M air = 28.96 [g/mol]
The second investigated approach is the AVL model for γ [53], which has
linear temperature dependence:

38
Chapter 3 – Experimental method

0,2888
γ= +1
cV (T ) (3.20)
cV (T ) = 0,7 + T ⋅ (0,155 + Ai ) ⋅ 10 −3

with the constant Ai = 0,1 for SI engines.


The third investigated approach was to calculate frozen mixture equilibrium
composition and use NASA polynomials [54] to calculate temperature dependent Cp
for air, fuel and residual gases as described in Chapter 4 of Heywood [8].
4
C p (T ) = ∑ ai T i (3.21)
i = −2

Residual gas content was obtained from simulations. The pressure ratio:
p(θ )
PR(θ ) = −1 (3.22)
p m (θ )
was used to capture the transition from unburned gases to burned gases during
combustion. The normalized pressure ratio weighted average of unburned gas γu and
burned gas γb was used in the heat release calculations:
γ = (1 − PR norm ) ⋅ γ u (T ) + PR norm ⋅ γ b (T ) (3.23)

39
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

Ratio of specific heats and calculated heat release with the different models
are shown in Figure 3.9. As seen in the figure, the fuel vapor and residual gases has a
major impact on the ratio of specific heats compared to pure air. The AVL model
estimate of γ is inbetween the frozen mixture model and the pure air model. Ratio of
specific heats from the simulation software GTPower is also included in the figure,
which is an average of the burned and unburned zone γ. GTPower predicts higher γ
during combustion since dissociation at high temperatures is included in the γ-model.
Dissociation introduces smaller molecules with less degrees of freedom of motion and
hence higher γ. One conclusion from the tests with different γ-models is that the
simple linear and quadratic models fail to capture the high temperature behavior of
the charge.
temperature
dependent air
1.40 1.00
AVL model

1.35 0.75

Fuel normalized
heat release
γ = cp/cv

1.30 frozen mixture 0.50


model

1.25 GTPower 0.25


simulated

1.20 0.00

-135 -90 -45 TDC 45 90 135


Crank angle [aTDC]

Figure 3.9 Comparison of different models for the ratio of specific heats γ in the
mixture and the resulting calculated heat release. Gas composition: λ = 0,9,
gasoline/ethanol fuel and 3 % residual gas content.

40
Chapter 3 – Experimental method

Figure 3.10 Shows the calculated motored pressure compared to measured


cylinder pressure for the different γ-models. The frozen mixture model predicts
motored pressure close to the measure pressure. Motored pressure was calculated
without accounting for heat transfer to the cylinder walls, which explains why the
calculated motored pressure is higher than measured pressure around top dead center.

temperature only
frozen mixture

Cylinder pressure [MPa]


3 model
AVL model
measured
pressure

-90 -60 -30 TDC 30 60 90


Crank angle [aTDC]

Figure 3.10 Calculated motored pressure with different models for the ratio of
specific heats compared to the measured cylinder pressure.

41
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

3.4 EXPERIMENT ENGINES


The experimental results reported in this thesis were acquired from a modified
two liters turbocharged engine. Some key properties of the engine are summarized
below.

3.4.1 Divided Exhaust Period


One key target for this research project was to evaluate the Divided Exhaust Period
(DEP) system on a modern four cylinder turbocharged engine, see Paper I. The main
principle behind the DEP system is to divide the exhaust flow from each cylinder into
two different exhaust manifolds with different valve lifts for the two exhaust valves in
each cylinder. Figure 3.11 shows a schematic view of the DEP engine.
Inter-
cooler
Exhaust
blow-down
system

Exhaust
scavenging
system
Catalyst
Charge air C T
system
Trapping
valve

Figure 3.11 Schematic view of the Divided Exhaust Period engine.

The reason for dividing the exhaust flow into two different manifolds is to
decrease exhaust back pressure during the exhaust displacement phase and to prevent
interfering pulses between cylinders in four cylinder turbocharged engines. Using
DEP results in decreased residual gas content which should improve knock resistance
and increase volumetric efficiency. The pumping losses are also decreased. Figure 3.12
shows a comparison between mass flow over the exhaust valves in a standard
turbocharged engine and a DEP engine at 5500 rpm full load operation. The energy
rich blow-down pulse is fed to the turbine through the exhaust blow-down system
and the remaining exhaust is evacuated through the scavenging system, with a much
lower exhaust back pressure.

42
Chapter 3 – Experimental method

standard t/c

0.3
DEP

Mass flow rate [kg/s]


blow-down
0.2 system DEP

Valve lift
scavenging
system
0.1

0.0
blow-down
scavenging
valve
valve

90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405


Crank angle [aTDC]

Figure 3.12 Mass flow and valve lift in the DEP engine compared to a standard
turbocharged engine at 5500 rpm.

3.4.2 Engine specifications


The DEP engine was based on a standard 2 dm3 turbocharged engine with
specification according to Table 3.1. The head was modified with separated exhaust
runners. The short valve lift durations in the DEP engine puts special demands on the
exhaust valves. Exhaust valve diameter was increased from 28 mm to 32 mm to
reduce choking in the exhaust ports. Lightweight sodium cooled exhaust valves were
used to maximize possible valve lift. Several exhaust and intake camshafts were used
in the investigations. Continuously variable camshaft phasing with an adjustment
range of 50 CA was used on both intake and exhaust camshafts.
A standard head and standard exhaust manifold was also used on the engine
in the knock tests reported in Paper I.

43
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

Table 3.1 Specifications of the test engines.


Bore 86 mm
Stroke 86 mm
Compression ratio 9.5
No. of cylinders 4
Total displacement 2.0 dm3
Inlet valve diameter 32 mm
Exhaust valve diameter, 32 mm
DEP head
Exhaust valve diameter, 28 mm
standard head
Cylinder head 4-valve pentroof with central spark plug
Fuel system port fuel injection
Fuel 95 RON, up to 5% ethanol

Cooled EGR
The DEP engine was equipped with a cooled EGR system with a Valeo water/air
EGR cooler. The EGR was extracted in the exhaust blow-down system, before the
turbine inlet. EGR was inserted upstream of the throttle to assure good mixing with
inlet air and mixing balance between cylinders. A butterfly valve was used to control
cooled EGR rate.

44
Chapter 4
KNOCK MODELING

Paper II contains results from calibration and validation of a knock model based on
the Livengood-Wu knock integral as described in Chapter 2.4.2. Some additional
information about the experiments and calibration of the knock model is found below
together with a new calibration for the ignition delay constants.

4.1 EXPERIMENTS
A limited series of experiments were carried out on the standard turbocharged engine,
see Chapter 3.4.2 for engine details. The purpose of the tests was to calibrate and
validate the knock model at a number of different operating conditions as described in
Paper II. The experiment matrix is repeated below for reference.
Table 4.1 Operating conditions in the knock model calibration and validation
test series.
Engine speed 2500, 3000, 3500 rpm
λ @ 2500 rpm 0,92
λ @ 3000 rpm 0,86; 0,99; 1,10
λ @ 3500 rpm 0,84
Fuel 95 RON gasoline w. <5% ethanol
Coolant temperature 90 °C

During the engine tests, the level of knock was judged from a band pass
filtered audio signal recorded by a microphone mounted close to the engine block.

45
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

This method of judging knock level is common, but not entirely repeatable and
somewhat subjective. Unfortunately the inexperienced operators, the author being one
of them, were frightened by the aggressive knocking noise, and very few cycles were
found to be knocking in the test series. An engine failure due to valve-piston
interaction made further tests impossible at the time. However, the low number of
knocking cycles in the test data assured that the engine was operating close to normal
operating conditions. It is the borderline knock operation that is relevant for
simulation purposes. Operation with large fraction of knocking cycles will affect wall
temperature and hence unburned charge temperature which in turn might give a
calibration of the knock model to the wrong temperature range. As described in
Chapter 2.4.2 the autoignition delay time used in this work is an attempt to linearize
the autoignition delay time of a fuel in a temperature range relevant to the normal
operation of an engine. Actual autoignition delay time of a hydrocarbon fuel is
nonlinear due to the presence of cool flames and negative temperature coefficient
regions.

4.2 DATA EVALUATION


As described in Paper II, the data was band pass filtered and knocking cycles were
detected by examining the maximum value of the absolute band pass filtered signal.
The filter pass-band was set from 3,5 kHz to 10 kHz. Cycles with maximum
amplitude above 1 bar were defined as knocking. Knock onset was determined for the
knocking cycles as the first time the absolute band pass filtered signal exceeded a
threshold value. The threshold value was selected as a compromise between sensitive
detection (lower required threshold) and the risk of faulty detection due to noise
(higher required threshold). A threshold value of 0,9 bar was found to be good for
cycles with high knock intensity, while lower knock intensity cycles needed a lower
threshold. A compromise was to use 0,7 times the knock intensity as threshold for low
knock intensity cycles.
An finite impulse response filter, FIR, as described in Chapter 3.2.3 was used
to band pass filter the data. As already mentioned, this type of filter is non-causal. The
result is very obvious in Figure 4.1. The band pass filtered signal starts to oscillate well
before the cylinder pressure shows any trace of knock. As a consequence, the detected
knock onset was always too early. There was no time to correct this in Paper II. Since
there was only a small number of cycles to investigate, knock onset was determined by
visual inspection of the signals. A low order recursive filter and zero crossing search as
described in Chapter 3.2.4 should have been used instead.

46
Chapter 4 – Knock modeling

detected
knock onset
100 6

Band pass filtered pressure [bar]


Cylinder pressure [bar]
80 4

60 2

40 0

20 -2

0 -4
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Crank angle [aTDC]
Figure 4.1 Cylinder pressure and FIR band pass filtered cylinder pressure for a
knocking cycle.

4.3 KNOCK MODEL CALIBRATION


In Paper II, only the constant A was optimized in the Ahrrenius type expression for
ignition delay:
⎛B⎞
τ = Ap − n exp⎜ ⎟
(4.1)
⎝T ⎠
The reason for this approach is obvious from the shape of the least squares
optimization target function:
2
⎡ ⎤
⎢ KO ⎥
⎢ 1
SS = ∑ ∫ dt − 1⎥ (4.2)
⎢ ⎛ B ⎞ ⎥
i
⎢ IVC Api (θ )− n exp⎜ ⎟ ⎥
⎜ T (θ ) ⎟
⎣⎢ ⎝ i ⎠ ⎦⎥
shown in Figure 4.2. The data does not contain enough information to uniquely
determine the three parameters of the ignition delay correlation. The pressure and
temperature data used is also shown in Figure 2.4. Figure 4.2 also shows how the
ignition delay constants from other works, see Table 2.4, perform for our data set.

47
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

Figure 4.2 The shape of the knock model optimization target function with
varying A and pressure exponent -n. and fixed temperature coefficient at 2396 K.
The results from some previous studies [29][30] are also shown in the figure.

The optimization routine did however converge to a value comparable to


other works, despite the low quality for ignition delay parameter optimization in the
data set. These optimized parameters, see Table 4.2, are not presented in Paper II
since the work was carried out after submission of the paper.
Table 4.2 New optimization of ignition delay function constants.
A n B
[s bar ]
. n [K]
7.59e-3 1.325 3296

The three part ignition delay model with λ dependence from Yates [32]
described in Chapter 2.4.2 predicts too late knock onset by 6 to 12 CA for the test
data set used in this work. With a scaling factor of 0,60 for the three part ignition
delay correlation in Equation (2.16), the model fits the test data with similar errors as
the calibrated single part ignition delay model.

48
Chapter 4 – Knock modeling

4.4 DISCUSSION
Douaud and Eyzat [29] found the pressure exponent n in Equation 4.1 to be 1,7 for
primary reference fuels and close to 1 for a commercial gasoline fuel, see table 2.4.
Bradley et. al. [55] refers to an investigation by Hirst and Kirsch where a toluene
reference fuel had a value of n of about 1,3. Toluene reference fuels is a mixture of
toluene and n-heptane which behaves more like typical gasoline fuels in terms of
autoignition in the RON and MON tests [17]. The value of n found in this
investigation is close to 1,3 which gives some confidence to the optimized values. As
for the temperature coefficient B, the optimum value will depend on the operating
region of the engine, i.e. where in respect to the negative temperature coefficient
region in the ignition delay surface of Figure 2.6 the engine primarily operates when
knocking is observed. As shown in the comparison to shock tube ignition delay data
in Figure 2.3 the actual ignition delay time is nonlinear. If the unburned zone
temperature reaches high values before knock occurs, a higher temperature coefficient
will probably be required. The approach described in Paper II, to optimize the
constant A only, seems to be a good approach considering the discussion above.
The unburned zone temperature as shown in Figure 2.4 is usually calculated
by assuming isentropic compression of the end gas. If low temperature heat release
occurs in the end gas, the temperature will be higher than the isentropically calculated
temperature. This is a key difference that should be kept in mind when comparing the
autoignition correlations from SI engine tests to for example shock tube autoignition
data or HCCI combustion data.

49
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

50
Chapter 5
COMBUSTION MODELING USING THE WIEBE
FUNCTION

Paper III contains results from adapting and calibrating a combustion model based on
the Wiebe function and laminar burning velocity correlations to experimental data.
The Wiebe function was described in detail in Chapter 2.4.1 and the laminar burning
velocity correlations used are summarized in Chapter 2.2.1. This chapter has some
additional background and information about the measurements and calibration
procedure for the combustion model, which is not covered in the paper. Results from
two similar correlations that served as a base for the current investigation are shown
first. The contribution of this work is to include laminar burning velocity correlations
in the Wiebe combustion model to account for variations in cylinder gas properties. It
is suggested that Paper III is read before reading this chapter.

5.1 EXISTING WIEBE MODELS


The approach of correlating measured Wiebe function parameters to engine operating
parameters has been used by several authors. Two of these works by Csallner [56] and
Witt [57] are summarized below starting with the model structure, which is the same
for both models. The Wiebe function is repeated here for reference:

51
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

⎡ ⎛ θ − θ 0 ⎞ m +1 ⎤
xb (θ ) = 1 − exp ⎢− a⎜ ⎟ ⎥ (5.1)
⎣⎢ ⎝ ∆θ ⎠ ⎦⎥
where xb mass fraction burned
θ crank angle
θ0 start of combustion
∆θ total combustion duration, θEOC - θ0
m combustion mode parameter
a scaling factor, a = -ln(1-xb,EOC)

5.1.1 Structure of existing models


Both Csallner [56] and Witt [57] correlated engine operating parameters such as spark
timing and air/fuel ratio to the Wiebe parameters total combustion duration and
combustion mode parameter. An additional set of correlations are presented for the
period from spark timing to detectable pressure rise due to combustion in the
cylinder, denoted ignition delay, ∆θd. Each correlation was made in the form of
relative changes from a base operating condition denoted by subscript zero
henceforth. The basic set of functions describing the correlation is:
∆θˆd = ∆θ d ,0 ⋅ ∏ f i
i

∆θˆ = ∆θ 0 ⋅ ∏ g i (5.2)
i

mˆ = m0 ⋅ ∏ hi
i

where f, g and h are the functions for relative influence of each operating parameter i.
The functions for relative influence were identified by normalizing experimental data
with the base operating condition. To make the identified functions valid for base
operating other than that used during identification, each function for relative
influence is normalized by the current base operating condition, i.e.:
Gi
gi = (5.3)
Gi , 0
where Gi is the function found during the identification procedure with an arbitrary
base operating condition. The model structure is very flexible since only the relative
influence of each operating parameter is used.

52
Chapter 5 – Combustion modeling using the Wiebe function

5.1.2 Model identification procedure


Provided that there are no interaction effects between operating factors, the model
calibration can be performed directly from engine tests where one parameter is varied
at a time. In cases where more than one parameter has been varied in each test, an
iterative identification procedure has to be adopted. The test data has to be
normalized not only by the base operating condition but also by the influencing
functions for operating parameters other than the operating parameter in the current
correlation. The other correlations then have to be corrected with the new identified
relative influence function.
The functional form for each influencing function is chosen to best fit the
test data.

5.1.3 Csallner
Csallner [56] correlated Wiebe combustion parameters to spark timing, air/fuel ratio,
engine speed. Load influence was modeled by in cylinder pressure and temperature
during the compression stroke at 60 bTDC, referred to as p300 and T300, and residual
gas fraction. Two naturally aspirated engines were used during in the work: a single
cylinder MTU MB 331 engine with 3,3 dm3 displacement converted to gas operation
and a four cylinder BMW engine with 0,5 dm3 displacement and two valves per
cylinder. The correlations are summarized for the BMW engine in Table 5.1. The
correlations for temperature and residual gas content do not have the form of
Equation 5.3. Data from a total of 31 operating conditions are shown in the work.

53
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

Table 5.1 The Wiebe combustion parameter correlations from Csallner [56] for
the BMW 2 dm3 four cylinder two valve engine. Spark timing, temperature and
pressure relative to gas exchange TDC.
Ignition delay Total combustion Combustion mode
∆θd duration, ∆θ parameter, m
Fi Gi Hi
Spark timing
430 − θ spark 1 1
θspark
Air/fuel ratio 2,2λ2 − 5,6λ2 −
0,375λ + 0,644
λ ≤ 0,95 3,74λ + 2,54 9,52λ + 4,92
Air/fuel ratio
same as above same as above − 1,33λ + 2,27
λ > 0,95
Compression
T300, 0 T300,0
temperature 2,16 − 1,16 1,33 − 0,33 1
T300 T300
T300 [K]
Compressions −0 , 47 −0 , 28
p300 p 300 1
pressure, p300
Residual gas x rg ,0 x rg ,0
0,088 + 0,912 0,237 + 0,763 1
content, xrg x rg x rg
Engine speed 400 8 ⋅ 10 −5 660 750
1+ − 1,33 − + 0,625
N [rpm] N N2 N N

As can be seen in Table 5.1, only air/fuel ratio and engine speed was found to
influence the combustion mode parameter in Csallner’s correlations. This is in part
due to the method used for fitting Wiebe functions to test data. First of all, the 50 %
burned point was used as anchor angle in the identification. The total combustion
duration was adjusted so that the mass fraction burned in an 8 CA interval beginning
at the 50 % burnt point was equal in the test and the Wiebe function. The combustion
mode parameter was then chosen arbitrarily to match measured data. This rather
strange identification procedure was chosen to get correct mass burn rate when the
burn rate is high and also because start of combustion could not be identified.

54
Chapter 5 – Combustion modeling using the Wiebe function

5.1.4 Witt
Witt [57] made two sets of Wiebe parameters correlations to compare throttled and
throttleless operation in the simulation and testing of a modern BMW four valve
naturally aspirated engine running on part load. Similarly to Csallner, the Wiebe
parameter identification method used by Witt focused on getting the 50 % burn point
correct in the identified Wiebe function. A very large number of tests were used to
identify the combustion model parameters: 221 operating points in throttleless
operation and 193 operating points in throttled operation. The parameters
investigated were spark timing, residual gas content, indicated work and engine speed.
Results from throttled operation are shown in Table 5.2. All identified equations have
the form of Equation 5.3, i.e. normalized functions for relative influence.
Table 5.2 Wiebe combustion parameter correlations from Witt [57] for throttled
operation in a BMW 4-valve engine.
Ignition delay, Total combustion Combustion mode
∆θd duration, ∆θ parameter, m
Fi Gi Hi

Spark advance 0,678 + 2,48 75,56


0,596 + 0,964 +
θspark [bTDC] 2,383 ⋅ 10 θ −4 2
spark
θ spark
0,5
θ spark
2

Residual gas 0,879 + 1,076 −


2
0,429 + 0,031x rg
content, xrg [%] 3,648 ⋅ 10 − 4 x rg
2
2,534 ⋅ 10 − 4 x rg
2

Indicated work
1,112 − 0,545wi1,5 1,115 − 0,346 wi 1,007 + 0,004 ln wi
wi [kJ/dm3]
Engine speed 1,246 ⋅ 10 5 18,49 1,046 −
0,992 − 1,355 −
N [rpm] N2 N 4,075 ⋅ 10 −7 N 1,5

5.2 EXPERIMENTS
As described in Paper III, a few engine operating parameters were singled out as
candidates that were likely to have an influence on the combustion. The first group of
operating parameters are those related state of the combustible mixture of air and fuel,
namely air/fuel ratio, intake pressure and temperature and residual gas content.
Engine speed and spark timing make up the other group of parameters which are
related to the turbulence which the flame encounters as it traverses the combustion
chamber. Spark timing actually related to both groups, since the temperature and

55
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

pressure during the early part of combustion is highly dependent on the spark timing.
Coolant temperature was also varied in the tests.
The experimental procedure chosen for the combustion model investigation
was to vary one parameter at the time while trying to keep other influencing factors
constant. As all engine experimentalists know it is not straightforward to change only
one parameter in an engine test, since many factors are affected when one control
parameter is changed. Retarding the spark timing in a turbocharged engine will for
example increase exhaust temperature which leads to increased turbine power
producing a change in intake pressure and temperature which in turn affects
combustion. The waste gate and throttle were used to control the intake conditions.
Some care was also taken to tune the charge air cooler controller. This means that the
engine torque was varying quite significantly between the tests. Figure 5.1 shows some
test data from a spark timing variation test just to see the large variation in for
example turbine inlet temperature and torque. The figure also shows that spark timing
were chosen close to MBT timing and later. The pressure after the compressor varies
more than the intake pressure since the throttle was used to control intake pressure.

56
Chapter 5 – Combustion modeling using the Wiebe function

Pressure after compr.

Pressure after compresor [bar]


1.3 40

Intake temperature [°C]


Spark timing [bTDC]
Intake pressure

50 % burnt [aTDC]
Intake pressure [bar]
1.2 Intake temp. 30

Lambda
50
%
bu
rn
t
1.1 20
ng
im i
a rk t
Sp
1.0 10
Lambda
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Test no.

Engine speed
960 250
940
Turbo speed / 100 [rpm]

Tu
Turbine inlet temp. [°C]

Engine speed / 10 [rpm]


240
rb

ue
in

920 rq
e

To
in
le
t

Torque [Nm]
230
te

900
m
p.

880 220
860
Turb 210
o spe
840 ed

820 200

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Test no.
Figure 5.1 Test data from spark timing variation with constant intake manifold
pressure and temperature. Other measured parameters vary quite significantly.
Waste gate and throttle was varied along with charge air cooling.

Two sets of tests were performed with varying engine speed. One test was
made with constant spark timing and one test with constant angle for 1 % mass
fraction burned. Figure 5.2 shows the measured data from these two tests. The tests
with constant 1 % burnt point were made to remove the influence of varying flame
development period in terms of crank angles at different engine speeds.

57
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

3 35

Intake temp.
2 30

Intake temperature [°C]


Intake pressure [bar]

Spark timing [bTDC]


Intake pressure

1 % burnt [aTDC]

50 % burnt [aTDC]
Lambda 1 25

Lambda
t
0 rn 20
bu
%
50 n g
1 % burnt rk timi
-1 Spa 15

-2 10
1500 2000 2500 3000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Engine speed [rpm]

Figure 5.2 Test data for speed variation tests with constant spark timing (left)
and constant 1 % burnt (right).

Interaction effects between parameters might be left out when using a one
parameter at the time approach [58]. A second set of experiments was carried out to
check for interactions, and also to have a data set for validation of the model. A
reduced order two level factorial design with center points, augmented with a so called
star composite design, was used. Figure 5.3 shows the basic structure of the design.
The factors in the test were air/fuel ratio, spark timing, residual gas content and intake
temperature. Engine speed was constant at 3000 rpm and the intake pressure was
125 kPa. The experimental matrix is shown in Table 5.3. The goal with the design of
experiments approach was not to fit a response surface to the data but to get a
validation data set which spans the experimental range. If there are significant
interaction effects between any of the variables, the fit of the identified model in the
validation data set will be poor. A total of 30 tests were performed for the validation
data set.

58
Chapter 5 – Combustion modeling using the Wiebe function

Table 5.3 Operating points for the factorial experimental design at 3000 rpm
and 125 kPa intake pressure.
Normalized Air/fuel Spark timing Intake EGR
level ratio [bTDC] temperature [°C] fraction
+1 1,00 18,0 45,0 2,4%
-1 0,80 13,0 35,0 0,4%
0 0,90 15,5 40,0 1,4%
+1,41 1,04 19,0 47,1 not possible
-1,41 0,76 12,0 32,9 0,0%

Extra points

Base points
1
Normalized level, factor 2

Central points
0

0,5
R=2

-1

-1 0 1
Normalized level, factor 1
Figure 5.3 Basic structure of central composite two level factorial design
augmented with a star complement design.

5.3 DATA EVALUATION


200 engine cycles were recorded for each of the four cylinders and each operating
condition. Heat release was calculated for each cycle with the algorithm described in
Chapter 3.3. Wiebe parameters were identified for each individual cycle, described in
more detail below. The average of the identified Wiebe parameters for each operating
condition was then used to identify the combustion model parameters.

59
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

5.3.1 Wiebe parameter identification


As mentioned above in the summary of the works of Csallner [56] and Witt [57],
different methods were used for identifying the Wiebe parameters from calculated
heat release. Both Csallner and Witt also identified the flame development period for
each operating point. Some different methods for identifying the Wiebe function
parameters were tested in this work. It was found that the double logarithm method
suggested in Wiebe [27] gave quite accurate results when the spark timing was used as
start of combustion. After transforming the calculated mass fraction burned and the
crank angle by two logarithms:
⎡ ⎛θ −θ ⎞ m +1

xb (θ ) = 1 − exp ⎢− a⎜ 0
⎟ ⎥
⎢⎣ ⎝ ∆θ ⎠ ⎥⎦
m +1
⎛ θ − θ0 ⎞
1st logarithm : ln(1 − xb ) = −a ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ (5.4)
⎝ ∆θ ⎠
⎛ ln(1 − xb ) ⎞
2 nd logarithm : ln⎜ ⎟ = (m + 1) ⋅ (ln(θ − θ 0 ) − ln(∆θ ))
⎝ −a ⎠
it is straightforward to fit a straight line to the data and solve for the interesting
parameters ∆θ and m.
The results are fully comparable to a nonlinear least squares fit of a Wiebe
function to measured data as shown in Figure 5.4, but the computational burned for
the Wiebe method is only a small fraction of a nonlinear least squares fit. As an
example, the time to fit Wiebe parameters for 200 engine cycles with the Wiebe
method took about half a second, while a nonlinear least squares solver needed one
minute to perform the same task. The crank angle transformation of the data,
ln(θ - θ0), is nonlinear which gives an overweight for the later part of combustion in
the estimation of Wiebe parameters. The same results could have bee accomplished
with a weighted least squares estimate.

60
Chapter 5 – Combustion modeling using the Wiebe function

1.0 3%

Mass fraction burned, xb


Measured
Double logarithm
0.8 Nonlin. least squares 2%

0.6 1%

Error
0.4 0%

0.2 -1 %

0.0 -2 %

-15 0 15 30 45 60
Crank angle [aTDC]

Figure 5.4 Comparison of nonlinear least squares and double logarithm method
of fitting a Wiebe function to measured data.

One concern for selecting more complicated methods of fitting Wiebe


functions mentioned in both Csallner [56] and Witt [57] was to get correct 50 % burn
point in the fitted Wiebe function. Another concern was to get correct mass fraction
burned in a crank angle interval around the 50% burnt point, which I translate to
correct 10-90 % burn duration. Figure 5.5 shows how the Wiebe double logarithm
method with spark timing as start of combustion performs in estimating several mass
fraction burn points for 89 operating conditions from the combustion model data
sets. The standard deviation of the estimated burn points are also shown in the figure.
The weighting introduced by the logarithm transformation is evident, since the 50 %
burnt point and the 90 % burnt point has the best fit.

61
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

3
2,66
Mean
error

Standard deviation [CA]


2
1,93
1,26

Error [CA]
1
0,58

Standard
0 deviation

-0,21
-0,68
-1
1% 5% 10% 50% 90% 10-90 %
Mass fraction burned
Figure 5.5 Mean error in mass fraction burned points of fitted Wiebe function
compared to measured data. Ensemble averaged data from 89 operating
conditions.

5.4 COMBUSTION MODEL CALIBRATION


The presented combustion model differs from the existing models described above in
two respects: the use of laminar burning velocity and the Wiebe parameters
identification method. The identification method with spark timing taken as start of
combustion removes the need for separate correlations for the flame development
period. Only spark timing and engine speed remains as influencing parameters after
the laminar burning velocity influencing function has been removed. For the
combustion mode parameter, influencing functions were determined for engine speed
and total combustion duration. Equation 5.2 simplifies to:
∆θˆ = ∆θ 0 ⋅ ∏ g i = ∆θ 0 ⋅ g SL ⋅ g spark ⋅ g speed
i
(5.5)
mˆ = m0 ⋅ ∏ hi = m0 ⋅ h∆θˆ ⋅ hspeed
i

The first influencing function for total burn duration, gSL, accounts for the
laminar burning velocity influence. Paper III shows the good results when using
inverse laminar burning velocity as influencing function. In order to identify the
remaining influencing functions for total combustion duration, data was normalized
with the laminar burning velocity influencing function. The spark timing influencing

62
Chapter 5 – Combustion modeling using the Wiebe function

function, gspark, is also described in Paper III. Below I will describe the process of
identifying the engine speed influencing function, gspeed, in more detail, which for some
cases requires normalizing with both laminar burning velocity and spark timing
influencing function.

5.4.1 Modeling speed influence


Two different test series were made for identifying the speed influence function, one
with constant spark timing and one with constant 1 % mass fraction burnt, as shown
in Figure 5.2. The structure of the model for total combustion duration directly gives
the influencing function:
∆ θ = ∆ θ 0 ⋅ g SL ⋅ g spark ⋅ g speed
∆θ (5.6)
⇒ g speed =
∆ θ 0 ⋅ g SL ⋅ g spark
The first step is to normalize the data with a base operating condition, as
shown in the top left figure in Figure 5.6. The figure also contains the final identified
speed influencing function to see what each step in the normalization does to the data.
Since the gas conditions at spark timing for the speed test data varied, the data then
had to be normalized by the laminar burning velocity influencing function, shown in
the top right figure. Finally, after normalizing with the spark timing influencing
function, bottom left, the test data collapses around the identified influencing
function. The bottom right figure shows the measured and predicted total burn
duration for the speed modeling data. The bottom left figure is identical to Figure 11
in Paper III.

63
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

Constant spark timing


1.3 Constant 1 % burnt 1.3
1.2 Points from other tests 1.2

∆θ0 x g(SL)
1.1 1.1

∆θ0
∆θ

∆θ
1.0 1.0
0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7

1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Engine speed [rpm] Engine speed [rpm]
70
∆θ0 x g(SL) x g(θign)

1.3 0.584
alt. G(N) = 0.0102 x
65
1.2

Measured and
estimated ∆θ
1.1 60
∆θ

1.0 55
0.9 50 measured
0.8 G(N) = 2,13 - 55,5 x N
-0,5
model
45
0.7
40
1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Engine speed [rpm] Engine speed [rpm]

Figure 5.6 Illustration of the steps of fitting an total combustion duration


influence function for the speed influence. Top left shows test data normalized with
the base operating condition only. Top right data is also normalized by laminar
burning velocity influence. Bottom left is additionally normalized by spark timing
influence. All normalized data is plotted together with the identified influencing
function for comparison. Bottom right shows the prediction of total combustion
duration for the model identification data.

The functional form for the speed influencing function was chosen from
Wittt [57]. Several other functional forms were tested for the speed influencing
function. One of them, a power function, is shown in the bottom left figure of Figure
5.6. The behavior outside of the identification data range has to be considered when
choosing the functional form.

5.5 RESULTS
The results from calibrating the combustion model along with some validation are
summarized in Paper III. All identified influencing functions are summarized in an
appendix to the paper.

64
Chapter 6
CONCLUSIONS

Combustion simulation in one dimensional software has to be a very simplified


description of the actual process, if the software is to maintain reasonably fast
execution time. Complete three dimensional simulations of the real physics and
chemistry of combustion is not practically possible today. Simulation of in cylinder
turbulence requires sub models for turbulence structures smaller than the calculation
mesh or an extremely dense mesh which renders the calculation near unfeasible.
Chemical kinetic models exist for simple model fuels but are yet to be developed for
practical automotive fuels. When three dimensional simulation of SI engine
combustion becomes a practical alternative, which I’m sure will happen some time in
the future, cycle to cycle variations is the next problem to tackle.
Simplified empirical approaches for combustion and knock modeling have
been described in this thesis. The combustion model only uses one key property of
the flame, the laminar burning velocity, which makes it easy to use and interpret.
However the combustion model will not react to changes in turbulence which is the
major drawback of this approach. The knock model has been used by many others
and this work simply adds to the understanding of the calibration and use of the
model.
The combustion model does not take cycle to cycle variations into account.
The knock model on the other hand is a single cycle model. When using the knock
model together with any ensemble average combustion model, it is quite hard to
distinguish the meaning of the results. Some arbitrary limits for knock have to be set
in order to get any useful results. In Paper II we used 30 crank angles after top dead

65
Empirical Combustion Modeling in SI Engines

center and approximately 90 percent mass fraction burned as limits. If knock was
predicted within/below these limits, the combustion was phased later until either of
the boundaries were reached at simulated knock onset. This is not to be confused with
the severity of knock or any other measure of knock. It is just a way to get useful
output from the simulations.
The use of one dimensional simulation tools in engine development has put
new demands on engine measurement technique. Both cycle or time averaged
measurements and crank angle resolved measurements fill an important role in
simulation model calibration and validation. This thesis has put special focus on
measurement data conditioning with some suggestions on filtering of noisy data and
filtering for knock detection. These two filtering tasks have separate demands on the
filters. Another area of interest is the calculation of heat release from cylinder pressure
data. If the data is to be used for calibration or validation of combustion in a
simulation model, it is essential to use the same assumptions and models as the
simulation software when calculating heat release from measured data. The model for
ratio of specific heats described in this thesis is an attempt to get closer to the
simulation software in estimating in cylinder gas properties during combustion. The
Woschni model for heat transfer is common between the simulations and measured
data analysis. The largest discrepancy between measured data analysis and the
simulation software is found in the single zone calculation of heat release for the
measured data. A two zone model was used in the simulation software in order to be
able to draw conclusions regarding knock.

6.1 FUTURE WORK


The three dimensional calculated ignition delay surface for a model gasoline fuel
developed by Yates and co-workers seems to be a reasonable next step in refining the
knock model described in this work. For future development of the presented
combustion model, it would be interesting to try to correlate combustion duration to
for example swirl- or tumble numbers. This would enable appropriate scaling of the
combustion duration when changing for example cylinder head and combustion
chamber geometry or, the other way around, to suggest an appropriate turbulence
level of a new engine design to avoid for example knock. Additional refinement of the
model would be to look into part load and camshaft phasing or fully variable valve
trains. Cycle to cycle variations could be incorporated by means of some statistical
distribution of the Wiebe parameters, correlated to engine operating conditions in a
similar way as the Wiebe parameters themselves. For knock simulation, the most likely
knocking cycle could be found from the statistical distribution. After finding the

66
Chapter 6 – Conclusions

knock limited combustion phasing for the most likely knocking cycle, the ensemble
average cycle could be simulated to give an accurate prediction of engine output at the
knock limit.

67
REFERENCES

[1] www.acea.be (May 2005); Monitoring of ACEA’s Commitment on CO2


Emission Reductions from Passenger Cars (2002); Joint Report of the
European Automobile Manufacturers Association and the Commission
Services, Final Report, 2003.
[2] Mitchell, Bill; Advanced fuel cell development for automotive operation; Oral
presentation at the SAE Fuels & Lubricants Meeting and Exhibition, Rio de
Janeiro, May 12, 2005.
[3] Blair, Gordon P.; Design and Simulation of Four-Stroke Engines; Society of
Automotive Engineers, 1999.
[4] GT-Power User Manual, Version 6.1; Gamma Technologies, August 2004.
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72
PAPER I
2005-01-1150

Divided Exhaust Period – a gas exchange system for


turbocharged SI engines
Christel Elmqvist Möller, Pontus Johansson, Börje Grandin
Fiat-GM Powertrain - Sweden

Fredrik Lindström
Royal Institute of Technology

Copyright © 2004 SAE International

ABSTRACT be hard to meet at the same time and is a major


challenge for engine manufactures and researchers.
The necessity to limit the boost pressure in turbocharged
gasoline engines results in higher exhaust pressure than Using turbochargers can be a viable solution to this
inlet pressure at engine speeds when the wastegate is challenge. The major advantage of the turbocharged
opened. This imbalance has a negative influence on the engine is achieving the same power output with a
exhaust scavenging of the engine and results in high smaller displaced volume, thereby decreasing the fuel
levels of residual gas and consequently the engine is consumption. However, turbocharged engines have
more prone to knock. some drawbacks. The turbine increases the pressure in
the exhaust manifold, thereby increasing the amount of
This paper presents a study of a gas-exchange system residual gas trapped in the cylinder. This decreases the
for turbocharged SI engines. The concept aims at knock resistance of the engine [1] and also reduces the
improving the performance and emissions of a volumetric efficiency [2]. In a four stroke turbocharged
turbocharged SI engine by dividing the exhaust flow engines with four cylinders and a single turbine, the
from the two exhaust valves into two different exhaust blowdown pulse from one cylinder can interfere with the
manifolds, one connected to the turbocharger and one previous cylinder in firing order during exhaust-intake
connected to a close coupled catalyst. By separating the overlap. This further impairs the scavenging of the
valve opening period of the two valves and keeping the combustion chamber and as a consequence increases
duration of both valve opening events shorter than 180 the charge temperature and reduces volumetric
crank angle degrees, the disturbance of the exhaust efficiency and knock resistance. Other drawbacks are
blowdown pressure pulse during valve overlap in a four the relatively high pumping losses compared to a
cylinder engine can be completely eliminated. naturally aspirated engine and delayed catalyst light off
due to the turbine acting as a heat sink in the exhaust
The study was carried out both experimentally on a four system. Finding ways to avoid these shortcomings
cylinder turbocharged SI engine and with extensive 1-D would of course improve the performance of the
simulation of the system. A positive pressure difference turbocharged engine.
over the engine could be realized over the entire speed
range by using the concept system. Simulations show One way mentioned as early as 1924 in a British patent
up to 60 % reduction of residual gas content compared [3] has been further investigated on a modern four-
to a standard turbocharged engine. The study also cylinder turbocharged engine. In this paper the potential
showed that the time to catalyst light off could be of this concept, which will be called DEP (Divided
reduced with over 35% compared to a standard Exhaust Period), will be examined. The concept has
turbocharged engine with a conventional exhaust been investigated by means of 1-D simulation as well as
system. by tests on a prototype engine. This paper will deal with
the theories behind the concept, the development of a
INTRODUCTION 1-D simulation model and experience gained from a
prototype engine. In particular cold start catalyst light-off
It is a well-known fact that the emission levels from the time and full load performance of the DEP engine with
transport sector needs to be decreased. At the same varying exhaust valve lift profiles have been studied.
time customer request is for more powerful engines with High full power potential of a new engine concept is
less fuel consumption. These different requirements can important to enable a high degree of downsizing.

1
Inter- Exhaust Exhaust Intake
cooler blowdown scavenging valves
Exhaust valve valve
blow-down

Valve lift
system

Exhaust
scavenging
system
Catalyst
Charge air C T
system 90 180 270 TDC 450 540 630
Trapping
valve Crank angle [aTDC]
Figure 2 Valve lift curves for the blowdown, scavenging and intake
valves.
Figure 1 Schematic view of the of the exhaust systems configuration in
the DEP engine.
duration of the blowdown phase. Figure 3 shows
TECHNICAL CONCEPT simulated mass flow in both of the DEP engine exhaust
systems compared to a standard turbocharged engine at
The Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) concept is an 5500 rpm. Over 60% of the mass flow and the highest
alternative way of accomplishing the gas exchange in a enthalpy levels are found in the blow-down pulse at
turbocharged engine. The aim is to improve the 5500 rpm in the standard turbocharged engine. The
performance of a turbocharged engine, regarding low- remainder of the mass flow is generated by the piston
end torque, peak power and emissions. In the DEP displacement, which can be seen in the figure as a
engine the two exhaust ports from each cylinder have second peak in the mass flow.
been separated. The blowdown pulse is evacuated
through the blowdown valve, which leads to the In previous sections five main difficulties with a 4-
turbocharger. As the pressure in the exhaust is cylinder conventional turbocharged engine were
decreased and the piston displacement phase described:
commence, the scavenging valve open and lead the • Cylinder evacuation
remaining exhaust gas directly to a close-coupled • Negative PMEP
catalyst (CCC). By bypassing the turbine the high • Pulse interaction between cylinders
pressure in the manifold connected to the blowdown • Knock sensitivity
valve is avoided and the gas exchange is improved. The • Cold start
engine is schematically shown in Figure 1. Figure 2
show the valve lifts for the blowdown valve leading The same reasoning as for a conventional turbocharged
towards the turbine and the scavenging valve connected engine holds true for the DEP concept when it comes to
to the close-coupled catalyst. choosing between a small or large turbine. The main
driving force behind the DEP concept is to avoid or
Important parameters for turbine performance are the decrease the negative effects coupled to a small turbine.
mass flow, the pressure difference and temperature The turbine is restricted in mass flow so that a
difference over the turbine, since these are related to the wastegate needs to be used at high load. Using a
enthalpy. Ideally the high enthalpy blowdown pulse is
located around BDC and a positive pressure difference
exists between cylinder and exhaust manifold. When the
standard t/c
pressure in the cylinder decreases, the positive pressure
difference decrease. By opening the cylinder to the 0.3
scavenging manifold, which has a lower pressure DEP
Mass flow rate [kg/s]

compared to the blowdown manifold, positive pressure blow-down


difference can be achieved over the engine during the 0.2 system DEP
Valve lift

exhaust/intake overlap higher up in the speed range of scavenging


the engine. system
0.1

The majority of exhaust gases are evacuated during the


blowdown pulse. The crank angle duration and mass 0.0
blow-down
fraction evacuated during the blowdown phase depend valve
scavenging
on engine speed. With increased engine speed the valve
pressure difference between the cylinder and the
90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405
exhaust manifold decreases and as a consequence the
mass fraction evacuated during the displacement phase Crank angle [aTDC]
increases. Choking of the exhaust valves influences the Figure 3 Simulated mass flows in the DEP engine exhaust systems
compared to a standard turbo charged engine at 5500 rpm.

2
wastegate is a loss of potential work. With the DEP EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP
concept the mass flow is divided already in the cylinder,
which has the same effect as a wastegate at high load, SIMULATION MODEL - In order to investigate the DEP
i.e. bypassing the turbine. concept more thoroughly an engine model was
developed in the 1-D software GT-Power [4]. The aim
Dividing the mass flow already in the cylinder, as with was to gain a more in-depth understanding of the gas
the DEP concept, has other advantages compared to a exchange process and to optimize the engine design
wastegate. Cylinder evacuation was mentioned as an with respect to valve timing and pipe design. 1-D
important factor for engine performance. By opening up simulation is based on the solution of the governing
the cylinder to a low pressure exhaust manifold, which in equations; momentum-, energy- and mass-
a sense is connected to the atmosphere, the high conservation, in 1-D. However, in order to transform a
pressure created by the turbine can be avoided. This 3-D problem to 1-D some additional information is
enables a better evacuation of the cylinder. needed. Figure 4 give some example of areas
dependent on input data.
By making the duration of the exhaust blowdown valve
only slightly longer than 180° CA, the pulse interference
between cylinders at blowdown can be eliminated. By 3-D phenomena 1-D model
• Combustion Representation of 3-D
eliminating the pulse into the cylinder the DEP engine • Pipes phenomena in 1-D
should be able to decrease the amount of hot residual • Valves ⇒
gases in the engine and decrease the gas exchange • Turbocharger Dependence on quality
pumping losses, thus enabling better volumetric • Intercooler of input data
efficiency, knock resistance and overall engine • …
efficiency.

Catalyst light-off time has a great influence on cold start Additional information
emissions. Hence, it is important to keep as much heat • Measurement data
• Coefficients
in the exhaust as possible in order to quickly reach • Advanced sub-models
catalyst light-off. Therefore placement of the catalyst
close to the exhaust ports is important. By implementing
Figure 4 Schematic image of the transformation from a 3-D heat
valve de-activation for the blowdown valve, all of the transfer, flow and chemical kinetics problem to 1-D.
exhaust gas is lead directly to the close-coupled catalyst
mounted in the scavenging exhaust system.
Consequently the emissions in terms of catalyst light-off The engine model was built by transferring the
time can be improved. The turbine is in this configuration geometrical dimensions of the engine into the model.
effectively bypassed and the turbine will not act as a Since the governing equations are only solved in 1-D, in
heat sink during cold start. the direction of the flow, 3-D effects must be taken into
account in some other manner. Flow loss coefficients
From the discussion presented above it is clear that are used in order to find the right pressure loss occurring
valve phasing and duration will have a great influence on from pipe bends, materials etc. These coefficients are
the results. In order to investigate and evaluate the DEP pre-defined in the software and usually not in need of
concept even further a number of cam profiles were much adjustment. The flow through the intake and
designed. The aim was to minimize the number of cams exhaust valves was modeled by discharge coefficients
and to have a clear strategy when evaluating the gas as a function of lift height, which was measured in a flow
exchange process for the DEP concept. The tests with bench [5]. Simulating the combustion is more
different camshafts aimed at determining the influence complicated. Due to the combination of 3-D flow and
on pumping losses, engine output and cylinder chemical kinetics it is necessary to use special
scavenging. Four key factors were identified and are combustion models or measurement data. In this project
described in Table 1. the combustion has been simulated with the Wiebe
function [4], which can be described as a curve fit to
Table 1 Identified key factors for cam timing and duration evaluation. measured heat release. The main drawback with using
such a combustion model is its dependence on
Case Parameter Objective measured combustion data, i.e. at what crank angle
Duration blowdown Investigate influence of cylinder 50 % of the fuel is burnt and the duration of the
1
valve emptying towards turbine
combustion. Hence, simulating unknown engine
Duration scavenging Investigate required energy to concepts relies on the quality of the assumptions made
2
valve drive the turbine for these combustion parameters.
Overlap scavenging Investigation of overlap influence
3
valve – intake valve between exhaust and intake valve The turbocharger is another complicated area.
Turbocharger modeling is based on performance maps
Investigate intake valve closing
4 Intake valve closing influence with constant TDC
for the compressor and turbine. These performance
overlap maps are based on flow bench measurements with
3
stationary flow [6]. The experimental data is then inter- 28 mm exhaust valve diameter. The cylinder head was
and extrapolated to obtain the full-range maps. The modified to house 32 mm exhaust valves with separated
maps relate speed and efficiency to the pressure ratio exhaust runners to the exhaust pipe flange. The coolant
and mass flow over the turbine and compressor. Since channels were also modified to ensure sufficient cooling
the turbocharger models are based on stationary of the exhaust ports. Specifications of the DEP engine
measurements in a limited range, these models can are found in Table 2.
require an extensive amount of tuning [7]. In order to
simplify the turbocharger simulation it is important to Table 2 DEP engine specifications.
measure pressure, mass flow and turbocharger speed.
Bore 86 mm
The turbocharger simulation is difficult to perform when
Stroke 86 mm
no knowledge of the actual engine performance is
Compression ratio 9.5
available.
Combustion chamber Pentroof
MEASUREMENT SET-UP - Since little knowledge was Inlet valve diameter 32 mm
available of how the combustion would change with the Exhaust valve diameter 32 mm
DEP concept and how the turbine would react to the
change in mass flow when the exhaust pulse was The valve durations are quite short compared to an
divided, a prototype engine was built to run parallel to ordinary turbocharged engine, especially the scavenging
the simulations. A number of experiments have also valve. In order to handle the dynamics of the valve and
been made to determine the potential of the DEP yet obtaining maximum valve lift, lightweight materials
concept. The engine tests were performed at KTH and had to be used for the exhaust valves. TI-Al exhaust
Fiat-GM Powertrain in-house facilities. valves were originally chosen to maximize possible
valve lift area. These valves were replaced with sodium
Cylinder pressures have been measured with AVL cooled steel exhaust valves due to high thermal load on
GM12D piezoelectric pressure transducers at a sample the blowdown valve. Lightweight conical valve springs
rate of 0.1 to 0.4 crank angles. 200 or more cycles have and valve spring retainers were also used along with the
been recorded for each operating condition as a base for standard roller rocker arms and hydraulic lifters.
cycle resolved indicated statistics. [8][9] Crank angle
resolved pressures in the intake and exhaust system A number of exhaust and inlet camshafts were
have been measured at several positions with manufactured in order to evaluate different valve
piezoresistive and steel diaphragm strain gauge overlaps; between the exhaust scavenging valve and the
pressure transducers. These pressure transducers were inlet valves as well as the overlap between the
calibrated in a static test rig, obtaining a total static blowdown valve and the scavenging valve in the exhaust
measurement uncertainty of the measuring chain in the stroke. The choice of valve lift profiles is described in
range ± 3 - 8 kPa. Analogue anti aliasing filters and detail in Table 3. Continuously variable camshaft
digital zero phase shift low pass filtering was applied to phasing, with an adjustment range of 50 CAD, was
the pressure signals prior to further analysis. installed on both the exhaust and the intake camshaft.
Temperatures have been measured time resolved with The lift profiles of the different camshafts were
type K thermocouples, with a typical response time in measured when mounted on the engine to ensure
the order of one second. Emissions have been proper valve lift curves as well as proper positioning
measured time resolved at different positions in the relative to the crankshaft.
exhaust systems. A two-channel fast flame ionization
detector was used for crank angle resolved hydrocarbon EXPERIMENTS - Several operating modes has been
measurements in the cold start tests. Other identified and tested on the DEP engine. These include:
measurements include fuel mass flow rate, broadband
lambda, turbine speed and torque. Air mass flow was 1. Low speed, where the scavenging exhaust system is
estimated from measurements of lambda and fuel mass shut off with the trapping valve, see Figure 1, to get
flow. sufficient mass flow over the turbine and prevent
blow through.
Limiting factors during the maximum torque tests has 2. High speed, where both exhaust systems are open
been 980°C maximum turbine inlet temperature and assist in emptying the cylinders.
measured with a 6 mm thermocouple, minimum overall 3. Cold start, where the blowdown exhaust system,
relative air/fuel ratio of 0.77, 100 kPa maximum boost leading to the turbine, is shut off.
pressure and maximum coefficient of variance of IMEP
(COV) 5 %. Ignition was advanced towards the knock Table 3 Valve opening and closing events for the reference camshaft.
limit.
Valve Duration Opening Closing
HARDWARE MODIFICATIONS – The DEP engine was [CAD] [aTDC] [aTDC]
based on a standard 2 dm3 turbocharged port fuel Exhaust blow-down 200 120 320
injected engine. The standard cylinder head with 4 Exhaust scavenging 159 220 379
valves per cylinder had 32 mm inlet valve diameter and Intake 239 341 580
4
process and power potential during cold start with only
Exhaust Exhaust the exhaust scavenging valve active. The second set of
blowdown scavenging Intake tests focused on optimizing the valve timing for the cold
valve valve valves
start. The second set of tests were performed in a cold
Valve lift

start rig without cylinder pressure measurements and


dynamometer, otherwise with a similar set-up as in the
Reference camshaft other cold start tests. A comparative test with a standard
Early scavenging 1 turbocharged engine was also performed. In the tests
Early scavenging 2 with the DEP engine, the roller finger follower was
removed from the blowdown valve in order to run the
90 180 270 TDC 450 540 630 engine with only the scavenging valve active.
Crank angle [aTDC]
Two different catalyst systems were evaluated in the
Exhaust Exhaust Intake
blowdown
cold start rig. One of the systems was a 400 cells per
scavenging valves
valve valve
square inch (cpsi) system that was designed for a close-
coupled installation behind the turbocharger in the
Valve lift

standard engine. The second system had two catalysts,


a 900 cpsi close coupled pre-converter and a 400 cpsi
Reference camshaft
Late scavenging main catalyst. This is a system that could be similar to a
production DEP system with the pre-converter placed in
the exhaust scavenging system and the main catalyst
90 180 270 TDC 450 540 630 after the junction of the two exhaust systems.
Crank angle [aTDC]
RESULTS
Figure 5 Valve lift profile combinations that have been tested in the
Divided Exhaust Period Engine. In this project initial testing was performed in order to
calibrate the simulation model so that it could be used in
Full load performance – A number of camshafts were further studies. Testing and simulation was then
manufactured and tested on the engine to evaluate the performed in parallel. Tests were used for simulation
performance of the DEP engine concept at full load. A model validation and simulations helped in interpretation
reference set of camshafts with valve lift events of test data. Simulation model data will be presented
according to Table 3 was selected. The tests with together with test engine performance for a number of
different camshafts aimed at determining the influence of key parameters below. Both cycle average and crank
divided exhaust period valve timing on pumping work, angle resolved results are shown.
engine output and cylinder scavenging. Continuously
variable camshaft phasing further increased the SIMULATION MODEL CORRELATION - One of the key
possibility to vary the valve timing. Camshaft parameters when simulating an engine model is the
combinations that have been tested are shown in Figure volumetric efficiency. Air mass flow was obtained from
5. Results from tests with varying exhaust scavenging measured fuel mass flow and measured lambda. Since
valve opening are reported in this paper. the DEP engine has two separate exhaust manifolds
several possibilities for measuring lambda exist. The
Cold start catalyst light-off – In order to meet future lambda value used for calculating mass flow was an
stringent legislation regarding emissions it is imperative
to achieve a fast light-off of the catalyst system. It is
measured simulated
important to heat up the catalyst substrate as fast as
possible to achieve a fast light-off. This is achieved by 1.1 800
running the engine with very late ignition timing [10] and
sometimes with secondary air injection to produce a
Volumetric efficiency

Mass air flow [kg/h]

secondary reaction in the exhaust manifold [11]. Ideally 1.0 600

all of the heat that is generated in this manner should be


transferred to the catalyst substrate. A major cause of 0.9 400
heat losses for turbocharged engines is the
turbocharger. With the DEP system, the turbocharger is
excluded during the cold start and a significant 0.8 200
improvement in cold start emissions was anticipated.
0.7 0
Two separate tests were performed to evaluate the cold 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
start performance of the DEP engine with active Engine speed [rpm]
catalysts installed in the exhaust scavenging system.
The first tests were focused on the gas exchange Figure 6 Comparison of volumetric efficiency and mass air flow
between simulation and measurement.
5
average from measured values in both the blowdown the DEP concept. At low engine speeds all of the energy
system and the scavenging system. For some cam in the exhaust has to be transferred via the turbine to the
settings a significant amount of blow through was compressor in order to reach the boost pressure target.
obtained, this will inevitably influence the measured However, with the DEP concept a part of the exhaust is
lambda value in the scavenging system. Hence the bypassed the turbine and as a consequence it is difficult
lambda measurement does not necessarily represent to reach the boost target. With the DEP engine concept
the combusted mixture. This will effect the calculation of it would be possible to use a smaller turbine without
mass flow. Figure 6 show a comparison between suffering from increased residuals, as the amount of
measured and simulated values of air mass flow and residual gas is not directly related to the exhaust
volumetric efficiency. The model does not show pressure before the turbine. Even with a considerably
particularly good accuracy over the speed range, which smaller turbine it would be very difficult to reach the
is surprising since most other engine calibration target with some of the exhaust energy lost through the
parameters show good agreement with measurement. scavenging system. A thorough matching of the
This discrepancy might be due to the previously turbocharger was not carried out and the tests were
mentioned difficulty in mass flow calculations from performed with a standard turbocharger with a smaller
measured lambda. Another explanation to the inlet area.
discrepancy in volumetric efficiency is related to the
modeling of residual gas. The DEP concept has In order to increase the boost pressure at low speed the
asymmetrical scavenging of the cylinder since only one trapping valve has to be closed, which forces all of the
exhaust valve is open during the scavenging phase. This exhaust past the turbine. Thereby the required boost
will affect the residual gas content. If the residual gas pressure can be obtained. With the trapping valve
content is not modeled correctly, this will affect the closed it is beneficial to have a very early scavenging
simulated volumetric efficiency. However, 3-D simulation exhaust valve opening, denoted early scavenging 2 in
was not available at this stage and 0-D simulation data Figure 8, thereby obtaining large overlap between the
was considered sufficient. blow down valve and the scavenging valve. (See Figure
8, compare early scavenging 1 and 2 at 1500 rpm.) A
MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURES – Simulated BMEP large overlap is necessary in order to have mass
and IMEP, shown in Figure 7, correlate well with transfer from the scavenging system into the blowdown
measurements. The engine model targets a specified system and subsequently through the turbine. The
BMEP by adjusting the wastegate diameter. IMEP does exhaust scavenging system is emptied into the exhaust
not correlate exactly due to uncertainty of simulated blowdown system via the following cylinder in firing order
FMEP values. during exhaust blowdown/scavenging overlap. The
power delivered to the compressor is increased with an
Looking at BMEP obtained in engine tests with different increased mass flow over the turbine. By charging the
camshafts in Figure 8, reveals that the DEP reached exhaust scavenging system with intake pressure the
slightly higher power than the standard engine in the mass flow across the turbine can be increased further,
tests. However, low speed BMEP was in fact below the hence the boost pressure can be increased as well.
standard engine when the trapping valve, see Figure 1, Camshaft phasing tests with closed trapping valve
was open. The reason for the low BMEP can be found in

2.2
measured simulated
2,4
2.0
IMEP
2,2 1.8
IMEP and BMEP [MPa]

BMEP [MPa]

2,0
1.6 closed
trapping
1,8
1.4 valve
BMEP
1,6 standard t/c
1.2 reference cam
1,4
early scavenging 1
1.0 early scavenging 2
1,2

1,0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000


1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Engine speed [rpm]
Engine speed [rpm]
Figure 8 Obtained brake mean effective pressure with different exhaust
Figure 7 IMEP and BMEP comparison between test and simulation. valve lift curves compared to the standard engine. The solid markers
Values for BMEP are on the same curve since the engine model indicate closed trapping valve in the scavenging exhaust system.
targets BMEP.

6
50 opening, denoted early scavenging 2 in Figure 9, results
in pumping work similar to the standard turbocharged
0
engine at low speed. However at high engine speeds the
pumping losses are significantly reduced. The power
improvement from the reduced pumping losses in the
-50
DEP engine is up to 10 kW at 5000 rpm, which is about
PMEP [kPa]

6 % of the engine rated power.


-100
RESIDUAL GAS CONTENT - One of the reasons for
-150 standard t/c designing the DEP engine was to decrease residual gas
reference cam content in the cylinder at full load in order to improve
-200 early scavenging 1 knock resistance and volumetric efficiency. The
early scavenging 2 simulation model proved to be helpful in estimating the
residual gas content. Figure 10 illustrate the difference in
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 residual gas content between the DEP engine and a
Engine speed [rpm] standard turbocharged engine, showing a difference
Figure 9 Comparison of pumping mean effective pressure at full load over the entire speed range. At 5500 rpm the residual
with different divided exhaust period valve lift profiles and standard t/c gas content is decreased with 14 %. However in the
operation. lower speed range the decrease is over 60 %.

showed that increased overlap between the scavenging Residual gas content was not measured in the engine
exhaust valve and intake valves boosted the engine tests. However, the pressure difference from intake
output significantly. A 20 % increase in available torque system to exhaust system at the gas exchange TDC
was observed at 1500 and 2000 rpm when the overlap gives a hint to how well the exhaust gases are
between exhaust scavenging valve and intake valves scavenged from the cylinders. Figure 11 shows this
was increased by 40 CAD. pressure drop obtained from engine tests with reference
camshaft and with early exhaust scavenging valve
The DEP engine exhibits positive PMEP over an opening. The standard turbocharged engine barely
extended speed range compared to a standard reaches a positive pressure difference in the mid speed
turbocharged engine, i.e. work is added to the range whereas the DEP engine has a large positive
crankshaft during the gas exchange. In addition, high pressure difference at all speeds up to 4500 rpm for the
speed negative PMEP is reduced compared to the reference camshaft. Increasing the scavenging exhaust
standard t/c engine. Figure 9 shows PMEP over the valve duration by early opening, denoted early
engine speed range with three different camshaft scavenging 1 in Figure 11, gives more time and valve
combinations, varying the opening of the scavenging area for evacuating the exhaust and also a higher
exhaust valve and blowdown/scavenging valve overlap, pressure difference at higher speeds. A very long
see Figure 5 top graph. Advancing the scavenging exhaust scavenging valve duration, denoted early
exhaust valve opening 15 CAD, denoted early scavenging 2 in Figure 11, gives a lower pressure
scavenging 1 in Figure 9, extends the range of positive difference at lower speeds, primarily due to loss of
pumping work and decreases high speed pumping available energy in the exhaust blowdown system and
losses even further compared to the DEP reference
camshaft. A very early scavenging exhaust valve
100 standard t/c
reference cam
80 early scavenging 1
cylinder at 360 aTDC [kPa]

early scavenging 2
8% 60% 60
Pressure drop over
Residual gas content at IVC

40
DEP improvement

6% Standard 40% 20
t/c engine
0
4% 20%
-20
DEP engine
-40
2% 0% 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Engine speed [rpm]
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Engine speed [rpm]
Figure 11 Pressure drop over cylinders (from intake runner to exhaust
Figure 10 Comparison of simulated values of residual gas content in runner in the scavenging exhaust system) at 360 aTDC for several
the cylinder for the DEP engine vs. the standard turbocharged engine. tested divided exhaust period exhaust valve lift profiles.
7
subsequent loss of boost pressure. Tuning of the significant pressure drop in the cylinder when the
scavenging exhaust system also has an effect on the exhaust scavenging valve opens at 230° aTDC. At the
pressure difference. When the exhaust scavenging valve same time, the pressure in the exhaust scavenging
duration is increased the optimum pulse reflection system rises to the pressure in the cylinder. The cylinder
behavior shifts towards higher speeds. pressure has reached atmospheric pressure a little after
270° aTDC, i.e. after half the exhaust stroke. During
GAS EXCHANGE IN THE DEP ENGINE – Ideally, the overlap between intake and exhaust scavenging valves,
exhaust scavenging system and the cylinder pressure there is a 30 kPa pressure drop over the engine, causing
has reached atmospheric pressure when the intake large amounts blow-through and poor trapping ratio.
valve opens. However, a very large pressure difference There is no evidence of pulse interference between
also produces large amounts of blow-through, i.e. fresh cylinders at blowdown with the 200 CAD duration of the
charge goes straight through the engine. Excessive exhaust blowdown valve. However, only moderate
blow-through gives poor trapping ratio, especially at low 34 kPa boost pressure is produced with open trapping
engine speed when valve overlap time is long. Blow- valve.
through can however also be of benefit to increase
possible boost pressure when the compressor operates With closed trapping valve, the boost pressure reaches
close to the surge limit. To increase the trapping ratio, 57 kPa, an increase of 23 kPa compared to open
the trapping valve in the exhaust scavenging system has trapping valve. All of the exhaust is forced through the
been introduced after the close-coupled catalyst, see turbine causing a higher pressure in the exhaust
Figure 1. By increasing the pressure in the exhaust blowdown system in the second half of the exhaust
scavenging system at low engine speed, the blow- stroke. The exhaust scavenging system acts as a buffer,
through can be limited. filling at the end of the exhaust stroke and during
exhaust scavenging/intake valve overlap and emptying
Figure 12 shows an example of the cylinder pressure its contents into the cylinder during exhaust
and both exhaust system pressures together with intake blowdown/scavenging valve overlap of the following
pressure in the DEP engine during gas exchange at cylinder in firing order. This can be seen in Figure 12
2000 rpm with open and closed trapping valve in the where the pressure in the exhaust scavenging system is
exhaust scavenging system. The initial behavior of the higher than the blowdown system pressure shortly after
blowdown pulse is similar in both cases. The top figure, the exhaust scavenging valve has opened. The
where the trapping valve is completely open, shows a measured hydrocarbon content in the blowdown system
at 2000 rpm with closed trapping valve is 6500 ppm CH4
equivalent, supporting the theory that fresh charge is
transported to the exhaust blowdown system via the
Cylinder Exhaust blow-down
Intake Exhaust scavenging exhaust scavenging system. By closing the trapping
valve, BMEP increases from 1,60 MPa to 1,71 MPa and
(open trapping valve)

180 Blow-down
brake specific fuel consumption decreases 16 %,
Pressure [kPa]

system suggesting better trapping ratio.


160

140 LIMITING FACTORS – Two key limitations have been


identified in the DEP engine; the engine exhibits high
120
turbine inlet temperatures and exhaust valves are
100 choked during the exhaust stroke.
Intake Scavenging
(closed trapping valve)

system Cylinder system Exhaust temperature - As mentioned previously,


180
simulation of the turbocharger is based on performance
Pressure [kPa]

160 maps. By comparing measured turbine speed to


140 simulated, the performance of the simulation can be
checked. Figure 13 show comparison of turbine inlet
120 temperature and turbine speed between simulation and
100 measurement. As can be seen in the figure the turbine
Exhaust Exhaust Intake
speed correlate well.
Valve lift

blow-down scavenging valves


valve valve The exhaust gas temperature limit in the engine test was
set to 1253 K due to material constraints. For the DEP
180 270 TDC 450 540 engine this temperature was reached already at
2250 rpm both in the tests and in the simulation, which
Crank angle [aTDC]
can be seen in Figure 13. This is a very low speed
Figure 12 Pressure in cylinder, exhaust blowdown system, exhaust
scavenging system and intake as a function of crank angle after
compared to a standard turbocharged engine. The most
combustion TDC during gas exchange at 2000 rpm with open (top) and likely explanation to the comparatively high temperature
closed (middle) trapping valve in the scavenging exhaust system. before the turbine can be found in the temperature and
Valve lift curves are shown in the bottom.
8
measured simulated
1400 mass averaged 0.3
1300 150 temperatures
Turbine inlet temperature [K]

Turbo speed [1000 rpm]


1200 130

Temperature [K]

Mass flow [kg/s]


DEP: 1249 K
1200 Std: 1195 K 0.2
1100 110
DEP
1000 90
1000 0.1
900 70

Standard t/c
800 50 800 0.0
90 135 180 225 270 315 360
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Crank angle [aTDC]
Engine speed [rpm] Figure 14 Temperature and mass flow in the turbine inlet in the DEP
Figure 13 Comparison of turbine inlet temperature and turbine speed engine compared to a standard turbocharged engine at 2500 rpm.
between measurement and simulation.

is also apparent that the scavenging valve is choked


mass flow across the turbine for the DEP engine. The during almost the entire displacement phase. The DEP
gas in the blowdown phase has the highest temperature concept would benefit from increased flow area of both
due to low expansion of the gas. As the pressure exhaust valves; the increase in exhaust valve diameter
decreases, the temperature of the gas also decreases from 28 mm to 32 mm was not enough to compensate
and by the end of the displacement phase the lowest the decrease in total valve lift area. Increased choked
temperature is reached. Due to the fact that the turbine period was also seen for the blowdown valve at lower
is fed only by the blowdown phase, the comparatively engine speeds however less pronounced. The choking
low temperature exhaust gas does not cool down the of the scavenging valve is in part explained by the lower
turbine. temperature in the scavenging system port compared to
a standard engine, leading to lower speed of sound and
Comparing simulation results for a standard more choking.
turbocharged engine with the DEP concept at 2500 rpm
supports this reasoning. In Figure 14 the temperature 250
and mass flow across the turbine is shown. The load in
these simulations is around 1.8 MPa BMEP for both
engines. There is a slight difference in the position of 5000 rpm
Cylinder pressure [kPa]

200
50% mass fraction burnt, 31 and 26 CAD aTDC for the
standard and DEP engine respectively. Due to the later 4000 rpm
phasing of combustion the standard engine has a 150 3000 rpm
slightly higher peak temperature in the blow down 2000 rpm
phase. However in the displacement phase the
temperatures are comparable. Hence, the problem with 1000 rpm
100

Valve lift
the high temperature can be explained by the fact that
the mass flow over the turbine for the DEP concept is
considerably smaller than for the standard engine during
50
the displacement phase. As a consequence this phase 180 270 360 450 540 630
has a much smaller effect in lowering the mass
averaged temperature for the DEP concept. Crank angle [ATDCf]
Figure 15 Cylinder pressure during the gas exchange for increasing
engine speeds in the DEP engine at full load with early scavenging
Flow over exhaust valves - The engine works as
exhaust valve opening. Valve lift curves for blow-down and scavenging
intended at low engine speeds with a significant exhaust valve and the inlet valves are also shown.
pressure drop in the cylinder when the exhaust
scavenging valve opens. This can be seen in Figure 15
that show measured cylinder pressures at several
engine speeds. At speeds over 3000 rpm the piston
displacement phase of the exhaust stroke starts to show
in the cylinder pressure. This is due to choked flow over
the exhaust valves. Figure 16 show Mach number
across the exhaust valve at 5500 rpm. The DEP engine
shows a substantially longer period of choked flow
during the blowdown phase compared to the standard
turbocharged engine, shown by the arrow in Figure 16. It

9
1.4
1.00 scavenging
1.2 DEP
valve
0.75 blow-down Standard t/c
DEP engine

valve
1.0

Pressure [MPa]
0.50
0.8 (4)
0.25
Heat release rate
Mach number

0.6
0.00 (2)
1.00 0.4 (3)
(1)
Standard engine

0.75 0.2

0.50 standard 0.0


t/c -90 0 90 180 270 360
0.25
Crank Angle [aTDC]
0.00 Figure 18 Cylinder pressure traces from cold start tests with a standard
gas exchange system and the DEP system.
90 180 270 360
Crank angle [aTDC]
The gas exchange was significantly changed during cold
Figure 16 Comparison of simulated Mach number across exhaust
valve between DEP engine and standard turbocharged engine at 5500
start in the DEP engine compared to a standard
rpm. turbocharged engine. The combustion phasing is very
late in order to heat the catalyst. This, in combination
with the short valve duration of the scavenging valve,
COLD START – The power potential during cold start leads to a rather peculiar cylinder pressure trace as
with only the scavenging valve active had to be shown in Figure 18. Four observations can be seen
investigated, since the engine has to run with the (numbered in the figure):
turbocharger inactive until both catalysts have reached
light-off. The exhaust scavenging valve duration was 1. The exhaust emptying period is very short for the
174 CAD compared to 240 CAD for the standard DEP concept.
turbocharged engine. The most likely scenario during 2. The cylinder content is recompressed before the
the first 20-30 seconds is low speed driving, similar to scavenging valve opens.
the speeds and loads found in for example the EC2005 3. The blow down interference from the following
emission cycle. These loads are typically below 10kW. cylinder in firing order is eliminated.
Therefore the power demand on the engine is rather 4. The combustion is much faster with the DEP-
low. In spite of the extremely short duration of the concept.
exhaust period, the engine was capable of producing
torque in the same range as a naturally aspirated
1.6 liters engine as seen in Figure 17. Even with a low The short exhaust emptying period is naturally due to
gearing this torque is sufficient to handle a 1700 kg the shorter cam duration, which also causes the
vehicle. recompression of the cylinder content. The latter lead to
an increased pumping work, which in turn lead to an
increased inlet pressure requirement in order to maintain
160 the engine speed. The increased inlet pressure during
860 cold start of the DEP engine, combined with the
155 elimination of the interfering exhaust pressure pulse
during the valve overlap lead to decreased residual gas
150 820 content and increased combustion rate. The combustion
BMEP [kPa]
Torque [Nm]

phasing is therefore slightly earlier in the DEP engine


145 than for the standard engine with the same ignition
780 timing. The ignition timing that was used during the tests
140 was the same as the calibration for the standard engine.
Various cam settings
Therefore the temperature in the exhaust manifold was
740
135 slightly lower for the DEP engine than with the standard
engine.
130
800 1200 1600 2000 2400
Engine speed [rpm]

Figure 17 Torque with only a 174 CAD scavenging valve activated.

10
and cooling system in the exhaust blowdown system,
Std t/c 1 cat from exhaust blowdown valve to the turbine. Since the
Std t/c 2 cat cold start catalyst light-off is handled by the close
DEP 1 cat coupled catalyst in the scavenging system, aggressive
DEP 2 cat measures can be taken to lower the exhaust gas
~38%
temperature in the blowdown system without affecting
catalyst light off time and cold start emissions.
Furthermore, the aging problem of the catalyst, due to
Time [s]

high exhaust temperatures, is also of less concern. The


close-coupled catalyst is placed in the scavenging
system where the exhaust temperature is low and the
main catalyst can be placed under the floor of the
vehicle where it can be cooled by the airflow underneath
the vehicle. This in turn allows a higher temperature out
from the turbocharger.

300°C 300°C <50 ppm It appears that the scavenging exhaust system plays a
before cat after cat HC major role in the gas exchange even when the trapping
Figure 19: Emissions cold start, 2 cat denotes close-coupled pre-
valve in the scavenging exhaust system is closed. By
catalyst 900 cpsi before a main catalyst 400 cpsi. 1 cat denotes close- varying the trapping valve opening, the exhaust
coupled main catalyst 400 cpsi. backpressure during the displacement part of the
exhaust stroke and during exhaust scavenging/intake
valve overlap can be adjusted. This can be used to
In spite of the lower exhaust temperature, the time to control the pressure difference over the engine and limit
300° C in front of the catalyst was reduced with 50% blow-through. Partially closing of the trapping valve can
compared to the standard engine. The cold start tests also provide the turbine with increased mass flow and
also demonstrated the ability to reduce emissions with higher enthalpy by increasing the cylinder pressure
the DEP system. In comparison to the standard during exhaust blow-down/scavenging valve overlap.
turbocharged engine the light off time, measured as the
time to achieve less than 50 ppm HC downstream the Variation of exhaust valve sizes might prove valuable to
catalyst, was reduced with 38% as shown in Figure 19. decrease the choking of the exhaust systems at high
This result was achieved solely by optimizing the speeds seen in Figure 15 and Figure 16. Also, CFD
exhaust scavenging/intake valve overlap. With additional computation of the in cylinder flow would give valuable
calibration of lambda strategy, ignition timing and information about how the spatial asymmetry in the
injection timing the results should be improved. cylinder introduced by only having one of two exhaust
valves open during exhaust scavenging/intake valve
DISCUSSION overlap affects the scavenging process. Introducing
temporal asymmetry in the intake valve opening could
High power-density engines are all limited by engine perhaps improve the scavenging further.
knock. By completely emptying the combustion chamber
from exhaust gas, engine knock can be significantly The demands on valve lift profiles vary a lot in terms of
reduced. This is accomplished by creating a higher both valve lift duration and overlaps over the engine
pressure in the intake than in the exhaust system during operating range. The DEP concept would benefit from
exhaust/intake valve overlap, thereby flushing out the fully variable valve mechanisms.
exhaust gas. However, with a PFI engine this usually
leads to high engine out HC emissions since the fuel in Tuning of the exhaust system is usually not considered
the port is also blown out into the exhaust. By using in the design of modern turbocharged engines. Exhaust
direct fuel injection this problem can be overcome. A pipe tuning usually requires long pipe lengths due to the
system such as the DEP system, which can create a high temperature and high speed of sound in the
positive pressure difference over the engine and has exhaust gases. Compact exhaust manifolds are used in
large blow-through, would naturally also benefit greatly turbocharged engines to minimize heat losses prior to
from DI. the turbine to preserve exhaust energy and also to
decrease catalyst light-off time. Another reason for
The temperature in the exhaust blowdown system choosing compact manifolds is to improve transient
proved to be high in the DEP engine, making some kind response of the engine. Introduction of the exhaust
of measure to reduce turbine inlet temperature scavenging system opens new possibilities for pipe
necessary. The high temperature arises since only the tuning without affecting the turbine. The lower
hottest of the exhaust gasses are fed through the temperature in the exhaust scavenging system
turbine, whilst the relatively colder exhaust gas in the combined with the short scavenging valve duration
late part of the exhaust stroke are completely bypassed enables short pipes to be used in a tuned scavenging
the turbine. This puts high demands on the materials system, facilitating vehicle packing of the engine.
11
The DEP concept is not necessarily limited to ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
turbocharged SI engines. Any turbocharged engine
could benefit from the reduced exhaust backpressure The authors would like to thank Eric Olofsson, Emil
and pumping losses in the DEP concept, especially Åberg and Adam Rundqvist for their invaluable help and
when wastegate controlled turbochargers are used. The guidance during the project.
DEP scavenging system can be considered as a more
efficient wastegate. The authors wish to thank the Green Car project funded
by the Swedish National Energy Administration for
CONCLUSION financing parts of this investigation.

In the section on Technical concept some difficulties with REFERENCES


a conventional 4-cylinder turbocharged engine were
identified. The objective with the DEP concept was to [1] Westin, Grandin, Ångström; The Influence of
improve the performance within these areas. Some Residual Gases on Knock in Turbocharged SI-
conclusions could be made from simulations and Engines; SAE 2000-01-2840
experiments: [2] Grandin B; Full load performance of a turbo
charged SI engine in the presence of EGR,
• The DEP concept succeeds in decreasing the ISSN 1400-1179, 1999:17
amount of residual gases in the engine by increased [3] British patent No. 12,227/22
pressure difference over the engine during overlap [4] Gamma Technologies, http://www.gtisoft.com/
between exhaust and intake valve opening.
[5] Heywood, J. B.; Internal Combustion Engine
• The pumping loss is decreased compared to a Fundamentals; McGraw-Hill Series in
standard turbocharged engine. The decrease is
Mechanical Engineering, McGraw-Hill 1988
around 100 kPa.
[6] Watson, Janota; Turbocharging the Internal
• Pulse interaction can be avoided by dividing the
Combustion Engine, MacMillan Press 1982
exhaust flow.
ISBN 0 333 24290 4
• A significant contribution to improve knock
[7] Westin F; Accuracy of turbocharged SI-engine
resistance for the engine is indicated by a decrease
simulations, ISSN 1400-1179, 2002:18
in residuals gas content.
[8] Brunt, M. F. J., Lucas, G.; The Effect of Crank
The catalyst light-off time can be reduced with the DEP Angle Resolution on Cylinder Pressure Analysis;
system compared to a standard turbocharger system. It SAE 910041
was shown that the time to reach a level below 50 ppm [9] Brunt, M. F. J., Emtage, A. L.; Evaluation of
HC after the catalyst could be reduced with 38% with a IMEP Routines and Analysis Errors; SAE
minor effort. 960609
[10] Chan, S. H.,Zhu, J.; The Significance of High
The concept also has some drawbacks. The possible Value of Ignition Retard Control on the Catalyst
power output of the DEP engine is limited due to high Lightoff; SAE 962077
exhaust temperatures. Choked flow in the exhaust [11] Kochs, M. W., Kloda, M., van de Venne, G.,
valves also gives an extended blowdown pulse and Golden, J. E.; Innovative Secondary Air Injection
increasingly negative pumping work at high engine Systems; SAE 2001-01-0658
speed.

The concept will require several valves and actuators to CONTACT


control the exhaust flow path making it costly to
implement in series production. Direct fuel injection and Christel Elmqvist Möller, M.Sc.
a variable valve mechanism would be desirable to Mail: Fiat GM Powertrain, Box 636,
exploit the full benefit of the divided exhaust period SE-151 27 Södertälje.
concept. E-mail: Christel.E.Moller@se.fiat-gm-pwt.com
Phone: +46 77 506 77 414
Summarizing, the DEP concept clearly has some
positive aspects, such as decreased PMEP, residual gas Fredrik Lindström, M.Sc.
content and catalyst light-off time. However, the Mail: KTH Machine Design,
simulations and experiments have also pointed out Brinellvägen 83, SE-10044 Stockholm.
some weaknesses, like high temperature before the E-mail: fredrikl@md.kth.se
turbine and choking of the exhaust valves. The parallel Phone: +46 8 790 7867
work with simulations and experiments has proven very
valuable both for the understanding of the concept and
for the validation and refining of the simulation models.

12
DEFINITIONS, ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS PMEP: Pump Mean Effective Pressure

DEP: Divided Exhaust Period MBT: Maximum brake torque spark timing

TDC: Top Dead Center t/c: turbocharged

BDC: Bottom Dead Center SI: Spark Ignited

CAD: Crank angle degrees DI: Direct Injection

IVC: Inlet Valve Closing PFI: Port Fuel Injection

BMEP: Brake Mean Effective Pressure CCC: Close Coupled Catalyst

IMEP: Indicated Mean Effective Pressure cpsi: cells per square inch

13
PAPER II
2003-01-3123

Optimizing Engine Concepts by Using a Simple Model for


Knock Prediction
Christel Elmqvist
Fiat-GM Powertrain/ Royal Institute of Technology

Fredrik Lindström and Hans-Erik Ångström


Royal Institute of Technology

Börje Grandin
Fiat-GM Powertrain

Gautam Kalghatgi
Shell Global Solutions

Copyright © 2003 SAE International

ABSTRACT significantly, it is still not possible to accurately model


autoignition of the unburned gas and the phenomena
The objective of this paper is to present a simulation that subsequently lead to engine knock, to such an
model for controlling combustion phasing in order to extent that such a model can be used as a predictive
avoid knock in turbocharged SI engines. An empirically tool. The goal of such simulation work could be to aid
based knock model was integrated in a one-dimensional and guide in the product development phase.
simulation tool. The empirical knock model was
optimized and validated against engine tests for a Simulations can be performed with different levels of
variety of speeds and λ. This model can be used to accuracy, where the knock prediction codes including
optimize control strategies as well as design of new detailed chemical kinetics have the largest level of
engine concepts. physicality. These codes are based on the chemical
reactions and rate coefficients for combustion and are
The model is able to predict knock onset with an very complex. A different approach is using empirical
accuracy of a few crank angle degrees. The phasing of relationships based on the Arrhenius function. The
the combustion provides information about optimal physicality decreases but on the other hand the potential
engine operating conditions. for studying realistic problems increase and the
computational time decrease drastically. In the absence
INTRODUCTION of knock models a common way is to look at the
simulated temperature in the unburned zone and change
One way of decreasing the CO2 contribution from the the phasing of combustion when the temperature
automotive sector is to increase the fuel efficiency. increases above a certain value. The change in phasing
Down-sizing, the use of supercharging, has proven to be of the combustion in the simulation is seen as analogue
an effective way of increasing the fuel efficiency in spark to retarding the spark timing on a real engine.
ignition (SI) engines. Unfortunately down-sized SI
engines are highly limited by knock. This paper will show the use of a zero-dimensional
model integrated in a one-dimensional simulation tool,
Knock in SI engines has been the focus of extensive which is capable of calculating the onset of knock for a
research ever since the first engine was manufactured defined combustion with a reasonable accuracy as well
more than a century ago. It is widely accepted that as controlling the combustion phasing, analogue to
knock is an acoustic phenomenon produced by the retarding the spark-timing. This tool is very important for
autoignition of the unburned gas in front of the flame optimizing turbocharged SI engine concepts and to
front [1,2]. Due to the potential for engine damage it is make a first calibration effort.
very important to avoid knock but at the same time, due
to efficiency reasons, be as close to knocking
combustion as possible. Although our knowledge of the
phenomena that cause knock has increased
BACKGROUND occurring when the pressure oscillations exceed a pre-
defined threshold value.
The term knock originates from the noise created by
pressure oscillations originating from spontaneous Knock also depends critically on the autoignition quality
ignition of the unburned mixture, the so called “end-gas”, of the fuel, which is usually determined by the octane
ahead of the advancing flame front [3]. number. However, in this work, we consider the engine
running on a single fuel and consider the effects of
changed operating conditions on knock.
Autoignition centre
End gas
A common approach for modeling knock is to look at the
Burnt gas
* temperature in the end-gas. This can give a very rough
idea of knock onset, but for turbocharged engines this
method is especially inappropriate. Knock is highly
Flame front
pressure dependent, as well as temperature, and since
turbocharged engines generally have higher cylinder
Figure 1 Autoignition centres in the combustion pressure than naturally aspirated engines it is a non-
chamber. negligible effect.
As the end-gas is compressed by the piston and the
propagating flame front, its temperature increases, EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
which can lead to autoignition centered around one or
more points (see Figure 1). The location of these The experiments were performed on a standard 2.0-liter,
autoignition centers depends on local inhomogeneities in 4-cylinder turbocharged SI engine. In Table 1 engine
composition and temperature [4]. Autoignition can lead specifications can be found.
to a drastic increase in heat release, which in turn could
cause pressure oscillations in the combustion chamber.
Table 1 Engine specification
Under some circumstances the heat release rate is too
small to sustain these pressure oscillations, hence Bore 86 mm
autoignition does not necessarily lead to knock [2]. On Stroke 86 mm
the other hand, the pressure oscillations could be severe Compression ratio 9.5
enough to cause engine failure. Combustion chamber hemisphere with central
spark plug
Pressure development following autoignition depends on
the mean temperature and the temperature gradient in
the end-gas. Three different modes have been identified The experiments were aimed at running the engine with
for the progress of combustion following autoignition: knocking combustion for different operating modes, the
deflagration, thermal explosion and developing conditions can be found in Table 2. When running into
detonation [5,6]. The last of these modes can cause very knocking combustion the spark was advanced from the
high amplitude pressure fluctuations, which could cause standard map until knock was audible.
engine damage. While engine damage from knock is an
important issue, usually the main practical problem is
low intensity knock, which is easily perceptible through Table 2 Experimental conditions
its characteristic noise. So in this work, as in most other Engine speed 2500, 3000, 3500 rpm
studies associated with knock, the events leading up to
λ @ 2500 rpm 0.92
autoignition and autoignition itself are the primary
concern. λ @ 3000 rpm 0.86, 0.99, 1.1
λ @ 3500 rpm 0.84
The occurrence of these different autoignition modes Fuel 95 RON
complicates the detection of knocking combustion. An Coolant temperature 90°C
effective way of detecting knock is to measure the
cylinder pressure. Depending on the sensor position the
detected pressure oscillations will vary due to the Cylinder pressure measurements were performed with
occurrence of the knock modes [7]. For practical one AVL GM12D pressure transducer per cylinder. The
reasons it is common practice to mount the pressure natural frequency of these transducers is 130 kHz. The
sensors in some channel connected to the cylinder. transducers were nearly flush mounted in order to be
However, when studying knock it is preferable that the able to detect knock with as little disturbance as
pressure sensor is flush mounted since otherwise possible. They were positioned 12 mm off the radial
oscillations stemming from the channel might interfere cylinder center in order to avoid the nodes of the pure
with the oscillations originating from autoignition. Since circumferential pressure oscillation modes. The signals
knock intensity is usually defined by the amplitude of the were sampled with an AVL Indimaster 670 with a
pressure oscillations, it is important to eliminate spurious resolution of 0.1 crank angles (CA) in the interval -30 to
oscillations. Common practice is to consider knock as 60 CA around combustion top dead center (CTDC),
corresponding to 150 kHz at 2500 rpm. In the remainder
of the cycle the resolution was 1 CA. For each operating 4
10

FFT of cylinder pressure


condition and cylinder at least 500 cycles were recorded.
3
KNOCK DETECTION 10

[bar]
To find the knock onset from the measured data, the 2
10
cylinder pressure was digitally band pass filtered. The
band pass window of the filter is centered on the 1st
1
circumferential mode of the knock induced pressure 10
oscillations, which normally has the highest energetic 0 5 10 15 20
Frequency [kHz]
content [8]. The width of the window is chosen to get
small phase distortion at the frequency of the first
circumferential mode. The cut-off frequencies 3.5 and Figure 2 Fast Fourier transform of a knocking cycle with
10 kHz were chosen. The reason for band-pass filtering frequency peaks at the oscillation modes of the cylinder.
instead of high-pass filtering is to avoid high frequency
measurement noise and disturbances.
Knocking cycles were identified by the peak value of the
The analytical solutions of the general wave equation
band-pass filtered cylinder pressure signals. The
[10] in a closed cylinder with flat ends, which is a rough
threshold for defining a cycle as knocking was set to
model of the combustion chamber, gives a good starting
1 bar. The peak amplitude of the band pass filtered
point for the selection of cut-off frequencies for the filter.
cylinder pressure was used as individual cycle knock
The solutions and, hence, the natural frequencies of the
combustion chamber model are [8, 9]: index (KI). A threshold of min{0.7 ⋅ KI; 0.9} was used for
determination of knock onset (KO), which proved to give
accurate results of KO. The value 0.7KI is chosen as a
α m ,n
f m ,n = c ⋅ Equation 1 compromise between the risk of erroneous detection of
πB KO due to signal noise and the accuracy of the KO
detection. More elaborate methods for determination of
where m is the circumferential mode number, n the KO has been suggested in [11] which also includes the
radial mode number, αm,n the vibration mode factor search of a zero crossing ahead of the threshold in the
determined by means of Bessel’s equations, cf. Table 3, filtered pressure signal. Figure 3 shows pressure and
B the bore and c the speed of sound estimated to band-pass filtered pressure of a knocking cycle and the
950 m/s. Table 3 contains estimated natural frequencies detected KO.
of the combustion chamber model.
Since information of the knock location is not available,
the measured KO is only accurate to within
Table 3 Acoustic modes of a closed cylinder model of the approximately 1-2 CA, depending on engine speed. The
combustion chamber with c = 950 m/s distance between the pressure transducer and the
(m,n) (1,0) (2,0) (0,1) (3,0) (1,1) autoignition center together with the local speed of
description 1st 2nd 1st 3rd 1st sound determines the delay between real KO and
circ. circ. radial circ. combin measured KO [12].
ed
αm,n 1.841 3.054 3.832 4.201 5.332 100
Cylinder pressure [bar]

fm,n [kHz] 6.5 10.7 13.5 14.8 18.7 80

Filtered cylinder
pressure [bar]
60
40
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the measured knock
cycles confirms the calculated frequency of the 1st 20 2 KI
circumferential mode at approximately 6.5 kHz. Figure 2 0 0
is an example of the frequency content in a knocking -2
cycle. The peaks at the frequencies of the cylinder -20 0 KO 20 40 60
oscillation modes from Figure 2 are clearly seen. CA
Another observation is that the transducer position, 12
mm off the cylinder center, suppresses the Figure 3 Cylinder pressure for a knocking cycle from
circumferential oscillation modes while the radial modes lean combustion at 3000 rpm and filtered cylinder
at approximately 14 and 19 kHz are more prominent. pressure of the cycle. KO = 14.1 CA, KI = 2.57.
SIMULATION MODEL plotted for several knocking cycles and showed in
relation to the average, minimum and maximum value
The aim with the simulation model is to integrate a knock for the entire test run.
model into an existing one-dimensional model of the
engine. The one-dimensional model is based on 18
thermodynamic laws for calculation of the pressure and Maximum CA for 50% burnt
16

CA for 50% burnt [CA]


temperature in the engine. The assumption of one- 14
dimensional simulation is that three-dimensional 12
phenomena can be simulated with one-dimensional 10 Average CA for 50% burnt
tools sufficiently if the output data from the one- 8
dimensional simulations agree with measurements of 6
the physical phenomena. 4
Minimum CA for 50% burnt
2
COMBUSTION 0
0 10 20 30
An SI-engine always suffers from cycle to cycle
variations. These variations depend on in-cylinder flow Cycle number
variations due to the stochastic nature of turbulent flow,
local variations in the fuel/air mixture in the cylinder etc.
These phenomena can currently not be practically
Figure 4 50% burn point for knocking cycles and minimum,
simulated by any simulation code. In one-dimensional
maximum and average 50% burn point for all cycles at 2500
codes the combustion is often specified in either of two
rpm and λ=0.92.
ways: By a Wiebe function or by estimating the laminar
and turbulent flame velocity. The Wiebe function is
commonly presented as [3]:
As can be seen in Figure 4 the knocking cycles have a
  θ −θ0  m +1
 faster than average combustion event, where the CA for
xb = 1 − exp − a   Equation 2 50% burnt is seen as a measure of the combustion
  ∆θ   speed. The flame development speed also influences
the knock intensity. For a given operating condition, the
faster the flame development, the higher the knock
where θ is the crank angle, θ0 the start of combustion, ∆θ intensity [12,13]. In the evaluation process of an engine
the combustion duration, a and m are adjusted to the the average values are commonly used, this then give a
measured curve. The Wiebe function can be described rough idea of the engine performance. When studying
as a curve fit to the accumulated heat release, which is knock the perspective is moved from the average values
based on measured cylinder pressure. Hence, a Wiebe to the faster than average, since these are the knocking
based model can never be predictive. On the other cycles. The faster cycles will be limiting for engine
hand, the Wiebe method of describing combustion is performance and decisive for permitted boost pressure,
very robust and can accurately describe the engine the choice of fuel octane requirement and compression
operating conditions for which it has been tuned. The ratio.
model can even be used for semi-predictive modeling, if
care is taken when analyzing the results. Common Since knock is dependent on the flow characteristics,
parameters when describing the combustion are: The fuel distribution etc, a thorough simulation of the knock
CA for 50% burnt and the duration between 10% and phenomena would require a three-dimensional
90% burnt. By defining these parameters the simulation with chemical kinetic calculations. This
combustion event is defined through the Wiebe function. approach is very time consuming and also dependent on
local details in the turbulent flow field and rate
As mentioned previously, knock is caused by coefficients for the chemical reactions, which are not
autoignition of the unburned gas ahead of the flame available for practical fuels. For quicker and more
front, leading to pressure oscillations in the combustion practical calculations of the knock onset an empirical
chamber. Hence, in order to model the thermodynamic model is used. The knock model is integrated in a one-
state of the unburned zone a two-zone combustion dimensional simulation code and based on an empirical
model is used. The pressure in the combustion chamber relationship for calculation of the ignition delay and the
is assumed to be uniform in the unburned and burned theory developed by Livengood and Wu [14]. Livengood
zone. The unburned zone temperature can be calculated and Wu proposed that autoignition occurs when:
by assuming adiabatic compression, neglecting the heat
transfer between the burned and unburned zone.

KNOCK MODEL THEORY


t knock
1
Knock occurrence has a clear relationship to the phasing
of the combustion. In Figure 4 CA for 50% burnt are ∫
t =0
τ
dt = 1 Equation 3
operating conditions is important information in the
where τ represents the ignition delay time and t is the calibration process of an engine. Additionally when
elapsed time between start of compression to time of examining a new engine concept it is important that the
autoignition. The ignition delay time, τ, represents the simulations are performed as realistically as possible.
time it takes to establish the amount of radicals and heat Producing simulation data that would actually be
necessary for autoignition to take place for a fixed impossible to obtain in real life due to the occurrence of
pressure and temperature. This time is calculated by knock, is of limited value.
fitting experimental data to an Arrhenius type function:
A control block was integrated in the one-dimensional
X  simulation code. The aim of the control block is to
τ = X1 * p −X 2
exp 3  Equation 4 simulate the retardation of the spark timing, in order to
 Tu  move the simulated operating point to the knock limit. In
this way approximate information about engine
where τ is the ignition delay in ms, X1, X2 and X3 are
conditions in the non-knocking regime as well as
constants that should be fitted to the experimental data,
information of optimal combustion phasing is gained.
p is the pressure and Tu the unburned zone
temperature. Hence, by substituting Equation 4 into
Since the model is based on the Wiebe combustion
Equation 3 one gets:
model, the simulation model has no spark timing.
Instead a change in the CA for 50% burnt is seen as
t knock analogue to a change in spark timing. As the combustion
1
∫ X 
dt = 1 Equation 5 phasing is changed so does the duration of the
combustion. A general relationship, for the measured
t =0
X1 * p −X2
exp 3  data, between the CA for 50% burnt and the combustion
 Tu  duration can be found by fitting straight lines to
Some additional limit is needed to distinguish between measured CA for 50% burnt and combustion duration for
knocking and non-knocking cycles. In Figure 5 knock different cases. It was found that these lines have similar
intensity is plotted against mass fraction burned. slopes. The coefficient of determination, R2, is in the
range 0.3 – 0.6 for most cases. Figure 6 shows the
relationship between duration and the CA for 50% burnt
4 3000 fuel-lean for one test condition.
3000 stoich.
Knock index [bar]

3000 fuel-rich 32
3
30
Combustion duration [CA]

2
28

26
1
50 60 70 80 90 100
Mass fraction burned at knock [%] 24

Figure 5 KI as a function of mass fraction burnt. 22


From Figure 5 it can be concluded that no cycles knock 20
after 93% of the fuel is burned. Cowart et. al. [15]
propose that unburned mass at knock onset is about 10 18
to 20%. Hence, it was found appropriate to add the 0 5 10 15 20 25
restriction that the integral must become equal to one CA for 50 % burnt [ATDC]
before 93% of mass is burned for the simulation to be
considered operating at the knock limit. Figure 6 Measured combustion duration as a
function of 50% burn point and a straight line fitted
COMBUSTION PHASING to data recorded in cylinder 1 at 3000 rpm and
λ = 1.1. The slope is 0.61 and R2 = 0.57.
Once it has been established that it is possible to
calculate the knock onset by these empirical
relationships, this can be used in practical engine As an approximate tool for phasing the combustion the
development. As mentioned earlier, for efficiency duration will be changed with 0.5 CA for each CA
reasons it is important to operate an engine as close to increase in CA for 50% burnt. The phasing of CA for
knock as possible. Since knock is dependent on the 50% burnt is approximated by fixed phasing steps.
phasing of combustion, common practice when running
engines on test beds is to retard the spark timing until
knock does not occur. Information about knock onset as
well as optimal combustion phasing at different
Figure 7 gives a schematic image of the engine φ knock , i 2
k 1 1 
simulation and control blocks.
SS = ∑  ∫ dφ − 1

i =1  X 1 ⋅ 6 N i φ = −140 p i− X 2 exp( X 3 Tu ,i ) 

1-D simulation of the engine
Cylinder pressure Integral Equation 6
Unburned temperature value
Knock model
0-D simulation of
50 % burn point where k is the number of individual cycles to be studied
the combustion
Control of combustion and N is the cycle speed in rpm. However, Equation 6
Duration phasing proved to have poor properties for optimization and a
unique minimum could not be determined. Figure 8
shows the value of Equation 6 when X1 and X2 are
Figure 7 Structure of simulation
varied.
In short the zero-dimensional combustion model Douaud and Eyzat
provides the knock model with the cylinder pressure and
temperature of unburned zone. The knock model
calculates Equation 5 and the value of the integral is 6
used as input to the control block. If the integral value is
equal to one, before 93% of the mass is burned, and 4
hence the engine is simulated to be knocking, the

SS
control block changes the CA for 50 % burnt and the
2
duration of the combustion. When this information is
0.03
sent back into the combustion model cylinder pressure
0 0.02
etc are recalculated. These calculations are performed
2 0.01
until the engine simulation fulfills the pre-defined 1.5 1
convergence criteria. Once the model has converged the 0.5 0 0 X1
X2
one-dimensional simulation of the engine will provide us
with information about the new operating condition. This
goes on until the control block no longer detects any Figure 8 The shape of Equation 6 when X1 and X2 are
knock, the integral is less than one at 93% burned mass. changed and X3 = 3800 K. The marker shows the values
The simulations will then have resulted in information recommended by Douaud and Eyzat [16].
about the original knock onset as well as one-
dimensional information about the engine operating
condition. The parameters of Equation 6 are coupled. X2 and X3
control the shape of the Livengood-Wu integral and X1
The combustion phasing can also be used to move the sets the overall level of the integral. An increase in X1
engine from non-knocking, inefficient conditions to its will decrease the value of the Livengood-Wu integral,
most efficient operating condition. Hence, by using the which can be compensated by an increase in X2. This
control block for combustion phasing simulations can be makes Equation 6 inadequate for optimization purposes.
performed at the operating condition most efficient for Suggestions to use mean pressure and temperature
the specific engine. between ignition and knock onset for optimization have
not been attempted in this paper [10,15]. Instead the
values of X2 and X3 were set to 1.7 and 3800
Results respectively, according to the recommendations of
Douad and Eyzat [16]. Equation 6 was minimized by
OPTIMIZATION OF THE KNOCK MODEL finding the optimal value for X1. The optimization was
performed using pressures and knock angles from
Since the main interest is to find the knock onset rather measurements and simulated temperatures of the
than knock time in seconds Equation 5 has been unburned gas from the two-zone combustion model. The
modified accordingly. The idea was to minimize the error optimization was performed for several cases with
of the Livengood-Wu integral at measured knock angle varying speed and lambda. Only a fraction of the
by using the least squares method as suggested by measured knock cycles were used for optimization,
Douaud and Eyzat [16]. Equation 6 gives the equation to whilst the rest were used for validation of the identified
be minimized. parameter X1. The optimization resulted in that the
following values were used for the constants:

X1 = 0.021, X2 = 1.7, X3 = 3800


Figure 9 shows measured and simulated knock onset for on the operating condition. Hence, there is a need for a
ten cycles with a comparison between the simulated method with greater generality in predicting knock onset.
knock onset using the optimized value for X1 and the
parameters from Douaud and Eyzat [16]. As mentioned previously a small selection of knocking
cycles were used to optimize the constants in Equation
4. The model was then used to predict the knock onset
20 measured for cycles not optimized for. Figure 11 to Figure 13 show
simulated, simulated knock onset versus measured knock onset for
Douaud and Eyzat a range of speeds and lambda.
18
Knock onset [CA ATDC]

simulated,
optimized X1
16

Simulated knock onset


14 18
17
12 16
15
10
14
8 13
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 12
Cycle
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Measured knock onset [CA ATDC]
Figure 9 Validation of the optimisation of parameter X1
for ten knocking cycles not used in the optimisation.
Figure 11 Measured versus simulated knock angle for 2500
rpm and λ= 0.92
From Figure 9 it can be concluded that using the
20
optimised value of X1 give a great improvement of the
Simulated knock onset

simulated knock onset when comparing to measured 18


data.
16
KNOCK MODEL Stoichiometric
14
rich
Firstly the convention of studying the unburned zone 12 lean
temperature for knock detection was examined. Figure 9
shows a clear dependence between the temperature 10
and knock onset. 10 12 14 16 18 20
Measured knock onset [CA ATDC]

2500 rpm
940
930 3000 rpm
Unburned zone
temperature [K]

3500 rpm Figure 12 Measured versus simulated knock angle for 3000
920
rpm and λ= 0.99 (Stoich.), λ= 0.86 (rich), λ= 1.1 (lean)
910
900 14
Simulated knock onset

890 13
880 12
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 11
10
Knock onset [ATDC]
9
8
7
Figure 10 Unburned zone temperature as a function of
6
knock onset for three different speeds.
6 8 10 12 14

However, as can be seen from Figure 10, setting a Measured knock onset [CA ATDC]
general temperature threshold for knock onset, valid
over a range of speeds, will become inaccurate. If a
Figure 13 Measured versus simulated knock angle for
temperature limit should be used for identifying knocking
combustion, this limit will need to be changed depending 3500 rpm and λ= 0.84
From the previous pictures it can be concluded that [3] Heywood, J. B., “Internal Combustion Engine
knock onset can be modelled within an accuracy of Fundamentals”, McGraw – Hill, inc 1988.
approximately two degrees.
[4] Burgdorf, Klaas, “Engine Knock: Characteristics and
The measured and simulated knock onset as well as the Mechanisms”, PhD thesis, Chalmers University of
average difference has been summarized in Table 4. Technology, 1999

[5] König, G., Maly, R. R., Bradley, D., Lau, A. K. C. and


Table 4 Knock onset
Sheppard, C. G. W., “Role of Exothermic Centres on
Case [rpm] 2500
3000, 3000, 3000,
3500 Knock Initiation and Knock Damage”, SAE 902136,
lean stoich. rich 1990.
Measured
average
14.7 13.8 14.8 12.3 8.6 [6] Pan, J. and Sheppard, C. G. W., “A Theoretical and
Experimental Study of the Modes of End Gas
Simulated Autoignition Leading to Knock in S.I. Engines”, SAE
14.5 13.5 17.3 12.2 8.9
average 942060, 1994.

Average
0.16 0.28 -2.42 -0.08 -0.32 [7] Fischer, M., et.al., “Knock Detection in Spark-Ignition
Difference Engines: New Tools and Methods in Production-Vehicle
Development“, MTZ Issue 3/2003.

[8] Brunt, F. J., et. al., “Gasoline Engine Knock Analysis


Table 4 shows very good agreement between measured using Cylinder Pressure Data”, SAE 980896, 1998.
and simulated knock angle. The stoichiometric case at
3000 rpm shows the largest average inaccuracy [9] Millo, F. and Ferraro, C. V., Knock in S.I. Engines: A
between measured and simulated values of 2.4 degrees. Comparison between Different Techniques for Detection
and Control, SAE 982477
CONCLUSION
[10] Young, H. D., Freedman, R. A.,University Physics,
The conventional way of studying knock by examining 9th Ed., Addison-Wesley, 1995
the unburned temperature is found to be inadequate
since, as shown in Figure 10, the unburned temperature [11] Worret, R. et. al., “Application of Different Cylinder
at knock onset is strongly dependent on engine speed. Pressure Based Knock Detection Methods in Spark
Instead an empirical knock model was implemented into Ignition Engines”, SAE 2002-01-1668
the one-dimensional model of an engine.
[12] Chun, K. M. and Heywood, J. B., “Characterization
The empirical knock model is able to predict knock onset of Knock in a Spark-Ignition Engine”, SAE 890156,
by approximately two crank angle degrees. Due to the 1989.
difficulty in measuring knock onset, this is seen as a very
good result. Although the model is based on the Wiebe [13] Kalghatgi, G. T., Snowdon, P. and McDonald, C. R.,
function, it can be used as a first estimate in control and “Studies of Knock in a Spark Ignition Engine with CARS
design of new engine concepts. The possibility to Temperature Measurements and Using Different Fuels”,
change the phasing of the combustion increases the SAE 950690, 1995.
usefulness of the model.
[14] Livengood, J. C. and Wu, P. C., “Correlation of
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Autoignition Phenomenon in Internal Combustion
Engines and Rapid Compression Machines”, Fifth
The authors wish to thank Eric Lycke, Henrik Nilsson, Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp. 347-356,
Emil Åberg at the Royal Institute of Technology and 1955.
Pontus Johansson at Fiat-GM Powertrain for their
invaluable help. [15] Cowart, J. S., Haghgooie, C. E., et. al., “The
Intensity of Knock in an Internal Combustion Engine: An
REFERENCES Experimental and Modeling Study”, SAE 922327, 1992.

[1] By, A., Kempinski, B. and Rife, J.M., “Knock in Spark [16] Douaud, A. M. and Eyzat, P., “Four-Octane-Number
Ignition Engines”, SAE 810147, 1981. Method for Predicting the Anti-Knock Behaviour of Fuels
and Engines”, SAE 780080, 1978.
[2] König, G. and Sheppard, C. G. W., “End Gas
Autoignition and Knock in a Spark Ignition Engine“, SAE
902135, 1990.
DEFINITIONS, ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS CTDC combustion top dead center

KO knock onset ATDC after top dead center

KI knock index R2 coefficient of determination in a least squares


Var ( y − yˆ )
curve fit yˆ = a + bx, R = 1 −
2
FFT fast Fourier transform
Var ( y )
CA crank angle
Tu Unburned zone temperature
PAPER III
2005-01-2106

An Empirical SI Combustion Model Using Laminar Burning


Velocity Correlations
Fredrik Lindström, Hans-Erik Ångström
Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)

Gautam Kalghatgi
Shell Global Solutions and KTH

Christel Elmqvist Möller


GM Powertrain-Europe

Copyright © 2004 SAE International

ABSTRACT levels of expertise and uses large amounts of


computation time. Therefore, simplified one-dimensional
Predictive simulation models are needed in order to simulation is often used. In one-dimensional simulation,
exploit the full benefits of 1-D engine simulation. equations for conservation of mass, momentum and
Simulation model alterations such as cam phasing affect energy are solved in time and in one space dimension
the gas composition and gas state in the cylinders and along the main flow direction in the engine pipes.
have an effect on the combustion. Modelling of these Additional models, correlations or measurements are
effects is particularly important when the engine is knock needed in one-dimensional codes to capture three-
limited. A knock model, able to phase the combustion dimensional phenomena such as flow over valves and
towards the knock limit, was previously developed by the combustion.
authors. A major challenge in such knock models is to
predict the pressure and temperature evolution in the Three-dimensional modeling of the combustion in SI
end-gas accurately through an adequate combustion engines requires a combination of chemical kinetics and
model. The Wiebe function is often used to model the turbulent flow modeling. Simplified models in one-
combustion in SI engine simulations, owing to its ease of dimensional simulations estimate the turbulent flame
use and computational efficiency. The Wiebe function propagation in the combustion chamber based on
simply imposes a curve shape for the fuel burn rate and combustion chamber geometry, turbulence intensity and
the parameters are easily determined from calculated laminar and turbulent burning velocities. Even simpler
heat release. Detailed models of turbulent combustion two-zone combustion models divide the combustion
also exist which require more knowledge or assumptions chamber into two sub volumes, the burned zone and the
about combustion chamber turbulence. The combustion unburned zone, and impose a combustion rate to
model proposed in this paper uses existing correlations determine the relative size of each zone. Finally, the
of laminar burning velocity to predict the parameters of measured or estimated cylinder pressure can be used
the Wiebe function relative to a base operating as input to the simulation model to eliminate the need of
condition. The model aims at predicting combustion at a combustion model.
high load operation. Experimental and simulation data
from a gasoline fuelled 4-cylinder turbo charged port The combustion model is used to predict the pressure
injected spark ignition engine are used to correlate the and temperature development in the cylinder after the
Wiebe function parameters dependence on laminar combustion has been initiated. Accurate predictions of
burning velocity. unburned zone pressure and temperature are
particularly important when the modeled engine might be
INTRODUCTION knock limited. Knocking combustion is caused by auto
ignition of unburned mixture ahead of the propagating
Engine simulation is becoming an increasingly important flame and is a strong function of pressure and
engineering tool for time and cost efficiency in the temperature. The complex models are comprehensive in
development of internal combustion engines. Many that they try to address all the relevant physical and
phenomena in engines are three-dimensional in their chemical phenomena but they may not be more
nature. Three-dimensional CFD simulation requires high accurate than the simpler models at predicting pressure

1
and temperature because of the many uncertainties in and especially for gasoline:
modeling these complex phenomena. Livengood and
Wu [1] suggested that the integral of the inverse of the α g = 2,4 − 0,271φ 3,51
ignition delay τ : (4)
t knock β g = −0,357 + 0,141φ 2, 77
1
∫ τ dt = 1 (1)
t =0 Bm, Bφ and Φm are constants for specific fuels. ~
xrg is the
can be used to predict when knock occurs. Douaud and residual gas mole fraction.
Eyzat [2] proposed the Arrhenius type expression for
ignition delay time: One origin of turbulence is the intake stroke; small scale
turbulence is created by the flow over valves and large
⎛B⎞ scale charge motion is created by orientation and
τ = A * p −n exp⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ (2) symmetry of intake ports. The piston motion also
T
⎝ u⎠ induces turbulence. The turbulence intensity in tumbling
where p is cylinder pressure and Tu is unburned zone engines increases near top dead center due to tumble
temperature. The constants A, n and B are different for breakdown. Measurements of local turbulence near the
different fuels. A value of 1.7 for the pressure exponent, spark plug in a tumbling SI engine by Söderberg [6]
n is suggested by Douaud and Eyzat for primary show turbulence intensity maximum just before or at
reference fuels, PRF, [2] whereas Hirst and Kirsch [3] TDC and also a transition from larger scale turbulence to
suggest that for toluene / n-heptane mixtures, toluene smaller scale turbulence around TDC. Turbulence
reference fuels, TRF, n~1.3. A value of 3800 is intensity decreases after TDC.
suggested for B for PRF fuels by Douaud and Eyzat. It is
only the latest part of combustion, when temperature is THE WIEBE FUNCTION - One way of specifying the
high, that will give significant contribution to the integral combustion rate in a two-zone combustion model is the
in Equation 1. This might have implications on where Wiebe function [7]. The functional form:
simulated combustion have to be accurate with a knock
⎡ ⎛ θ − θ 0 ⎞ m +1 ⎤
model as described above.
xb (θ ) = 1 − exp ⎢− a⎜ ⎟ ⎥ (5)
The combustion in SI engines has been studied
⎢⎣ ⎝ ∆θ ⎠ ⎥⎦
extensively in the past. The first stage of combustion
after spark discharge is considered to be a spherical is used to describe the fraction of fuel burnt xb based on
flame growing with a speed close to the laminar burning considerations of chain reactions in general and the time
velocity [4]. Cyclic variations originate during the flame dependence of concentration of reaction centers. θ is
development period due to variations in mixture the crank angle, θ0 is the start of combustion and ∆θ is
strength, residual gas content and turbulence close to the total combustion duration. The parameter m is called
the spark plug. Turbulent flame propagation onsets once the combustion mode parameter and defines the shape
the flame radius reaches the local length scale of of the combustion profile. m was introduced by Wiebe to
turbulence. The turbulence wrinkles the flame. Turbulent describe the time dependence of concentration of
burning velocity depends on the laminar burning velocity reaction centers by the function:
and the turbulence intensity and length scales.
ρ = kt m (6)
Several correlations of laminar burning velocity for
different fuels are found in the literature. These where k is a constant. In a spherically expanding flame
correlations describe the influence of air-fuel ratio, with constant flame speed one would expect m to be 3.
pressure, temperature and residual gas content onto the Accelerating flame speed should give higher values and
laminar burning velocity. The experiments are normally vice versa. Wiebe found m to be in the range 2-4 for SI
conducted in constant volume combustion vessels at engines. The value of the constant a in Equation 5
several initial pressures and temperatures. Heywood [5] follows from the chosen definition of end of combustion.
summarizes the results of several authors in the With the mass fraction burned xb,EOC = 99,9% at the end
equations: of combustion, a has the value:
α
⎛ T ⎞ ⎛ p ⎞
β
a = − ln (1 − x b , EOC ) = − ln 0,001 = 6,90 (7)
S L = S L ,0 ⎜ u ⎟ ⎜ (
⎟ 1 − 2,06 ~
x rg0,77 )
⎝ 298 ⎠ ⎝ 1,013 ⎠
Total combustion duration ∆θ is not to be confused with
α = 2,18 − 0,8(φ − 1) (3) 10-90% combustion duration, which is often reported
β = −0,16 + 0,22(φ − 1) from engine tests and used as input to the Wiebe
function in the simulation software GTPower.
S L , 0 = Bm + Bφ (φ − φ m )
2
Relationship between ∆θ and 10-90% combustion
duration are found in Appendix A.
2
The Wiebe function is commonly used in SI engine Table 1 Engine specifications
simulation. Several correlations of one or several of the Bore 86 mm
Wiebe function parameters to engine operating
Stroke 86 mm
conditions have been proposed in the literature, see
Compression ratio 9,5
references [8][9][10]. These works provide correlations
Displaced volume 0,5 dm3 per cylinder
of the change of Wiebe parameters and ignition delay
Cylinder head 4-valve pentroof with
time ∆θign relative to a base operating condition:
central spark plug
∆θˆign = ∆θ ign,0 ⋅ ∏ f i Fuel gasoline, 95 RON
i

∆θˆ = ∆θ 0 ⋅ ∏ g i (8) gas content could be achieved. The engine was fitted
i
with a cooled EGR system. The engine was mounted in
mˆ = m0 ⋅ ∏ hi a test bed with capability of precise control of
i temperatures in engine, charge air cooler and EGR-
system.
and the functions for relative influence of different
operating parameters have the form: Measurement setup - Cylinder pressure was measured
in all four cylinders with un-cooled AVL GM12D
Gi miniature piezoelectric pressure transducers. Cycle
gi = (9)
Gi , 0 individual cylinder pressure referencing was obtained by
setting the average cylinder pressure equal to average
inlet runner pressure in a crank angle interval during the
where Gi are functions describing the influence of intake stroke. Inlet and exhaust pressures were
operating condition i. The relative influence of operating measured at several positions in the intake and exhaust
condition i is found by forming the quota gi. The results system with GEMS 2200-series strain gauge pressure
from Witt [9] have been used with good results in [11] to transducers and Kistler 4045 piezoresistive pressure
predict combustion in simulations. A different approach transducers. The signals were sampled with 0.2° or 0.4°
is found in [12] where functions for relative change crank angle resolution with a 12-bit A/D-converter.
similar to Equation 8 are used to correlate changes of Analogue low-pass filters, chosen with regard to
5% burnt, 90% burnt and max burn rate. The obtained sampling frequency and transducer resonance
changes are used to stretch a predefined Wiebe frequencies to avoid aliasing, and digital FIR-filters with
combustion rate profile to the desired shape. Other zero phase distortion were used to assure undistorted
functional forms for the combustion rate have also been data with low noise. Temperatures were measured with
proposed in [13]. type K thermocouple probes with long insertion lengths
parallel to the gas flow to avoid heat transfer losses. CO2
This paper describes a method to use existing concentration was measured in the intake and exhaust
correlations of laminar burning velocity as a function of to estimate EGR content in the charge. Air/fuel ratio was
pressure, temperature, air-fuel ratio and residual gas measured in the exhaust with an ECM AFRecorder
content to predict the relative change in the Wiebe 2000A. Top dead center position relative to the crank
parameters total burn duration ∆θ and combustion mode angle encoder was determined with high accuracy [16].
m. The use of laminar burning velocity in the modeling
should increase the generality of the combustion model The trapped residual gas fraction was obtained from
and reduce the need to calibrate the model for calibrated and validated simulations in GTPower [14].
dependencies already captured in the laminar burning The simulation data was also used to determine suitable
velocity correlations. The influence of engine speed and crank angle intervals for cylinder pressure referencing
spark timing is modeled as functions for relative change against intake pressure.
as in [8][9][10]. No correlations for ignition delay time are
provided since this is captured in the combustion mode CALCULATION OF HEAT RELEASE - A first law single
parameter m in the Wiebe function. zone thermodynamic analysis [5] was used to calculate
heat release from the pressure data. Heat transfer
EXPERIMENTAL METHOD according to Woschni and temperature dependent ratio
of specific heats was used in the calculations. The
Experiments were performed on a modified 4-cylinder cylinder charge temperature at inlet valve closing was
turbocharged SI-engine with engine specifications estimated as the mass averaged temperature of the inlet
according to Table 1. The engine is described in more gases and trapped exhaust gases. The trapped exhaust
detail in [14]. Due to the engine design, very low residual gas temperature at inlet pressure conditions, T*exh, was
calculated by assuming an isentropic state change from
exhaust pressure and temperature to inlet pressure:

3
T = (1 − x rg ) ⋅ Tint + x rg ⋅ Texh
* data, the region used for fitting a straight line and the
fitted line. Ordinary least squares fit of the straight line
γ −1 gives extra weight to the late part of combustion, since
(10)
⎛ p ⎞ γ
the transformation of the crank angle is nonlinear. This
*
Texh = Texh ⎜⎜ int ⎟⎟ should be desirable in simulation of knock with the
⎝ pexh ⎠ Livengood-Wu integral, Equation 1, since the late part of
combustion influences the integral value the most due to
where xrg is residual gas mass fraction obtained from very short ignition delay at high temperature.
simulation.
Figure 2 shows the same data as in Figure 1 as a
WIEBE PARAMETER ESTIMATION - Several methods function of crank angle. The error between experimental
for estimating Wiebe parameters from measured data and estimated normalized heat release is within 2%,
have been suggested in the literature. Wiebe [7] which was found to be a typical value for the data
suggests a transformation by rearranging and taking the presented in this work.
natural logarithm of the Wiebe function, Equation 5,
twice. This yields: Start of combustion θ0 was chosen as the spark timing in
⎛ ln (1 − xb (θ )) ⎞
the transformation Equation 11. By using the spark
ln⎜ ⎟ = (m + 1) ⋅ (ln (θ − θ 0 ) − ln (∆θ )) timing as start of combustion in the Wiebe function, the
⎝ ln 0.001 ⎠ need for additional correlations of ignition delay is
(11) omitted. The ignition delay is well captured in the
combustion mode parameter m for the data examined. A
from which the combustion mode parameter m can be longer ignition delay is reflected in a larger identified
determined as the slope and the total burn duration ∆θ value of m.
as the intersection of the ordinate axis of the
transformed normalized accumulated heat release. The The influence of start and end of transformed heat
crank angle of start of combustion θ0 has to be known to release data straight line fit was examined in detail. In
uniquely determine m and ∆θ. To resolve this ambiguity, the crank angle ranges where the burn rate is low, the
Csallner [8] compared the calculated cumulative heat calculated heat release is more sensitive to disturbances
release in a crank angle interval with high burn rate with and other errors. Therefore, it should be beneficial to the
the Wiebe function to get the same fuel mass burned in quality of the heat release regression if only the central
that interval. m was then adjusted to improve the fit. Witt part of the heat release is used to fit the Wiebe function.
[9] used existing software to determine total burn Nonlinear least squares was used to find the optimal
duration ∆θ and combustion mode parameter m to limits in terms of cumulative normalized heat release xb,
minimize the error between identified and calculated with the target being to minimize the error between the
heat release. The start of combustion was determined measured and estimated heat release over the entire
as 2% of the maximum heat release rate in [9]. combustion event. Heat release data from 100 operation
conditions with 200 recorded cycles for each of the four
The Wiebe function fitting method used in this work is cylinders was used. The optimal range was determined
the double logarithm method suggested by Wiebe [7]. individually for each operating condition and each
Figure 1 shows an example of transformed heat release cylinder, as seen in Figure 3. The average optimal range
for fitting the straight line was determined as xb = 0,15 to
0,93.
Crank angle [aTDC]
4.6 17.6 39.1 74.5
2
Measured
1,000
Wiebe estimate
1.0 Measured 2%
Transformed heat release

0 0.999 Wiebe estimate


Cumulative normalized
Cumulative normalized

0,921
0.8 1%
heat release
heat release

-2 0.607
Model error

0.6 0%
0,291

-4 0.119 0.4 -1%


Spark at
0,045
0.2 -15,5 aTDC -2%
-6 0.017
0,006 0.0 -3%
3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
-15 0 15 30 45 60
ln(θ−θ0) [CA]
Crank angle [aTDC]
Figure 1 Example of transformed heat release and fitted straight line.
Figure 2 Example of Wiebe function fitted to experimental data with
The range used for fitting the straight line is marked.
range used for fitting marked.
4
Additionally, a central composite fractional factorial
0.945 experiment was conducted with the factors λ, spark
timing, intake temperature and EGR mole fraction. A
total of 30 tests were conducted. The design of
xb at end of regression

0.940
experiments methodology is a good help in finding test
points that span the entire experimental range. One at a
0.935
time tests, as the tests described above, might miss
interaction effects between operating parameters.
0.930 However, the aim was not to make a response surface
model in several variables, but rather to get a suitable
0.925 validation data set.

0.920
Cylinder pressures were recorded for 200 engine cycles
0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 at each operating condition to assure accurate estimates
of averages in the presence of cyclic dispersion. Heat
xb at start of regression
release and Wiebe parameters were determined for
Figure 3 Optimal range for fitting a straight line to transformed heat each cycle individually. The Wiebe estimation could be
release data determined for 100 operating conditions. automated thanks to the choice of parameter estimation
method described above.
EXPERIMENTS - Engine experiments were conducted
to determine the influences of various operating PARAMETER VARIATION RESULTS
conditions on the Wiebe function parameters. The
parameters and ranges of variation are shown in Table The results from varying the operating parameters one
2. The operating parameters are grouped according to at a time are shown in Figure 4. The operating
their expected primary way of influencing the Wiebe parameters that have large influence on the Wiebe
parameters. Temperature, pressure, mixture strength parameters can be distinguished in the figure. λ, residual
and residual gas content have been shown to have an gas fraction, spark timing and engine speed influence
influence on laminar burning velocity. Engine speed the combustion duration ∆θ and combustion mode
influences the level of turbulence. Spark timing will affect parameter m strongly. Intake air temperature and intake
the gas properties during combustion and also the pressure has a small influence in the ranges of
turbulent burning velocity since turbulence varies on a variations selected. It is also noticeable that ∆θ and m
crank angle basis. The parameters were varied one at seem to be negatively correlated – high values of ∆θ are
the time to be able to easily distinguish the individual associated with low values of m.
influence of each parameter, as described in Equation 8.
The tests were performed with open throttle and low to 70 4.8
moderate boost pressure. The ranges for each 70 4.4
parameter was chosen to reflect probable ranges of 65 4.6
∆θ [CA]

∆θ [CA]
operation of the actual engine at high load. In particular, 60 4.0
m

m
60 4.4
spark timing was chosen at or later than MBT timing. A
total of 40 different operating conditions were tested. 50 3.6 55 4.2
0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06
λ [-] EGR fraction [-]
Table 2 Base operating condition and range of variation of engine
parameters in tests. 60 4.15
56 4.3
∆θ [CA]

∆θ [CA]

Base Range 58
m
m

operating of 55 4.2
Engine parameter condition variation 56 4.10
Gas properties related parameters 110 120 130 140 30 40 50
λ 1,0 0,85..1,14 Intake pressure [kPa] Intake temperature [°C]
EGR [%] 0 0..5,5 70
Intake air temperature [°C] 34 29..54 70 4.8
4.2
Intake pressure [kPa] 128 112..143 60
∆θ [CA]

∆θ [CA]

60 4.2
Turbulence related parameters 4.0
m

Spark advance [bTDC] 15 6..25 50


50 3.6
Engine speed [rpm] 2500 1500..4000 3.8
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 1500 2500
Spark timing [aTDC] Engine speed [rpm]
Figure 4 Identified Wiebe parameters from test with variation of one
operating condition at the time.

5
TOTAL BURN DURATION - As mentioned before, 1
G SL =
S L (λ , Tspark , p spark , x rg )
several correlations of burn durations to operating (13)
conditions exist. In these correlations the influence of
operating conditions are correlated one at a time to
measured combustion data. Choices of functional form, G S
i.e. linear fit, polynomial fit etc., are made to best fit the ∆θˆSL = ∆θ 0 ⋅ SL = ∆θ 0 ⋅ L ,0 (14)
data. The correlations are valid within the range where GSL , 0 SL
data was available. It would be desirable to increase the
generality of the correlations in some way. One way Figure 5 to Figure 8 show the predicted total burn
could be to use existing correlations of laminar burning duration when using values found in Heywood [5] for the
velocity SL as a function of gas composition and gas constants in the laminar burning velocity Equations 3
properties to describe the variations. The resulting and 4. The laminar burning velocity calculated at the
model would have the form: spark crank angle is not automatically representative for
the average laminar burning velocity during the entire
∆θˆ = ∆θ0 g (S L )g (spark )g (speed ) (12) flame propagation. Nor is it representative for the
turbulent burning velocity. It was found that decreased
Laminar burning velocity - Examining total burn duration temperature and pressure dependence in the expression
∆θ as a function of λ in Figure 4 reveals that rich mixture for laminar burning velocity decreased the error in
gives the shortest burn durations. One explanation for predicted total burn duration. The temperature and
this would be that laminar burning velocity of gasoline pressure dependence of laminar burning velocity was
has its peak value for rich mixtures giving short burn changed by optimizing the constant terms in αg and βg in
duration. The same reasoning holds for residual gas Equation 4 to minimize the prediction error in both the
fraction and temperature influence. Increased residual one factor at a time tests and the factorial design tests.
gas content leads to decreased laminar burning velocity
and increased burn duration. Increased intake α g ,opt = 1,3 − 0,271φ 3,51
temperature leads to increased combustion temperature (15)
and increased laminar burning velocity. The effect of β g , opt = −0,15 + 0,141φ 2, 77
varying the intake pressure seems to be almost
negligible in Figure 4. Total burn duration seems to be Laminar burning velocity with the new constants in
proportional to the inverse of laminar burning velocity. temperature and pressure exponents is shown in
Appendix B.
Most of the variation in total burn duration can be
explained by using the relative change of inverse Spark timing – The spark timing influence on total burn
laminar burning velocity SL in gasoline from Equations 3 duration is not captured in the laminar burning velocity
and 4. The describing function G in the expression for correlations. The gas temperature at spark crank angle
relative influence of operating condition on burn duration will be colder for advanced spark position resulting in a
is found below. The temperature and pressure at spark lower predicted laminar burning velocity. As mentioned
timing was used to calculate laminar burning velocity for before, the spark timing was chosen later than MBT
the different operating conditions. timing. Advancing the spark in this operating region will
generally lead to shorter burn durations due
70

Predicted
70
65 standard SL

Predicted
60 Predicted Predicted 65 optimized SL
∆θ [CA]

optimized SL
∆θ [CA]

standard SL

55
Base operating 60
Measured
condition ∆θ0
50 Measured Base operating
condition ∆θ0
55
0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6%
λ EGR mole fraction
Figure 5 Measured and predicted total burn duration as a function of λ. Figure 6 Measured and predicted total burn duration as a function of
Predictions are based on laminar burning velocity SL at spark crank EGR mole fraction. Predictions are based on laminar burning velocity
angle. SL at spark crank angle.

6
58

Base operating 57
Measured
60 condition ∆θ0
56
Measured
55 Base operating
∆θ [CA]

∆θ [CA]
condition ∆θ0
54
55 Predicted Predicted
optimized SL 53 optimized SL

Predicted 52
standard SL Predicted
51 standard SL
50
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145
Intake temperature [°C] Intake pressure [kPa]
Figure 7 Measured and predicted total burn duration as a function of Figure 8 Measured and predicted total burn duration as a function of
intake temperature. Predictions are based on laminar burning velocity intake manifold pressure. Predictions are based on laminar burning
SL at spark crank angle. velocity SL at spark crank angle.

to faster pressure and temperature rise in the cylinder. The measured data in Figure 9 is the total burn duration.
The faster pressure rise for advanced sparks is due to The ignition delay time correlation in Witt is:

F (ϕ spark [bTDC]) = 0,678 + 2.383 ⋅10 −4 ϕ spark


higher levels of turbulence and positive feedback from 2
piston movement when combustion occurs closer to top
dead center. On the other hand, the ignition delay time (17)
increases with advanced spark timing primarily due to
lower temperature and laminar burning velocity during The sum of ignition delay (17) and rapid burn duration
the ignition delay time. The overall effect of advancing influence (16) would be an estimate of total burn
the spark beyond MBT timing might be increased total duration according to Witt. This estimate is also plotted
burn duration, but no such spark timing have been in Figure 9 for reference. However, the predictions are
tested in this work. worse than the predictions from the rapid burn duration
correlation (16) alone. The combined prediction from
The correlation for spark influence on burn duration Witt shows a minimum total burn duration at 32 bTDC.
found in Witt [9] seems to be able to predict the change
in total burn duration well. Figure 9 shows measured The correlations of Witt could be used, had it not been
total burn duration change normalized by the reference for the laminar burning velocity model introduced above.
condition total burn duration as a function of spark timing Figure 10 shows the same data as in Figure 9
and the predicted relative change from the Witt model normalized by combustion duration as predicted by the
[9]. Burn duration influence from Witt’s correlations is
plotted in Figure 9. The equation for burn duration
correction in Witt is:
1.4

G (ϕ spark [bTDC ]) = 0,596 +


2,480 Witt ∆θr
(16) estimate
ϕ spark
1.2
The validity range for spark advance in this model is 17
∆θ0
∆θ

to 57 bTDC. The Witt burn duration model predicts the measured


total burn duration well also for spark timing at 9 bTDC.
However, the estimates degenerate as spark timing 1.0
approach top dead center due to the choice of functional Witt ∆θr+∆θign
form for burn duration influence, inverse of square root estimate
spark advance. This highlights the point that great care
has to be taken when using correlations outside the -25 -20 -15 -10 -5
validity range. Spark timing [aTDC]
Figure 9 Measured burn duration normalized by reference operating
condition and estimates from Witt [9].

7
1.6
1.3 Csallner ∆θr+∆θign
estimate
1.2
1.4
measured
1.1

∆θ0g(SL)g(φspark)
∆θ0g(SL)

1.2 Witt ∆θr+∆θign 1.0

∆θ
∆θ

Witt ∆θr estimate Witt ∆θr+∆θign


estimate 0.9 estimate
1.0
0.8
measured

Polynomial fit 0.7


0.8 2
2 new estimate, R = 0.982
R = 0,9996
0.6
-40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Spark timing [aTDC] Engine speed [rpm]
Figure 10 Relative influence of spark timing on total combustion Figure 11 Relative influence of engine speed on total combustion
duration and predictions. duration and predictions.

laminar burning velocity model, i.e.: influence and spark timing influence. The identified
model is shown in Figure 11 together with predictions
∆θ from the Witt correlation and Csallner correlation [8]. The
(18)
∆θ 0 g (S L ) new estimate for model parameters is:
55,5
The Witt models no longer fit the data well. A second G ( N [rpm ]) = 2,13 − (21)
degree polynomial dependence was selected for the N
data. A second order polynomial was chosen to avoid
degeneration for spark timings close to top dead and COMBUSTION MODE PARAMETER – Closer
also to capture the possibility of increasing total burn examination of the correlation between Wiebe function
duration at some point beyond MBT spark timing. The parameters reveal that m seems to be linearly
identified polynomial has its minimum at 29 CA bTDC, dependent on ∆θ for each engine speed tested. Figure
similar to the combined Witt model. 12 shows straight lines fitted to m(∆θ) at several engine
speeds. The slopes of these lines are nearly identical.
The identified polynomial for spark influence on total Plotting the intercept of the straight lines with the
combustion duration is: abscissa against engine speed, shown in bottom right of
Figure 12, indicate that m is also linearly dependent on
G (ϕ spark [bTDC]) = 1,60 − 0,053 ⋅ ϕ spark + 9,1 ⋅ 10 −4 ϕ spark
2
engine speed N. A least squares regression of m as a
(19) function of ∆θ and engine speed N yields the following
equation:
Engine speed – Combustion duration variation as a
m(∆θ , N ) = −0,0421 ⋅ ∆θ + 3,51 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ N + 5,71
function of engine speed is not captured by the laminar
burning velocity correlation. Engine speed affects (22)
turbulence in the cylinder during combustion. This calls
for a separate engine speed influence correlation, similar with overall R2 = 0,868. Equation 22 could be used
to the spark advance correlation described above. The directly as describing function H(∆θ,N) to calculate the
functional form of Witt [9] has been used as a basis for relative change h(∆θ,N) from the reference operating
the correlation, but a new set of parameters has been condition. Another approach would be to simply look at
identified. The influencing function for rapid burn the changes in ∆θ and N from the reference operating
duration according to Witt is: condition and calculate m as:

G ( N [rpm ]) = 1,355 −
18,49
(20)
( )
mˆ = m0 − 0,0421 ∆θˆ − ∆θ 0 + 3,51 ⋅ 10 −4 (N − N 0 )
N (23)

where N is the engine speed. Identification of new A summary of the correlations for ∆θ and m is found in
parameters were performed on data normalized by a Appendix C.
reference operating condition, laminar burning velocity

8
80
4.8 4.8
2500 rpm 3000 rpm
4.4 4.4 75
m

m
4.0 4.0
70
3.6 3.6

Predicted ∆θ [CA]
65
50 60 70 80 50 60 70 80
∆θ [CA] ∆θ [CA]
60
4.8 7.0
4000 rpm
4.4 55
m(∆θ = 0)
6.5
m

4.0
50
2000 rpm
3.6 1500 rpm
6.0 45
50 60 70 80 2000 3000 4000 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
∆θ [CA] Engine speed [rpm]
Figure 12 Straight lines fitted to m as a function of ∆θ at different
Measured ∆θ [CA]
speeds. Bottom right figure shows estimated intercepts of equal slope Figure 13 Predicted vs. measured total combustion duration in
m (∆θ) lines as a function of engine speed N. Dash-dotted lines show 2
validation data set. R = 0,96.
the model m (∆θ,N) for the different engine speeds.

4.8
VALIDATION OF COMBUSTION MODEL

The identified correlations were tested on the validation


4.4
data set. Temperature, λ, residual gas content and spark
timing was varied in the validation tests. Figure 13 show
predicted values of total combustion duration plotted as
Predicted m
a function of measured values. The predicted total 4.0
combustion duration is within ±4% of the measured
values. The errors are not correlated to any of the
investigated operating parameters, suggesting that the
model captures the dependencies of the different 3.6
operating parameters well.

The error in combustion mode parameter m is within 3.2


±8% of the measured values, see Figure 14. The 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.4 4.8
prediction error in combustion mode parameter is party Measured m
due to propagating errors from the prediction of total
combustion duration, since m is modeled as a function Figure 14 Predicted vs. measure combustion mode parameter in
2
validation data set. R = 0,72.
of predicted total combustion duration. Closer
examination of the errors in m reveals that the errors
seem to be correlated to λ, as seen in Figure 15. High
values of λ give large prediction errors in m. One way of 4%
reducing the errors in predicted m would be to develop
an additional correlation for λ influence on m. This has 2%
not been done.
m prediction error

0%

SIMULATION MODEL SENSITIVITY - A series of


-2%
simulations were made to investigate the sensitivity of
simulation model output to errors in Wiebe function -4%
parameters. The correlations described above give a
prediction error of ±4 % in ∆θ and ±8 % in m. These -6%
error ranges were used as input to the simulation model.
The prediction error ranges are well within the ranges for -8%
cycle to cycle variations in the engine tested. The Wiebe
function parameters that were tested are found in Table 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05

3 below. The sensitivity analysis was performed at λ


3000 rpm. The sensitivity in IMEP and predicted knock Figure 15 Error in combustion mode parameter m as a function of λ.
angle was studied in particular. Knock angle was defined
9
Table 3 Wiebe parameters used for analysis of simulation model as the crank angle where the Livengood-Wu integral in
sensitivity to errors in Wiebe parameters. Equation 1 equals 1 with ignition delay time according to
Equation 2 and calibration of knock model in [15].
Speed Spark timing ∆θ m
[rpm] [bTDC] [CA]
Figure 16 Shows the measured heat release at
standard 1500 7,5 50.1 3.73
3000 rpm and Wiebe functions used in simulations. The
high value 7,5 52.6 4.11 worst case difference in predicted IMEP is below 0,5 %.
low value 7,5 47.6 3.36 The error in change in predicted knock angle is larger,
standard 3000 13,5 58.2 3.68 ±3,9 CA. Cylinder pressure and temperature is highly
high value 13,5 61.1 4.05 affected by the worst case errors in predicted
low value 13,5 55.3 3.31 combustion as seen in Figure 17. The value of the knock
standard 5500 23,5 59.2 4.02 integral starts to deviate already in the early stages of
high value 23,5 62.2 4.43 combustion.
low value 23,5 56.3 3.62
DISCUSSION

measured The need for calibration data for the combustion model
0.05 has been highly reduced by using existing laminar
burning velocity correlations to model relative change in
Heat release [CA ]
-1

0.04 Wiebe function parameters. Witt [9] identified a total of


∆θ: -5%
m: -10%
24 parameters from his test data to describe the
0.03 combustion dependence on spark timing, residual gas
content, indicated work and engine speed. Csallner [8]
∆θ: +5%
0.02 fitted identified 18 parameters to describe the above
m: +10%
∆θ and m mentioned dependencies and 6 additional parameters to
0.01
describe the air/fuel ratio dependence. The number of
parameters identified in this paper is 10. Thus, the need
for calibration data is reduced. The introduction of
0.00
laminar burning velocity dependence should also make
-15 0 15 30 45 the correlations valid outside of the identification data
set, provided that the laminar burning velocity
Crank angle [aTDC]
correlations are valid.
Figure 16 Measured, estimated and worst case predicted heat release
at 3000 rpm.
By introducing laminar burning velocity in the
correlations for Wiebe function parameters, fuel
dependent variation can be captured. It is possible for
Unburned zone temperature [K]

10 900
the simulation engineer to examine the influence of
Cylinder pressure [MPa]

changing fuel on engine output. The extra information


8 800 that is needed for such investigations would be
correlations or models for laminar burning velocity of the
new fuel, similar to the correlations found in Heywood
6 ∆θ: -5% 700
m: -10% [5]. The change in Wiebe function parameters can then
∆θ: +5% be calculated relative to the laminar burning velocity of
m: +10% the fuel with which the simulation model has been
4 600
calibrated.

1.0 1200 The presented correlations are not predictive when it


∆θ: -5% comes to simulation model alterations that might affect
Knock integral value

∆θ: +5%
m: -10%
m: +10% turbulence in the combustion chamber. The operating
0.5 800
parameter influences that are not captured by laminar
1/τ [ms ]
-1

burning velocity influence, i.e. engine speed and spark


0.0 400 timing, have to be calibrated to a specific engine. When
looking at Figure 10 and Figure 11, it is clear that the
correlations and constants found in for example Csallner
-0.5 0 [8] and Witt [9] need to be recalibrated for each new
-15 0 15 30 45 60
engine.
Crank angle [aTDC]
Figure 17 Variations in cylinder pressure and temperature together with One operating parameter which has not been
resulting inverse ignition delay τ and knock integral from simulations
with estimated and worst case predicted heat release.
investigated in this work is camshaft phasing. Camshaft
phasing will affect fundamental properties of the
combustible mixture, in particular residual gas content.
10
This will be captured in the laminar burning velocity REFERENCES
dependence. Intake camshaft phasing will however also
influence the turbulence in the combustion chamber [1] Livengood, J. C. and Wu, P. C.; Correlation of
during combustion [6]. An additional correlation of total Autoignition Phenomenon in Internal Combustion
burn duration as a function of for example inlet valve Engines and Rapid Compression Machines; Fifth
closing would improve on the Wiebe function correlation Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp.
presented here. 347-356, 1955.
[2] Douaud, A. M. and Eyzat, P.; Four-Octane-Number
As stated in the introduction, one of the main motivations Method for Predicting the Anti-Knock Behaviour of
for making a combustion correlation was to be able to
Fuels and Engines; SAE Technical paper series
model knock more accurately. However, knock is usually
780080.
not associated with the average combustion event. It is
[3] Hirst, S. L. and Kirsch, L. J.; The Application of a
the fastest burning cycles that give highest pressures
Hydrocarbon Autoignition Model in Simulating
and temperatures in the cylinder. Figure 18 shows
Wiebe parameters for 800 engine cycles at an operating Knock and Other Engine Combustion Phenomena;
condition with some knocking cycles. The knocking in Combustion Modeling in Reciprocating Engines,
cycles are found among the cycles with low ∆θ and low edited by J. N. Mattavi and C. A. Amann, Plenum
m. A correlation for cycle to cycle variation in terms of Publishing, New York, 1980.
standard deviations in Wiebe parameters could be [4] Kalghatgi, G.T.; Early Flame Development in a
developed in a similar way as the combustion correlation Spark-Ignition Engine; Combustion and Flame 60
in this paper. Development of such a correlation could (1985) 299-308.
improve the ability to predict knock in 1-d simulations. [5] Heywood, J. B.; Internal Combustion Engines
Fundamentals; McGraw-Hill Series in Mechanical
5.6 Engineering, McGraw-Hill 1988.
[6] Söderberg, F., Johansson, B. and Lindoff, B.;
5.2
Wavelet Analysis of In-Cylinder LDV
Measurements and Correlations Against Heat
Release; SAE Technical Paper Series 980483.
4.8
[7] Wiebe, I.I.; The combustion speed in internal
combustion piston engines; Collected works of
4.4
piston engine research, Laboratory of Engines,
m

Academy of Sciences, USSR, Moscow 1956.


4.0 (Translated to English by M. Kiisa, KTH 1993)
[8] Csallner, P.; Eine Methode zur Vorausberechnung
3.6 95%
der Ändrung des Brennverlaufes von Ottomotoren
99%
bei geänderten Betriebsbedingungen; München,
3.2 Techn. Univ., Diss., 1981.
35 40 45 50 55 60 [9] Witt, A.; Analyse der thermodynamischen Verluste
∆θ [CA] eines Ottomotors unter den Randbedingungen
Figure 18 Wiebe parameters for 800 engine cycles at 1500 rpm with variabler Steuerzeiten; Graz, Techn. Univ., Diss.,
95% and 99% contours of joint normal distribution. Triangles are 1999.
knocking cycles sized according to knock intensity. [10] Bayraktar, H. and Durgun, O.; Development of an
empirical correlation from combustion durations in
CONCLUSION spark ignition engines; Energy Conversion and
Management 45 (2004) 1419-1431.
This paper describes a method for predicting Wiebe [11] Scharrer, O., Heinrich, C., Heinrich, M., Gebhard,
function parameters based on existing correlations of P. and Pucher, H.; Predictive Engine Part Load
laminar burning velocity. Relative change in Wiebe Modeling for the Development of a Double Variable
function parameters can be predicted by comparison to Cam Phasing (DVCP) Strategy; SAE Technical
the relative change of estimated laminar burning velocity paper series 2004-01-0614.
at spark timing. Additional correlations that describe [12] Vávra, J. and Takáts, M.; Heat Release Regression
turbulence related operating parameters influence on Model for Gas Fuelled SI Engines; SAE Technical
Wiebe function parameters have also been developed paper series 2004-01-1462.
and compared to the results from other similar [13] van Nieuwstadt, M. J., Kolmanovsky, I. V., Brehob,
correlations. The introduction of laminar burning velocity D. and Haghgooie, M.; Heat Release Regressions
reduces the need for calibration data. Only the for GDI Engines; SAE technical paper series
turbulence related correlations have to be calibrated to 2001-01-0956.
the specific engine. [14] Elmqvist Möller, C., Grandin, B., Johansson, P. and
Lindström, F.; Divided Exhaust Period - a gas

11
exchange system for turbocharged SI engines; APPENDIX A - WIEBE PARAMETER
SAE technical paper series 2005-01-1150. TRANSFORMATIONS
[15] Elmqvist, C., Lindström, F., Ångström, H.-E.,
Grandin, B. and Kalghatgi, G.T.; Optimizing Engine Wiebe function parameters can easily be transformed to
Concepts by Using a Simple Model for Knock common heat release analysis output, e.g. 50% mass
Prediction; SAE Technical paper 2003-01-3123. fraction burned and 10-90% burn duration. The mass
[16] Ångström, H.-E.; Cylinder Pressure Indicating with fraction burned at any crank angle θ is determined by
Multiple Transducers, Accurate TDC-Evaluating, Equation 5 repeated below:
Zero Levels and Analyse of Mechanical Vibrations;
Conference paper, 3rd International Indicating ⎡ ⎛ θ − θ 0 ⎞ m +1 ⎤
Symposium, Mainz am Rhein, April 1998. x b (θ ) = 1 − exp ⎢− a⎜ ⎟ ⎥ (A.1)
⎢⎣ ⎝ ∆θ ⎠ ⎥⎦
CONTACT
The crank angle of any heat release fraction is found by
Fredrik Lindström, M.Sc. solving for θ. For example the crank angle of 50% mass
Mail: KTH Machine Design, Brinellvägen 83, fraction burned is:
SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden. m +1
E-mail: fredrikl@md.kth.se ⎛ θ −θ0 ⎞
Phone: +46 8 790 7867 ln(1 − xb (θ 50 )) = ln 0,001⋅ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ∆θ ⎠
1 (A.2)
DEFINITIONS, ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS
⎛ ln(1 − 0,5) ⎞ m+1
⇒ θ 50 = θ 0 + ⎜ ⎟ ∆θ
CA: Crank angle ⎝ ln 0,001 ⎠
aTDC: Crank angle after combustion top dead center Hence, the 10-90% burn duration is:

bTDC: Crank angle before combustion top dead center ⎛ 1 1



⎜ ⎛ ln (1 − 0,9 ) ⎞ m +1 ⎛ ln (1 − 0,1) ⎞ m +1 ⎟
DUR10 −90 = ∆θ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ ⎟
xb: Mass fraction burned ⎜ ⎝ ln 0,001 ⎠ ⎝ ln 0,001 ⎠ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
xrg: Residual gas mass fraction (A.3)

~ :
x Residual gas mole fraction Inversely, the Wiebe parameters can be determined
rg
from heat release output if the m parameter is known as:
m: Combustion mode parameter DUR
∆θ = 1 1
SL: Laminar burning velocity ⎛ ln(1 − 0,9) ⎞ m +1 ⎛ ln(1 − 0,1) ⎞ m +1
⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟
λ: Air/fuel ratio ⎝ ln 0,001 ⎠ ⎝ ln 0,001 ⎠ (A.4)
1

φ: Fuel/air ratio ⎛ ln(1 − 0,5) ⎞ m +1


θ 0 = θ 50 − ∆θ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ln 0,001 ⎠
θ: Crank angle

∆θr: Rapid burn combustion duration

∆θign: Ignition delay time in SI engine

∆θ: Total combustion duration, ∆θr+∆θign

θ0: Start of combustion

ϕspark: Spark timing before top dead center

τ: Ignition delay time

12
APPENDIX B – LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY λ = 0,8
30

Laminar burning velocity [cm/s]


29 λ = 0,9
The figures below show the estimated laminar burning
28
velocity with equations and constants according to
27
Equations 3 and 4 compared to the estimated laminar
26
burning velocity according to Equation C.6 and C.7. λ = 1,0
25
24
30 23
22
Laminar burning velocity [cm/s]

modified
28 21 λ = 1,1
20
26 19 standard
18
24 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.8
modified Pressure [MPa]
22
Figure 21 Laminar burning velocity as a function of pressure at 600 K
20 for standard correlation (Equations 3 and 4) and modified correlation
standard (Equations C.6 and C.7).
18

16 APPENDIX B - SUMMARY OF CORRELATIONS


0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1
λ Predictions of total combustion duration ∆θ and
combustion mode parameter m are made from functions
Figure 19 Laminar burning velocity as a function of λ at 2 MPa and
600 K for standard correlation (Equations 3 and 4) and modified
describing changes relative to a base operating
correlation (Equations C.6 and C.7). condition, ∆θ0 and m0.

∆θˆ = ∆θ 0 ⋅ g SL ⋅ gϕs ,spark ⋅ g N


λ = 0,8
(C.1)
30 mˆ = m0 ⋅ h∆θˆ , N
Laminar burning velocity [cm/s]

λ = 0,9
28

26 The functions for relative influence, gi and hi, are


summarized below.
24
λ = 1,0
22 TOTAL COMBUSTION DURATION
modified
20
∆θˆ = ∆θ 0 ⋅ g SL ⋅ gϕ ,spark ⋅ g N
18 standard λ = 1,1
GSL Gϕ ,spark G N (C.2)
16 = ∆θ 0 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
GSL , 0 Gϕ ,spark ,0 G N ,0
14
580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720
1
Temperature [K] GSL =
S L (λ , Tspark , p spark , ~
xrg )
(C.3)
Figure 20 Laminar burning velocity as a function of temperature at
2 MPa for standard correlation (Equations 3 and 4) and modified
correlation (Equations C.6 and C.7).
Gϕ ,spark = 1,60 − 0,053 ⋅ ϕ spark + 9,1 ⋅10 −4 ϕ spark
2

(C.4)
55,5
G N = 2,13 − (C.5)
N
The following expression for laminar burning velocity has
been used:
α g , opt β g , opt
⎛ p ⎞
⎛ T ⎞
S L = S L ,0 ⎜ u ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ (1 − 2,06~x )
0 , 77
rg
⎝ 298 ⎠ ⎝ 1,013 ⎠
(C.6)

13
With fuel specific constants for gasoline:

S L ,0 = Bm + Bφ (φ − φ m )
2

Bm = 30,5 Bφ = −54,9 φ m = 1,21


(C.7)
α g ,opt = 1,3 − 0,271φ 3,51
β g ,opt = −0,15 + 0,141φ 2,77

Equations and constants values from [5] except 1,3 and


-0,15 in the expressions for temperature and pressure
exponents, α and β.

COMBUSTION MODE PARAMETER

H ∆θˆ, N
mˆ = m0 ⋅ h∆θˆ , N = (C.8)
H ∆θ , N ,0

H ∆θˆ , N = −0,0421 ⋅ ∆θˆ + 3,51 ⋅10 −4 ⋅ N + 5,71


(C.9)
or

( )
mˆ = m0 − 0,0421 ∆θˆ − ∆θ 0 + 3,51 ⋅ 10 −4 (N − N 0 )
(C.10)

14