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**Implications from Japanese Curriculum Materials
**

Tad Watanabe! Kennesaw State University! twatanab@kennesaw.edu!

2008 Georgia Mathematics Conference!

The slides & handouts are available at:! http://science.kennesaw.edu/~twatanab/!

**GSP M5M1 Students will extend their understanding of area of fundamental geometric plane ﬁgures.!
**

a.! Estimate the area of fundamental geometric plane ﬁgures.! b.! Derive the formula for the area of a parallelogram (e.g., cut the parallelogram apart and rearrange it into a rectangle of the same area).! c.! Derive the formula for the area of a triangle (e.g. demonstrate and explain its relationship to the area of a rectangle with the same base and height).! d.! Find the areas of triangles and parallelograms using formulae.! e.! ..! f.! Find the area of a polygon (regular and irregular) by dividing it into squares, rectangles, and/or triangles and ﬁnd the sum of the areas of those shapes.!

Can 5th grade students really derive these formulae?! Through problem solving?!

! A! D! B! C! .Typical Problem: Find the area of this parallelogram.

Typical solution and conclusion:! Therefore. Area = Base x Height! .

is this good enough? .But.

How about this parallelogram?! A! D! B ! C! .

What is the area? .

! Determine the area of squares and rectangles by counting. and multiplication with models. Students will understand and measure the area of simple geometric ﬁgures (squares and rectangles). a.! Understand the meaning of the square unit and measurement in area. etc.).M3M4.! c.! . square foot.! b. addition.! Model (by tiling) the area of a simple geometric ﬁgure using square units (square inch.

Find the area in as many different ways as possible! 5 cm! Find the area of L-shape" 5 cm! 10 cm! 4 cm! 5 cm! 9 cm! .

then divide by 2 . we may be able to ﬁnd its area by making it into a familiar shape (or a collection of familiar shapes). then subtract! •! Double.Area of L-Shape •! When we are given an unfamiliar shape.! •! Ways to make familiar shapes! –! Breaking the given shape apart! –! Cutting and re-arranging! –! Making it bigger! •! Add on.

g.! Find the area of a polygon (regular and irregular) by dividing it into squares.! b.! d..g.! Derive the formula for the area of a triangle (e. rectangles.! Estimate the area of fundamental geometric plane ﬁgures.! a. and/or triangles and ﬁnd the sum of the areas of those shapes.! ..! c.! f.! Find the areas of triangles and parallelograms using formulae. cut the parallelogram apart and rearrange it into a rectangle of the same area).! e. demonstrate and explain its relationship to the area of a rectangle with the same base and height).! .! Derive the formula for the area of a parallelogram (e.GSP M5M1 Students will extend their understanding of area of fundamental geometric plane ﬁgures.

Let’s ﬁnd the area of this parallelogram using what we know.! A! D! B! C! .

whose width is the base of the parallelogram and the length is the height of the parallelogram.Area of Parallelograms! We can make a rectangle.! Therefore. Area = Base x Height! .

How about this parallelogram?! A! D! B ! C! .

Height stops here!! A! D! B ! C! .

! A! D! Let’s ﬁnd the area using what we know?" B ! C! .We know how to ﬁnd the area of “nice” parallelograms.

Ashley’s method! A! D! B ! C! .

Emmanuel’s method! P! A D! B ! C! Q! .

P! A! D! B ! C! R! Q! .

Umme’s method! A! D! height! P! Q! height! B ! C! .

Jose’s method! A! D! P! Q! L! B ! C! R! .

Jahmir’s method! P! A! D! B ! C! .

Darlene’s method! A! D! Q! B ! C! P! .

We can still use Base x Height! A! Base D! Height B ! C! .

We can still use Base x Height! P! A! D! Height B ! Base C! .

We can still use Base x Height! P! A! D! Height B ! C! R! Base Q! .

What about triangles? .

How about this one? .

77! . p.These understanding applies to other shapes:! From Hironaka & Sugiyama (2006). 5A.

88! . p.Even for circles! From Hironaka & Sugiyama (2006). 5B.

91! .From Hironaka & Sugiyama (2006). 5B. p.

! •! Students must understand that the area of an unfamiliar shape may be found by changing the given shape into something they are familiar.Conclusions! •! Yes.! •! But. 5th graders can derive formulae. it takes a careful planning by teachers.! .! •! Make general methods of changing shapes an explicit focus of instruction.

H.! The series is available through Global Education Resources! ! !www. Y. (2006). Mathematics for Elementary School. & Sugiyama.globaledresources. Japan: Tokyo Shoseki.com! .Reference! Hironaka. Tokyo.

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