c,ab; nig nIti ”

kMNt;smÁal;elIkareRbIR)as;Pasa
fra: r½tñvisal

>>> nIti nigc,ab; CaerOgBIrepSgKña EdleKminRtUvP½nþRcLMeLIy. >>>”
TMB½r 58 énesovePA esckþIepþIménnItikm<úCa e)aHBum<qñaM 2005.

c,ab; nig nIti ?
cMeBaHnisSit b¤ GñkRsavRCavmYycMnYn EtgEtmankarcab;GarmμN_cMeBaHBaküBIrm:at;enH ÷ c,ab; nig
nIti. etIehtuGVIcaM)ac;eRbobeFob b¤ EbgEckrvagc,ab; nig nIti ebITaMgc,ab; nig nItisuT§EtmaneKaledA
RKb;RKgsgÁmdUcKña? karbkRsaycMeBaHcm¶l;enHsßitRtg;fa karcUlrYmviPaKedIm,IEckrMElkGMBIcMnucmYy
cMnYnEdlenACMuvijRbFanbTenH GacCaCMnYydl;karBRgwgRKwHmYyEpñkrbs;RbB½n§Ktiyutþ enARBHraCaNacRk
km<úCaeyIg EdlkMBugTTYlrg\T§iBlBIsMNak;RbB½n§KtiyutþbreTsCaeRcIn. GtßbTd¾xøImYyenHnwgmin
BüayameFVIkarbkRsayRtLb;eRkayrhUtdl;RbFanbTEdlsþI “ GMBIkic©snüasgÁm ” Edlelak Jean1
Jacques Rousseau )aneroberogeLIgkalBIqñaM 1762 enaHeT. GtßbTmYyenHnwgRKan;EtepþatelIcMnuc
sMxan;mYycMnYn énPaBRsedogKña nig PaBxusEbøkBIKñarvag c,ab; nig nIti.
c,ab; nig nIti ÷ kñúgbribTPasa
TaMgBaküc,ab; nig BakünIti mankarBnül;enAkñúgvcnanuRkmd¾l,Il,ajrbs;semþcsgÇ CYn Nat
EdlRtUv)ane)aHBum<kalBIqñaM 1967. vcnanuRkmenH)anBnül;fa ÷
c,ab; ¬n>¦
esckþIbBaØtþi sRmab;eGayGñknKrRbtibtþitam. vin½y RkwtüRkm k,ÜnRbedAmnusS
eGayRbRBwtþl¥. Ebby:ag tYy:ag KMrU. esckþIedIm.
nIti ¬n>¦ ¬)a> sM>¦
c,ab;/ ])ayCaeRKOgENnaM/ EbbEpn/ TMnwmTMenom/ RbéBNI. >>>
                                                            
1

elak Jean‐Jacques  Rousseau,  esovePAeQμaH Du  contrat  social,  eday octavo  edition,  qñaM 1762. sñaédmYy
enHKWCasñaédTsSn³viC¢aEdlbkRsayGMBI KMniténkarkekIt nig karerobcMRbB½n§RKb;RKgsgÁm b¤ rdæmYytamkaryl;eXIBaJpÞal;
rbs;GñkniBn§ EdlkñúgenaHmankarkt;smÁal;eXIjfa mancMnucmYycMnYnbkRsayTak;TineTAnwgcritlkçN³edImrbs;c,ab;. 
 

c,ab; nig nIti ” ÷ kMNt;smÁal;elIkareRbIR)as;Pasa

vcnanuRkmExμr-ExμrenH)anbgðaBaJGtßn½yTUeTA EdlRtUv)anRbCaCneRbIR)as;CaFmμtakñúgCIvPaBCak;
Esþg. c,ab;kñúgn½y k,ÜnRbedAmnusSeGayRbRBwtþl¥ man]TahrN_dUcCa c,ab;Rbus - c,ab;RsI - c,ab;Rkm
EdlmanlkçN³CakMNaBüRBanRbedAGñkGaneGayRbRBwtþl¥. ]TahrN_mYyeTotniyayCaTUeTAfa Éksar
mYyc,ab; Edlkñúgkal³eTs³enH c,ab;mann½yfa CasMeNA b¤ KMrU. kñúgbribTdEdlenH nIti KWCasTisn½y
rbs;c,ab;. Ca]TahrN_Rsab; sßab½nEdlbeRgon b¤ bgðat;bgðaBaJmuxviC¢aKtiyutþ RtUv)aneKdak;eQμaH b¤
ehABIrrebobEdlmann½ydUcKña ÷ sklviTüa nIti sa®sþ >>> mhaviTüal½y c,ab;>>>. eyIgGacelIk]TahrN_
mYyeTot ÷ nItikmμ mann½yfa kartak;Etgc,ab;.
tamry³karsikSasm½ykalbc©úb,nñ muxviC¢aPasaRtUv)andak;bBa©ÚlkñúgkmμviFI ¬PaKeRcInCaPasa
Gg;eKøs nig manTaMgPasa)araMgxøHpg¦ EdlkñúgenaH c,ab; RtUv)anbkERbPasaGg;eKøsfa law Pasa)araMg
fa loi nig nIti RtUv)anbkERbPasaGg;eKøsfa law ¬dEdl¦ nigPasa)araMgfa droit2. cMnucmYyenHbgðaj
eGayeXIjfa enAkñúgPasabreTs k¾mankaryl;eXIjmindUcKñaTaMgRsugrvagsBaØaNTaMgBIrenHEdr.

bTdæanKtiyutþ ÷ CuMvijBaküfa c,ab; nig nIti
bTdæanKtiyutþ CacMnucbnÞab;EdleyIgKYreFVIkarkt;smÁal;. c,ab; nig nIti begáIt)anCaviFan
sRmab;RKb;RKgsgÁm edayviFanTaMgenaHmanGtßiPaBeRkamrUbPaBCa bTdæanKtiyutþ mann½yfaCabNþúMviFan
EdleKykeFVICaeKalsRmab;Gnuvtþ.
etIbTdæanKtiyutþTaMgenH sMedAeTAelIGVIxøH?
sa®sþacarü George P. Fletcher )anbkRsay elITMB½rdMbUg kñúgGtßbTy:agKYreGaycab;GarmμN_
rbs;xøÜnfa manRkumBaküBIrRbePT enAbNþaRbeTsGuWr:ubmYycMnYn sRmab;sMedAeTAelIBaküfa law
kñúgPasaGg;eKøs3. “law” EdlKat;cab;epþImsresr enAXøaTImYyénGtßbTrbs;Kat; BuMTan;RtUv)anKat;bk
RsayGMBIniymn½yenAeLIy ehIyvaGacbkERb)anfaCa c,ab; b¤ nIti. edIm,ICYyeGaykarbkRsaykan;Et
Bisþar eyIgnwgBüayamykBakü “bTdæanKtiyutþ” PasaExμr mkCMnYsBakü “law” PasaGg;eKøs kñúg
kzaxNÐmYyenH. ehIyRkumBaküBIrRbePT EdlsMedAelI “law” enaHKW ÷
                                                            
2

KWCaBaküsMedAdl;nItivtßúvis½ypg nig dl;nItiGtþvis½ypg. Cajwkjab;cMeBaHnItiGtþvis½y eKGaceRbICaBhuvcn³eday
bEnßm “s” BIeRkay ehIykrNIenH droits CaPasa)araMg esμInwg rights CaPasaGg;eKøs.
3
elak Prof. George P. Fletcher,  GtßbTeQμaH IN HONOUR OF IUS ET LEX,  eday Ius et Lex Foundation,  naéf¶ 01
Exmifuna qñaM2001. 
“Droit”

TMB½r 2 én 5

c,ab; nig nIti ” ÷ kMNt;smÁal;elIkareRbIR)as;Pasa

1>

bTdæanKtiyutþ EdlRtUv)aneKGnum½t ¬law-as-enacted-law¦ b¤ bTdæanKtiyutþ-GMNac ¬law-as4
power¦ ÷ Gesetz, loi, zakon
kñúgGtßbTrbs;Kat; bTdæanKtiyutþEdlRtUv)aneKGnum½t ehIymanlkçN³CaGMNacRKb;RKgsgÁm
KWRbhak;RbEhleTAnwgBakü “ c,ab; ” kñúgPasaExμreyIg. mnusSkñúgsgÁm GnuvtþbTdæanKtiyutþNaEdlRtUv
)anGnum½t y:agenHehIyeTIbeKbkRsayfac,ab;manlkçN³CaGMNac. ehIykñúgkrNIEdlmankarrMelaP
bMBanbBaØtþic,ab;Rtg;RbkarNamYy enaHnwgmankardak;TNÐkmμ tamry³karEcgGMBIeTasbBaØtþi nigkar
Gnuvtþn_eTasbBaØtþienaH.
2>

bTdæanKtiyutþ EdlmanlkçN³CaeKalkarN_ ¬law-as-principles¦ b¤ bTdæanKtiyutþ-mUlehtu
¬law-as-reason¦ ÷ Recht, droit, pravo5
bEnßmBIelIsBaØaNénbTdæanKtiyutþ-GMNac sa®sþacarü George P. Fletcher k¾)anviPaKlm¥itpg
EdrGMBIsBaØaN bTdæanKtiyutþ-mUlehtu. bTdæanKtiyutþ-mUlehtu b¤ bTdæanKtiyutþEdlmanlkçN³Ca
eKalkarN_ manlkçN³Rbhak;RbEhleTAnwgBaküfa “ nIti ” kñúgPasaExμreyIg. sBaØaNmYyenHcg;man
n½yfa eKalkarN_Edlsmehtusmpl KWCaviFanEdleKeKarB-Gnuvtþtam ehIyeKeKarB-GnuvtþtamEbb
enH edayyl;eXIjfa nIti KWCasBaØaNényutiþFm_.

c,ab; nig nIti ÷ kñúgbribTKtiyutþ
etImanGVIEdlCacMnucsMxan;KYreGayBicarNaTak;TinnwgkarEbgEckBaküBIrm:at;enH?
karBicarNaGMBIsBaØaNTaMgBIrenAkñúgbribTKtiyutþ ¬k¾dUcCaenAkñúgbribTsgÁm¦ nwgCYyeGayGñk
GanRCYtRCabCagmun GMBIGtßn½y GMBItRmUvkarcaM)ac;énc,ab; nig nItienAkñúgsgÁm nig GMBIcritlkçN³rbs;
sBaØaNTaMgBIrenAkñúgRbB½n§KtiyutþExμr nigRbB½n§KtiyutþGnþrCati. enAkñúgsgÁmmYy sBaØaNénc,ab;Gacman
GtßiPaBeRkamrUbPaBCa viFanTUeTAecjBIGMNacnItibBaØtþi nigmanlkçN³cab;bgçM ¬n½ysmÖar³¦ b¤
c,ab;Calixitnanarbs;rdæ EdlmanRbPBecjBIGgÁkarnItibBaØtþi ehIykarbegáItlixitenHRtUveKarBnUvnItiviFI
Biess ¬n½yTRmg;¦ . edIm,IeGaymanPaBgayRsYlkñgú karsmÁal;GMBIc,ab; manniymn½ymYyRtUv)anelIk
eLIgfa c,ab; CaviFansresr EdlmanlkçN³TUeTA nigGcié®nþy_ ehIyCaviFanEdlRtUv)anGnum½t eday
sPatamesckþIesñIc,ab;rbs;sPa b¤tamesckþIRBagc,ab;rbs;raCrdæaPi)al nigEdlRtUvRbkaseGayeRbI
                                                            
4

CaPasaGaløWm:g; loi CaPasa)araMg nig zakon CaPasab:ULÚj. 
 Recht CaPasaGaløWm:g; droit CaPasa)araMg nig pravo CaPasab:ULÚj. 
 Gesetz 

5

TMB½r 3 én 5

c,ab; nig nIti ” ÷ kMNt;smÁal;elIkareRbIR)as;Pasa

edayRBHmhakSRt. cuHGVIeTACanIti? nItisMedAdl; bNþaviFanTaMgLayNa EdlRKb;RKgTMnak;TMngsgÁm
nig CaviFanEdlmancritlkçN³TUeTA GrUbIdac;xat nigmanTNÐkmμEdlFanaedayGMNacsaFarN³.
edayBuMcaM)ac;eFVIkarbkRsaysuICMerAeBkenaH6 cMNucEdleyIgKYrkt;sMKal;manbYn ÷
1> c,ab;CaviFansresr ÷ kñúgn½yTRmg;mYyenH c,ab; minGacCasTisn½yrbs; nIti )aneT BIeRBaH
c,ab;RtUvEtCabNþasMNuMviFan sresr rIÉnItiCabNþasMNuMviFan minsresr b¤manlkçN³GrUbI.
2> c,ab;Gnum½tedaysPa ÷ Rtg;cMnucenHKWbBa¢ak;fa ÉksarEdlecj b¤ Gnum½tedaysßab½nepSg
¬]TahrN_ edayrdæaPi)al b¤ edaysßab½n b¤GaCJaFrmansmtßkic©eRkambgÁab;rbs;rdæaPi)al¦
minRtUv)aneGayeQμaHfaCac,ab;enaHeLIy. c,ab;manedImkMeNItBIkarGnum½teday GgÁkarnIti
bBaØtþi b:uEnþeyIgKYrkt;smÁal;pgEdrfa lixitbTdæanepSg²eRkABIGtßbTc,ab;TaMgenaH k¾GacCa
RbPBénnIti)anEdr. ]TahrN_ GnuRkwtü EdlcuHhtßelxaedaynaykrdæm®nþI minEmnCac,ab;
b:uEnþ GnuRkwtük¾CaRbPBénnItiEdr.
3> c,ab;manlkçN³TUeTA ÷ c,ab; nig nItimancMnucrYmmYyRtg;cMnucfa TaMgc,ab; nig nIti
KWmanlkçN³TUeTA mincMeBaH. buKÁlTaMgGs;kñúgRbeTsmYy b¤ kñúgrdæmYyCak;lak;RtUveKarB nig
GnuvtþtamviFanénc,ab; nig nIti rbs;RbeTsenaH. karGnuvtþn_enHminRtUvmankarerIseGIg
rvagRbFanénnItienaHeLIy.
4> c,ab;manlkçN³cab;bgçM ÷ c,ab; manlkçN³cab;bgçMeGayGnuvtþ EdlkarGnuvtþedaybgçM
enHRtUv)anFanaedayGMNacsaFarN³ edaymanEcgBIeTasbBaØtþienAkñúgGtßbTc,ab; b¤ enAkñúg
lixitbTdæanKtiyutþepSg²eTotEdlBak;B½n§. nItimanlkççN³TUeTA EdlviFanTaMgLayrbs;va
maneRcInRbPB ÷ mkBIc,ab;pg mkBIsn§isBaØaEdlCabTdæanmanlkçN³CaGnþrCatipg mkBI
yutþisa®sþpg7 nigmkBIRbPBminpÞal;mYycMnYneTotpg dUcCaRTWsþI b¤ eKalkarN_TUeTACaedIm.
Rtg;enHmancMNucmYyKYreGaycab;GarmμN_ KWfa minEmnral;RbPBnimYy²énnIti suT§Etman
                                                            
6

cMeBaHkarbkRsaysuICMerACagenH sUmGanTMB½r 58 nig TMB½r 65 rbs;esovePA esckþIepþIménnItikm<úCa Edle)aHBum<naqñaM 2005
eroberogedayRkumsa®sþacarü énsklviTüal½yPUminÞnItisa®sþ nigviTüasa®sþesdækic©.
7
 esovePA “esckþIepþIménnItikm<úCa ”bBa¢ak;fa yutþisa®sþ enAkñúgnItiExμr mantYnaTItictYcbMput ehIyGacrhUtdl;KμanEtmþg. 

TMB½r 4 én 5

c,ab; nig nIti ” ÷ kMNt;smÁal;elIkareRbIR)as;Pasa

lkçN³cab;bgçMTaMgGs;enaHeLIy. ]TahrN_ eKalkarN_TUeTACaRbPBminpÞal;mYyénnIti
b:uEnþeKalkarN_TUeTAminmanEcgGMBIeTasbBaØtþisMrab;GñkminGnuvtþtamenaHeLIy.

c,ab; nig nIti ÷ cMnucmYyEdlminKYremIlrMlg
niymn½ysuICeRmAénsBaØaNTaMgBIrenH minGacRtUv)anbkRsaykñúgGtßbTmYyd¾xøI)aneLIy. man
TsSn³EdlsmehtuplCaeRcIn yl;eXIjepSgBIkarbkRsayxagelI. mUlehtuenHeFVIeGayeyIgTTYl
sÁal;fa BuMmankarEbgEckdac;RsLHrvagBaküTaMgBIrenHeLIy. EteTaHCay:agenHk¾eday munnwgbBa©b;
GtßbTxøImYyenH mancMNucmYyEdlGñkTaMgGs;KñaKYrBicarNa. enaHKW kmμvtßúénkarsikSa. sisS nisiSt
GñksikSa GñkRsavRCav GñkGnuvtþc,ab; EdlmanbMNgcab;epþIm b¤ bnþRsavRCavGMBInItisaRsþ KYrBicarNafa
c,ab; nig nIti CasBaØaNBIr EdlmanlkçN³Cab;Tak;TinnwgKñas¥itrmYt b:uEnþminEmnCasBaØaN
EdldUcKñaTaMgRsugenaHeT.
xJúM)aTeCOCak;fa karviPaKelIsBaØaNTaMgBIrenH nwgGacCaCMnYydl;karcab;epþImsikSasBaØaNepSg²
eTotenAkñúgvis½yKtiyutþ k¾dUcCavis½ynanaEdlBak;B½n§ kñúgRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaeyIg.


TMB½r 5 én 5

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