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# 4.

7 Rack And Spur Gear Figure 4-9b shows a profile shifted spur gear, with positive correction
xm, meshed with a rack. The spur gear has a larger pitch radius than
Table 4-6 presents the method for calculating the mesh of a rack and standard, by the amount xm. Also, the pitch line of the rack has shifted
spur gear. Figure 4-9a shows the pitch circle of a standard gear and the outward by the amount xm.
pitch line of the rack. Table 4-6 presents the calculation of a meshed profile shifted spur gear
One rotation of the spur gear will displace the rack l one circumferential and rack. If the correction factor x1 is 0, then it is the case of a standard gear
length of the gear's pitch circle, per the formula: meshed with the rack.
The rack displacement, l, is not changed in any way by the profile
l = πmz (4-6) shifting. Equation (4-6) remains applicable for any amount of profile shift.

Table 4-6 The Calculation of Dimensions of a Profile Shifted Spur Gear and a Rack
Example
No. Item Symbol Formula
Spur Gear Rack
1 Module m 3
2 Pressure Angle α 20°
3 Number of Teeth z 12
––
4 Coefficient of Profile Shift x 0.6
5 Height of Pitch Line H –– 32.000
6 Working Pressure Angle αw 20°
zm
7 Center Distance ax –––– + H + xm 51.800
2
8 Pitch Diameter d zm 36.000
9 Base Diameter db d cosα 33.829 ––
db
10 Working Pitch Diameter dw –––– 36.000
cosα w
11 Addendum ha m(1 + x) 4.800 3.000
12 Whole Depth h 2.25m 6.750
13 Outside Diameter da d + 2ha 45.600
––
14 Root Diameter df da – 2h 32.100

d
d
db d db
–– d
α
2
α ––
2

a xm ax

H H

Fig. 4-9a The Meshing of Standard Fig. 4-9b The Meshing of Profile
Spur Gear and Rack Shifted Spur Gear and Rack
(α = 20°, z1 = 12, x1 = 0) (α = 20°, z1 = 12, x1 = +0.6)

## 5.1 Internal Gear Calculations z1

d = 2ax(––––––– ) 

w1 z2 – z1 
Calculation of a Profile Shifted Internal Gear 

z2
d = 2ax(––––––– ) 
Figure 5-1 presents the mesh of an internal gear and external gear. Of  (5-1)
w2 z2 – z1 
vital importance is the operating (working) pitch diameters, dw, and operating 

(working) pressure angle, αw. They can be derived from center distance, ax, db2 – db1
αw = cos–1(––––––––– ) 
and Equations (5-1). 
2a­x 

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αw d b2
O1 da2
d2
ax d f2
αw

O2

## Fig. 5-1 The Meshing of Internal Gear and External Gear

(α = 20° , z1 = 16, z2 = 24, x1 = x2 = 0.5)

Table 5-1 shows the calculation steps. It will become a standard gear
calculation if x1 = x2 = 0.
If the center distance, ax, is given, x1 and
x2 would be obtained from the inverse calcula-
tion from item 4 to item 8 of Table 5-1. These Table 5-1 The Calculation of a Profile Shifted Internal Gear and External Gear (1)
inverse formulas are in Table 5-2.
Example
Pinion cutters are often used in cutting
No. Item Symbol Formula External Internal
internal gears and external gears. The actual
value of tooth depth and root diameter, after Gear (1) Gear (2)
cutting, will be slightly different from the 1 Module m 3
calculation. That is because the cutter has a 2 Pressure Angle α 20°
coefficient of shifted profile. In order to get a
3 Number of Teeth z1, z2 16 24
correct tooth profile, the coefficient of cutter
should be taken into consideration. 4 Coefficient of Profile Shift x 1 , x2 0 0.5
x2 – x1
5 Involute Function αw invαw 2 tanα (–––––– ) + invα 0.060401
z2 – z1
5.2 Interference In Internal Gears Find from Involute Function
6 Working Pressure Angle αw Table 31.0937°

Three different types of interference can 7 Center Distance Increment Factor y
z –
––––––
2
2
z1
(–––––
cosα
cosαw
– 1) 0.389426
occur with internal gears:
z2 – z1
(a) Involute Interference
8 Center Distance ax (–––––
2
+ y)m 13.1683
(b) Trochoid Interference 9 Pitch Diameter d zm 48.000 72.000
(c) Trimming Interference
10 Base Circle Diameter db d cosα 45.105 67.658
(a) Involute Interference db
11 Working Pitch Diameter dw –––– 52.673 79.010
cosαw
(1 + x1)m
This occurs between the dedendum of ha1
12 Addendum (1 – x2)m 3.000 1.500
the external gear and the addendum of the ha2
internal gear. It is prevalent when the number 13 Whole Depth h 2.25m 6.75
of teeth of the external gear is small. Involute da1 d1 + 2ha1
interference can be avoided by the conditions 14 Outside Diameter da2 d2 – 2ha2 54.000 69.000
cited below:
df1 da1 – 2h
15 Root Diameter df2 da2 + 2h 40.500 82.500
z1 tanαa2
––– ≥ 1 – –––––– (5-2)
z2 tanαw

## where αa2 is the pressure angle seen at a tip of

the internal gear tooth.

αa2 = cos–1(–––– )
db2
(5-3) Table 5-2 The Calculation of Shifted Internal Gear and External Gear (2)
da2
No. Item Symbol Formula Example
and αw is working pressure angle:
(z2 – z1)mcosα 1 Center Distance ax 13.1683
αw = cos–1[––––––––––––––– ] (5-4)
2ax ax z2 – z1
2 Center Distance Increment Factor y ––– – ––––––– 0.38943
m 2
Equation (5-3) is true only if the outside
diameter of the internal gear is bigger than the 3 Working Pressure Angle αw [ (z2 – z1)cosα
cos–1 –––––––––––– ]
2y + z2 – z1
31.0937°
base circle:
Difference of Coefficients of x2 – x1 (z2 – z1 )(invαw – invα)
da2 ≥ db2 (5-5) 4 ––––––––––––––––––– 0.5
Profile Shift 2tanα
5 Coefficient of Profile Shift x1 , x2 0 0.5

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For a standard internal gear, where α = 20°, Equation (5-5) is valid There will be an involute interference between the internal gear and
only if the number of teeth is z2 > 34. the pinion cutter if the number of teeth of the pinion cutter ranges from 15
to 22 (zc = 15 to 22). Table 5-3b shows the limit for a profile shifted pinion
(b) Trochoid Interference cutter to prevent trimming interference while cutting a standard internal gear.
The correction, xc, is the magnitude of shift which was assumed to be: xc =
This refers to an interference occurring at the addendum of the external 0.0075 zc + 0.05.
gear and the dedendum of the internal gear during recess tooth action. It
tends to happen when the difference between the numbers of teeth of the
Table 5-3b The Limit to Prevent an Internal Gear from
two gears is small. Equation (5-6) presents the condition for avoiding
Trimming Interference (α = 20°, x2 = 0)
trochoidal interference.
z1
zc 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 27
θ1––– + invαw – invαa2 ≥ θ2 (5-6)
z2 xc 0.1625 0.17 0.1775 0.185 0.1925 0.2 0.2075 0.215 0.23 0.2375 0.2525
Here z2 36 38 39 40 41 42 43 45 47 48 50
ra22 – ra12 – a2
θ1 = cos–1(––––––––––––– ) + inv αa1 – invαw 

2ara1  zc 28 30 31 32 33 34 35 38 40 42

 (5-7) xc
 0.26 0.275 0.2825 0.29 0.2975 0.305 0.3125 0.335 0.35 0.365
a + ra2 – ra1
2 2 2
θ2 = cos–1(––––––––––––– ) 
 z2 54
2ara2  52 55 56 58 59 60 64 66 68
zc 44 48 50 56 60 64 66 80 96 100
where αa1 is the pressure angle of the spur gear tooth tip: xc 0.38 0.41 0.425 0.47 0.5 0.53 0.545 0.65 0.77 0.8

αa1 = cos–1(–––– )
db1
(5-8) z2 71 76 78 86 90 95 98 115 136 141
da1
In the meshing of an external gear and a standard internal gear α =
20°, trochoid interference is avoided if the difference of the number of teeth, There will be an involute interference between the internal gear and
z1 – z2, is larger than 9. the pinion cutter if the number of teeth of the pinion cutter ranges from 15
to 19 (zc = 15 to 19).
(c) Trimming Interference

This occurs in the radial direction in that it prevents pulling the gears
apart. Thus, the mesh must be assembled by sliding the gears together with
an axial motion. It tends to happen when the numbers of teeth of the two 5.3 Internal Gear With Small Differences In Numbers Of Teeth
gears are very close. Equation (5-9) indicates how to prevent this type of
interference. In the meshing of an internal gear and an external gear, if the difference
z2 in numbers of teeth of two gears is quite small, a profile shifted gear
θ1 + invαa1 – invαw ≥ ––– (θ2 + invαa2 – invαw) (5-9)
z1 could prevent the interference. Table 5-4 is an example of how to prevent
Here
 interference under the conditions of z2 = 50 and the difference of numbers of

–1 1 – (cosαa1 ⁄ cosαa2)2 
θ1 = sin –––––––––––––––––––– 
1 – (z1 ⁄ z2) 2
 Table 5-4 The Meshing of Internal and External Gears of Small

 (5-10) Difference of Numbers of Teeth (m = 1, α = 20°)

 z1 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42
–1 (cosαa2 ⁄ cosαa1) – 1
2

θ2 = sin –––––––––––––––––––– 
(z2 ⁄ z1)2 – 1  x1 0
z2 50
This type of interference can occur in the process of cutting an internal
gear with a pinion cutter. Should that happen, there is danger of breaking x2 1.00 0.60 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.11 0.06 0.01
the tooling. Table 5-3a shows the limit for the pinion cutter to prevent αw 61.0605° 46.0324° 37.4155° 32.4521° 28.2019° 24.5356° 22.3755° 20.3854°
trimming interference when cutting a standard internal gear, with pressure
angle 20°, and no profile shift, i.e., xc = 0. a 0.971 1.354 1.775 2.227 2.666 3.099 3.557 4.010
ε 1.105 1.512 1.726 1.835 1.933 2.014 2.053 2.088
Table 5-3a The Limit to Prevent an Internal Gear from
Trimming Interference (α = 20°, xc = x2 = 0)
zc 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 27 teeth of two gears ranges from 1 to 8.
All combinations above will not cause involute interference or trochoid
z2 34 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 42 43 45 interference, but trimming interference is still there. In order to assemble
zc 28 30 31 32 33 34 35 38 40 42 successfully, the external gear should be assembled by inserting in the axial
direction.
z2 46 48 49 50 51 52 53 56 58 60 A profile shifted internal gear and external gear, in which the difference
zc of numbers of teeth is small, belong to the field of hypocyclic mechanism,
44 48 50 56 60 64 66 80 96 100
which can produce a large reduction ratio in one step, such as 1/100.
z2 62 66 68 74 78 82 84 98 114 118 z2 – z1
Speed Ratio = ––––––– (5-11)
z1

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In Figure 5-2 the gear train has a difference of numbers of teeth of only plane is unwrapped, analogous to the unwinding taut string of the spur
1; z1 = 30 and z2 = 31. This results in a reduction ratio of 1/30. gear in Figure 2-2. On the plane there is a straight line AB, which when
wrapped on the base cylinder has ­­­­­­­a helical trace AoBo. As the taut plane
is unwrapped, any point on the line AB can be visualized as tracing an
involute from the base cylinder. Thus, there is an infinite series of involutes
generated by line AB, all alike, but displaced in phase along a helix on the
base cylinder.
Again, a concept analogous to the spur gear tooth development is to
imagine the taut plane being wound from one base cylinder on to another as
the base cylinders rotate in opposite directions. The result is the generation
ax of a pair of conjugate helical involutes. If a reverse direction of rotation is
assumed and a second tangent plane is arranged so that it crosses the first,
a complete involute helicoid tooth is formed.

## 6.2 Fundamentals Of Helical Teeth

In the plane of rotation, the helical gear tooth is involute and all of the
relationships governing spur gears apply to the helical. However, the axial
twist of the teeth introduces a helix angle. Since the helix angle varies from
the base of the tooth to the outside radius, the helix angle β is defined as
Fig. 5-2 The Meshing of Internal Gear and External Gear the angle between the tangent to the helicoidal tooth at the intersection of
in which the Numbers of Teeth Difference is 1 the pitch cylinder and the tooth profile, and an element of the pitch cylinder.
(z2 – z1 = 1) See Figure 6-3.
The direction of the helical twist is designated as either left or right. The
direction is defined by the right-hand rule.
SECTION 6 HELICAL GEARS For helical gears, there are two related pitches – one in the plane of

## The helical gear differs from the Tangent to Helical Tooth

spur gear in that its teeth are twisted Element
along a helical path in the axial of Pitch
direction. It resembles the spur gear Cylinder
in the plane of rotation, but in the axial (or gear's Pitch
direction it is as if there were a series axis) β Cylinder
of staggered spur gears. See Figure
6-1. This design brings forth a number
of different features relative to the spur Helix
gear, two of the most important being Fig. 6-1 Helical Gear Angle
as follows:

## 1. Tooth strength is improved

because of the elongated helical
wraparound tooth base support. Fig. 6-3 Definition of Helix Angle
2. Contact ratio is increased due to the axial tooth overlap. Helical gears
thus tend to have greater load carrying capacity than spur gears of the
same size. Spur gears, on the other hand, have a somewhat higher rotation and the other in a plane normal to the
efficiency. tooth. In addition, there is an axial pitch. pn
Referring to Figure 6-4, the two circular
Helical gears are used in two forms: pitches are defined and related as follows: β

1. Parallel shaft applications, which is the largest usage. pn = pt cosβ = normal circular pitch
2. Crossed-helicals (also called spiral or screw gears) for connecting (6-1) pt
skew shafts, usually at right angles.
The normal circular pitch is less than the
6.1 Generation Of The Helical Tooth transverse radial pitch, pt, in the plane of rota- Fig. 6-4 Relationship
tion; the ratio between the two being equal to of Circular
The helical tooth form is involute in the plane of rotation and can be the cosine of the helix angle. Pitches
developed in a manner similar to that of the spur gear. However, unlike Consistent with this, the normal module is
the spur gear which can be viewed essentially as two dimensional, the less than the transverse (radial) module.
helical gear must be portrayed in three dimensions to show changing axial The axial pitch of a helical gear, px, is the
features. distance between corresponding points of
Referring to Figure 6-2, there is a base cylinder from which a taut adjacent teeth measured parallel to the gear's
axis – see Figure 6-5. Axial pitch is related to
B β
Twisted Solid
Involute
A
px
A0 Taut Plane
B0

a Helical Gear
Base Cylinder

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