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7 Rack And Spur Gear Figure 4-9b shows a profile shifted spur gear, with positive correction

xm, meshed with a rack. The spur gear has a larger pitch radius than

Table 4-6 presents the method for calculating the mesh of a rack and standard, by the amount xm. Also, the pitch line of the rack has shifted

spur gear. Figure 4-9a shows the pitch circle of a standard gear and the outward by the amount xm.

pitch line of the rack. Table 4-6 presents the calculation of a meshed profile shifted spur gear

One rotation of the spur gear will displace the rack l one circumferential and rack. If the correction factor x1 is 0, then it is the case of a standard gear

length of the gear's pitch circle, per the formula: meshed with the rack.

The rack displacement, l, is not changed in any way by the profile

l = πmz (4-6) shifting. Equation (4-6) remains applicable for any amount of profile shift.

Table 4-6 The Calculation of Dimensions of a Profile Shifted Spur Gear and a Rack

Example

No. Item Symbol Formula

Spur Gear Rack

1 Module m 3

2 Pressure Angle α 20°

3 Number of Teeth z 12

––

4 Coefficient of Profile Shift x 0.6

5 Height of Pitch Line H –– 32.000

6 Working Pressure Angle αw 20°

zm

7 Center Distance ax –––– + H + xm 51.800

2

8 Pitch Diameter d zm 36.000

9 Base Diameter db d cosα 33.829 ––

db

10 Working Pitch Diameter dw –––– 36.000

cosα w

11 Addendum ha m(1 + x) 4.800 3.000

12 Whole Depth h 2.25m 6.750

13 Outside Diameter da d + 2ha 45.600

––

14 Root Diameter df da – 2h 32.100

d

d

db d db

–– d

α

2

α ––

2

a xm ax

H H

Fig. 4-9a The Meshing of Standard Fig. 4-9b The Meshing of Profile

Spur Gear and Rack Shifted Spur Gear and Rack

(α = 20°, z1 = 12, x1 = 0) (α = 20°, z1 = 12, x1 = +0.6)

d = 2ax(––––––– )

w1 z2 – z1

Calculation of a Profile Shifted Internal Gear

z2

d = 2ax(––––––– )

Figure 5-1 presents the mesh of an internal gear and external gear. Of (5-1)

w2 z2 – z1

vital importance is the operating (working) pitch diameters, dw, and operating

(working) pressure angle, αw. They can be derived from center distance, ax, db2 – db1

αw = cos–1(––––––––– )

and Equations (5-1).

2ax

T22

αw d b2

O1 da2

d2

ax d f2

αw

O2

(α = 20° , z1 = 16, z2 = 24, x1 = x2 = 0.5)

Table 5-1 shows the calculation steps. It will become a standard gear

calculation if x1 = x2 = 0.

If the center distance, ax, is given, x1 and

x2 would be obtained from the inverse calcula-

tion from item 4 to item 8 of Table 5-1. These Table 5-1 The Calculation of a Profile Shifted Internal Gear and External Gear (1)

inverse formulas are in Table 5-2.

Example

Pinion cutters are often used in cutting

No. Item Symbol Formula External Internal

internal gears and external gears. The actual

value of tooth depth and root diameter, after Gear (1) Gear (2)

cutting, will be slightly different from the 1 Module m 3

calculation. That is because the cutter has a 2 Pressure Angle α 20°

coefficient of shifted profile. In order to get a

3 Number of Teeth z1, z2 16 24

correct tooth profile, the coefficient of cutter

should be taken into consideration. 4 Coefficient of Profile Shift x 1 , x2 0 0.5

x2 – x1

5 Involute Function αw invαw 2 tanα (–––––– ) + invα 0.060401

z2 – z1

5.2 Interference In Internal Gears Find from Involute Function

6 Working Pressure Angle αw Table 31.0937°

Three different types of interference can 7 Center Distance Increment Factor y

z –

––––––

2

2

z1

(–––––

cosα

cosαw

– 1) 0.389426

occur with internal gears:

z2 – z1

(a) Involute Interference

8 Center Distance ax (–––––

2

+ y)m 13.1683

(b) Trochoid Interference 9 Pitch Diameter d zm 48.000 72.000

(c) Trimming Interference

10 Base Circle Diameter db d cosα 45.105 67.658

(a) Involute Interference db

11 Working Pitch Diameter dw –––– 52.673 79.010

cosαw

(1 + x1)m

This occurs between the dedendum of ha1

12 Addendum (1 – x2)m 3.000 1.500

the external gear and the addendum of the ha2

internal gear. It is prevalent when the number 13 Whole Depth h 2.25m 6.75

of teeth of the external gear is small. Involute da1 d1 + 2ha1

interference can be avoided by the conditions 14 Outside Diameter da2 d2 – 2ha2 54.000 69.000

cited below:

df1 da1 – 2h

15 Root Diameter df2 da2 + 2h 40.500 82.500

z1 tanαa2

––– ≥ 1 – –––––– (5-2)

z2 tanαw

the internal gear tooth.

αa2 = cos–1(–––– )

db2

(5-3) Table 5-2 The Calculation of Shifted Internal Gear and External Gear (2)

da2

No. Item Symbol Formula Example

and αw is working pressure angle:

(z2 – z1)mcosα 1 Center Distance ax 13.1683

αw = cos–1[––––––––––––––– ] (5-4)

2ax ax z2 – z1

2 Center Distance Increment Factor y ––– – ––––––– 0.38943

m 2

Equation (5-3) is true only if the outside

diameter of the internal gear is bigger than the 3 Working Pressure Angle αw [ (z2 – z1)cosα

cos–1 –––––––––––– ]

2y + z2 – z1

31.0937°

base circle:

Difference of Coefficients of x2 – x1 (z2 – z1 )(invαw – invα)

da2 ≥ db2 (5-5) 4 ––––––––––––––––––– 0.5

Profile Shift 2tanα

5 Coefficient of Profile Shift x1 , x2 0 0.5

T23

For a standard internal gear, where α = 20°, Equation (5-5) is valid There will be an involute interference between the internal gear and

only if the number of teeth is z2 > 34. the pinion cutter if the number of teeth of the pinion cutter ranges from 15

to 22 (zc = 15 to 22). Table 5-3b shows the limit for a profile shifted pinion

(b) Trochoid Interference cutter to prevent trimming interference while cutting a standard internal gear.

The correction, xc, is the magnitude of shift which was assumed to be: xc =

This refers to an interference occurring at the addendum of the external 0.0075 zc + 0.05.

gear and the dedendum of the internal gear during recess tooth action. It

tends to happen when the difference between the numbers of teeth of the

Table 5-3b The Limit to Prevent an Internal Gear from

two gears is small. Equation (5-6) presents the condition for avoiding

Trimming Interference (α = 20°, x2 = 0)

trochoidal interference.

z1

zc 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 27

θ1––– + invαw – invαa2 ≥ θ2 (5-6)

z2 xc 0.1625 0.17 0.1775 0.185 0.1925 0.2 0.2075 0.215 0.23 0.2375 0.2525

Here z2 36 38 39 40 41 42 43 45 47 48 50

ra22 – ra12 – a2

θ1 = cos–1(––––––––––––– ) + inv αa1 – invαw

2ara1 zc 28 30 31 32 33 34 35 38 40 42

(5-7) xc

0.26 0.275 0.2825 0.29 0.2975 0.305 0.3125 0.335 0.35 0.365

a + ra2 – ra1

2 2 2

θ2 = cos–1(––––––––––––– )

z2 54

2ara2 52 55 56 58 59 60 64 66 68

zc 44 48 50 56 60 64 66 80 96 100

where αa1 is the pressure angle of the spur gear tooth tip: xc 0.38 0.41 0.425 0.47 0.5 0.53 0.545 0.65 0.77 0.8

αa1 = cos–1(–––– )

db1

(5-8) z2 71 76 78 86 90 95 98 115 136 141

da1

In the meshing of an external gear and a standard internal gear α =

20°, trochoid interference is avoided if the difference of the number of teeth, There will be an involute interference between the internal gear and

z1 – z2, is larger than 9. the pinion cutter if the number of teeth of the pinion cutter ranges from 15

to 19 (zc = 15 to 19).

(c) Trimming Interference

This occurs in the radial direction in that it prevents pulling the gears

apart. Thus, the mesh must be assembled by sliding the gears together with

an axial motion. It tends to happen when the numbers of teeth of the two 5.3 Internal Gear With Small Differences In Numbers Of Teeth

gears are very close. Equation (5-9) indicates how to prevent this type of

interference. In the meshing of an internal gear and an external gear, if the difference

z2 in numbers of teeth of two gears is quite small, a profile shifted gear

θ1 + invαa1 – invαw ≥ ––– (θ2 + invαa2 – invαw) (5-9)

z1 could prevent the interference. Table 5-4 is an example of how to prevent

Here

interference under the conditions of z2 = 50 and the difference of numbers of

–1 1 – (cosαa1 ⁄ cosαa2)2

θ1 = sin ––––––––––––––––––––

1 – (z1 ⁄ z2) 2

Table 5-4 The Meshing of Internal and External Gears of Small

(5-10) Difference of Numbers of Teeth (m = 1, α = 20°)

z1 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42

–1 (cosαa2 ⁄ cosαa1) – 1

2

θ2 = sin ––––––––––––––––––––

(z2 ⁄ z1)2 – 1 x1 0

z2 50

This type of interference can occur in the process of cutting an internal

gear with a pinion cutter. Should that happen, there is danger of breaking x2 1.00 0.60 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.11 0.06 0.01

the tooling. Table 5-3a shows the limit for the pinion cutter to prevent αw 61.0605° 46.0324° 37.4155° 32.4521° 28.2019° 24.5356° 22.3755° 20.3854°

trimming interference when cutting a standard internal gear, with pressure

angle 20°, and no profile shift, i.e., xc = 0. a 0.971 1.354 1.775 2.227 2.666 3.099 3.557 4.010

ε 1.105 1.512 1.726 1.835 1.933 2.014 2.053 2.088

Table 5-3a The Limit to Prevent an Internal Gear from

Trimming Interference (α = 20°, xc = x2 = 0)

zc 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 27 teeth of two gears ranges from 1 to 8.

All combinations above will not cause involute interference or trochoid

z2 34 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 42 43 45 interference, but trimming interference is still there. In order to assemble

zc 28 30 31 32 33 34 35 38 40 42 successfully, the external gear should be assembled by inserting in the axial

direction.

z2 46 48 49 50 51 52 53 56 58 60 A profile shifted internal gear and external gear, in which the difference

zc of numbers of teeth is small, belong to the field of hypocyclic mechanism,

44 48 50 56 60 64 66 80 96 100

which can produce a large reduction ratio in one step, such as 1/100.

z2 62 66 68 74 78 82 84 98 114 118 z2 – z1

Speed Ratio = ––––––– (5-11)

z1

T24

In Figure 5-2 the gear train has a difference of numbers of teeth of only plane is unwrapped, analogous to the unwinding taut string of the spur

1; z1 = 30 and z2 = 31. This results in a reduction ratio of 1/30. gear in Figure 2-2. On the plane there is a straight line AB, which when

wrapped on the base cylinder has a helical trace AoBo. As the taut plane

is unwrapped, any point on the line AB can be visualized as tracing an

involute from the base cylinder. Thus, there is an infinite series of involutes

generated by line AB, all alike, but displaced in phase along a helix on the

base cylinder.

Again, a concept analogous to the spur gear tooth development is to

imagine the taut plane being wound from one base cylinder on to another as

the base cylinders rotate in opposite directions. The result is the generation

ax of a pair of conjugate helical involutes. If a reverse direction of rotation is

assumed and a second tangent plane is arranged so that it crosses the first,

a complete involute helicoid tooth is formed.

In the plane of rotation, the helical gear tooth is involute and all of the

relationships governing spur gears apply to the helical. However, the axial

twist of the teeth introduces a helix angle. Since the helix angle varies from

the base of the tooth to the outside radius, the helix angle β is defined as

Fig. 5-2 The Meshing of Internal Gear and External Gear the angle between the tangent to the helicoidal tooth at the intersection of

in which the Numbers of Teeth Difference is 1 the pitch cylinder and the tooth profile, and an element of the pitch cylinder.

(z2 – z1 = 1) See Figure 6-3.

The direction of the helical twist is designated as either left or right. The

direction is defined by the right-hand rule.

SECTION 6 HELICAL GEARS For helical gears, there are two related pitches – one in the plane of

spur gear in that its teeth are twisted Element

along a helical path in the axial of Pitch

direction. It resembles the spur gear Cylinder

in the plane of rotation, but in the axial (or gear's Pitch

direction it is as if there were a series axis) β Cylinder

of staggered spur gears. See Figure

6-1. This design brings forth a number

of different features relative to the spur Helix

gear, two of the most important being Fig. 6-1 Helical Gear Angle

as follows:

because of the elongated helical

wraparound tooth base support. Fig. 6-3 Definition of Helix Angle

2. Contact ratio is increased due to the axial tooth overlap. Helical gears

thus tend to have greater load carrying capacity than spur gears of the

same size. Spur gears, on the other hand, have a somewhat higher rotation and the other in a plane normal to the

efficiency. tooth. In addition, there is an axial pitch. pn

Referring to Figure 6-4, the two circular

Helical gears are used in two forms: pitches are defined and related as follows: β

1. Parallel shaft applications, which is the largest usage. pn = pt cosβ = normal circular pitch

2. Crossed-helicals (also called spiral or screw gears) for connecting (6-1) pt

skew shafts, usually at right angles.

The normal circular pitch is less than the

6.1 Generation Of The Helical Tooth transverse radial pitch, pt, in the plane of rota- Fig. 6-4 Relationship

tion; the ratio between the two being equal to of Circular

The helical tooth form is involute in the plane of rotation and can be the cosine of the helix angle. Pitches

developed in a manner similar to that of the spur gear. However, unlike Consistent with this, the normal module is

the spur gear which can be viewed essentially as two dimensional, the less than the transverse (radial) module.

helical gear must be portrayed in three dimensions to show changing axial The axial pitch of a helical gear, px, is the

features. distance between corresponding points of

Referring to Figure 6-2, there is a base cylinder from which a taut adjacent teeth measured parallel to the gear's

axis – see Figure 6-5. Axial pitch is related to

B β

Twisted Solid

Involute

A

px

A0 Taut Plane

B0

a Helical Gear

Base Cylinder

T25

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