Compilation of notes taken from websites about slavery and it’s effects on life.

Political Effects

The Effect of Slavery on the American People Theodore Parker (1810-1860) was as central and powerful an abolitionist voice as existed in the antebellum United States, co-equal in public reputation to figures such as Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, and Wendell Phillips. He studied briefly at Harvard, but was largely self-educated due to inability to pay tuition. He founded a school in Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1832. Two years later Harvard's divinity school admitted him to studies, which he completed in 1836. He was ordained a minister at a Unitarian church in West Roxbury, Massachusetts. While he had early orthodox Calvinist leanings, Parker joined Transcendentalist circles during the late 1830s and formed a friendship with Ralph Waldo Emerson. His controversial theological position, including the denial of authority to Jesus, the Bible, or biblical miracles, led to his alienation within the Unitarian movement. In 1845 his supporters organized the 28th Congregational Society of Boston, which moved it expanding membership into the Boston Music Hall to accomodate the crowds Parker drew. This 'Parkerite' church drew many antislavery and reform figures.

Parker opposed the Mexican War, supported women's suffrage, and promoted reform in education and prisons. He was most closely identified with the antislavery cause and opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act. Parker headed the Boston vigilance committee to aid fugitive slaves, personally cared for fugitives in

Robert C. Theodore Parker (Boston: Beacon Press. . NJ: Scarecrow Press. see Henry Steele Commager. Theodore Parker: American Transcendentalist (Metuchen. It was in 1831 that many Americans came to acknowledge the impact of Slavery on the country. For biographies. and yet crippled by their differences. Robert E. 1971). 14) “It is evident as the sky is blue that Slavery had some of the greatest impacts on the social life of the nation”. In it he presents a characteristic argument that industrial democracy demands "toil and thought". 1999). Theodore Parker (New York: Twayne. Parker concludes that slavery will be swept away because it "stands in the way of that Automatic Instinct of Progress which is eternal in the human race and irresistible in human history. NC: University of North Carolina Press. He traces the effects of slavery on both slaves and free people of color. 2002). and provides evidence of its adverse economic. As the century leading to the Civil War unfolded. America strived in many categories.his home. and publicly defended the right of slaves to rebel. 1947). In 1859 Parker became involved in aiding John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry. 1973). David Chesborough. and the use of slave labor prevents social progress. and was indicted in 1854 for inciting a mob to break into the Boston city jail to rescue imprisoned fugitive slave Anthony Burns. Theodore Parker: Orator of Superior Ideas (Westport. Collins. cultural." (p. American Heretic: Theodore Parker and Transcendentalism (Chapel Hill. CT: Greenwood Press. Albrecht. but nonetheless horrid. and Dean Grodzins. religious and political effects. Theodore Parker wrote voluminously and this July 4th sermon numbers among his numerous published sermons. thus many were willing to resolve the matter and put the popular.

In addition. as well as moral views and ways of life.practice aside. and social impact on the American continent. economical and social. The South strived under Slavery. political. that distinction was made to describe the southern states. they could easily afford the products of the northern industries. of course they found versatile use of slaves in the sense that they were not only used for Cotton. Cotton. economically. and with slaves working as field hands. the south was only a sense of direction rather than a place. they grew corn to supplement their wealth. in that the richest named counties of that time were all of the South. Economy in the South was rather different than it was in the North. which had different political. which only foreshadowed what to emerge the latter half of the century. Slavery alone had a great economic. realized a lot of profit for the Country in general. the South ultimately held different political views than the North. There were great advantages to owning slaves in the South. In addition. however. but in response to Slavery. In sight to protect their way of life. up to half of all plantation owners did not have to use for them or could not afford them. Read more in History « Social Studies Sol Study Progress The Mexican War » . And with the profits that the south made from cotton. In fact. Cotton was the staple King crop of the South. Socially. The industry sector strived in the North. While the North on the other hand saw the need for slave something rather historic. about 9/10 of the nation’s industrial capacity was in the North. the profits just came in like rivers emptying out into the ocean. due to Slavery. a prominent crop grown in the South. but while Cotton was not harvested or did not need to be tended to.

In fact. the South won the effort into maintaining the status quo. The Northerners were much more sympathetic towards the slaves. had some of the greatest impacts on the social life of the nation. and many public libraries. Thus. and either parties held opposing views on the matter. many boarder states sought for a resolution. Education was on the decline in the South. While slavery did more than is mentioned. unlike the North. to some fancy institution. it was generally a driving force in early American life. unlike many other things. Slave rights diminished in the South while the North worked towards abolition movements. It affected the nation as a whole socially.Politically speaking. nor was it allowed to the slaves of the South. Almost everything that happened. which was rather always prepared and ready for innovations. economically and politically in very distinct. and started the doctrine of nullification. there became such distinctions of North and South because slavery existed. . Slavery had a more important role in that play. They did not like change. “south” simply designated a direction. slaves were either working hard or they were hung on a tree. slaves were not encouraged to be preached to because many thought that they might find scriptures from the bible to use against the idea of Slavery. in the end. In the South. however. It is evident as the sky is blue that Slavery. the North and the South stood divided. and they like little or no government interference in their works. education was not offered. but in the South. after the Nat Turner uprising. while the North established government-funded public schools. Rather. and the only that was apparent to them was abolition. which gave individual states rights over the national government. The Southerners enforced strict codes on the Slaves. Before this time period. but related aspects. The wealthier lads who could afford higher educations were usually sent outside of the South. Ultimately. The South feared protective tariffs. Even though the idea was disputed over.

the latter provisions were only temporary and soon rescinded for almost all of those affected by them. and Healing: This too shall Pass As a direct result of the American Civil War. Constitution. leaders turned to the question of how to reconstruct the nation. the Civil Rights Act of 1866. The Fourteenth Amendment made African-Americans citizens and protected citizens from discriminatory state laws. These acts included the act creating the Freedmen's Bureau. The Reconstruction Acts established military rule over Southern states until new governments could be formed. (However. the United States witnessed the 13th. In the latter half of the 1860s. and several Reconstruction Acts. Reconciliation.S. Constitutional Amendments. Congress also passed two amendments to the U. the Reconstruction acts gave former male slaves the right to vote and hold public office. 14th and 15th U.S. and we can all owe it to Slavery. When the American Civil War ended.there always remained the distinction of North and South. They also limited some former Confederate officials' and military officers' rights to vote and to run for public office. Congress passed a series of acts designed to address the question of rights. One important issue was the right to vote.) Meanwhile. Southern states were required to ratify the Fourteenth . Hotly debated were voting rights for black American men and former Confederate men. Social Effects: Reconstruction. as well as how the Southern states would be governed.

because of the racism instilled by the institution of slavery. It would . such as the yeoman farmers. Those who lacked slaves completely. Those with less slaves therefore made less money. on the negative side and from the positive side. and moral impact on the South The Immediate abolition of slavery morally would have been the right thing to do. profit was the only thing on their mind. Actually. the people wouldn"tmt want to hire them because they would have to pay them more. They were unconcerned with the physical and psychological impact that slavery would have on Most slaves were raised feeling inferior towards whites and a sense of unfufillment for themselves. slavery would have never began.Amendment before being readmitted to the union. therefore creating the sort-of aristocratic upper-class of the south. because of whites they were the most power.For slaveholders. Slavery's economic. the immediate abolishment of it would have been hell for all those involved. social. One would be from the slaveholders and one would be from the slaves. made up the lowest classes of free whites. who. How did slavery impact the social structure of the South? Slavery enabled the large plantation owners to grow extremely wealthy. were cast out of society even if they were rather successful on their farms. and had less status. Since it obviously did begin you hear two different aspects of slavery. So even though I do not at all agree with slavery. Finally below them were freed blacks. How dare them to even consider letting slaves go. Now. The Fifteenth Amendment guaranteed African American men the right to vote. it"tms not like they"tmre people or anything. going on morals.

The market revolution along with the Industrial Revolution from England convinced the north that free labor would be better for the country. Slave narratives helped to shift the focus from the system to the personal. no one would be able to keep up with the planted crops and stuff around the house just wouldn't get done. but those who were against slavery. They would have to attempt to go back to these people and ask for jobs. immediately letting go of slavery would have been such a burden lifted off their shoulders but another one would have been placed on. If it would have been chosen to immediately abolish slavery they would have suffered tremendously.seem almost inhumane to just let the slaves go because the slave holders weren"tmt raised in a manner to understand providing for themselves. Slave narratives impacted the way the nation perceived the institution of slavery. Also. they would have no place to stay because they had been staying with their masters on plantations. Slavery was not only morally wrong—it was not as economically sound as it once was. Slavery affected not only slaves and the people who owned them. Former slaves such as Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs were able to escape their slave masters and write . Often people viewed slavery in terms of the institution. the north did not hold slavery as a positive development for the nation. Because the northern states had become more industrialized than the south. For the slaves. Impact of Slavery in America This article contains an analysis of slavery and its societal impact along with information on the division of the North and South. Many planted crops would have been left unpicked.

Allsup. Free Disability Case Evaluation. my descriptions fall short of the facts” (Jacobs 439). The North and South As the nation progressed. One example of the division between the north and the south on the issue of slavery would be the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Harriet Jacobs’ Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl Ads by Google Free Disability Form Get Social Security Benefits Now. Another example would be the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which was created to solve the dispute over what would become of the states in the western . acknowledged that those who were not acquainted with slavery would be in disbelief by stating: “I am aware that some of my adventures may seem Harriet Jacobs.their stories. in her narrative Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. This was crucial because it helped establish the idea of Free states and slave states. strictly true. I have not exaggerated the wrongs inflicted by Slavery. The descriptions included were to shock those who either did not know about the effects of slavery or those who did nothing to stop it.BinderAndBinder. www. The land that was west of the Mississippi River and east of the Appalachian Mountains was to outlaw slavery. the north and the south developed with differences. on the contrary. nevertheless. Abolitionists were strongly opposed to slavery and appreciated the slave narratives that assisted their *Apply For Disability Now Find Out If You Can Get Social Security Disability Right Now! www. but they are. The slave narratives were a rallying force for those who opposed slavery.

However.part of the nation. These attempts at compromising illustrates that slavery did cause divisions between different regions of early America. these compromises would not last when the nation engaged in the Civil War. racist views became apparent as people instilled values of racial superiority in the whites. As time went on. slaves faced terrible abuse and mistreatment. This idea of whites being better than blacks would persist long after slavery ended. Slavery was Important Slavery played a critical role in the development of early America. Slavery was morally wrong yet it was allowed to continue because it was grounded in the belief that without slavery these individuals would not be Christians. Slavery caused the rift between the north and the south in post-Civil War America. Samuel Watkins. White slave owners maintained the fear that slaves would rise against their masters. compromising was considered a virtuous trait and the nation valued the ability to solve differences of opinion peacefully. a . • Slavery. From the Middle Passage to the institution itself. Slavery came after the use of indentured servants and was a way for the new nation to advance economically at the expense of thousands of people. Religion. The compromise allowed Missouri to join the nation as a slave state and for the state of Maine to be a free state. Great Compromise Throughout the early part of American history. Ending Civil War • The Historic Election of 1860 The Social Impact The social impact slavery made on the nation could be seen in the slave uprisings. and Indentured Servants in Early America • Lee Surrenders to Grant at Appomattox.

We are an agricultural people.confederate soldier from the Civil War. by 1815. all of America’s manufacturing put together. Economic Effect: Cotton is terribly important. by 1860. not only to the South. Slavery is no sideshow in American society. cotton is the most valuable export of the United States. Differences of the North and South The northern part of the country was becoming industrialized and did not need slavery like the agrarian south did. The fact is that when the Confederacy considers going independent. is the fact that it controls so much of the world’s cotton. Now. Slavery had influenced the beginning of postCivil War America and would continue to impact it as the nation entered the Civil War. but to the nation. was willing to oppose it. The south wished to maintain slavery and the north. summarized the division between the north and south accurately when he stated: “The South is our country. one of the things that encourages those people in the South to believe that a separate independent Confederacy is possible. In fact. By the time of the Civil War. and the cotton crop that slaves produced makes America important to the world. and cotton is . the dollar value of slave property is greater than the dollar value of all of America’s railroads. influenced by former slaves and the growing understanding of the institution. cotton is more valuable than everything else the United States exports put together. Do you realize that the American South by 1860 produces seven eighths of the world’s cotton. that’s equivalent of OPEC today and oil. so the value of slaves is tremendous. they are a manufacturing people” (Watkins 7). all of America’s banks. the North is the country of those who live there. It is very much the main event. By 1840. seceding from the United States.

yet maintain the brutal practice of human bondage? Somehow slavery would manage to survive the revolutionary era. the year the Revolution began. Some Northern states banned slavery outright. who did not rely on forced labor as part of the economic system. but also to the textile industries of England. The British army. freed many slaves as they moved through the American South. of Germany. Northerners did not. go as far as to grant equal rights to freed blacks. At any rate. The Impact of Slavery More than 140 slaves lived and worked at Andrew Jackson's Hermitage plantation in Tennessee in the 1840's Life. liberty and the pursuit of happiness simply did not seem consistent with the practice of chattel slavery. The world's first ANTISLAVERY SOCIETY was founded in 1775 by Quakers in Philadelphia. political power. this ignited the philosophical debate that would be waged throughout the next century. the climate of the Revolution made the institution unacceptable in the minds of many Northerners. of France. at least thirteen of these clubs were known to exist in the American colonies. How could a group of people feel so passionate about these unalienable rights. eager to debase the colonial economy. so that cotton has very important economic and consequently.important. but great changes were brought to this PECULIAR INSTITUTION nevertheless. Nonetheless. Many slaves achieved their freedom during the Revolution without formal EMANCIPATION. . however. not only to the cotton textile industries of New England. By 1788. and some provided for the gradual end of slavery. Many slaves in the North were granted their freedom if they agreed to fight for the American cause.

This system that the plantation workers followed was very efficient because of the way that it was run. while keeping close strict supervision on all workers. people needed to recognize that the economic benefit was vastly overshadowed by the overwhelming repugnance. Though there was a notable amount of production in the southern slaves states but there was still problems with the labor that the south was using. Pre-Emancipation South It is very simple to say how slavery has affected the agriculture in the United States. rice. Revolutionary sentiments led to the banning of the importation of slaves in 1807. cotton. Slavery did not end overnight in America. .Although a clear majority of African Americans remained in bondage. almost nine tenths of the sweet potatoes over half of the tobacco and around 40 percent of the working and nonworking livestock with around only a quarter of the area. sugar and. By making days of work so routine and dividing every task to certain people. immorality. and providing healthcare for these workers. but besides that production their involvement in other general agriculture was large as well. and in 1860 they were able to produce over one third of the corn one sixth of the wheat and more than four fifths of the peas and beans. slave labor was a cheap effective way to produce products in the south. and inhumanity of slavery. The population of the south was around 30% the population of the north. The south was notorious for its amazing production of tobacco. Before any meaningful reform could happen. but how was the labor of slaves important to the growing crop of the United States. the growth of free black communities in America was greatly fostered by the War for American Independence.

The owners would make lose combined 60 million dollars if all of the slaves were purchased at the same time this is disregarding what they have to pay to maintain them. If there were 697.000.400. Now of course this doesn’t concern the amount the owners spent on food and clothes for the slaves. but in 1790 paying only 60 million dollars was a great price for infinite labor. That’s around .000 that was spent on slaves and in 1790 the owners made $87. their expenses for any period of time were made of several elements. If you multiply that by the amount of slaves in 1790 you come up with $139.557. The economic insurance against their 1)death 2) illness 3) flight from service. In 1790 the prime slaves in the upper south went for $200 and they would continue to cost $200 until 1820. Cost of Slaves and Production of Slave Labor Was the use of slavery beneficial to the south as a whole. The owners of the slaves combined lost around 60 million more dollars on the slaves than they paid for them. And this was a one time fee so the slave owners would not have to pay next year for this labor.900.700.889 slaves and they were all a variety of ages and sex they would be sold for an average of $200. And the taxation put on the capitalized value of the slaves. This year the price to purchase all of the slaves for the owners was $16. In Richard F.Costs of Slave Labor Besides the cost of food Clothing and shelter for the slaves.150.000 from the slaves labor. In 1800 the number of slaves increased by 195.099. America’s “The Wealth of Races” there is a chart discussing the costs of slaves and the production that they constructed. The interest upon the capital invested in the slaves.000. In those 30 years the slaves earned $385. and the price to purchase them stayed the same.875 and their production this year was $117. The diminishing value of each of these slaves was important to note as well.

but because the slaves were able to keep their mortality rate down they were able to reproduce and the slave population was able to grow.400 to $2.739) This was contested by the writings of David and Temin stating that very few of the slaves that came to America were put in great working conditions. The prices of the slaves the fluctuated very much during the closing of the atlantic trade. excluding holding and feeding of the slaves. African Americans had an alternative approach to a traditional revolt against the slave owners.(David.80 a year in revenue and they were worth on average $200 in 1790. Instead of revolting against the slave . Twenty years later the average price for a slave rose again to around $1. From 1790 to 1815 the average slave price jumped to $250. This is only a rough estimate assuming that all slaves are paid the same amount. which is not true because the males at prime age were worth the most.$100 million in profit for the slave owners. Problems with Slave Labor The south made statements that slavery would end in the next generation because of the lack of production coming from the slaves. Another reason that slavery would be ending in the next generation heading into the civil war is that they were not reproducing parallel to the growth of the surrounding America. It was stated by Robert William Fogel and Stanley Engerman that the material living conditions of the slaves were better than those of the free man. Prices for slave labor increased substantially between over the years. and their poor working conditions reflected in their drop in population. and therefore would die out on its own without the purchase of more slaves. These slaves produced on average $122.000 per slave. then in 1840 the price rose again to $500. Because of the poor treatment of the slaves. It seems that the south had good economic reasons to want to keep the slaves. The south knew that the slave population was not growing as highly as anticipated.

injuring the crops. In the gang system single workers provided certain tasks to be done in order to finish the crop. and disrupting the routine. they needed to produce as much cotton as possible to keep with the demand of the people. In order to make the slaves more productive the “Gang System” put into effect to help the slaves produce more. Prosperous Organization? There are many arguments states by economists that slavery was not a profitable organization unless the slave owners possessed very fertile land. and there would be cash incentives and possible a portion of the harvest available to slaves in return for good work. Ways to Promote Productivity of Slaves The invention of the cotton gin in 1790 was a huge stepping stone for the slavery industry. Lewis Gray found reason to believe that slave labor was just as efficient that the labor of the . With the working conditions being as poor as they were the slaves would be less productive and more destructive. These incentives helped promote good workmanship and a better relationship between slaves and owners.owners directly the slaves would attack them in other ways. The owners found that with the slaves performing these simple tasks under a watchful eye proved very productive. The slaves would show their discontent by “shirking their duties. Other ways that slave-owners promoted a strong work ethic was providing slaves with incentives that would encourage them to work harder.”(David. They would often have Sundays off. like a machine. The cotton gin allowed many cottons to be produced in short periods of time. feigning illness. 741) This disruptive work environment definitely showed that slave labor had many negative effects to go with it obvious efficient profits. With the south attempting to use its rich land to turn a profit.

He believed that with training their work would be similar to that of the white man. and also of the comfort of the enslaved class. Because the labor force was composed of slaves the surplus was legally not the slaves’ property but the slaveholders’ property. thus making it easier for the slaves to adapt and produce. He states “the introduction and establishment of domestic slavery is necessarily an improvement of the condition and wealth and well-being of the community in general.”(Finkleman. With only one crop that was being produced. Some of this surplus needed to be spent on equipment and supervision. Free Labor In his essay “The Political Economy of Slaves” he defends slavery on many aspects. Second it would be necessary for the owners to produce a crop the required year round attention. the rest of this surplus was income for the slave owners. Ruffin argues that in any society free labor is important to gain personal wealth. First the one-crop system needed to be put into effect.white man. Contending Arguments of Slave Labor Vs. Lewis Gray makes the statement that the abundance of fertile land combined with expanding markets led the labor force to produce a surplus. The last characteristic is the production of crops needing large amount of labor on small amounts of land. This made supervision of the slaves easier and production increase. . Gray’s thoughts on slave labor as being more efficient than free labor raises the question as to why did slave labor have certain advantages over free labor? The idea that slave labor was more efficient came from three characteristics that plantations needed to possess to make slave labor efficient. Because of the market for cotton and the surplus of cotton provided by the rich land. owners could keep their system more routine. This production of a year-round crop required slaves to produce them because the owners would not lose money when during the idleness of free labor. slavery was an optimal source of labor for southern staple crops.

in food and clothing that he would if he works extremely hard.64) Ruffin plainly states that slavery is good without providing a shred of legitimate evidence from studies or statistics. this twothirds of full labor. and the higher the rewards.” In this excerpt Ruffin argues his notion of wages by saying that the less you pay one worker the more they will be willing to work because they need to sustain themselves. and work no more than compelled by necessity. as a general rule. by each individual laborer. there is little motivation for the slave laborers.” He realizes that although the slave labor is not as productive because they are forced to work they will inevitably produce more than the free . In his writings he also argues the theory of supply and demand: “even the laboring class are remarkable for indolence. But the slave labor is continuous and every day at least it returns to the employers and to the community. and keep their current standard of living. Ruffin also make the example that free laborers work harder than slave workers based on rewards and motivation. will amount to but two-thirds of what hired free laborers would perform in the same time. Ruffin comes to the conclusion that because the free laborer is more productive than the slave laborer. the free laborer is actually cheaper to the employer because he produces more goods. the less wages will be performed. So the free laborer has more incentive to work hard because he is motivated by the rewards of his work. If you pay someone more than they need to spend then they will continue to not work hard. for each hour or day. Free laborers know that the more work he can do in a short period of time the greater his earnings will be. The greater the demand. Then he makes the simple statement that “Suppose it is admitted that labor of slaves. given the same cost to the employer. it will be very likely that he will be idle two-thirds of his time. This is contrary to that of a slave laborer. for labor. no matter how he performs he will still make the same amount. If the wages of work for one day will support the laborer or mechanic and his family for three.

laborers. and he thinks that that is not the case. He states that the idea that free labor is cheaper is made on the assumption that the free laborers will work continuously and regularly. because the free workers will take more leisure time. .

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