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Explorers in the late 15th, 16th, nad early 17th centuries began the European phase of American history. Their "discoveries" in the New dispelled rumors of a northwest passage and settled ancient questions of world geography. Contact between Europeans and Native Americans would have a dramatic effect on Europe, but a devastating impact on those who were wrongly called "Indians." Christopher Columbus: Spanish explorer who, with the backing of Ferdinand V and Isabella I, discovered the North American continent on October 12,1492. Though he was originally seeking a westward route to India, his fleet of ships consisting of the Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria reached the island of Hispanola, claiming it for Spain. Giovanni Verrazano: Mariner who explored the East coast of the United States and Nova Scotia under the commission of France in 1524. He was commissioned to claim new lands in the New World and find a route to China. He was the first European to enter New York Bay. His land claims were not colonized until the 17th century. Ferdinand Magellan: Portuguese explorer who was the first person to sail across the Pacific Ocean and to circumnavigate the globe. Sailing under a Spanish commission, he attempted to reach the Spice Islands. After crossing the Pacific, Magellan was killed battling natives in the Philippines but two of his ships returned to Spain. Francisco Pizarro: Spanish explorer and military leader who conquered Peru. Pizarro was part of many early explorations of the New World and was involved in the colonization of Panama. When he found the Inca empire in Peru he organized a expedition of 180 men and destroyed the empire in 1531. John Cabot: Explorer sent by Henry VII in 1497 who explored and claimed Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and the Grand Banks for England. Cabot was originally sent by Henry in violation of the treaty of Tordesillas to find a direct route to Asia. Cabot, like Columbus thought he had reached Asia, unaware he was exploring a new continent. Pedro Alvares Cabral: Portuguese navigator and explorer who explored what is now Brazil. While making a trip to India on April, 22, 1500 his fleet was forced off course by weather and he reached what is now the state of Bahia, Brazil. He claimed this land for Portugal. Vasco Nunez de Balboa: Spanish explorer who is best known for being the first to reach the Pacific Ocean in 1513. While attempting to escape debt he joined an expedition lead by Martin Fernandez de Enciso where he took control of the party and led it across the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean, which he claimed for the Spanish monarchs. Jacques Cartier: French explorer who explored the Saint Lawrence River. In 1534 Cartier lead a two ship party to find the northwest passage to Asia. He explored
Newfoundland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. While exploring, he claimed the lands for France which made up most of its claim to Canada. Juan Ponce de Leon: Spanish explorer who discovered the present day state of Florida on March 27, 1512. Following reports of a fountain of youth, he sailed from his colony in Puerto Rico to the eastern shore of Florida where, upon landing, his party was attacked by natives and where he was mortally wounded before retreating to Cuba. Hernando Cortez: Spanish conquistador who is best known for the destruction of the Aztec Empire in present day Mexico. On February 19,1519 Cortez left Cuba with a force of 600 men. Upon landing, Cortez was greeted by the Aztecs who he began to subjugate. He destroyed all resistance and destroyed the Aztec capital in present day Mexico City. encomiendas: Grants that give a person the right to take labor in the form of slaves or any type of homage form a designated group of Indians. Christopher Columbus who was sailing for Spain and who was one of the first conquistadors also began this practice in Hispanolia. Spanish Armada, 1588: Naval force launched by Phillip II of Spain to fight England. The Fleet was the largest of its time in the 16th century. The Armada was severely damaged when it was attacked off the coast of England on August 7,1588 and cut nearly in half by storms upon return to Spain, making Britain the dominant sea power. Colombian Exchange: The exchange of biological organisms between continents. The diseases brought to the American continent that helped to nearly destroy the native populations is one example of that exchange. Besides disease, many plants and animals have been brought to new environments with varying consequences.
•Order of Colonization: (colony, date, prominent figure) Virginia in 1607, John Smith;
Plymouth in 1620, William Bradford; New York in 1626, Peter Minuit; Massachusetts Bay in 1630, John Winthrop; Maryland in 1633, George Calvert; Rhode Island in 1636, Roger Williams; Connecticut in 1636, Thomas Hooker; New Hampshire in 1638; Delaware in 1638; North Carolina in 1653; South Carolina in 1663; New Jersey in 1664; Pennsylvania in 1682, William Penn; Georgia in 1732, James Oglethorpe.
One of the New England colonies and chartered by James I in 1606, Virginia was founded to give the English territorial claims to America as well as to offer a colonial market for trade. Jamestown, became a prosperous shipping and tobacco producing colony and the colony developed the House of Burgesses, a bicameral legislature in 1619.
Joint Stock Company: A business owned by investors through control of stocks. Examples operated in England and dealt with colonial markets in America. Such companies organized and supported the colonies through charters from the British government and while they worked with the government they made private profits.
•Jamestown: The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May,
1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop. starving time: The period early in any settlements development when food and supplies are scarce due to lack of preparation, unfamiliarity with the surroundings, weather, and inability to successfully grow crops. The starving time usually cost a large percentage of the settlers lives and lasted for the first few years. John Smith: Colonial leader who brought structure and stability to Jamestown during its starting years. As a member of the governing council of Virginia he was chosen to replace the previous president in 1608. Smith is credited with organizing trade with the Powhatan Confederacy and leading the colony through its roughest years. John Rolfe: English colonist and farmer who greatly aided the colony. Rolfe is credited with introducing tobacco as a crop for export, which ensured the colony of profits as well as bringing eight years of peace between Indians and colonists through his marriage to Pocahontas. purpose of Virginia: Virginia was founded primarily for the purpose of profit by the joint-stock owned Virginia Company of London. It was also important in giving England territorial claims in America to match Spanish and French expansion, and to also give England markets and resources in the New World. indentured servants: People who promised their lives as servants in order to get to the colonies. The servants, who were usually white, worked for a certain amount of time so to pay off their debt. This practice led to social tensions with such eruptions as Bacon’s Rebellion and eventually was replaced by race slavery. problems and failures of Virginia: Included trouble with Indians and a "starving time" in the winter of 1609 which the colony barely survived. Virginia also suffered from debt, a high death rate, fraudulent local officials, and more Indian trouble. The problems eventually made the Virginia Company go bankrupt. headright system: System enacted first in Virginia then in Baltimore to attract people to the sparsely populated colonies. The system worked by granting large amount of land to anyone who brought over a certain amount of colonists. In Baltimore, anyone bringing five adults at their own expense would receive two thousand acres.
House of Burgesses: A regular assembly of elected representatives that developed in the Virginia colony in the 1630’s. The House of Burgesses was split into two chambers in 1650, creating the House of Burgesses and the Governors Council. The House was a bicameral legislature that was a model for our congress. successes of Virginia: Virginia succeeded politically in terms of creating the House of Burgesses as a semi-democratic assembly and forcing governors to cooperate with the legislature. They did this through the power of the purse as governors did not control money, and therefore depended on the legislature for they salaries. Cavalier: The group of supporters of Charles I in the English Civil War which lasted from 1642-1648. The term Cavalier continued to be used to mean any supporter of the British crown, especially Americans who were British sympathizers during the American Revolution.
•Bacon’s Rebellion: Colonial rebellion against the governor of Virginia in 1676.
Nathaniel Bacon was the leader of the uprising protesting Governor Berkeley’s neglect of calls for a stronger military presence in the frontier to end problems caused by Indian hostility. The revolt succeeded in driving away the governor and it appeared it would achieve success when Bacon died shortly after the initial success before any progress was made and the rebellion dissipated.
The Puritans first came to America in 1620 on the Mayflower. The Pilgrims, as they were called, were separating from the Anglican church and escaping religious persecution in England by escaping to America. Other Puritans soon flocked to America hoping to "purify" the Anglican Church and develop a colony which would be a model to the world ("a city upon a hill") Calvinism: The teachings and doctrine of John Calvin, a leader in the Protestant reformation. Calvinism is unique in its rejection of consubstantiation, the Eucharist and in its doctrine of predestination, the belief that no actions taken during a persons life would effect their salvation. The Puritan colonies were based on Calvinist doctrine. Church of England: The established church in England that is also known as the Anglican church. The Church of England was founded in 1534 by Henry VIII after a dispute with the Roman Catholic church over the annulment of his marriage which culminated in the Act of Supremacy, declaring the King to be the head of the church. Mayflower Compact: Agreement made by the Pilgrims in 1620 when they landed at Plymouth. The compact created the Plymouth colony and made a civil government under James I based on the will of the colonists. The Compact was important in the early organization and success of the colony.
Puritans: Reform movement in the Anglican church in the 16th and 17th centuries and came to America in 1629. The leader of the Puritan migration. For this reason they fled the town of Scrooby. He was important in the organization and success of the colony and kept a history of the development of the Plymouth colony that was published in 1856.William Bradford: The second governor of the Plymouth colony in Massachusetts. The movement aimed at purifying the church of corruption split into separatists. The Pilgrims sailed across the Atlantic and reached America in 1620 where they founded the Plymouth colony and organized a government based on the Mayflower compact. It was anticipated that once the world saw this great city it would follow it example. Separatists vs. Pilgrims: The original group of puritan separatists that fled religious persecution in England and found refuge in what is now Massachusetts. who wanted to end ties with the established church and nonseparatists. Seeking religious freedom was a strong motivation for colonies in America. Non-Separatists: Separatists were a group of Puritans who advocated total withdrawal from the Church of England and wanted the freedom to worship independently from English authority. the colony was created to provide the world with a model Christian society. where they originally had assembled and ended up in Plymouth with intentions of creating a community free of English control. Puritan Migration: The term given to the migration of Puritans to America in the early 17th century. Non-Separatists sought to reform the Church from within. The colony was created in 1630 and it was governed through a General Court selected by church members. John Winthrop planned to create a utopian society based on Puritanism that would have no class distinction and would stress the importance of community and church. Under the leadership of John Winthrop. a dangerous belief in religiously tense England. but Pilgrims were a distinct group of puritans who were not only against the Anglican church but called for total separation from the church. Cambridge agreement: Plan used in 1629 to colonize America by allowing immigration of puritan settlers who would control the government and the charter of the Massachusetts Bay company. Following the restoration of James I to the throne Puritans in England . The society was to be an example to all the world of what could be achieved. Massachusetts Bay Colony: Colony created by the Massachusetts Bay Company. England. The agreement was based on the creation of a market for trade but instead developed a religiously based government. They included the Pilgrims who migrated to America. PURITANS: Pilgrims and Puritans were extremely similar in most practices and beliefs. he was elected over John Carver in 1621 and was reelected thirty times. •City Upon a Hill: Name given to the Puritan society that was to be created in the New World. •PILGRIMS VS.
later generations did not go accept it and the half-way covenant was adopted. He was elected governor twelve times and pursued a conservative religious and governmental policy. The theology differs from sect to sect. The Relation required that any member of the congregation must go through an examination before the congregation. Unlike other colonies. Congregationalism was part of the strong independence of the colonies. Because of its unpleasantness. An offshoot of the separatist. conversion relation: Part of the Massachusetts Puritans practice. Covenant Theology: Christian Theology that stressed that a agreement was made by God with humans with the death of Jesus for the salvation of mankind. New England Way: The Puritan dominance of New England and their desire to create a utopian society based on their doctrine created a distinct society in New England. to become a saint the person had to be a member of the congregation and have been chosen by the church council. dissenters: People objected to the accepted doctrine of the established church. puritan colonies had a special distinction from them. it was a requirement of new members. saints: High standing members of the church who gained recognition and were put on a council that governed the congregation. John Winthrop: The first governor and one of the founders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and a member of the Massachusetts Bay Company. Cambridge Platform: Agreement and plan formed by Puritans before they landed in 1629. Under Puritan doctrine. some that its is earned and others that it can be achieved by faith alone. The puritans fled England and came to America to have freedom of religion. The platform was the source for the Puritans of the government and organization for their colony. it was continued by the pilgrims in America where it was adopted by the new churches as a way to maintain local independence. He played a key role in the puritan migration and intended to create a utopian society in America. Contrast Puritan Colonies with others: Because most colonies were created with financial or political gains in mind.became persecuted and with the accession of Charles I to the throne the situation became worse. The puritans came to American seeking religious freedom and had a strong work ethic enabling them to achieve a success not seen in other colonies. Puritans were guided by their religion and created a government and society tied to the church. The puritans who migrated to America were dissenters from the Church of England who . some assert that salvation is granted to all. and it established a government under the authority of the King of England. Congregationalism: Protestant organizational system based on the freedom of each church to control its affairs.
The Salem Witch Trials pinpointed the underlying tension that was coming to head in many colonies due to religion and social standings. Half Way Covenant: A modification in the Cambridge Platform in 1662 that enabled people who had not experienced the conversion relation to become part of the congregation. •SALEM WITCH TRIALS: The fear of witchcraft that came to a head in the 16911963. The law was a step towards creating a universal education system. a wealthy merchant and official of Harvard College organized the church against the will of Cotton Mather because of its closeness to the Church of England. Voting Granted to Church Members: The New England puritans developed a more democratic system of government than in England that gave the power to elect the governor to all male saints. Anne Hutchinson. he established a colony at Providence in 1636 that tolerated all dissenters and was in good relations with the Natives. Thomas Brattle. church membership was threatened and the compromise was made. antinomianism: Early New England religious leader who founded the doctrine of antinomianism. . the belief that the Gospel frees Christians from required obedience to laws. and taxes for the following season. Massachusetts in 1692. With the later generations of Protestant settlers unwilling to undergo the conversion relation. Most of the women were middle aged wives or widows. Completed in 1699. Rhode Island: Early colonial clergyman who founded the religiously tolerant colony of Rhode Island in 1636. especially boiling over in Salem. Town Meetings were gatherings where all the voters in the town or nearby countryside would all congregate and go over issues that most interested them. that replaced home education by creating a system in which small towns would have a person capable of teaching the children and every town of over one hundred homes would have a school. such as town officers. Mass. Massachusetts School Law: Law also Known as the Old Deluder Act of 1647. This fear ended with the death of many innocent women. Religious outcasts from the puritan church such as Ann Hutchinson and Roger Williams were also dissenters. Williams was banished from Massachusetts for his belief in religious freedom. She was banished to Rhode Island in 1637 for her belief in antinomianism and her insistence on salvation by faith and not works. The Church was strongly opposed to the Salem Witchcraft trials in 1692. Roger Williams. town meetings: The center of Colonial America political life especially in New England. Brattle Street Church: Church located in Boston.created a new church in the colonies. Many implicated others for fear of their lives. The idea was furthered in 1644 when it adopted a bicameral court with elected delegates.
Part of the work ethic also resulted from a belief that wealth and success were a sign of saintliness and that idleness was a sin. and by 1700. Boston colonists forcefully removed Andros from office in 1689. The confederation was used most effectively advising during King Phillips War. Massachusetts Bay Company: Company in 1628 to govern the Massachusetts Bay Colony on granted by the Council of New England in America. Puritan society. the middle colonies. Regionalism As life in the colonies progressed. It started as a highly religious. New Englanders turned to fishing and the merchant marine. Of all the colonies. and control. Andros was extremely unpopular because of his suppression of colonial legislatures. Hooker grew dissatisfied with the rigid practices and . starting a trend of religiously independent settlements. To make up for the lack of farming. the New Englanders prospered the least. Connecticut and New Haven in the years from 1643-1684.the Chesapeake Bay area. this was one of the largest industries in the colonies. The Dominion was governed by New York governor Sir Edmund Andros. This work ethic also helped the Puritans find success in the colonies and translated to an American colonial work ethic. The union was for the purpose of ensuring safety and peace between the colonies. certain regions of America developed distinct characteristics and each had its own unique niche. had the most overpopulated towns. •NEW ENGLAND: Region of the colonies lying on the northeast Atlantic Coast. New England Confederation. and had the poorest soil. Sir Edmund Andros: Political leader appointment as governor of the Dominion of New England in 1686. The Company was dissolved in 1684. Thomas Hooker: Religious leader in colonial America and founder of Hartford. Plymouth. religion. 1643: A concord among the New England colonies of Massachusetts. and was ended by colonial insurrection. the southern colonies. The distinct regions were New England . As a clergyman in Massachusetts. The contrasts between the different regions were involving crops. town meetings and enforcement of the Navigation Acts. The consolidation was strongly opposed by the colonists because of the elimination of all colonial legislatures.Puritan Ethic: Term that characterizes the strong sense of purpose and discipline that Puritans had. Conn. and the frontier. •The Dominion of New England: Centralized government imposed upon the New England colonies by England in 1686 as a result of the Restoration monarchy’s need for control and renewed colonial interest. Puritan settlers who founded their settlement at Boston first colonized the land. but eventually became a commercialized "Yankee" society.
leading to an absence of large cities in the south. Poor Richard’s Almanack: Publication written by Benjamin Franklin in 1732 that gained an immense following with its home remedies and practical wisdom. One of her works is "To the University of Cambridge in New England. The Southern Colonies were distinct from other colonies mostly on their dependence for slave labor and for farming. The Southern Colonies were also the only colonies with a large population of blacks and an ethnically stratified society. Culpeper’s Rebellion: Rebellion against the colonial government in Carolina in 1677. it contained a preamble and 11 orders. But although most southern cities were tiny. at the age of 8. She was born in 1612 as the daughter of the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Charleston became the fourth largest city in the colonies. •SOUTHERN COLONIES: Region consisting mainly of the Carolinas and Georgia. it put the welfare of the community above that of individuals. . which were published as The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America. slowed growth as large settlement did not occur until after slavery was brought to Georgia. Phillis found her first fame while escorting one of the Wheatly’s in England. The rebellion succeeded in disposing the governor and placing Culpeper in his position. Phillis Wheatly: African American poet who was brought to America by slave traders at the age of eight and was bought by the Wheatly family. Her poems. The colony started with a settlement in Savanna created by Oglethorpe as a debtor’s colony. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: The constitution of the Connecticut colony that was established in 1639. The rebellion was lead by John Culpeper and was directed against the government’s acceptance of English trade laws. The high ideals of Oglethorpe. Georgia: Colony founded in 1733 by a charter granted to James Oglethorpe. separate from Britain. asserted that women had the right to gain knowledge. The government was for the colony at Saybrook of which John Winthrop’s son was governor. The main crop in the South was rice. Following the puritan ideal. such as bans on slavery and rum." Ann Bradstreet: The first woman to write poems in colonial America and receive acclaim for them.government of the Puritan church. In 1635 he lead a group of followers to start a more liberal colony in Hartford. In 1767. Written by Thomas Hooker and similar to the government of Massachusetts Bay. Saybrook Platform: A modified version of the Cambridge platform that was used by Connecticut Congregationalists and contained a more centralized church government. but he was removed in 1679. It can be said that Poor Richard’s Almanack helped define the American culture by giving them traditions and wisdom’s all their own.
Along with this equality Lord Calvert allowed a representative assembly for the Catholics. Eventually. like New Netherlands. was where farming took place. which the Catholics ruled. Slow urbanization also characterized society around the Chesapeake. •CHESAPEAKE SOCIETY: Society characterized by few neighbors and isolated families whose lives depended on tobacco. Tidewater vs. received a charter from King Charles I for a tract of land to the northeast of the colony of Virginia. and during this time the French Protestants gradually regained many of their rights. The Maryland Act of Toleration was passed in 1649 so all types of Christians could have equal political rights. was opposed to religious persecution. because of the religious wars with French Catholics. Virginia. Oglethorpe founded Georgia after a grant from King George II and settled with a small group on the Savanna River. However. the Protestant majority barred Catholics from voting and threw out the governor and repealed the act. Maryland. Maryland was created in 1632 when Lord Baltimore (Cecilius Calvert) was given a land grant and created a manor based state with a headright system. Chesapeake society also had a powerful merchant class who controlled both export and import commerce. The enlightened and religiously skeptical spirit of the 18th century. Chesapeake society also revolved around fertile soil near navigable water because tobacco needed such an environment to be grown profitably. however. Maryland: Proprietary colony originally intended to be a refuge for English Catholics. The Tidewater was along the coast. Oglethorpe’s ideals in creating a debtors colony free of vice were a distinction from other colonies. . Sugar plantation owners liked to use black slaves because they were able to work harder and longer. Lord Baltimore: Founder of Maryland who. He wrote the charter for the colony but died before he got it. This contrast represented an East-West dichotomy to accompany the North-South one. in 1632. Sugar was produced because it could make people rich quickly because it was sold at very high prices. on the other hand. sugar colonies: Colonies that produced sugar for England. most farms were located along Chesapeake Bay. Because of this. after the Act of Religious Toleration was passed. where most of the opportunity was in shipping and fishing. Huguenots: French Protestants. Maryland Act of Toleration: Act that resulted when the Catholics began feeling threatened by the overwhelming Protestant population. The Huguenots slowed the colonization process for the French. Protestants formed a majority and the manors evolved into plantations. New England. It comprised the present-day states of Maryland and Delaware. the Piedmont.James Oglethorpe: English soldier and founder of the colony of Georgia in 1733. Piedmont: Two regions of contrasting economic opportunity. Maryland’s Protestant Association: Group of Protestants in Maryland during late 1600s who controlled the lower house but not the upper. and the Caribbean.
the dues were still enforced. North Carolina originated as an extension of Virginia and South Carolina came from planters from Barbados. Pennsylvania was built on the basis of being a religious haven for Quakers. Restoration Colonies: Colonies created following the Stuart restoration in 1660 when England again took interest in America. wood. the caciques in the middle. The colonies enabled England to control the East Coast. usually the eldest. These job seekers usually ended up competing for jobs with the black slaves. These colonies had governments that made a social hierarchy geared toward a dominant wealthy class. wood. After a visit to Maryland. It was a place where the upper class could pass their time so they could stay away from the heat of their plantations. flour. Fundamental Constitution: Intricate constitution written by Cooper and John Locke in 1670. entail: The practice of passing on land to a son. staple crops of the South: The major staple crop of the south was rice. and the landgraves at the bottom. New York was built upon the rule of James Duke of York who sent out John Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret to be the first two proprietors of New Jersey. All of these products were exported to Europe and the west Indies. •Middle Colonies: The middle colonies were Pennsylvania. SPG. and tobacco which were exported to Britain. John Locke. This practice became came over with the colonists and was introduced into common law. Other crops were tobacco. Carolina." It formed the three orders of nobility with the proprietors at the top. Most of the colonists’ profit came from farming.Carolinas: Colonies created when Charles II rewarded eight of the noblemen who had helped him regain the throne from the Puritan rule in 1663 by giving them land. who founded Charleston in 1670. and skins. Charleston: City that became the fourth largest city in North America. With the Restoration and the creation of Restoration Colonies. indigo. grain. It was seen as a conspiracy. which was picked by African-American planters who were imported by the Dutch in 1616. all of which produced iron. quitrents: Federal payments that the freeholders had to pay the people who were getting the land from proprietors. . and Pennsylvania. New York. Primogeniture. various grains. Many whites were lured to Charleston in hopes of reducing the black majority. when no will was left for the land. meant to stabilize the government of Carolina by basing the social rank on one’s "landed wealth. thus showing a fear of tyranny of the church and state. Thomas Bray received a royal charter from King William for overseas missionary work. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel: An organization founded in 1701 to serve the spiritual welfare of the colonists. New Jersey. but it did not take long for the practice to die out in the colonies. New York. and New Jersey. with the money no longer going to the proprietors but instead to the king or queen as royal revenue. Europe and the West Indies.
Pennsylvania. opposed war and slavery. 1701 Frame of Government: The first set of laws set up in Pennsylvania which were written by William Penn. English settlers resisted the original proprietors’ authority. They rejected a formal creed and regarded every participant as a potential vessel for the word of God. In his constitutional type document Penn preached "that the will of one man may not hinder the good of the whole company. mainly Presbyterianism. and believed that all human actions must be directed by inner contemplation. Penn and his people did not experience a starving time which was very common for starting colonies. and the Anglican population and political power rose. Penn himself carefully oversaw land sales in the colonies to avoid improper disputes. The 1701 Frame of Government stated that the proprietors had no power to do mischief. George Keith: Member of the Quaker church who told the Quakers that they needed a formal doctrine. With his heresy conviction the Quaker population in Pennsylvania dropped. They were based in Pennsylvania. He objected to political and religious authority. East Jersey then became dominated by Scottish Quakers whereas West Jersey became the home to many English Quakers. The Quakers believed that an "inner-light" allowed them to be on a personal level with God. and a limited lower legislative chamber. so in 1692 he joined the Church of England. East/ West Jersey: They were colonies that resulted from the sale of the Jersey territory to Quakers. Holy Experiment: The main part of this theology that George Fox taught was that people had an inner light that could spiritually inspire their souls. For years to come there were conflicting claims to the territory and finally in 1702 it became a royal colony. New York: Dutch. James became King in 1685 and appointed Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret as the first proprietors of New Jersey. Quakers: Religious movement founded in 1600 by a religious belief that divine revelation is immediate and individual and that all persons may perceive the word of God in their soul. so in 1674 Berkeley sold his half to a union of Quakers." The document was revised seven times and held a strong executive. liberal land laws in PA: Laws that were set up by William Penn which were very liberal because that was his nature. His ideas were not accepted among the Quaker majority. and advocated divine communion as he practiced it. This liberal planning ensured no starving time. William Penn: Pennsylvania was founded as a refuge for Quakers by William Penn in 1681. 1664 English: Charles II gave his brother James title to all the Dutch lands in America in 1664. and believed that all human actions should be directed by inner contemplation and a social conscience inspired by God. opposed war and slavery. He objected to political and religious authority. . They started with a strong government. George Fox: Preacher of the "inner-light" doctrine who spoke against formalized religion.
grain. author. flour. Benjamin Franklin: A notable American printer. The estates were created in order to raise revenue by collecting tenant rents. Bartram traveled extensively through the colonies. Leisler denied the passing of English troops to important forts. In 1731 he founded what was probably the first public library in America. and making maps. observing wildlife. the middle colonies as a religious haven: William Penn founded Pennsylvania originally as a religious haven for Quakers who were not accepted elsewhere in 1681. and scientist. Later. Finally.patroon system: The system of feudal estates created by large New York landowners in the early 1700s. forming the New York and Jersey colonies with a large remaining Dutch population. writing. Rhode Island was founded by Roger Williams in 1644 for dissenting Puritans. He first published Poor Richard’s Almanack in 1732 and played a crucial role in the American Revolution and community. High population and bad sanitation allowed many of the people to catch viruses and diseases. peacefully surrendered and gave New Netherlands to Charles II. the patroon owners emerged as a class of landed elite. by about 1750. Leisler’s Rebellion: Anti-Stuart rebellion in which Captain Jacob Leisler took command over New York in hopes of protecting it from Andros and other supporters of James II. whose army was already hurt from Indian attacks. Their exports were rice. the frontier represented a raw environment that . philosopher. as explained by Fredrick Turner’s Frontier Thesis. Peter Struyvesant: Dutch governor who was attacked by Charles II in 1664 so that the British could control North America. The frontier also offered limitless land. •FRONTIER: Area of land important in the development of a distinctly American culture and political life. Struyvesant. Recessions hit frequently and the job force was very unstable. and tobacco which were shipped to Europe and the West Indies. In 1691. He performed important experiments involving plant hybridization and in 1728 he founded the first botanical garden in America near Philadelphia. diplomat. collecting plants. Maryland was founded by George Calvert in 1632 and served as a refuge for English Catholics. wood. Similarly. New York City and Philadelphia as urban centers: Both cities were the two biggest exporting cities in America thus making them rapidly growing urban centers. crops in the middle colonies: The middle colonies rich level lands produced lengthy growing seasons and gave good bumper crops. his contributions epitomized the Enlightenment. The middle colonies were major exporting colonies because of their accessible sea ports. which democratized America by elimating the significance of voting property requirements. John Bartram: Botanist who was known as the father of American Botany. almost like the British landed aristocracy. leading to his arrest and death when his enemies gained control of the government. iron.
The Tuscaroran people were defeated by the colonists with the help of the Yamasees in 1713. . submission into "praying towns. Mohawk. an aristocracy. The chief of the Wampanoags. Both tribes were scattered and soon disappeared. Oneida. Pequot War: So-called war consisting of clumsy plundering by Massachusetts troops and raids by Pequots in 1637. White. assimilation as "Praying Indians" became the only option besides retreating farther west. and inventiveness. opening the way to New England’s settlement. Red. As the Indian population in the east waned. By the 1700s." and devastation through war and disease. Native American Relations in the first settlements: Relations characterized by resistance to the expansion of English settlement. Originally using AfricanAmericans only as indentured servants. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites. the first of which. The war tipped the balance of military power to the English. By combining they were a stronger force against the colonists. praying towns: Towns set up by puritan missionaries for Indian converts to spread puritan Christianity. the growers and farmers eventually began to rely on African-Americans and Native Americans as a free source of labor. Natick. and ports. In contrast. the North had more towns. strength. acuteness. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. Seneca. and Black With the colonization of certain regions in America came conflicts with the Native Americans and the earliest traces of slavery in America. Tuscaroras and Yamasees: Two opposing Indians tribes whose disunity lead both to destruction. Iroquois Confederacy: The joining of six sects of the Iroquoian family and of the Eastern Woodlands area. North-South economic differences: The North was much more concerned with shipping. cities. Also. and industry whereas the South was based on an agricultural society. fishing. the South was characterized by cash crops. was founded in 1651. Cayuga. the tribes in the confederacy were the Onondaga.helped mold American civilization by giving it coarseness. Many of the Massachusetts Indians sought protection from Winthrop by selling their land and surrendering their independence. pragmatism. King Philip lead the natives. and Tuscarors. The colonists eventually won the alliance of rival tribes and waged a ruthless campaign. and the Yamasees were themselves defeated around 1715. King Phillips War: War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. and plantations.
rationale. 1661: The first actual definition by the colonies of slavery as a "lifelong. in which twenty slaves robbed guns and ammunition from the Stono River Bridge along with killing civilians. yet with a distinctly American flavor. The slave trade then moved in to America as the development of a plantation system in Virginia offered a market for slavery and the first slaves arrived there in 1619. inheritable. Out of the Maryland Slave Code of 1661 came the establishing of other slave codes that set up strict legal codes. thus bringing forth the Declaration of Independence after a series of events. mercantilism: features. •SLAVERY BEGINS: Followed the exploration of the African coast and the establishment of a slave trade Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. impact on Great Britain. Maryland Slave Code. Salutary Neglect Britain’s absence in colonial America due to pressing issues in England left the colonies alone for the most part to govern themselves. and the New Netherlands." It was issued by Maryland in 1661 in order to set up a distinct place for the slaves in the society. racial status. 17th. It was because of this absence that the colonies became more self sufficient and eventually it led them to a feeling of individuality that they feared losing. As trade and agriculture grew and a plantation system grew so did slavery. impact on the different colonies: Economic policy prevailing in Europe during the 16th. The Overhunting of Beavers sent prices so high in 1742 that the Dutch armed the Iroquois and what resulted was bloody battles against Pro-French tribes. Officials suppressed the rebellion and stopped any more chaos and damage. It was often noted as an inhumane code but the society revolved around slaves. and 18th centuries under which governmental control was exercised over industry and trade in accordance with the theory that national strength is increased by a majority of exports over imports. Stono Rebellion: Slave uprising in South Carolina in 1739. During this time they flourished and developed a British origin. White owners relied on force and fear to control the growing black majority in the Carolinas. Barbados Code: Code adopted by Carolina in 1696 to control slaves at the will of their masters. It was a significant encounter because it caused white apprehension and led to a new slave code.Beaver Wars: Wars that resulted from furious trading and hunting of Beaver pelts by the Dutch. The colonies adopted mercantilism as business in which the mother country could benefit. . so laws like this were created in order to keep control in the society. the French. however because it was not yet profitable for slavery under the conditions. Slavery remained small among the colonies.
Many of the base rights in the United States Constitution are included in it. 1628: Petition given to Charles I by parliament. rice. Magna Carta. 1750: Act specifying certain enumerated goods—principally tobacco. stop taxing without its consent and stop declaring martial law in a time of peace. These were attempts to prevent manufacturing in the British colonies that might threaten the economy of England. It was very similar to the other previous Currency Act but this act was targeted towards the people and raising the taxes so that the Parliament could make more money. but it was never meant to raise revenue. However. 1751: Act passed by British Parliament that affected the colonies by adjusting the currency. Currency Act. The British could freely use the soldiers at their convenience by the rules of this draft. 1215: A charter granted by King John. that exactly established the relationship between the kings and barons and guaranteed ideas of free commerce. The draft caused many problems in the life of young American men. .triangular trade: Trade that takes place between three places is called triangular trade. It was a clear example of how Salutary Neglect was coming to an end with the French and Indian War. Molasses Act. Hat Act. 1733: Legislation by the British Parliament for taxing and imposing shipment restrictions on sugar and molasses imported into the profitable colonies from the West Indies. The point of this attack was to raise revenue for Great Britain. Woolens Act. and indigo—that the colonists could export only to another English colony or to England. It can only be revoked in time of rebellion. consignment systems: A system of drafting sailors into the British navy. Currency Act. asking him to stop sending soldiers to live in private citizens homes. This occurred partially because Charles was trying to pay off his war debt. 1764: Another Act passed by the British Parliament that affected the colonies and was meant to raise revenue for Great Britain. 1732: Iron Act. Habeas Corpus Act: Act saying that a person can not be held in prison without being charged and tried. This idea was adopted into our Constitution in Article 1. Colonial trade was not very triangular because the Navigation Acts forced American merchants to trade only with Britain. the right to a fair trial. Petition of Right. They put this into effect to help stop innocent people from being thrown into jail with no specific reason why. and the right to a trial by your peers. It was meant to create profitable trade as a protective tariff. Section 9. 1699. Many teenagers tried to avoid the draft by giving false information about themselves. the Americans still managed to smuggle goods with the French Caribbean and India.
Navigation Act. The Navigation Acts opened up British markets to American merchants. the courts awarded judges money for every conviction. Navigation Act.S. it was passed to help English commercial interests in 1663 but helped the U. and indigo. He entered the English Parliament in 1701 and became a well known speaker for the Whig Party. It was only temporary and it stated that goods imported or exported by the colonies in Africa and Asia must be shipped out or imported only by English vessels and the crews must be 75% British. It allowed for methods of enforcing the acts. In 1708 he was named Secretary of War. In 1739 he declared war on Spain. which caused division in his party (Whigs) for support for him in elections. capitalism. It was passed in 1696 in an effort to strengthen its effect on colonists. Also. They were often held away from the colonies. It was a time when great minds awoke and started thinking. 1651: Parliament passed this legislation in 1651 in order to protect English trade from foreign competition. They deliberately waited to publish these instructions so that American ships would be seized.Navigation Act. •BOARD OF TRADE. Along with the 1660 act. 1660: This Parliamentary act renewed the 1651 act and specified certain innumerable articles which could be exported only to the English or to another English colony in 1660. and introduced use of vice-admiralty courts.S. and the number of merchants increased during the 1750’s as well. It was felt much more harshly by the colonists and led to hostility admiralty courts: These were courts that were created to bring sailors to trial for going against the navigation acts. thus judges became more apt to find people guilty. (of the Privy Council): This board was part of the Privy Council which was one of the committees formed by the British Parliament In 1793 Britain’s Privy Council sent out orders that any foreign ships caught trading with the French Islands located in the Caribbean to be automatically captured and taken away. Navigation Act. American shipbuilding thus prospered and there was a stable protected market for producers. 1696: This was the fifth and final Parliamentary Navigation Act. the Enlightenment: A period in the 1700s when a new method of thought was employed. rice. a fact that the colonies viewed as being unconstitutional. It also helped U. Robert Walpole: Statesman who is considered Britain’s first prime minister. Among these goods were tobacco. provided more penalties for evasion. merchants/markets: People and places involved in the trading system of the colonies were merchants and the markets with which they traded. 1663: This Parliamentary act disallowed colonial merchants from exporting products like sugar and tobacco anywhere except to England and from importing goods in ships not made and produced by the English. affecting the . causing over 250 ships were captured.
law. The house had the power of the purse which led them to being the more dominant house. All of these ideas helped shape America’s way of government life.colonies as well as Europe. He criticized the "divine right" kings had and believed that the people should have a say and that the supreme power should be state power. Because of low voter participation and indifference toward politics. More common people could get into government than before and make a difference which helped build the foundations of America. John Peter Zenger Trial: Trial involving the founder of the New York Weekly Journal . colonial agents: Representatives sent by Great Britain to the colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries. CHARTER. optimism. He was announced not guilty. colonial government only truly flourished in the major seaports. •PROPRIETARY. The most significant development of colonial government was the rise of the assembly and the limiting of the power of governors. John Locke’s Ideas: John Locke was a philosopher that supported Colonial America. Moderate uprising that came out of the Colonial America during this time ended with William and Mary taking apart the Dominion of New England. Rise of the lower house: In Colonial America the lower house had increasingly equal if not more power than the upper house. Kings and Queens could also give away land as well as people having property passed on to them. but only if they were governed by "natural" law. Its ideas lead to revolutionary ideas. ROYAL COLONIES: These are three ways one could come upon owning land in Colonial America. The colonies then interpreted the law and used it against the British (levy tax). and local administration. or levy taxes without the okay of the British Parliament. confidence in human reason. Glorious Revolution: When Mary and William over run James II in England in 1688. therefore having an influence on decisions the new powers would make. British citizens saw this as a win in liberty for parliament would have more control than ever. •COLONIAL GOVERNMENT: Characterized by regular assemblies and appointed militia. Bill of Rights. It also made it illegal for a monarch to postpone laws. 1689: Bill that said no Roman Catholics could hold a position of king or queen in England. They would observe the colonies and then send the information back to England. Often. His ideas can be seen in the Constitution. these were dominated by the colonial elite despite liberal qualifications for male voters. have a standing army. Some beliefs brought to the forefront were the laws of nature. One such way was for a company to give out land so an area would become populated. The problem is by the time it got back to England the information that had once been true was now old and wrong. who received money from influential town members. and deism. his success paving the way for freedom of the press. . So when Zenger published articles by his contributors that criticized Colonial government he was arrested and put on trial.
A Careful and Strict Enquiry into. Gilbert Tennent: American Presbyterian minister. William and Gilbert Tenant. The university eventually developed a more secular format effects of the Great Awakening on religion in America: Long term effects of the Great Awakening were the decline of Quakers. "The Dangers of Unconverted Ministry. an increase of Presbyterians. He involved himself in the Great Awakening in 1739 preaching his belief in gaining salvation. and religious toleration. Anglicans.Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. The result was a schism (1741) in the Presbyterian church between the "Old Lights" and the "New Lights. Mass. William Tennent: Presbyterian minister who played a chief role in the Great Awakening in Central New Jersey by calling prayer meetings known as the Refreshings around the 1730’s. New lights: Two groups of ministries who frequently had heated debates on the issue of God during the Great Awakening. It also caused an emergence in black Protestantism. Great Britain Versus France .Great Awakening A series of religious revivals swept through the colonies in the 1730s. Key players were Theodore Frelinghuysen. an emphasis on inner experience." in which he criticized conservative ministers who opposed the fervor of the Great Awakening. George Whitefield: English clergyman who was known for his ability to convince many people through his sermons. Old Lights. Coming from Connecticut. religious toleration. who accepted it and sometimes suffered persecution because of their religious fervor. The Old Lights rejected the Great Awakening and the New Lights. and George Whitefield. denomenationalism. in 1740 delivered a harsh sermon. and denominationalism. . founding of colleges. Harvard University: University located in Cambridge. Jonathan Edwards. His presence helped raise the population by about 3000 people. that was founded in 1636 on a grant from the Mass. and Congregationalists as the Presbyterians and Baptists increased. Through the awakening emerged the decline of Quakers. most of his speeches were based there. Bay Colony. The sermon also used the fury of the divine wrath to arouse religious fervor." led by Tennent. . Jonathan Edwards . Another one of his significant projects was the founding of his influential Log College which had teachers educated in all areas of study. That freedom of Will: Sermon about how one must have a personal faith and relationship with Jesus Christ to gain salvation instead of an afterlife in hell. The school was originally organized to educate ministers because of the scarcity of clergy and lack of an educational institution in the new colony.
With America as a new prospect for both France and Great Britain, tensions grew between the two countries. The result was a series of wars like King William’s War, Queen Anne’s War, the War of Jenkin’s Ear, King George’s War, and the French and Indian War. Changes in land Claims of 1689, 1713, 1763: Before 1689 almost all of the land belonged to Spain, and France with Britain only starting. Then by 1713 France was dominating the North America and Britain was spreading up and down the coast. In 1763 with the Treaty of Paris, Britain became the overwhelming power. Differences between French and British colonization: The French mostly had fur traders and posts in North America so they could get goods, they were more inland and made friends with the Indians. While the English were settling for good on the shore, making homes and government- they were all there to start a new life. Why Great Britain eventually won: When William Pitt joined the British leaders he turned things around. He began to treat the Americans like equals or allies instead of subordinates. This lead Americans to feel a sense of pride and a renewed sense of spirit that sent them into several victories that made France eventually concede. King William’s War: In Europe a war fought between the Grand Alliance and France which also embroiled the colonies. The entire war was battled over who would reign in England. In the colonies the Indians were fighting for the French. In 1697 fighting ceased due to the Peace of Ryswick which restored Port Royal to the French. Queen Anne’s War: The second of the four imperial wars that were fought between Britain, France and Spain. It took place from 1702-1713. Though many Spanish colonial towns were captured and burned by English forces, American colonists met with military failure creating a feeling of dependence on Britain. The war ended with Peace of Utrecht. Peace of Utrecht: Treaty that ended Queen Anne's War in 1713. Due to this treaty France had to give up Acadia, Newfoundland and the Hudson Bay territory to England but got to keep Cape Breton Island. The treaty also introduced a period of peace in which the American colonists experienced growth economically and politically. War of Jenkin’s Ear: This war was British versus Spain. It was fought in Georgia and North Carolina. Lieutenant Governor William Gooch led Virginia’s 400 men into the whole 3000 men colonial army and after their Colonel died Gooch succeeded him. When they attacked Cartagena it proved disastrous, though Gooch wouldn’t report it that way. King George’s War: War fought between Britain and France and Spain. It took place not only in Europe but also in North America with American colonists supporting the British with thousands of troops. In the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle Britain gained lands in India but lost Louisburg, which embittered Anglo-American relations.
•FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR: The French and Indian war was fought between Britain and France. It lasted from 1754-1760, with the colonies supporting Britain and the Indians supporting France. This war spanned three different continents and it was the main factor in the ending of "salutary neglect." This war planted the seeds of misunderstanding between Britain and the colonies and indirectly was one of the causes of the Revolutionary War. Britain came out victoriously with the Treaty of Paris. Coureurs de Bois- Unlicensed trader who traded illegally with Indians. Many young men seeing only the prospective wealth left their families and traded illegally with Indians, some even married into the tribes. They also enlisted Indians in the French Army. These Coureurs de Bois were important in setting up fur trade in Canada. Francis Parkman: Francis Parkman was one of the prominent historians of his time (1823-1893). Most of his work concerned the conflict that arose between France and Britain for land in Colonial America. Later on in his career he went west and traveled with tribes, such as the Sioux, which ended with the book, The Oregon Trail. Albany Plan of Union, Benjamin Franklin: Colonial confederation based on the ideas of Franklin calling for each town to have independence in a large whole, known as a Grand Council. It was used for military defense and Indian policies and set a precedent for later American unity. Edward Braddock: Braddock was the General of all the British Troops (French and Indian War), he led an attack against Fort Duquesne, never reaching his destination for they were attacked by the Monongahela River where 900 of his 1200 men were wounded or killed. Braddock was wounded at this battle and died soon afterwards. William Pitt: Prime minister for Britain, who helped Britain bounce back after the Revolutionary War and who lead the war effort against France. Pitt had two terms, 1783 to 1801 and 1804 to 1806. He was considered a moderate, with the backing of the king and the parliament. Pitt’s time in office became a foundation for future prime ministers. Fort Duquesne: This was the fort that General Braddock tried to take during the French and Indian War but him and his troops were slaughtered in an ambush at the Monongahela, where 900 of the 1200 troops were wounded or killed. Later General Amherst captured the fort. Wolfe, Montecalm, Quebec- the Plains of Abraham: The battle of the French and Indian War, between General Wolfe and General Montecalm in which both were killed . It ended with the capturing of Quebec and was one of the final steps that lead Montreal to surrender, thus making Canada no longer a threat. Land squabbles in North America, where, why and what over: Any of the imperial wars that were fought in North America, for if when Britain won they would usually gain territory they had wanted before. Also various battles with Indians over pieces of land because colonists pushed their way onto Indian land, not caring if it belonged to them.
Treaty of Paris (1763): Treaty that ended the French and Indian War was ended by the Treaty of Paris. This treaty ended French reign in Canada. The treaty also called for Spain to give Florida to Britain, and for France to give all lands east of the Mississippi River to Britain. It also was a precursor, for colonial politics would follow Britain. Proclamation of 1763: This proclamation stated that no white settlers could go past the crest of the Appalachians. While this upset many colonists who had claims that far west, Britain explained it was only temporary, for it was meant to calm the Indians, sure enough five years later the boundary was moved further west. Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763: After France had to give up the territory they had near and around the Appalachian Mountains the Indians were afraid that the British would come in and start to settle down permanently, to make sure this didn’t happen Chief Pontiac launched an offensive at Bushy Run and Pontiac’s forces won for the time being. Proclamation of 1763: The British issued this in 1763 in hopes of conciliating the Indians and to lessen white expansion. It banned colonists from settling west if the Appalachian mountains. Though it was supposedly a temporary measure, colonists were angered and the line was moved further west five years later for speculators.
New British Policy and Colonial Resistance
In order to tighten control over the colonies, Great Britain instated many acts and taxes which enraged colonists who argued that it was unfair to tax them when they had no direct representation in Parliament. This resistance was the beginning of America’s revolt against its mother country. writs of assistance: The royal governor of Massachusetts allowed British revenue officers to use this in 1760 in order to capture goods imported illegally in: It was a search warrant allowing officials to enter buildings in which smuggled goods may be. It required no cause for suspicion and homes were often ransacked. It also contributed to the Revolution. James Otis: He was a colonial leader who was also advocate general of the Boston Vice Admiralty Court in 1756. His opposition to the writs of assistance and Townshend Acts led him to declare that Parliament did not have the right to violate natural rights of colonists. He thus published The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proven. Pontiac’s Rebellion: Ottawa chief Pontiac attacked and besieged ten British forts in May, 1763, in order to keep British out of the Appalachians. An uneasy truce was negotiated by 1764, and as a result, the Proclamation of 1763 was put forth in order for Britain to maintain 10,000 soldiers in the U.S. to occupy French ceded territories.
Paxton Boys: This group of Rangers from Pennsylvania Paxton in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, killed some Sasquehannock Indians in 1764. The conflict arose as a result of the desire to expand westward. Governor John Penn in 1764 attempted to punish them, but the people of the area were so upset that a revolt ensued; Benjamin Franklin solved it. Grenville’s Program: British Prime Minister George Grenville was the principal architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament, even though Americans didn’t elect members. •SUGAR ACT, 1764: George Grenville introduced this act which amended the Molasses Act that had taxed all foreign molasses entering the U.S. at sixpence a gallon in 1764. The new act ended the previous British policy of keeping Americans out of all revenueraising measures. It stated that colonists exported certain items to foreign countries only if they passed through Britain first. Parliament hoped that Americans would buy more British items and it increased British sale of European wine. Currency Act, 1764: extended currency Act, 1751: A Parliamentary act, which was originally applicable only in Massachusetts in 1751, but in 1764, it was applied to all the colonies as a means of raising revenue. It increased colonial resentment toward Britain because it disallowed the issuance of colonial money. vice-admiralty courts: Parliament was responsible for this new form of juryless court in Nova Scotia. From 1763 to 1765, when Americans were caught smuggling in violation of the Acts of Trade, they were tried by corrupt judges who received a percentage of the confiscated goods if they found the defendants guilty. A Democracy or not?: Colonial America was a place with more liberal voting qualification, no aristocracy and rise of the assembly. But the ruling class was still the wealthy, they had the power, also voters turn out wasn’t large. One had a better chance in becoming part of the "system" but it wasn’t democratic. Deism: most of the religious thinkers during the Enlightenment were deist. The deists believed that God was a clockmaker who created the world but now just watches it work. They believed that we lived in a perfect universe and that we are laws that we created were natural. Non-consumption: The Sons of Liberty began the idea of non-consumption in 1774 with their vow of non-importation of British goods. When the Boston Port Bill was passed, colonists once again agreed to ban all British goods in order to boycott the British until demands were met. Because of this, state or individual opposition was despised. virtual, actual representation: Parliament felt colonists had virtual representation because every member of Parliament considered the rights of all subjects; the House of
Because the British elected members. Henry’s fiery orations caused. It further led to the doctrine of States Rights. in his Circular Letter. and was passed by Parliament. They met in New York City and presented the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. by the end of the year. Federalists were those who advocated a strong central government. through violence. stamp distributors: These were the men who had the job of accepting money from the special water-marked paper put into circulation with the passage of the Stamp Act in 1765. eight other colonies to also denounce taxation and declare rights. openly criticized Parliament’s practice of taxation without proper colonial representation. He is famous for his comment "Give me liberty or give me death. they enjoyed actual representation. and newspapers must carry a stamp that is taxed. They adopted several resolutions which refuted the power of Parliament to tax the colonies. . no taxation without representation: John Adams. Antifederalists demanded more state power." Virginia Resolves: American leader Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to state their opposition to taxation in 1765. but colonists had none. Patrick Henry: He was an orator and statesman who played a key role in igniting patriotism and leading the colonists toward the American Revolution. but the group’s demand for no taxation without representation was refused by the House of Commons. states wanted different types of representation.Commons was responsible for protecting the rights of all British and colonists. Stamp Act Congress. in 1768. colonial view of the constitution: Colonial views toward the Constitution varied greatly in 1781. it declared that each state comprised the national government through a compact whose provisions were established in the Constitution. to force the distributors to resign before taxes were due. In 1763 he became a member of the House of Burgesses where he introduced seven resolutions against the Stamp Act. Depending on size. It stated that all legal documents. They were a target for such associations as the Loyal Nine and Sons of Liberty who attempted. the Stamp Act was introduced in 1765 as a means of raising revenue in the colonies. due mostly to regional and bipartisan differences. Compact theory: First expressed by Jefferson and Madison in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves of 1798. pamphlets. It infuriated colonists because it was an internal tax that few could escape. Hence. It was intended to raise money for keeping up defense in colonies. contracts. It was said that no tax that was issued in order to produce revenue for Great Britain was constitutional because American representatives had not voted to allow the tax. •STAMP ACT: British prime minister George Grenville’s most detested act. Opposition to the Stamp Act led to formation of the Stamp Act Congress. the states could decide when the compact was broken. at state’s expense. 1765: This was an assembly of delegates from nine of the original thirteen colonies in 1765 which was intended to protest the Stamp Act. licenses.
The day was named for the anniversary of the day Catholic Guy Fawkes attempted to blow up Parliament and King James I. lead. They also participated in terrorizing the stamp distributors through house-wrecking and tar-and-feathering in order to achieve respect. it is stated that "It is a state of perfect freedom [for man] to do as they wish and dispose of themselves and their possessions. In celebration of his failure. paint. between many of the colonial merchants. the Stamp Act was an internal tax which few colonists could escape. written in 1690. but only with the passage of this confirmation. Declaratory Act. They proved their value to the cause both by attending political rallies and protests and also by refusing association with men who were Loyalists. It further angered colonial resentment to Charles Townshend. •SONS OF LIBERTY: Members included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.Non-importation: There existed. Guy Fawkes Day: Thousands of ardent Bostonians gathered to celebrate this day on November 5. They realized that if they could intimidate stamp distributors with house-wrecking and tar-and-feathers. though it was said to be an external tax. 1765. it was a secret society of patriots which was organized in 1765 in the colonies. The Loyal Nine: A group of middle class workers joined this association in the summer of 1765 in order to resist the Stamp Act." He claims that any person has the right to revolt if the government does not fulfill its duties. In colonial opinion. paper. They formed a Committee of Correspondence to defend themselves against British actions. 1766: This was a Parliamentary act which was issued in 1766 in order to confirm the British government’s right to pass acts which were legally binding to the colonists. the Sons of Liberty agreed not to consume British tea in protest. mobs gathered in the streets of Boston to protest and to set fire to figures of the Pope. public opposition to the tax was minute. they could bully them into resigning before the act could be put into effect. Right of revolution: In John Lock’s Two Treatises of Government. internal/external taxes: Introduced by the British Parliament in 1765. paint. it was just like the Stamp Act in that. When nonimportation collapsed. One of the actions they took was to adopt a policy of non-importation in which merchants refused to import goods sent from Great Britain. they ultimately played a small role. The Act taxed glass. Revenue Act: Parliament passed the Revenue taxes in 1767. Because the Stamp Act was so opposed by the colonists as well as the British business community. His ideas led to the Declaration of Independence. an agreement to not import any British goods until the Townshend acts were repealed. . they were unsure whether or not to keep the boycott going. and tea. however. it was still put into effect solely to raise revenue for the British treasury. When the tea tax was kept. making it impracticable. it was repealed. An example of an external tax is the Sugar Act passed in 1764 which raised costs only for a select group of people. Daughters of Liberty: Upper class female patriots who formed a union in 1765 in order to give aid to the cause of defeating the reviled Stamp Act. all of the colonists were drastically affected by this tax.
All resistance was repressed by this blatant attempt to force troops in. •TOWNSHEND ACTS. and tea. It was formed in response to anger over the recently passed Tea Act. It effectively served to further punish the colonists. Members pledged not to import. They were created because Townshend wanted to crack down on colonial smuggling. Massachusetts Circular Letter: The Massachusetts legislature sent the other 12 colonies a letter in 1767 in response to the Townshend Acts and asked for a united response from the colonies. Starting a movement for an uprising against the Boston Massacre. paint. the Massachusetts legislature was dissolved. lead. •SAM ADAMS: He was an outspoken advocate of the Sugar Act. The other assemblies defiantly signed. Due to his literary agitation. he led several other angry colonists in the Boston Tea Party of 1773. However. This led to increased hostility toward the colonists. Parliament passed these measures in 1767. private buildings." which was a simple sort of agreement in 1774. He sought appeasement of the British. John Dickinson. he still recommended they maintain the tea tax. this was one of the Intolerable Acts in 1774. Formulating a declaration of rights at the Stamp Act Congress. "Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania": He was a lawyer in Philadelphia and a leader in the movement against taxation on the colonies in the 1760s. The corrupt members of the . because it was profitable for the Royal Treasury in Great Britain. in a Parliamentary act in 1770. Adams contributed to the movement for revolution. REACTION: Under the control of British Prime Minister Charles Townshend. export. •AMERICAN BOARD OF CUSTOMS COMMISSIONERS: Townshend introduced legislation in 1767. The Association: The First Continental Congress agreed to this "association. wanted to eliminate the Townshend duties due to increased hostility against the British and to keep the boycott from gaining momentum. he argued against the duties of the Townshend acts in this publication. Moreover. As a result of unrest over these acts.Quartering Act (called the Mutiny Act by the British): Passed by Congress. repeal of the Townshend Acts exept tax on tea: Lord North. paper. he was a main proponent of opposition to the Townshend Acts and a key figure in the formation of the Sons of Liberty. They refused and were dismissed. The first called for suspension of the New York Assembly because it would not abide by the Quartering Act. The British threatened to dissolve the Massachusetts court unless it was withdrawn. Basically. serving to create an American Board of Customs Commissioners whose sole job would be to enforce the Navigation Acts . it allowed for much-hated British officers to be permitted to requisition empty. or consume products of Britain unless their demands were met. The Revenue Act called for customs duties on imports of glass. and served on the General Court of Massachusetts in 1765. Colonial reaction was that of further discontent toward their motherland.
He was either African-American or Native American and he may have been a runaway slave. analyzed the demands facing the colonists. on June 9. his home was ransacked in 1765. he refused to allow British ships to be returned without unloading and the Boston Tea party resulted. RI. In 1888 a monument of him was erected in his honor in Boston. these Regulators fought a band of eastern militia started up by the governor of North Carolina. Gaspee Incident: A customs schooner was beached in Providence. they failed. The Boston town meeting made up a 21 .: A colonial governor. 1768.S. Stuck in the mud. Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Mass. When told that a customs official had been locked up. he was only one of five colonists. The South Carolina Regulators. Carolina Regulators: This name applies to several groups of insurgents who. He additionally denounced the Stamp Act. in 1764. their attorney was John Adams. This led to further discontent towards Britain. Boston Massacre. (which were resumed in the city in 1770 in order to discourage opposition to the Townshend Acts). The North Carolina Regulators threatened to rebel and not pay taxes. opposed corrupt government and cleared their homeland of outlaw bands of terrorists. John Hancock’s Liberty: Customs commissioners in Boston requested an armed force for protection and the government dispatched the Romney to Boston in June. he opposed taxes that harmed U. committees of correspondence: They were colonial groups in 1772 which were organized to form resistance to British tyranny. Battle of the Alamance: The North Carolina Regulators found their movement peak in this battle on May 16. This upset Americans because it was one of the last of the customs racketeering ships. 1770: British troops. The Regulator uprising fell apart and colonies found it harder to resist British. and was a member of both Continental Congresses. John Adams: He was the lawyer for the soldiers who were tried for murder in the Boston Massacre in 1770. With an army of 2500. while John Hancock unloaded without paying the duty. Many were acquitted and anti-British feelings rose. and 300 casualties were inflicted. Though he was the first man to be shot. opened fire upon the innocent. Eight soldiers were tried for murder. He successfully defended his clients in defense that they were trying to protect their own lives. 1771. in 1767.Board practiced customs racketeering. 1772. which was a legalized form of piracy. Crispus Attucks: He was the leader of a group of colonists who were killed in the 1770 Boston Massacre. when hit by hecklers within the crowd. the Liberty was seized. When the Stamp Act controversy was in effect. This led to a major movement between colonists of anger and violence toward the Board members. trade. wanted to protect the rights of their community. it was burned down by local inhabitants. five men were killed. but still supported Britain’s right to impose taxes. In 1773. the suspects would have faced trial without jury. When investigators were sent to find the initiators.
1774. as one of the Intolerable Acts. hurting middlemen. and the Administration of Justice Act. Quebec Act: Parliament passed this greatly detested law which established RomanCatholicism as the official religion in Quebec. They included the Boston Port Act. lowering the selling price to consumers. also allowing selling directly to consumers. the group. Americans united in sympathy for Massachusetts. Boston Port Act: Parliament passed this act on April 1." This committee became a major political force responsible for the Boston Tea Party. it ordered the U. The law also extended Quebec’s 1774 land claims. The four measures passed were to serve as warnings to the rest of the colonies. he realized the war was a lost cause. They issued the Declaration of Rights and Grievances to George III. Tea Act: The Parliamentary Tea Act eliminated import duties entering England. 1773. further angering colonists. Massachusetts Government Act: Parliament passed this act in 1774 as the second of the Townshend Acts which revoked the Massachusetts charter and restructured the government. Colonial smuggling was very harmful to the East India Company which had held a monopoly on tea. but was in turn. Under the orders of King George III. in turn. •BOSTON TEA PARTY: A group of Boston citizens organized a protest on December 16. Led by Samuel Adams and members of the Sons of Liberty. The Boston Tea Party was the last straw leading to the passage of these harsh acts as measures against the colony of Massachusetts. who. The American government later refused to pay for the tea and was punished through closure of the port. Unless they paid for the ruined tea. The number of Massachusetts town meetings were also reduced. The act provided savings for Britain. 1774: The First Continental Congress convened in Philidelphia in September. he taxed Americans. to consider the situation resulting from the Intolerable Acts. By 1779. given no legislature. making Protestants angry. the port would be subject to permanent closure.member committee "To state the Rights of Colonists and of this Province in Particular. which would lead to economic difficulties. the Quartering Act. 1774. The Governor gained control over naming sheriffs. gained control over jurymen. By 1776. Lord North: He was a British member of the House of Commons during the 1770s. They imposed a deliberately short deadline to ensure that the harbor would close. several laws were composed in 1774 in response to colonial rebellion. he demanded an early peace with the Americans hoping to put an end to the Revolutionary War. and . Also. disguised as Indians boarded the ships and dumped all the tea into Boston Harbor in protest. the Massachusetts Government Act. •FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS. which was against the British tax on tea imported to the colonies The citizens were angry and disallowed three British ships to unload their cargo in Boston. though he found it morally wrong to do so. •COERCIVE ACTS: Passed by the British Parliament. Canada’s government was awarded an abundance of powers. navy to close Boston Harbor.S.
" America’s revolt against Great Britain became a revolution. "country ideology": The plain farmer had this mind set in the 1770s due to the corruption of rulers and "court" hangers-on.called for the Continental Association. committees of Safety were in charge of enforcing the Continental Association. or non-importation. the delegates agreed to meet in May. 1775: American Captain John Parker and seventy Minutemen waited for the British at Lexington. and news was dispatched throughout the countryside by Paul Revere and William Dawes. on the night of April 18. •LEXINGTON AND CONCORD. were sent to find and destroy a cache of colonial weapons and supplies at Concord. they were detected by Americans. 1775 if the situation still hadn’t been resolved. The passage of these resolves marked the willingness of the colonies to defend their rights militarily. They called for non-importation and preparation of local soldiers in the event that the British should have restorted to military force. they were fired on by Minutemen from local cities. While retreating to Boston. However. Revolt to Revolution With such events as Lexington and Concord as well as the actions of the Second Continental Congress and America’s faith held in the Declaration of Independence and Thomas Paine’s "Common Sense. Afterwards. and agreement to boycott trade with Britain. on April 19. designed to pressure Britain’s economy. Continental Association: Issued by the First Continental Congress. William Dawes: Seven hundred British troops. 1775. it was an agreement to boycott trade with Britain. A British officer ordered the Minutemen to lay down their arms. but a shot from an unknown source was fired. Suffolk Resolves: The first Continental Congress passed this in 1774 in response to the Intolerable Acts. APRIL 19. Most delegates felt that such a mild measure would not help. since matters had already gone too far. Before it was adjourned. The British then opened fire and charged. Any colony that did not follow those provisions was to be boycotted. It warned against the natural tendency of all governments to enfringe on the natural rights to liberty for all its people. Paul Revere. the colonies moved away from reconciliation towards war. . but it was refected by Congress by a narrow margin. Galloway Plan: Joseph Galloway called for a union of the colonies and a rearrangement of relations with Parliament. the British continued on the Concord only to find that almost all of the weapons and supplies had been moved. This honest wisdom further led to the Quid’s mind set during the time of Jeffersonian Democracy. By taking these drastic measures.
In December Parliament declared all colonies in a state of rebellion. colonists were enjoying democracy. John Locke. pleading with him to intercede with Parliament to restore peace. natural rights philosophy: Thomas Jefferson was influenced by the natural rights philosophy. with colonial governments.S. Although its arguments were extreme. which begged George III to restore peace. After he ignored it. which declared all colonies in a state of rebellion no longer under his protection. and adopted a Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking up Arms. there had been a great deal of affection between the U. and King George III. then they were not legitimate. Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution: Colonial leader Richard Henry Lee presented several formal resolutions to Congress on June 7. •"FIRST AMERICAN REVOLUTION" (POSSITER THESIS): This thesis is the idea that the real American Revolution could not have been made possible had not a First American Revolution paved the way. proclaimed New England in a state of rebellion. it convinced many Americans that the British had every intention to carry out a full scale war.•SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS: The Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia on May 10. In the writing of the Declaration of Independence. The Second Continental Congress later evolved into the revolutionary government. and self-fulfillment. and made their ships liable to seizure. Combined with the Prohibitory Act. They drew up the Olive Branch Petition. Olive Branch Petition: The Second Continental Congress issued this petition to King George III on July 5. Previously. However. he issued a Prohibitory act. the people of Britain wanted retaliation. These resolutions called for independence and a national government. it had much influence in favor of independence. Americans prepared for an all out war with Britain. Common Sense: Thomas Paine published this in January 1776. which called for immediate independence. liberty. and its mother country. on August 23. Second Treatise of Government: John Locke stressed that governments were legitimate only if they rested on the consent of the governed and protected basic rights of their people. the Committee on Independence was formed to further accommodate his proposal. and those that weren’t ready to go that far. He emphasized the equality of all people and their natural right to justice. George III: After the Battle of Bunker Hill. The First Revolution consists of the first sparks of discontent. As a result. due to the protection colonists enjoyed. Congress was divided into two main factions: the delegates that were ready to go to war and declare independence. leading to opposition against taxation. he draw upon some of the ideas of natural rights. Thus. 1775. . If the government and laws lacked the consent. 1776. Thomas Paine. and had to be dissolved and replaced with legitimate government or just laws.
War for Independence With the Declaration of Independence as its fuel. The English Revolution of 1688 and Enlightenment writers inspired some of the ideas in the Declaration of independence. Its purpose was to draft a statement of reasons for independence which led to the Declaration of Independence. sugar produced by black slaves was considered of utmost importance. it asserted certain natural rights: "Life. Additionally. Robert Livingston.Mass: Nathaniel Jennison was accused of assaulting Quock Walker." and are furthermore allotted unalienable rights by God. the Superior Court rejected his defense because it was unconstitutional in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. They had a strong navy to land troops. the Preamble to the Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal. a negro. Members included Thomas Jefferson. the Committee on Independence was formed. transport troops. Quock Walker case. 1776. 1776 AND THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: Written by the Committee on Independence. America entered a war for independence with Great Britain: the Revolutionary War. he Declaration of Independence contained a list of grievances placing the blame on George III. and the pursuit of happiness" and the "Consent of the governed" to revolt against tyrannical governments. liberty. The first passage was an exorbitant reference to the English people. Throughout the war. Benjamin Franklin. America developed its first real feelings of nationalism and ended up being victorious in its fight for freedom. well trained. guard . •JULY 4. Preamble of the Declaration of Independence: Written by the Committee on Independence in 1776. slavery clause in the Declaration of Independence: Two passages in Jefferson’s original draft were rejected by the Second Continental Congress in 1775. it’s not a fact revealing truth. Advantages/Disadvantages for Britain: The British were well equipped. Somerset Case (in Great Britain): Despite the Enlightenment’s condemnation of black slavery. Granville Sharp defended several blacks in the case Somerset v. Jennison defended himself on the grounds that Walker was his slave. it is believed that this is a statement of faith displays wisdom. and well disciplined.Committee on Independence: After Richard Henry Lee’s resolution on June 7. The decision reached was regarded as the end of slavery in England. and Roger Sherman. and the second passage was an attack on the slave trade. John Adams. Moreover. Stewart. Although slavery wasn’t forbidden by the constitution of Massachusetts.
TORIES: They were Anglican clergymen. •GEORGE WASHINGTON AND THE REVOLUTION: George Washington created the Continental Army that had fought against the British. She was the wife of John Adams. leaving their positions for others. Advantages/Disadvantages for U. The majority of ethnic and religious minorities. Eighty thousand Loyalists left. and in two speeches. His early military experience taught him the dangers of overconfidence and the necessity of determination when faced with defeat. their naval power was less than that of Britain. were supporters of the revolution. Almost immediately Burke sought repeal of the Stamp Act. he served the patriot cause. she was among the most influential women of her day. He earned a good reputation from the French and Indian War in 1763. They had a superior rifle range and accuracy over the smoothbore British muskets. Washington was a highly respected. they were outnumbered by the U. and he used his prestige to help gain ratification of the Constitution. Abigail Adams: Even though she had a scarce formal education. "On American Taxation" and "Conciliation with America". Also. Edmund Burke: In 1766 he was elected to Parliament. Moreover. Mercy Otis Warren: Before the imperial crisis. and mother of John Quincy Adams. he served on the Committee on Independence. and some wealthy merchants comprised the Loyalists. Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents. The subordination of women. In doing so. ethnic and religious minorities. However. particularly as a leader of fashion and social mediator. which was taken for granted. however. However. she challenged the lack of equality for women and was a strong advocate of the Revolutionary War.S. and maintained a respect for the monarchy. he along . Moreover. •LOYALISTS. they had a large sum of money which could be used to hire foreign mercenaries.S. and they were fighting in their own territory. she was known for her nonpolitical poetry. Benjamin Franklin and the Revolution: From. as a prime minister to Britain. he served on the Committee for Independence in 1776. Pennsylvania. but soon began writing political satires in the early 1770s. He was a strong influence in persuading the states to partake in the Constitutional Convention.: Many colonists knew how to use firearms. and also helped persuade the Second Continental Congress to adopt the Declaration of Independence. He urged justice and conciliation towards the American colonies in a pamphlet. government officials. experienced commander-in-chief. she challenged the assumption that women were naturally dependent on men. In Congress and in diplomatic missions abroad. Also. John Adams: He was one of the first men to propose American independence when the Revolution began. They felt that war was unnecessary to preserve the rights of the colonists. later became the subject of debate. About one-fifth to one-third of the population remained loyal to Britain.communication and supply lines.
on November 30. Continental Army: Composed of colonial men. Jones engaged the British frigate. he attacked Fort Ticonderoga in April of 1775. but without command.000 men prepared for duty at one time. Out of the potential 250. under the Articles of Confederation. With 400 men. In the East. leaving all but the Tuscaroras and most Oneidas on the side of the British. George Rogers Clark: George Rogers Clark led 175 militia and French volunteers down the Ohio River and took several British forts along the northwestern Ohio Valley in the spring of 1778.000 blacks served in the army and navy. John Paul Jones: United States Captain John Paul Jones attacked the British territory. the Serapis. Congress turned to him.S. this army fought in various battles such as Valley Forge. along with Ethan Allen. against Britain’s ship. on September 23. independence and declare war on Britain. 1779. boosting American morale and credibility. in which the war was brought to England’s shores.with John Adams and John Jay. the Serapis. the Continental Army was quite diminutive at the dawn of the war. when the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy split. . He also led the famous ship. After France and the United States entered into an alliance against Great Britain.000 men living in the colonies. who raised an army for the same purpose. and England. the Continental Army consisted of less than 10. 1782. Bonhomme Richard. mostly New England freemen. he later turned into a traitor. Led by George Washington. A fervent patriot. was unable to prevent national bankruptcy. signed a peace treaty between the U. which concerned new American borders. Black Americans in the Revolutionary War: About 5. The War at Sea: American captains such as John Paul Jones fought in this War at Sea during the War for Independence against Britain. Lafayette returned to France to further the granting of financial and military aid to the Americans. Despite Britain’s naval advantage. which raised American morale and prestige. Benedict Arnold: He led one of the Continental Armies into Canada but was defeated. Hoping to panic the country into creating a regular source of national revenue. This was the most famous naval battle in the war.S. Robert Morris: When the United States. the Iroquois in New York were neutral until 1777. Native Americans in the Revolutionary War: The colonists’ expansion into the Ohio Valley drove the western Indians into allying with the British. he engineered the Newburgh conspiracy along with Alexander Hamilton. He was a surveyor and a frontiersmen who also led successful military operations against Indians allied to the British on the western frontier. and fought in every major battle of the war. Lafayette: The Marquis de Lafayette’s close connections with the French court in 1778 indicated that Louis XVI might recognize U. in the North Sea.
This forced the British to consider whether or not to continue the war. 1778.S. REASONS FOR IT: France entered into two treaties with America. The second treaty was the French Alliance of 1778.000 other Britons and loyalists but were outnumbered by the 220. it was a failure in that Montgomery was killed. "Bonhomme Richard" and the "Serapis": John Paul Jones took command of a rebuilt French merchant ship and renamed it the U.S. and granted most favored nation status to one another. The U. victory at the Battle of Saratoga convinced the French that the U. the South feared possible slave revolts. the colonists ran out of ammunition.S. The colonists now had two choices: to commit to a full-scale revolution. in the North Sea. 1775 to assist General Gage. the Serapis. Governor Dunmore offered freedom to slaves who joined the British army. he engaged the British frigate. or to accept the rule of the British. Bonhomme Richard. Hessians: They were German mercenaries who were comprised of approximately 30. Conway Cabal: United States Major General Thomas Conway wrote a letter to General Horatio Gates that revealed a military side of the Conway Cabal. On September 23. The Continental Army marched through Valley Forge while the British army rested miles away in Philadelphia. which inhibited use of blacks in the South. The first was a treaty of goodwill and commerce.S. the Continental army emerged from Valley Forge. Invasion of Canada: U. and one-third of the colonial troops were killed or captured. A second force led by Benedict Arnold invaded the land by combining an attack on Quebec.000 soldiers in the British army during the Revolutionary War. however. Benedict was shot. and the British succeeded. in February.000 troops of the Continental Army. After the arrival of Baron Friedrich von Steuben. •FRENCH ALLIANCE OF 1778. Because sermons were such a . General Richard Montgomery forced the British to evacuate Montreal in 1775 and invade Canada. deserved diplomatic recognition. This was the most famous naval battle in the American Revolution. and surrendered on October 17. 1777. which aimed at the removal of Washington as the leader of the Continental Army. After two failed British attacks on Breed’s Hill. Saratoga: British General John Burgoyne felt overwhelmed by a force three times larger than his own.However. 1777. to be effective if war broke out between Britain and France. and was replaced by Friedrich von Steuben. Valley Forge: American survivors from the Battle at Brandywine Creek marched through Valley Forge in early December. Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill): Three British generals arrived in Boston in May. 1779. the "black" regiment: They were a group of dignified clergymen who preached against British tyranny and resistance to British authority in 1765. Conway later resigned after subsequent public revelations. They fought among 162.S.
along with Admiral de Grasse’s French fleet. The French wanted to further continue their residence in Virginia. made a declaration in 1780. She also secured the freedom of the navigation of neutral nations. slavery virtually ended in the North during the Revolutionary era. slavery still existed. League of Armed Neutrality: The empress of Russia. he issued the order for British troops to march on to concord and seize American weapons stored up there. Though the Revolution was fought in the name of liberty. Lord Cornwallis: Washington. nearly every colonist saw public fasting and communication and were infected with the idea that it was a sin not to reject Britain. British Generals: Henry Clinton. inflation became widespread. 1783: Great Britain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris. on September 3. Great Britain recognized the former 13 colonies as the free and self-governing United States of America. French and British intrigue over U. •HOW REVOLUTIONARY? : Even though the former colonies were joined under a central government provided by the Articles of Confederation. General Burgoyne was trapped at Saratoga in 1777 and was forced to surrender. The U. John Burgoyne: General Howe planned to set up headquarters in New York in 1776 but was delayed by Washington’s escape to Long Island. General Clinton succeeded Howe as commander in chief in 1778. Yorktown. toleration of religious minorities became more prevalent. creating a paradox between the slavery and the freedom. and ended when Cornwallis realized that he lost three key points around Yorktown and surrendered. he was appointed as the new governor of Massachussetts.common form of communication. During his career as commander in chief. could not join because it was fighting in the Revolutionary war. Treaty of Paris. which led to further dispute between them and the colonists. The Siege of Yorktown began in September of 1781. On the other hand. they still acted independently in various areas. Some state constitutions were identical to the English charters that had governed them. industry was stimulated. and trade with foreign nations increased. In April 1775. . restricting the category of contrabands to munitions and essential instruments of war. which brought an end to the American Revolution. social impact of the war: Women did not receive the status implied by the American Revolution’s ideals. trapped British General Cornwallis on the Yorktown peninsula. even to ports of belligerents. William Howe. However.S. the idea of the separation of church and state grew stronger. General Thomas Gage: He was the commander in chief of Britain’s military forces in America from 1763 to 1775. boundaries (in Treaty of Paris): France and Britain shared much interest in American territory following the War for Independence.S. Catherine II.
These Articles notably left out both and executive and judicial branch. by placing power within the fragmented states. and was the model for the clause in the First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of religion. •WEAKNESSES OF THE ARTCILES OF CONFEDERATION: The government established in 1781. each state was its own powerful entity and had its own tariffs and currencies. in hopes of implicitly making it superior to the legislatures. Massachusetts voters insisted that a constitution were made by a convention rather than the legislature. It became a law in 1786. threatened to force the states into surrendering more power to the national government. Most state constitutions included a bill of rights. and establish a standard for weights and measures.Disestablishment. •STRENGTHS OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION: The thirteen states established a permanent government in 1781 in the form of a confederation which included a congress that represented the states and had the power to conduct Indian and foreign affairs. Articles of Confederation Drafted in 1796 by John Dickinson. However. . instead equalizing the power of the states and opening the union up for expansion. the Articles established states’ rights and also provided for American independence. because the amendment would have to be accepted by each state in order to be passed. Through the Newburgh Conspiracy. cession of western land claims: Maryland waited to agree to the new government until lands north of the Ohio River were turned over to the United States in 1779. uniting all the colonies during the war. in which each state held only one vote. Amending the Articles was a difficult and tedious process. Maryland. such as a monarchy or oligarchy. Newburgh conspiracy: The new nation under the Articles of Confederation was in a financial crisis. Maryland did not want big states (NY. Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom: Thomas Jefferson worked on the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom after independence was declared. •NEW STATE CONSTITUTIONS: It was necessary for the former colonies to assemble new state governments after the fall of British authority in 1775. and provided Congress no power to tax or regulate commerce. was a confederation. VA) to grow and dominate the new nation. mediate disputes between states. The Articles protected against an oppressive central government. The federal government lacked the power to tax and form a militia without the approval of all the states. the army. which was engineered by Alexander Hamilton and Robert Morris. although the constitutions ranged from extremely democratic models to unicameral legislatures. making it harder for interstate commerce to occur. Separation of church and state became more popular. the Articles of Confederation established a singlechamber national Congress elected by state legislatures. whose pay was overdue.
problems which culminated in the War of 1812.Pennsylvania militia routs Congress. It applied to the lands north of the Ohio River which had been established as the Northwest Territory. thus fueling the North-South conflict. the rebels were successful in moving the government away from Philadelphia. the British did not leave their posts in an effort to preserve both the flourishing fur trade and the improving relations with the Native Americans. This showed Britain’s unwillingness to give up and the weakness of the American government. Shays’ rebellion occurred ultimately because of this depression The Constitution . Protesting in front of Independence Hall. Land Ordinance of 1785: Congress enacted this law to set a uniform procedure for surveying land in 1785. the delegates decided that a convention of all states should be held the year after in order to amend the Articles of Confederation. forced the farmers to revolt. Proposed Jay-Gardoqui Treaty. setting a precedent for the public education system in the United States. 1780’s depression: The first major depression of the American states occurred after the Revolutionary War in New England.S. 1783: Eighty soldiers marched from Lancaster to Philadelphia to obtain justice from the state government and Congress on June 17. It established that the settlement of a town would be six square miles and would contain land set aside for schools. 1787: Congress passed this law to define the steps for the formation and admission of states into the Union in 1787. The causes included high taxes imposed to finance the war debt. the U. the tightening of credit. in an effort to solve the problems of interstate commerce. Annapolis Convention. The existence of slavery could be determined by popular sovereignty in these territories. The high taxes. Because there was little representation. which housed Congress and the state government. Northwest Posts: After the Revolutionary war. The result was an increase in tension between the North and South. combined with the depression that hit after British markets were lost. Northwest Ordinance. gave up Mississippi trading rights. In exchange. and a short growing season that kept crop yields low. Shays’ Rebellion: A group of Massachusetts farmers led by Daniel Shays protested after taxes were raised to pay for Revolutionary debts in 1786. 1785: John Jay tried to negotiate with Spain for trading rights in New Orleans in 1785. Maryland in 1786. 1786: A group of delegates from five states met in Annapolis. 1783. but returned with a treaty that renounced Spanish claims to southwestern lands and opened Spanish markets to eastern merchants.
introduced by William Patterson. He also assisted in the writing of the "Federalist Papers" in order to persuade delegates who were fearful of centralized power. this compromise was introduced by the Connecticut delegation in 1788. Hamilton. resulting in the Philadelphia Convention. The delegates. However. Benjamin Franklin: At the Philadelphia Convention in 1788. and Franklin. which included Madison. It provided for a presidency. resulting in the drafting of a new frame of government outlined in the Constitution. in which various compromises were made to pacify sectional differences." written in 1748. His philosophies represented a reaction against the chaotic Reformation of the seventeenth century. unifying all the states under a powerful federal government. influencing the idea of sovereignty in the United States. a document that compromised conflicting interests. NJ Plan: The Virginia Plan called for an executive branch with two houses of Congress which were both based on population. The New Jersey Plan. Montesquieu. These ideas generally stated that all men should submit to absolute supremacy. "Father of the Constitution": Madison drafted the Virginia Plan of national government that became the basis for its bicameral structure in 1788.After the Revolutionary War. The plan resolved the dilemma of using only one of the two self serving documents in the Constitution. . He believed in separate and balanced branches of government." along with John Jay. Hamilton wrote the "Federalist Papers. •PHILADELPHIA CONVENTION: A congressional convention met in Philadelphia to amend the Articles of Confederation in 1788. VA Plan. in defense of the Constitution. whose purpose was to rewrite the Articles. James Madison. His book "The Spirit of the Laws. instead of submitting the Articles for revision. and contained both the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan. as a commentary on his doctrine of sovereignty. a senate with states represented with two senators each. George Washington. examines types of government and how each evolves through factors such as location and climate. Hobbes: Thomas Hobbes wrote Leviathan in 1651. called for a legislature with equal representation and increased powers for the national government. •GREAT COMPROMISE: Also called the Connecticut compromise. George Washington presided over the convention while he and Franklin helped in mediating heated debates. The Spirit of Laws: Montesquieu was a French writer whose writings helped bring about the French Revolution. the problems with the Articles of Confederation became increasingly obvious. the delegates decided to begin again. The convention ultimately scrapped the Articles and came up with the much more effective Constitution. and a House of Representatives with representation according to population. believed that there should be checks and balances in the government to give each branch equal amounts of power. Delegates: Alexander Hamilton.
This system helps to keep all three branches of the government in check and maintain equal amounts of power. In the book. Antifederalists: Antifederalists were opponents of the Constitution who thought that it failed to balance power between the national and state governments. they opposed it because it failed to balance power between the national and state governments. •Slavery and the constitution: slave trade. Believing that a balance was impossible to reach. Jay. the idea surfaces in three places in the Constitution: the three-fifths clause. a bill must first be proposed by either two-thirds of both houses or each state conventions. procedures for amendments: To amend the Constitution. who called themselves the Federalists. One dealt with the structure of Congress.Checks and balances—examples: Examples of checks and balances in the Constitution are the congressional power to impeach the president and the presidential power to appoint his cabinet. his critics: Beard criticized the Constitution in his "Economic Interpretation of the Constitution" in 1913. three-fifths clause. an American historian and philosopher. three-fourths have to approve the bill. In order to protect the United States and its citizens. after 1808. Beard argues that it was written to give them economic advantages that would stem from the stability of the economy. These men became important in the ratification process of the Constitution. and other propaganda. which lessened the power of the voting south by making the votes of three slaves equal that of five white votes. opponents of the Constitution: The opponents of the Constitution were called the Antifederalists. wrote The Critical Period of American History. the other dealt with slavery and the three-fifths clause. and Madison. this process made it difficult to alter the Constitution without valid reason. the Federalist Papers. supporters of the Constitution: The supporters of the Constitution. the Fugitive Slave Law. North-South Compromises: There are two main North-South compromises in the Constitution. the Great Compromise. Fiske argues that the Constitution had saved the nation from imminent interstate conflict. Both aided in easing the problems that arose because of the imbalance of power between states in the Articles of Confederation. The Critical Period of American History: John Fiske. including Hamilton. For the amendment to be ratified. they persuaded many of its opponents to ratify it through their speeches. who believed in the Constitution’s democratic purpose. Beard thesis. . Fiske. which captured and returned runaway slaves who fled into free territories. Unlike his opponents. C. Fugitive Slave law: Although the word "slavery" was not used in the Constitution. 1783-1789 in 1788. the opponents thought that the new government would ultimately ruin the states. and lastly Congress’ option to ban the slave trade in Washington D. They thought that a balance would be impossible to reach and that the new government would ultimately ruin the states.
Troubled by its power and its failure to limit slavery or contain a bill of rights. a philosophy adopted by Jefferson. borrow money. there have only been sixteen amendments since 1791. The ratification fights: Critics. Our founding fathers . All powers not stated specifically in the Constitution were reserved to the states as stated in the Tenth Amendment. yet is meant to be taken. Hamilton. Bill of Rights: Mason was a delegate at the Constitutional Convention and helped draft the Constitution. strict interpretation of the Constitution: The strict interpretation of the constitution meant that it was to be followed exactly to the word. number 10: Madison. respectively. The elastic clause was included into the Constitution to allow flexibility. and so used state legislatures and the electoral college to elect senators and the president. in the Federalist number ten. They explained that the Constitution would protect the minority’s rights but would not make them too powerful. Jay. or mob rule. such as Sam Adams. elastic clause. The founding fathers did not believe in total democracy. necessary and proper clause: An implied power is one not granted in a job description. and Madison in 1788. rejected the Antifederalist argument that establishing a republic in United States would lead to a struggle for power. He also argued that the Constitution would prevent the formation of national factions and parties. Hamilton believed in a loose interpretation. he would not sign it. and affected the decision in New York. Madison: The Federalist papers were written by Jay. Flexibility in the Constitution: The flexibility in the Constitution enabled it to adapt over time. The Federalist. issue currency. defeating Mason and Henry. when a bill of rights was added to the Constitution. Undemocratic Elements in the Constitution: According to Charles Beard. or that powers implied within the Constitution should be included in the new government to fit changes over time. during the Philadelphia Convention as a response to Antifederalist objections to the Constitution.George Mason. The delegated powers of Congress included the ability to tax. the Constitution was written to the advantage of the elite in the United States. were successfully won over by the Federalists in Massachusetts. implied powers. Some states refused to ratify the Constitution until 1791. Hamilton. Congress was granted the right to make all laws which they deemed necessary and proper thus expanding their power." •The Federalist Papers. •RESERVED AND DELEGATED POWERS: Delegated powers were specifically enumerated rights granted to Congress and the President. declare war and sustain an army. These reserved powers were the result of flexibility in the Constitution to adapt over time. and shaped the American philosophy of the government. where Hamilton won the fight using the "Federalist Papers. loose. The eighty-five newspaper essays offered a glimpse of the framers’ intentions in designing the Constitution. The fight in Virginia ended after the addition of the Bill of Rights.
. the British imposed new embargoes and tariffs on the United States. the age requirement was higher. Washington and Hamilton As the first president of the newly formed United States. negatively affected by independence. overpopulation. Electoral College: In order to protect the interests of the elite. It had diversified its crops and exported them at prewar levels. Post Revolutionary America—North: Plagued by high taxes. the Elastic clause and the reserved powers are examples of this ambiguity. George Washington played a largely passive role. took advantage of Washington’s reluctance to be involved with domestic issues. Alexander Hamilton. and the term limits were six years as opposed to two for the House of Representatives. attempting to reassure the public he was above favoritism and sectional interests. •President George Washington: George Washington was elected president in 1788 and again in 1792. As a result the Senate was seen as more of an elitist institution while the House was viewed as reflective of the common people. Aside from the unstable land speculation. and rebellion. masses of people had moved into the trans-Appalachian frontier to escape post-revolutionary depression. As a result. suggesting few laws to Congress. Manufacturing and merchant marine industries were also. on the other hand. despite the risk of violence presented by Indians and the British in their Northwest posts. Washington’s two terms set the precedent for being President of the United States. and so Supreme Court interpretations of the Constitution changed over time. as secretary of the treasury. and to beware of impending bipartisanship. the framers of the Constitution added the electoral college as a safeguard against the majority opinion. attempted to restore American credit by advocating a perpetual debt.used vague language. the south had recovered from the war. appointing two of the ablest men into high positions of responsibility into his cabinet. He tended to shy away from the affairs of Congress and also formed the first Presidential cabinet. Upper and Lower House: The senate was seen as the upper house because there were less delegates. remain isolationist. the North’s efforts at postwar recovery was impeded by the depression of the 1780s. land owning class. His farewell address cautioned the American people to stay out of international affairs. electors could elect a presidential candidate without considering the popular vote and elections could be won without a majority in the popular vote. Congress aided the expansion with the Land and Northwest Ordinances Post Revolutionary America—South: Many of the southern citizens had bought land in the west and watched the price of land eagerly. Post Revolutionary America—West: In the late eighteenth century. and.
New Jersey.S. should immediately repay its foreign debt. He resigned after the Citizen Genet scandal. and others working in the port cities. Hamilton’s Legacy: Hamilton’s devices for restoring the credit of the nation led to great monetary gains for merchants. In 1790. speculators. Washington stayed out of Congress’ way and supported the United States’ isolationist stance in world affairs. Vice President John Adams: Because he ran second to George Washington in the elections of 1788 and 1792. the first one under the United States Constitution. Prior to his term as Vice President. The government’s takeover of state debts freed those of New England. in which the courts varied from state to state. and was the Secretary of War under the Articles of Confederation. Hamilton believed that constant deficit was necessary to stimulate the nation’s economy. limiting himself to presiding over the senate. reasons for it: Alexander Hamilton wrote to Congress a Report on Public Credit which proposed a way in which the national and foreign debts could be funded and how the federal government would take charge of the debts left by states from the resolution in 1790. proposals. Secretary of Treasury Hamilton: Hamilton was appointed in 1789. Attorney General Randolph: Edmund Jennings Randolph was the Attorney General under the Washington Administration from 1789-1794. Judiciary Act. he was a diplomat to European nations such as France. He wanted a national bank and encouraged manufacturing through financial government protection. and South Carolina from harsh taxes. died in Congress. He humbly served two terms and appointed the first cabinet. This plan. Secretary of War Knox: Henry Knox was the Secretary of War from 1789-1794. was in command of the West Point fortress in New York. before which he was the head of the Virginia delegation at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and submitted the Virginia Plan. Thomas Jefferson wanted to establish reciprocal trade agreements with European nations and deny it to the British. and the Dutch Republic. in 1783. The plans attempted to end wartime debt problems. and also believed that the U.Washington’s Definition of the Presidency: George Washington set the precedent for being the President of the United States. he became the nation’s first Vice President. They were burdened with filling in the holes of the judiciary system left by the Constitution. Prior to this. •Hamilton’s program: ideas. in an effort to create a federal-court system and replace the old system. . he fought in major Revolutionary battles. when the nation’s economy was in shambles. 1789: The Congress passed the Judiciary Act in 1789. Secretary of State Jefferson: As Secretary of State for Washington’s first term. along with his other plans to try to manipulate the European countries. he submitted to Congress a Report of the Public Credit that provided for the payments of all debts assumed during the war. Britain.
. in his Report on Public Credit.Tariff of 1789: A revenue raising tariff enacted by Congress. but later was transferred to Washington D. the tariff succeeded in raising much needed funds for Congress Bank of the U. He reported that the US was 54 million dollars in debt: 12 million to foreigners. hoping to seize it as an opportunity to rebuild the country’s credit base. wanted to pay off foreign debt immediately and then through tariffs repay the national debt. usually used for revenue raising.S. tree lined streets. for economic and political reasons. foreign debt: National debt accumulated by the US during the Revolutionary war continued to plague Americans.: The nation’s capital was originally located in New York. Anger towards this excise tax led directly to the Whiskey Rebellion. location of the capital: logrolling.. The first excise tax placed upon the United States in 1791. D. excise taxes: A fixed charge on items of consumption. the city consisted of beautiful walkways. the report suggested that protective tariffs on imports from foreign lands would lead Americans to produce more in their homelands. On top of that. he estimated that the states held debts of over 25 million dollars. With a duty of 8. Hamilton.C.S. Report on Manufacturers: Presented to Congress in 1791. by Alexander Hamilton. An increasing amount of hatred towards the "redskins" further encouraged the violence towards Indians. it encouraged the people of the U. The bank successfully established a national currency. national debt. thus building national wealth and attracting foreigners. to manufacture earthenware.5%. after Christopher Columbus. The states were also in debt after borrowing heavily from the government. Originally planned by Charles L’Enfant. the bank was established in Philadelphia in 1791. but the charter ended in 1811. The area was to be named the District of Columbia. and the rest to Americans. and was permitted by the government to issue legal tender bank notes that could be exchanged for gold. state debt. Residence Act: Determined that a ten mile square area for the capital of the United States would be chosen along the Potomac River along the Virginia-Maryland boarder.C. glass. and masterfully architecture buildings. and was selected by George Washington. Report on Public Credit: Hamilton submitted his report to Congress in 1790. by Parliament was one which taxed all domestic distilled spirits.: Chartered by the newly formed federal government. Indian Decline: The frontier warfare during the post-revolutionary era combined with the continuing penetration of western ways into Indian culture caused severe reductions in Indian population and territory. and other products in their home in order to avoid importation.
Benjamin Banneker: Pierre Charles L’Enfant was the French architect who. they were told by the French foreign minister Talleyrand that the agents X. Z. In this decision. Edmund Genet founded the American Foreign Legion despite Washington’s April 22 proclamation of American neutrality. Caused by the inability of the ruling class and clergy to solve the states problems. The alliance was used to convince French citizens living in United States territory to become citizens of American. the taxation of the poor. Whiskey Rebellion: An organized resistance in 1794. riots were conducted. Neutrality Proclamation: Issued by President George Washington on April 22. it led to the establishment of the First Republic and the end of the monarchy. The federal militia captured many of the protesters. . 1793. French Alliance of 1778: Alliance made between France and the United Sates during America’s civil war in 1778. the undeclared conflict between the two nations lasted from 1798 to 1800. and the American Revolution.S. ship. 1793. Benjamin Banneker was appointed in 1791. French Revolution: The revolution was a period consisting of social and political upheaval from 1789-1799..C. three officials who did not take the process seriously. XYZ Affair. Many Americans felt the war to be a violation of their neutrality. but most were released. and mobs burned homes of excise inspectors. to confiscate any foreign ships trading with French Caribbean islands. British seizure of American ships: The Privy Council issued a secret order on November 6. by President Washington to assist L’Enfant in surveying the land where the capital city was to be built. Y. they seized over 250 American ships which were conducting trade with the islands. in 1791. the hunger of the workers. In the conflict. Citizen Genet: Sent to the United States by the French in 1793 to find soldiers to attack British ships and conquer the territories held by the Spanish. drew the plans for the nations capital in Washington D. would only negotiate for a lend of $10 million to the French government.Major L’Enfant. the United States managed to capture ninety-three French ships while France captured just one U. the Neutrality Proclamation stated that the United States would remain a neutral faction in the war with France against Britain and Spain despite heavy French pressures to join their forces. and therefore to bear arms or participate in the war. on which the city is now based. to the excise tax on whiskey in which federal revenue officials were tarred and feathered. Talleyrand: When a commission was sent to France in 1797 in order to negotiate problems between the two countries. undeclared naval war with France: Otherwise known as the Quasi-War.
Treaty of Greenville.Royal Navy: They navy of the British empire. to end U. further strengthened hostilities between the two countries. Battle of Fallen Timbers: At the Battle of Fallen Timbers. hoping to further expand their territory into the vast land. He served as Secretary to the Board of War and was a brigadier general under Anthony Wayne. in 1794. These bold actions commonly referred to as impressment. It did not resolve the British West Indies trade dispute. The treaty served to end white-Indian hostilities for sixteen years. appointed a committee to set up the U. Washington’s attempts at a failed alliance with the Creek Indians to expand into their lands only led to further conflicts between America and Spain. the treaty evacuated British posts in the West. opened the Northwest Territory to settlement by white United States citizens. Jay’s Treaty: Negotiated between the United States and France in 1794. 1795: This treaty. so therefore the treaty between the two races was an important one.S. . stated that neutrals could not engage in wartime trade with a country if they were not permitted to trade with that country at times of peace. Wayne was a General during the American Revolution. Wilkinson was the man who reported Burr’s conspiracy to access Louisiana to President Jefferson. Spain promised to recognize the thirty-first parallel. The territory had formerly only been inhabited by Indians. Anthony Wayne defeated a coalition of Native American tribes as the major general and commander in chief of the troops. Pinckney’s Treaty. who they then forcibly placed back into their own navy.S. "Rule of 1756": The French opened colonial trade to the Dutch. and named a commission to determine how much the British should pay for illegally seizing American ships. the treaty gave westerners the right to access the world markets duty-free through the Mississippi River. Spanish intrigue in the Southwest: Spain attempted. in response. "Mad" Anthony Wayne: Known as Mad Anthony due to his quick temper and his bravery. who were a neutral party. to detach the West from the United States. James Wilkinson: An American soldier who participated in the American Revolution and the War of 1812. which was drafted in 1795. He began his service with the Pennsylvania militia. The battle took place around present day Toledo and led to the Treaty of Greenville which opened up the Northwest to American settlers.-French boundary. camps. the Royal Navy began to inspect American ships in 1793 for suspected defects of the British Navy. in many cases. and to discourage Indian attacks on western settlers. He participated in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown and distinguished himself in the Battle of Monmouth. right of deposit at New Orleans: Ratified in 1796. British prize courts.
Washington’s farewell address asked the citizens of the United States to avoid involvement in political problems between foreign nations.S. •Federalists: The Federalist party was the starting point of the movement to draft and later ratify the new Constitution. the Barbary pirates began to raid the ships of the United States. and Tennessee were all admitted into the United States between 1791 and 1796 by the federal government. Its leaders included Alexander Hamilton. largely a result of the disagreements over Hamilton’s programs and foreign policies. In the end. Kentucky. Under Hamilton. Federalists and Republicans By the election of 1796. ships in the U. as European nations already had. and George Washington rose to power between 1789-1801. upon which he formed the Republicans. new states: Vt. Jefferson was made Vice-president. Their admission was spurred by the hope that they would then become completely loyal to the Union. Tenn: Vermont. Vice-president Jefferson: Jefferson was supported by the Republicans. while Adams was supported by the Federalists. as a constitutional law stated that the candidate with the second highest number of electoral votes got that position. the United States political system had become bipartisan. election of 1796: President Adams. Tripoli. Washington’s Farewell Address: In his realization of the important role that he had take in developing the role of the president of the United States. Tripolitan War: From 1801-1805. The split in the Federalist party became official with Jefferson’s resignation from Washington’s cabinet in 1793. the war was a battle between the North African state Tripoli and the United States. that gave them immunity from these attacks. and Tunis. Adams was victorious in the election. refusal to pay in increase in the tribute paid to the pasha of Tripoli.S. paid $60. Ky. the DemocraticRepublican party was created by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in opposition to . John Jay.S. whose ideology claimed that the Federalists had become a party geared toward enriching the wealthy at the expense of the poor.000 to free Americans caught captive. the Federalists solved the problem of revolutionary debt. The United States therefore formed treaties with Morocco.Barbary Pirates: Following the American Revolution. The Tripolitans had seized U. James Madison. as they had not been before. the demand for payment was ended and the U. created Jay’s Treaty and also the Alien and Sedition Acts. It urged for a stronger national government to take shape after 1781. •Democratic-Republicans: The first political party in the United States.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: Written by Jefferson and Madison in protest to the Alien and Sedition Acts. The party expressed sympathy towards the French Revolution but opposed close ties with the British. in 1799. as well as believed that those with talent and ambition should not forget their dreams.the views of Alexander Hamilton. the Doctrine of Nullification stated that any federal laws considered by the people to be "objectionable" may be nullified by the states. as the party was undecided as to who their presidential candidate should be. It arose to power in the 1790s and opposed the Federalist party. while the "High Federalists. rebelled against the government after it released debtors and citizens who did not pay taxes. doctrine of nullification: A group of Kentucky Resolutions adopted in 1799. This is best exemplified by the Philadelphia Democratic Society. the Second Great Awakening began in the 1790s and was characterized by "camp meetings. The Federalists wanted to nominate Adams. as it gave membership to descendants. These acts were criticized because they oppressed the people’s First Amendment rights. Fries Rebellion: Pennsylvanian German farmers. in which Republicans were united by wealth rather then by status. the Virginia Resolution stated that states possessed the right to intervene in unconstitutional acts in government. •Alien and Sedition Acts: In 1798. denounced his candidacy. Convention of 1800: The Federalist party split into two factions during the Convention of 1800. the Neutralization Act said residence must remain in the United States for five years before becoming naturalized while the Alien Act allowed the exportation of any alien believed to be a threat to national security. the Society of the Cincinnati was feared by many because its charter had the possibility of becoming a hereditary aristocracy. •Second Great Awakening: Occurring mainly in the frontier states. while advocating states rights and an agricultural society." led by Alexander Hamilton. This rebellion alerted those in power to the general disgruntlement of much of the nation. The Alien Enemies Act allowed the President to export aliens during times of war and the Sedition Act made it a criminal offense to plot against government. and the Kentucky Resolution stated that federal government could not extend powers outside of constitutionally granted powers." or open air revivals which lasted for weeks at a time where revivalists spoke of the second coming of . The passage of these resolutions proved the probability of upcoming violent disagreements of how the law should be interpreted. This action infuriated the farmers because the money was needed to fund the expansion of the nation’s army. Society of the Cincinnati: A post-war organization of veteran officers from the Continental Army. Democratic Societies: An organization in which the wealthy are on a level of equality with the poor.
the rebellion broke out near Richmond. Logan Act: Enacted in 1795 by the legislative assembly. protected the property of blacks. which lead to a greater democratic power commonly seen in the ideals of Jacksonian democracy. preached not only the second coming of Jesus. This law indicated tightening racial tensions. He received a large bribe for signing the treaty. In 1786. the Logan Act allowed city councils the power to establish. but whites still feared what many occur in the future with slave uprisings. who in 1790 signed a peace treaty with the United States that allowed whites to occupy lands in the Georgia piedmont. Thirty five slaves were executed by a swift state militia. Charles Finney. The rebellion increased tensions between the North and the South. Peale began a museum of parts of nature in Independence Hall. and the "Athenaeum" head have often been mimicked. the "Lansdowne" full-length. Alexander McGillivray: The leader of the Creek Indians. as well as stripped slaves of the right to trial by jury or presentation of evidence of freedom. By 1796. all but three states allowed blacks voting rights. Gilbert Stuart: An American painter who is particularly well known for his many portraits of wartime hero and President George Washington. the law required judges to give a slave back to its owner or his representative if caught after running away. thereby setting an example of democratic simplicity.000 slaves marched to the capital. Philadelphia of portraits and helped to found the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1805. Virginia when 1.S. but spared the rest of the Creek lands from white settlement. Fugitive Slave Law: Enacted by congress in 1793. A milder agrarian aristocracy replaced a commercial aristocracy.Jesus. Charles Wilson Peale: As a portrait painter of the Federalist period. when states dropped restrictions on freedom of movement. a system consisting schools for the general public. an especially prominent preacher of the time. but also the gospel of free will. This act led to the establishment of school systems throughout the U. and allowed them to enroll in the state militia. . as well as to support and to regulate. Gabriel’s Rebellion: Led by Gabriel Prosser in August 1800. Legal equality for free blacks: These measures first appeared in the 1780s and 1790s. His three styles of portrait painting: the "Vaughan" half-length. Jeffersonian Democracy Jefersonian Democracy refers to the term of office of Thomas Jefferson which marks the end of Federalist control of American politics. Peale is best known for his fourteen portraits of George Washington.
to end the war. seeing it as detrimental to the national economy. 1800. not for expansionism. which resulted in US ships being captured. He opposed war. Chase was defended strongly. in which he sought to restore the country to the liberty and tranquillity it had known before Alexander Hamilton’s economic program and John Adams’s Alien and Sedition Acts. but the opportunities of trade by New Orleans as a sea port. though purchasing the territory . The national debt. 70 percent of the national revenue was applied to reducing the national debt as well. •LOUISIANA PURCHASE: When France obtained the territory from Spain. and was impeached for his criticism of President Jefferson. Gallatin was the genius behind the public debt cut and creating a large surplus of funds. Jefferson obtained the territory for $15 million. most internal taxes. for shipping access. to which the US had been paying tribute. 1800). Section 2. land West of the Mississippi. •JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY: Jefferson’s administration severely cut naval and military operations. Jefferson drove them out. Treaty of San Ildefonso: Treaty on October 1. The US refused to pay in 1801. led by Lieut. Jefferson was elected as president. With Hamilton’s coercion. and was ratified as a treaty by the Senate. Jefferson’s goal to purchase the territory was the great port of New Orleans. which was becoming a foremost military power. with Burr as Vice-president. where some of the problems needed to be fixed. On this date he appointed last-minute judges to keep the judiciary in the Federalists hands. and the navy. Midnight judges: Federalists dominated the government. and was later acquitted by the Senate. as well as the threat of French invasion. in which Spain ceded the Louisiana territory to France. in agreement to Article II. Stephen Decatur in 1805. by using the Judiciary Act of 1801. he was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1791 by Washington. thus creating a tie and throwing the presidential election into the House of Representatives. •Election of 1800: Jefferson and fellow Republican Aaron Burr. but the US captured the town of Derna.Jeffersonian placed more emphasis in the common man and brought moreidealism into the government. Tripolitan War: (1802-5) War between the United States and the North African state of Tripoli.) Revolution of 1800: Described by Jefferson in the his election of 1800. but with the election of 1800. of the Constitution. resulting in Adams’s last day in office (December 12. who ran for Vicepresidency in the same year. though a Constitutional violation. received an equal number of electoral votes. Threat of French expansion was the result of Jefferson’s goal to obtain the territory. since 1784. Most importantly. (The Constitution was amended to require separate votes for each position. Justice Samuel Chase: Associate justice of the Supreme Court and signer of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson purchased the Louisiana territory from the French.
Orders in Council: In May 1806. From this territory became 14 new state governments. with the Milan Decree. in which the French proclaimed a blockade of the British isles. who succeeded in liberating the island from France in 1801. and was acquitted on Sept. a Republican. They cataloged plants and animals. which was to tighten his so-called Continental System. and Toussaint was defeated. Lewis and Clark: They explored the vast territory west of the Mississippi River by the US. Milan Decree. where Hamilton was killed. Hamilton-Burr duel: Election of 1800 Between Jefferson and Burr. again. He was arrested and indicted for treason. 1806: Was created in response to the Orders in Council by the British. 1. known as the Orders in Council. 1807: Napoleon replied to the continuous British opposition. or seize land in Spanish America. Toussaint L’Ouverture: Haitian general on the island of Santo-Domingo. for the governor of NY State. 1802. and becoming president for life of the country. had turned to the House of Representatives for the decision of the next president Burr’s election in 1804. when they where commissioned by Jefferson. •LOUISIANA PURCHASE: Most Federalists opposed the Louisiana Purchase on the grounds that it would decrease the relative importance of their strongholds on the eastern seaboard. 1804. Dueled Hamilton on July 11. They reached the Rockies. Used by British to regain deserters from the Royal Navy to American . unless American vessels went to British ports for licenses for trade.was Constitutionally illegal and going beyond his presidential rights. The Decree was answered with another Orders in Council. where Hamilton opposed him. Jefferson. and any ship attempting to enter or leave a British port would be seized by France. Napoleon sent troops to crush the Haitians. the British followed the Essex decision with the first of several trade regulations. and accused of conspiracy. saw no reason to hand the Federalists an issue by dallying over ratification of the treaty made to obtain the territory. and reached the Pacific in November 1805. Virginia. impressment: Arbitrary seizure of goods or individuals by a government or its agents for public services. was subject to seizure by France. and intended to invade the Spanish territory and establish a separate republic in the Southwest. over the Continental Divide. Burr treason trial: Burr purchased land in the newly acquired Louisiana territory. Berlin Decree. 1807. The decree proclaimed that any vessel that submitted to British regulations or allowed itself to be searched by the Royal Navy. in which all ships must come to England for licenses of trade. where he was imprisoned and died in France. which established a blockade of part of the continent of Europe and prohibited trade with France. after a six-month trial in Richmond. and established relations with Indian inhabitants.
The young congressman known as War Hawks pushed Madison into a struggle for which the country was not prepared and which ended without victory. War of 1812 The war of 1812 was one which the Americans were not prepared to fight. This group in the House of Representatives. which was designed to discourage the British and the French from interfering with US commerce. the Napoleon Wars were played out in Europe. He opposed any surrender of Native American land to whites." in uniting the tribes from American customs. He was defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Jefferson imposed the embargo instead of open warfare. and tried with his brother. Barron relented and the men were seized. who fought against the United States expansion into the Midwest. when British vessels boarded and obtained their crew from the high paying American ships. The US also agreed to resume trade with the first nation of the two. resulting in British attack. who where at war with each other. and reactivated American commerce with all countries except the warring French and the British. the US would halt all commerce with the other nation. 2. who would cease violating neutral rights. The British demanded the return and surrender of four deserters from the royal navy. This was one of the reasons for the War of 1812. James Barron. in May 1810. •EMBARGO OF 1807: This law was passed in December 1807 over Federalist opposition. who wanted more aggressive policies toward the hostile British and French. To pressure the nations to respect the neutral rights of the US and to demonstrate the value of trade with the US. by bribing either the England or France in repealing their restrictions on neutral shipping. and prohibited United States vessels from trading with European nations during the Napoleonic War. Macon’s Bill No. refused. repealed the Embargo Act. Tecumseh: A Shawnee leader. led by Henry Clay preferred war to the "ignominious peace. in which the Chesapeake’s commanding officer. 1809." War against Great Britain: For the most part. The Embargo Act was in response to the restrictive measure imposed on American neutrality by France and Britain. pressuring the needs for American goods. especially liquor. War Hawks: A group of militants in Madison’s Democratic-Republican party. and the French accepted the United States merchant marine neutrality by the . Thus creating a war spirit by several young congressman elected in 1810. Chesapeake-Leopard affair: In 1807 the US Chesapeake was stopped in the midAtlantic by the British Leopard. Non-Intercourse Act: The Non-Intercourse Act of March 1. who ever obliged. 2: Nathaniel Macon created the Macon’s Bill No.vessels during 1790 to 1812. Tenskwatawa the "Prophet.
Gallatin also was a part in the negotiations of the Treaty of Ghent. Jackson’s victory at New Orleans: Jackson. continuing British blockade. for example the Non-intercourse act. and treaty negotiations: Adams drafted the Monroe Doctrine and arranged for the Treaty of Ghent that ended the War of 1812. 1814 was to oppose the war. Hatred of the British persisted. . with the constant violations of neutrality on the seas and in the Great Lakes. the Untied States seized the British frigate Macedonian. which was hurting American industries and commerce. However. •FEDERALIST OPPOSITION TO THE WAR OF 1812: The Federalist party were deeply opposed to the war. the British wanted neutral Indian buffer states in the American Northwest and wanted to revise both the AmericanCanadian boundary." by Francis Scott Key when he saw the flag still standing. led by Timothy Pickering. Henry Clay. for their lack of support for commercial and diplomatic policies of Jefferson and Madison. and there was an increased sense of national purpose and awareness. Gallatin. Senator George Cabot. Essex Junto: The Essex Junto was a name given to the extreme nationalist wing. captured New Orleans with a small army against the British army. Even more so. •HARTFORD CONVENTION: The Hartford Convention of 1814 damaged the Federalists with its resolutions to the idea o secession. the Chesapeake lost to the Shannon. as well as Clay. and in the same year. was their opposition to Jefferson and Madison’s trade programs of neutrality and trade. which prompted the famous "Star-spangled Banner. Naval Battles in the War of 1812: The beginning of the War of 1812. Francis Scott Key: During the War of 1812 on September 13-14. It opposed the Embargo act and the War of 1812.Berlin and Milan Decrees. encounters were with single-ship battles. Rising Indian opposition to American expansion in the Northwest and Southwest was broken. •Results of the War of 1812: After the treaty of Ghent. and several of the Lowell family of merchants and industrialists in New England. Fort McHenry. The frigate Constitution defeated the Guerriere in August 1812. Fort McHenry withstood a 25-hour bombardment by the British Vice-Admiral Alexander Cochane and his fleet. which was composed mainly of veterans. with hope of ending the war of 1812. The Treaty of Ghent secured US maritime rights and peace around Europe and the Americas. 1815 occurred after the peace treaty that ended the war. The recommendation of the convention was to have an amendment to the Constitution that would grant taxation and representation in each state. and prohibit congress from the embargo. leaving an idea of disloyalty to use against them. during the War of 1812. The convention on December 14. Theophilus Parsons. This victory on January 8.
introduced a steamship. the first major canal project America. and this led to an increase in the building of canals. advancing father west with each year. in Belgium. National Road( Cumberland Road ): The National Road was a highway across America. and it later sparked artistic interest in the Hudson River when its use peaked in the 1880s. Griffiths. the Rainbow. Robert Fulton. changing the character of life in America by facilitation westward expansion. but this was . Steamships created an efficient means of transporting goods upstream. 1814.Treaty of Ghent: This was an agreement between the United States and Great Britain. Construction began in 1811. Great controversy occurred over fishing rights and the Northwest Boundary. Hunt: In the case of Commonwealth v. beginning in the 1830s. bridges. Economic Growth Industrialization and the transportation revolution were a considerable force in American history. and clipper ships emerged as new forms of transportation. This period was distinguished by the establishment of factories and the creation of many new inventions to save time. was built by New York beginning 1817. The first true clipper ship. It was a symbol of progress when it was opened in 1825. on the Hudson River and obtained a monopoly on ferry service there until 1824. it was longest canal in western world at the time. transportation revolution: The transportation revolution was the period in which steam power. between England and America. and urbanization. Although this decision made strikes legal. Robert Livingston. Commonwealth v. it did not bring significant changes in the rights of laborers because many Massachusetts judges still considered unions illegal. clipper ships: Clipper ships were sailing ships built for great speed. In 1807. was designed by John W. Hunt. on December 24. improve transportation and communication. This allowed Americans to travel across the country and transport goods into new markets that weren’t previously available. This treaty ended the War of 1812. the road progressed west during early 1800s. roads. Its crushed-stone surface helped and encouraged many settlers to travel into the frontier west. railroads. Erie Canal: The Erie Canal. steamships: Fulton was an artist turned inventor. and increase productivity. he and his partner. Stretching 363 miles from Albany to Buffalo. launched in 1845. the Clermont. canals. and provided that all territory captured would be returned to the rightful owner. the Massachusetts Supreme Court in 1842 ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies in restraint of trade.
rather than entire families. This was the beginning of mass production. mechanical reaper: McCormick was an inventor who improved upon previous designs for the mechanical reaper. factory girls (Lowell factory): "Factory girls" were young. The tools and machines he invented allowed unskilled workers to build absolutely uniform parts for guns. Elias Howe: Howe invented the sewing machine in 1845 and patented it in 1846. unmarried women. Also. in 1793. from the 12 or 14 hour days that were not uncommon. clipper ships were a popular means to travel to California quickly. challenging cottage industries. It was a cotton textile mill that produced finished clothing. he founded the first permanent mill in America for spinning cotton into yarn. ten-hour movement: The ten-hour movement was the attempt by workers to obtain restrictions on the number of hours they worked per day. they built textile factories in the towns of Waltham and Lowell which produced finished products. separating these girls from their families. contributing to the transition from handmade garments to inexpensive. unmarried women. Cyrus McCormick. Capitalizing on new technology. Slater founded the cotton textile industry in America. interchangeable parts: Whitney was an inventor who introduced the concept of interchangeable parts in 1798. He patented his reaper in 1834 and built a factory to mass produce it in 1847. eliminating the need for cottage industries. They wanted to limit the day to 10 hours. He left England illegally in 1790 to come to Rhode Island. they hired young. Also. Eli Whitney. he made a fortune on his invention.modeled after earlier ships developed on the Chesapeake Bay. Lowell factory: The Lowell factory was a factory established in 1813 by the Boston Manufacturing Company on the Merrimack River in Massachusetts. where. from 1849 to 1857. The movement was supported by Lowell Female Reform Association and other reform associations. After a difficult battle defending his patent. they found poor working conditions and strict discipline. working in textile factories such as the Lowell factory. The sewing machine allowed clothing to be stitched in factories very quickly. Samuel Slater: Slater was the supervisor of machinery in a textile factory in England. Most of these girls left their families’ farms in order to gain independence or to help their families financially. the Lowell factory hired mainly young girls. During the Gold Rush. Boston Associates: The Boston Associates were a group of merchants in Boston who created Boston Manufacturing Company in 1813. This invention lessened the work of western farmers by mechanizing the process of harvesting wheat. . mass-produced clothing. In doing this. usually between 15 and 30 years old. so that the whole gun no longer had to be replaced if a single part malfunctioned or broke. In the factories.
This invention was enthusiastically accepted by the American people. Field founded a company. This treaty fixed the 49th . A revision was made in 1824 to clear problems that aroused. and foreign domination. Field and Co. Convention of 1818: Signed at London.B. Second Bank of the US: Andrew Jackson vetoed the recharter bill of the Second Bank of the United States on July 10. and the government took considerable actions to piece it together. Field laid a cable between Irealand and Newfoundland in 1866. There was a large dependency on trade. After four failed attempts. and the French prime minister. Great Britain’s Prime minister. evident to merchants when the Embargo of 1807 and the War of 1812 suspended trade to Europe. 1832. by Richard Rush. Cyrus Field: Field was a financier who promoted the first transatlantic telegraph cable. This was Madison’s last act. The telegraph allowed rapid communication across great distances. as well as great victory for labor. telegraph companies were formed and lines erected quickly. This cable was 2. Bonus Bill Veto: In 1817. This allowed for rapid transatlantic communication. Tariff of 1816 (protective): This was a protective tariff that was principally intended to hold the production of textiles and goods. Jackson created pet banks and destabilized the national currency and aid.Samuel F. The economy of the nation was a large force in the merging of the nation. and that there would be a precedent for the amicable settlement of peace between the US and Canada. The decision was that there would be a disarmament of the US-Canadian frontier. aristocratic parasites. promoting new industries. This was an economic blow that had repercussions. Rush-Bagot Treaty: Rush-Bagot was an agreement between the US and Great Britain concerning the Canadian border in 1817. which he vetoed the bill on constitutional ground. In 1841. telegraph: Morse invented the telegraph in 1844. Cyrus W.000 miles long and laid from the Great Eastern. a ship. Instead. the development of America was creating a need for a well made transportation facilities to link the outlying agricultural regions with the trade eaters in the Eastern sea ports. Nationalism The nationalistic movement was one which brought the nation together. usually transmitting political and commercial messages. Economic Independence after War of 1812: The War of 1812 was in part responsible for creating a great sense of national purpose and awareness. Morse. Albert Gallatin. which was a blow against monopoly. This tariff was made in order to defend the industries that were established during the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812.
whether for moral or economic reasons. Even more so. and that free laborers in the North were not treated any better than slaves. and the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. dividing the country into North and South to the extent that it led to the Civil War. slavery was considered necessary in order to maintain the agricultural economy of the entire region. Panic of 1819 : Occurred when the Second Bank of the United States tightened its loan policy. "necessary evil": In the South. rather than the United States as a whole. Arkansas. and the "Cotton Kingdom" spread west into Alabama. Sociology for the South.parallel to divide the US and Canadian boundary. southerners did not assert that slavery was a boon to society. and Southerners were becoming more united in their defense of slavery as an institution. that caused distress throughout the country. or the Failure of Free Society: In 1854. Tennessee. they merely protested that it could not be eliminated without destroying the South. and Texas. causing a great depression for farmers. slavery was becoming an increasingly sectional issue." . and the invention of the cotton gin made it practical to grow cotton throughout the South. Slavery was particularly sectional issue. the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Sectionalism and Slavery In the early 1800s. the entire Southern economy became dependent on the success of cotton as a crop. Fitzhugh wrote Sociology for the South. and also established fishing privileges for the United States off the coast of Labrador and Newfoundland. It was so profitable that the vast majority of southern farms and plantations grew cotton. for the most part. Northerners were becoming more opposed to slavery. especially because of the Fugitive Slave Act. Louisiana. He argued that slavery benefited the slave by providing him with food and shelter. The British textile industry created a huge demand for cotton. cotton became the principal cash crop in the South. Most Northerners were suspicious of the influence of southern slaveholders in Congress. meaning that it was increasingly dividing the nation along regional lines. British exports unloaded textiles. defending slavery. southerners supported slavery and northerners opposed it. Essentially. This was the first description of slavery as a "positive the farmer groups good. especially western farmers. Before George Fitzhugh in 1854. Slave Power: The term Slave Power refers to the belief that pro-slavery southerners were united an attempt to spread slavery throughout the United States. triggering a depression. George Fitzhugh. sectionalism: Sectionalism is loyalty or support of a particular region or section of the nation. Mississippi. •"KING COTTON": In the 1800s.
positive good: In the South. Helper wrote The Impending Crisis of the South in an attempt to persuade non-slaveholders that slavery harmed the Southern economy. The Impending Crisis of the South: In 1857. He proposed that the US and Britain issue a joint statement opposing European interference in South America and guaranteed that neither would annex Spain’s old empire. This however began a rebellion by the Indians. The Holy Alliance was an organization of European states that advanced the principles of the Christian faith. 1823. shelter. and often Christian religion. Fitzhugh argued that free laborers in northern factories were not treated any better than slaves. and it regulated European politics after the fall of Napoleon.S. and Prussia. mountain whites in the South. Quadruple Alliance: Formed in 1815. with a sum of five million dollars. captured the fort at Baton Rouge. Adams-Onis Treaty: It was the treaty in 1819 that purchased eastern Florida to establish the boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana territory. Also. George Fizhugh established the philosophy that slavery was "positive good.S. policy was to abstain from European wars unless U. he supported nationalist movements throughout Latin America and dissuaded foreign intervention in American affairs. the independent State of republic of West Florida. George Canning: The British foreign minister. impact: President Monroe’s message to Congress on Dec. pine barrens: The poorest class of whites in the Lower South tended to cluster in the mountains and pine-barrens. Purchase of Florida: Spain surrendered Florida to the United States in 1819 by the Adams-Onis Treaty. provisions." It was believed that slavery benefited slaves by providing them with food. They were considered lazy and shiftless. using the poor whites of the pine-barrens as an illustration of how the institution of slavery degrades non-slaveowning southerners. it consisted of 3 principles: U. Austria. It provided for the cession of Florida to the United States in return for American settlement of claims of her citzens against Spain. European powers could not colonize the American continents and shouldn’t attempt to colonize newly independent Spanish . where they survived by grazing hogs and cattle on land that the usually didn’t own. Russia. 1810: Annexed when southern expansionists went into the Spanish Dominion. and becoming another reason for Indian hatred of the white man. the Quadruple Alliance consisted of England. •MONROE DOCTRINE: origins. and were often cited by northerners as proof that slavery degraded nonslaveholding whites. starting the Seminole War (1835-42). West Florida. 1811 and authorized as an extenuation of US rule over East Florida. 2. and proclaimed on September 26. It was adopted as a resolution on January 15. Hinton Helper. interests were involved.
Clay proposed a protective tariff in support of home manufactures.S. It passed in the House but not the Senate due to sectionalism. the southern boundary of Missouri. in the Transcontinental (Adams-Onis) Treaty. Henry Clay proposed the second Missouri Compromise in 1821. •MISSOURI COMPROMISE: Congress admitted Maine as a free state in 1820 so that Missouri would become a slave state and prohibited slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase territory north of 36 30. River to the Rocky Mountains. It was unconstitutional to change it. Spain consented to a southern border of the US that ran from the Miss. After a state charters a college or business. Monroe made an effort to avoid political controversies. Chief Justice John Marshall: decisions: Dartmouth College v. Era of good feelings: This phrase exemplifies both of Monroe’s presidencies. it was reduced to $1. In 1904. the minimum purchase was decreased to 160 acres. John Quincy Adams as Secretary of State: Fla: With Monroe’s support. it was used to justify U.25.American republics. Daniel Webster: Supporting the tariff of 1828.31. Clay’s American System: In his tariff speech to Congress on March 30. In the debate over the renewal of the charter of the US Bank. from 1816-1824. and distribution of the profits of federal land sales to the states. and Republicans embraced the Federalist’s issues. which forbade discrimination against citizens from other states in Missouri but did not resolve whether free blacks were citizens. at age 25. expansion by presidents John Tyler and James Polk. In 1820. a strong national bank. 1824. he was a protector of northern industrial interests. federal land policy: The federal land law passed in 1796 established a minimum purchase of 640 acres at a minimum price of $2 an acre and a year for full payment. drafted in 1819. Ridiculed in Europe. the Roosevelt Corollary was introduced. In the federal land law passed in 1804. Adams forced Spain to cede Florida and make an agreeable settlement of the Louisiana boundary. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. internal improvements such as federal aid to local road and canal projects. the minimum purchase was reduced to 80 acres. In 1820. . it can no longer alter the charter nor regulate the beneficiary. Dartmouth College into a state university. Woodward (1819) The question was whether New Hampshire could change a private corporation. The War of 1812 eliminated some divisive issues. but soon sectionalism divided the nation. Webster advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Tallmadge Amendment: The Tallmadge Amendment (1819) restricted further importation of slaves into Missouri and freed slave descendants born after Missouri’s admission as a state. Congress had a right to prohibit slavery in some territories.
In the South. electoral vote. participation would insinuate recognition of Haiti. these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods. due to rival sectional components. felt that federal support meant a possibly corrupt giveaway program for the North. Tariff of Abominations: Named by southerners. and liquor in 1828. "corrupt bargain": After Adams won the presidency. Jackson. The South had few plans to build canals and roads. However the popular vote was much closer. Southerners worried that U. this bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp. House vote: Jackson. within their borders. Distinct changes in laws. including Calhoun were Republicans. He acknowledged that he wrote the SC Exposition and Protest in 1831. Jackson won more popular and electoral votes than the other candidates but didn’t manage to gain the majority needed Because Clay supported Adams. flax. Jackson’s supporters called the action a "corrupt bargain" because they thought that Jackson was cheated of the presidency. Jacksonian Democracy Jackson personified the desireable and undesireable qualities of Westerners. internal improvements: President Adams proposed a program of federal support for internal improvements in Dec. and popular attitudes gave rise to Jacksonian Democracy and were in turn accelerated by the new equilitarian spirit. Adversely affected states had the right to nullify. In 1832. •VICE-PRESIDENT CALHOUN: South Carolina Exposition and Protest. showing that the Republican party was splintering. strict Jeffersonians claimed it to be unconstitutional. Clay: All five candidates. Crawford. Although there is no evidence to link Clay’s support to his appointment of the secretary of state. Adams. Calhoun withdrew and ran for the vice presidency. he appointed Clay as secretary of state. Jacksonian Revolution of 1828: Jackson won more than twice the electoral vote of John Quincy Adams. nullification: He anonymously wrote the widely read South Carolina Exposition and Protest. He stood for the right of the common people to have a greater voice in government. with a political base in the South. he convinced the South Carolina legislature to nullify the federal tariff acts of 1828 and 1832. which gained independence through a slave revolution. 1825. in which he made his argument that the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional. the law. Adams had strong support in . fur.S. the allegation was widely believed. Adams became president. New England manufacturing interests were favored because it raised the tariff on imported textiles. Panama Conference: President Adams angered southerners by proposing to send American delegates to a conference of newly independent Latin American nations in Panama in 1826. wool.•ELECTION OF 1824: popular vote. practices. or override.
committed to Clay’s American System and believed in active intervention by the government to change society. John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay guided this party in the 1830s. Maysville Road veto: President Jackson vetoed a bill to grant federal aid for a road in Kentucky between Maysville and Lexington in 1830. Cherokee Nation v.New England while Jackson swept the South and Southwest. It increased Jackson’s popularity in the South. Between 1835 and 1838. They were the Jeffersonian Republicans. but were also members of the official cabinet. 16. kitchen cabinets: During his first term. Georgia. natural." the removal of officeholders of the rival party on democratic grounds. age of the common man: All white males had access to the polls. 2. Worcester v. His supporters described his simple and true morals and fierce and resolute will. during the election of 1828. spoils system: Jackson defended the principle of "rotation in office. He believed that internal improvements violated the principle that Congress could appropriate money for objectives only shared by all Americans. Jackson was portrayed by the opposition as a common man. Supposedly. Eaton belonged to this group. Most Cherokees condemned the treaty. National Republicans: They became the Whig party during Jackson’s second term. They became a national party with appeal by 1836.6 million. The National Republicans ran Henry Clay whose platform consisted of his .000 Cherokees migrated west to the Mississippi along the Trail of Tears. an illiterate backwoodsman. In the middle states and the Northwest. Trail of Tears: A pro-removal chief signed the Treaty of New Echota in 1835 which ceded all Cherokee land to the United States for $5. 1832: Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokees were not a state nor a foreign nation and therefore lacked standing to bring suit. election of 1832: Jackson. 1831: Marshall ruled that the Cherokees were a "domestic dependent nation" entitled to federal protection from mistreatment by Georgia. they met in the White House kitchen. along with numerous former Federalists who believed that the national government should advocate economic development.000 to 4. Whigs: The National Republican party altered its name to the Whig party during Jackson’s second term. Jackson repeatedly relied on an informal group of partisan supporters for advice while ignoring his appointed cabinet officers. and plain. He wanted to give as many individuals as possible a chance to work for the government and to prevent the development of an elite bureaucracy. a strong defender of states’ rights and Unionism won the presidency. Martin Van Buren and John H. the popular vote was close. They were united by their opposition of Jackson’s policies. Georgia.000 Cherokees died. He was depicted as being uncorrupt.
A final resolution of the question of nullification was postponed until 1861. Secretary of treasury Roger B. States that suffered from the tariff of 1828 had the right to nullify or override the law within their borders. Roger B. Some disputed its constitutionality. Jackson believed that the Eaton affair was Calhoun’s plot to discredit him and advance Calhoun’s presidential ambitions. They were socially disregarded by Calhoun’s wife and Calhoun’s friends in the cabinet.American System. They took a leading role in national and NY . he believed that the Force Bill would produce a civil war. Jackson tried to destroy the Bank by vetoing a bill to recharter the Bank. hoping for a retraction by Jackson. NY. and the customs officials were ordered to stop collecting the duties at Charleston. A financial recession resulted. Eaton. Calhoun resigned in the same year. The Anti-Masonic Party ran William Wirt who received 7 electoral votes. accompanied by other southern states. when South Carolina. Clay Compromise: He devised the Compromise Tariff which provided for a gradual lowering of duties between 1833-1842. Taney implemented the policy. seceded from the Union and started the Civil War. Peggy Eaton affair: Jackson’s secretary of war. •BANK WAR: Nicholas Biddle operated the Bank of the United States since 1823. •NULLIFICATION CRISIS: Calhoun introduced the idea in his SC Exposition and Protest. Critics called the state-bank depositories pet banks because they were chosen for their loyalty to the Democratic party. which never occurred." not a league of states. Calhoun resigns: When Jackson favored the higher rates for the Tariff of 1832. Jackson proclaimed that nullification was unconstitutional and that the Constitution established "a single nation. He removed the federal government’s deposits from the Bank and put them into various state and local banks or "pet banks. He used Calhoun’s anti-tariff arguments to support his position and referred to the plausibility of nullification. Webster-Hayne Debate: Senator Robert Hayne of South Carolina made a speech in favor of cheap land in 1830. The Force Bill authorized the president to use arms to collect customs duties in South Carolina." Biddle tightened up on credit and called in loans. Webster contended that the Union was indissoluble and sovereign over the individual states. Without the compromise. Martin Van Buren: The accepted name for a group of Democratic party politicians. Taney: Jackson’s policy was to remove federal deposits form the Bank of US and put them in state banks. John H. their activities were centered in Albany. Many opposed the Bank because it was big and powerful. He went back to South Carolina and composed an Ordinance of Nullification which was approved by a special convention. married Peggy Eaton in 1829.
The protesters sought to do away with the state constitution which restricted suffrage to freeholders led the reform to grant suffrage to non-property owners. New things such as rousing campaign techniques. The origins of the depression included Jackson’s Specie Circular. so did much violence and serious disturbances. but by abandoning distribution. Tariff of 1842: In August of 1842. it infuriated many southerners and westerners Reform: Social & Intellectual European Romanticism branched into American mainstream society. Britain controlled the flow of specie from its shores to the US in an attempt to hinder the outflow of British investments in 1836. "Tippecanoe and Tyler too" Harrison won 80% of the electoral vote but died a moth later. Chief Justice Roger B. This satisfied northern manufacturers. Independent Treasury Plan: Instead of depositing its revenue in state banks.State politics between 1820 and 1850. The basic goals emphasised were to transced the bounds of intellect and to strive for emotional . Taney ruled that no charter given to a private corporation forever vested rights that might hurt the public interest. and was given the most successful campaign slogans in history. panic of 1837: Prices began to fall in May 1837 and bank after bank refused specie payments. His opponent. Van Buren persuaded Congress to establish an Independent Treasury in which the federal government would keep the revenue itself and thereby withhold public money from the grasp of business cooperation. and simple choices began to appeal to the ordinary people. strong contrasts. rise of the second party system: Because of the gradual hardening of the line between the two parties. election of 1840: Van Buren was nominated but no vice president was put up. but abandoned distribution to the states. Dorr’s Rebellion: As a popular movement emerged in Rhode Island to abolish the limitations set forth by the charter granted by Charles II in 1663. due to the need of revenue to run the government. The Bank of the United States also failed. Also. Taney: The Charles River Bridge Company sued to prevent Mass. competent political machines in the US. William Henry Harrison was ridiculed as "Old Granny" by the Democrats. interests in politic erupted among the people. One of the earliest. from permitting the construction of a new bridge across the Charles River. Tyler signed a bill which maintained some tariffs above 20%. prominent members included Van Buren.
which was a Transcendalist journal with Ralph Waldo Emerson and George Ripley. and that truth was inborn and universal. poets lecturers and essayists. The Pioneers: He wrote historical novels under Sir Walter Scott’s influence. To fiction. critic. he introduced characters like frontiersmen. along with Poe and Melville. and Walt Whitman.Hawthorne turned to his Puritan past in order to examine the psychological and moral effects of the adultery. The Dial: A feminist. and journalist. Nathanial Hawthorne. Margaret Fuller. Edgar Allen Poe: Poe. which contains much pessimism. The Spy. writers. focuses on the human mind instead of the social relationships." He wrote OCD to defend the right to disobey unjust laws." and "Power. He changed literature by freeing it from its . Orestes Brownson. Henry David Thoreau. The topics of his essays were broad and general. she edited The Dial. were concerned with analyzing the mental states of their characters. He was also a Transcendalist who believed that one could satisfy their material purposes with only a few weeks work each year and have more time to ponder life’s purpose. The Scarlet Letter. These Locos-Focos called for free public education. Brownson was a flexible theologian and writer. the abolition of imprisonment for debt. He wrote on subjects such as "Beauty.understranding. uniqueness. On Civil Disobedience: He was considered to be a "doer. with Melville and Hawthorne saw man as a group of conflicting forces that might not ever be balanced. Herman Melville. and the authority of the individual apprehension experience. His book. James Fenimore Cooper. The Last of the Mohicans. They believed in emphasis of the spontaneous and vivid expression of personal feeling over learned analysis." "Nature. Moby Dick: Drawing ideas and theme from his own experiences in life. Ralph Waldo Emerson: Serving briefly as a Unitarian minister. along with Poe and Hawthorne. wrote with concern for the human mind because of their pessimism about the human condition. These included such intellectuals as Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau. He." He was a Transcendalist who believed that knowledge reflected the voice of God. He was particularly active with the founding of the Workingman’s and Loco-Focos parties in New York. He. and a ten-hour workday. and developed a distinctly American theme with conflict of between the customs of primitive life on the frontier and the advance of civilization. Melville wrote with much pessimism.A member of the Transcendentalist movement. Transcendentalists-Transcendalists included many brilliant philosophers. philosopher. It agreed on the scaredness. he was a popular essayist and lecturer. After writing Summer on the Lakes. she was offered a job and wrote significant literature as a critic of the Tribune from 1844 to 1846.
Whitman broke the conventions of rhyme and meter to bring new vitality to poetry. and misfortunes of mankind. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Coming from New England. which contained "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow." and "Rip Van Winkle. Antebellum Reform Americans after 1815 embraced many religios and social movements in pursuit of solutions for the problems. his disciples divided into smaller Adventist groups of which the two largest are the Advent Christian Church and the Seventh-Day Adventists . being energetic and candid at a time when humility were accepted in the literary world. William Miller claimed the Second coming of Christ would occur in 1843. Hudson River school of art-Americans painters also sought to achieve a sense of nationality in art. Alexis de Tocqueville. he left the US and lived in Europe until 1832. they began to paint the awesomeness of nature in America. Flourishing between the 1829s and 1870s. DiA was a result of his observations. Longfellow.determination to preach a moral and established the idea that literature should be judged by the positive effect they had on the reader. he traveled to this country in the early 1930s to study the prison system. Following him were the Millerites. His poems of Evalgeline and Hiawatha preached of the value of tradition and the impact of the past on the present." which continued to give the him the support of Americans who were proud of their best known writer. It reflected the broad interest in the entire spectrum of the American democratic process and the society which it had developed. He wrote Sketch Book. Not only did he write in free verse. After the failure of his prophecies. the area from which literature was most prominent. but his poems took on a different style. Walt Whitman: By writing Leaves of Grass. the painter realized that the American landscape lacked the "poetry of decay" of Europe. These movements were generally more active in the Northern states. Democracy in America: A French Civil servant. evils. a poet. Washington Irving: Residing in New York and serving in the war of 1812. millenialism: In the 1830s. wrote Evalgeline which was widely read by schoolchildren in America. Realizing this.
The early unions strove for higher wages." he was a pioneer of cooperation among Protestant denominations. who was elected to Congress on the Tammany ticket. . 1836. physiology. Founded by Mary Lyon in 1836. Hunt: This decision deemed that the trade union and their strike techniques were legal.. shorter hours. were formed. He believed that conversions were human creations instead of the divine works of God. contradicting the traditional idea of unions being illegal under the conspiracy laws of the English common law. Illinois. Amana Community: Attempting to improve man’s life during industrialism.Charles G. after discovering the maltreatment of the insane in 1841. The spread of these lecture revealed the widespread hunger for knowledge and refinement. His "Social Gospel" offered salvation to all. Holyoke. National Trade Union: Organized in 1834. Finney: Known as the "father of modern revivalism. Mormons. Mt. religion. These communities often condemned social isolation. Dorothea Dix: In 1843. They were then led to the Great Salt Lake by Brigham young after Smith was killed. these cooperative communities. trade unions were persecuted for their strikes because they were construed as illegal conspiracies under the common law. conversation. presented a memorial to the state legislature which described the abhor conditions in which the insane were kept. Oberlin. Brigham Young: Joseph Smith organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints after receiving "Sacred writings" in New York Unpopular because of their polygamy. She. Mt Holyoke College in Massachusetts is the oldest U. Most judges still believed unions were illegal. it in fact did not open a new era for labor unions. the institution of private property. Oberlin College was converted into the center of western abolition by Theodore Dwight Weld. Howe. they moved to Missouri. lyceum movement: Began by Josiah Holbrok in the 1820. and that people’s destinies were in their own hands. marriage. along with help from Horace Mann and Samuel G. biology. Headed by Ely Moore. Commonwealth vs.After it was established in 1833. Although this was a milestone. this union disintegrated along with a number of other national conventions with the Panic of 1837. lyceums were local organizations that sponsored public lectures. criminal conspiracy laws: Initially. college devoted to women’s education. Lectures were held on such topics as astronomy.S. 1833. union control of apprenticeship and a closed shop. geology. this association was created after the New York Trades Union called a convention of delegates from numerous city centrals. led the fight for asylums and more humane treatment for the insane. known as Utopian communities. Onieda. then to Nauvoo. New Harmony. Brook Farm.
1848: Under the eye of Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. New York. They were also discriminated in the areas of education and employment. Emma Willard: In 1814.1845-1854: In this single decade. it was created by evangelical Protestants. they had no right to own property or retain their own earnings. They denounced the evil of drinking and promoted the expulsion of drinkers from church. Elizabeth Cady Stanton: She along with Lucretia Mott planned a women’s right convention at the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Seneca Falls which sparked the women’s movement. Mann promoted a wholistic change in public education. Willard established the Middlebury Female Seminary where she devised new innovations in female education. Seneca Falls. She provided instruction in math and philosophy in which women could not take earlier. For the next ten years. German immigration. She led the fight for educational equality among sexes. Mann wanted to put the burden of cost on the state.Extremely anti-Catholic.The most influential of reformers. Women’s rights : Women could not vote and if married. This spurred new sentiment for nativism and a new anti-Catholic fervor. the largest immigration proportionate to the American population occurred. this convention adopted resolutions for women’s rights. The Irish was the largest source of immigration with the German immigrants ranking second in number. and compel attendance. American Temperance Union. proclaiming a Declaration of Sentiments Months earlier. Among those adopted were a demand for women’s suffrage and a diminution of sexual discrimination in education and employment. Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a women’s rights convention at Seneca Falls. Horace Mann. . Lucretia Mott: 1848. Irish. not receiving the opportunities that men possessed. but was devoted to women’s rights. Nativism: The Irish immigration surge during the second quarter of the nineteenth century revived anti-Catholic fever . standardize textbooks. they successfully worked for the passage of the New York Married Women’s Property Act which recognized women’s right to her separate property. they followed Lyman Beecher in demanding total abstinence from alcohol. along with Stanton. She also established the Troy Female Seminary in 1821. She was also active in the fight for abolition and temperance. Man became the secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education.public education. This encouraged the development of educational institutions for women.The first national temperance organization. Created in 1826. grade the schools. in 1835 Morse warned that the governments of Europe were filling the US with Catholic immigrants as part of a conspiracy to undermine and destroy republican institutions.
"Cult of True Womanhood": The alternate ideal of domesticity. creating sectional tension because most abolitionists were from the North. but not social equality for blacks. she fought for a profession in which females could be appreciated. . it provided women with worthwhile pursuits beyond the family. This was generally considered radical. William Lloyd Garrison: William Lloyd Garrison was a radical who founded The Liberator. •ABOLITIONISM: Abolitionism was the movement in opposition to slavery. in Boston in 1831. Many abolitionists. often demanding immediate. an abolitionist newspaper. Almost all abolitionists advocated legal. such as William Lloyd Garrison were extremely vocal and helped to make slavery a national issue. In the North before the Civil War. Because the organization never had control over the many local antislavery societies. He advocated immediate. uncompensated emancipation of all slaves. they became more prominent and influential. American Antislavery Society: The American Antislavery Society was an organization in opposition to slavery founded in 1833. issues such as the role of women in the abolitionist movement. Because it sanctioned numerous activities in reform such as temperance and education. With this. and there were only a few adamant abolitionists prior to the Civil War. this slowed the advance of feminism. and role of abolitionists as a political party led to the division of the organization into the American Antislavery Society and Foreign Antislavery Society. The Pennsylvania system made each prisoner spend of his/her time in a single cell with no outside contact. However. Abolitionism Abolitionism is support for a complete. women became the main source of teachers. and as sectional tension mounted. there were only a few abolitionists and these were generally considered radicals. In 1840.Catherine Beecher: Lyman Beecher’s daughter and a militant opponent of female equality. He was joined in the peace movement by Elihu Burritt who founded the League of Universal Brotherhood in 1846 and promoted the 2d Universal Peace Conference held in Brussels in 1848 prison reform: Prison were meant to rehabilitate as well as punish. The Auburn System allowed prisoners to work together but never make contact and remain confined at night in a windowless cell. they were prominent and vocal. immediate. and uncompensated end to slavery. In this profession. she discovered the institution of education in which women could play an important part in. American Peace Society: In a social reform movement. its division did not greatly damage abolitionism. William Ladd led the peace movement by establishing the American Peace Society in 1828.
His most famous speech. Before the uprising was brought to a halt by white militiamen. He was also an active opponent of slavery who aided in the escape of slaves and the rescue of Anthony Burns. Violent opposition from slaveholders in 1836 forced him to move his presses from Missouri to Illinois. Lovejoy was killed by an mob in 1837. as well as its articles and speeches using arguments based on morality to advocate immediate emancipation made it one of the most persuasive periodicals in the United States at the time. temperance. Sarah wrote Letters on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes and Angelina wrote Letters to Catherine E. He led an antislavery demonstration on campus and a mass withdrawal of students from the school.uncompensated emancipation and even civil equality for blacks. lecturing against slavery. abolition and elimination of capital punishment. Theodore Weld: Weld was an abolitionist student at the Lane Theological Seminary. •NAT TURNER’S INSURRECTION: Turner was a slave who became convinced that he was chosen by God to lead his people to freedom. the trustees of the seminary tried to suppress abolitionism. Theodore Parker: Parker was a clergyman. Its bitter attacks on slavery and slaveowners. supported New England Emigrant Society. and his death stimulated the growth of abolitionist movement. theologian. Beecher. Turner and fifteen of his companions were hanged. and participated in John Brown’s raid in 1859. 55 whites were killed by Turner and his followers and many blacks were lynched by white mobs. Elijah Lovejoy: Lovejoy was American abolitionist and the editor of the an antislavery periodical. where he established the Alton Observer. Wendell Phillips: Phillips was an American orator. This made Garrison a famous and highly controversial abolitionist whose main tactic was to stir up emotions on the slavery issue. In 1838 both sisters wrote classics of American feminism. and the author of A Letter to the People and A Discourse of Matters Pertaining to Religion.. These students then centered their activities at Oberlin College. in 1837. Turner led about 70 blacks into a revolt against their masters. He also spoke publicly in favor of women’s rights. He was dismissed when. abolitionist. In Virginia in 1831. The Liberator: The Liberator was an anti-slavery newspaper published by William Lloyd Garrison and Isaac Knapp beginning in 1831. and reformer. The Observer. The rebellion convinced white southerners that a successful slave insurrection was an constant threat. They became controversial by lecturing to both men and women. . Grimké sisters: Angelina and Sarah Grimké were sisters who toured New England. in 1834. The Murder of Lovejoy speech protested the murder of Elijah Lovejoy and gained him recognition from the public.
Gabriel Prosser: Prosser a Virginia slave who planned a slave uprising in 1800 with the intent of creating a free black state.500 that he won in a lottery. making eloquent speeches against sex discrimination. Frederick Douglass: Douglass was an escaped slave. advocating a black rebellion to crush slavery. but the plan was betrayed by other slaves. where they became free under British. In spite of her illiteracy. she traveled widely through New England and the Midwest. resulting in the hanging of Vessy and his followers. Creole affair: The Creole Affair was an uprising by a group of slaves who were in the process of being transported in the ship. Prosser and his comrades were captured by the state militia and executed. Because of her efforts to lead her people to freedom. he planned to lead a group of slaves in an attacking Charleston and stealing the city’s arms. the North Star. The system had no formal organization. in the early 1830s. Sojourner Truth: Sojourner Truth was a runaway slave who became an influential figure in both women’s societies and the abolitionist movement. Harriet Tubman: Tubman was a black woman who. They killed the captain. The purpose of Walker’s Appeal was to remind his people that they were Americans and should be treated fairly. after escaping from slavery in 1849. the Creole. but it helped thousands of slaves escape and contributed to the hostility between the North and South. Incidents such as this contributed to the intensification of sectional conflict in the United States. She was the most famous leader of the underground railroad. Denmark Vesey: Vessy was a slave from South Carolina who bought his freedom with $1. He captured his audiences with descriptions of his life as a slave. took control of ship and sailed for Bahamas. the plan was betrayed by other slaves. Godlessness. Douglass’ influential speeches encouraged slaves to escape as he did and motivated northerners to oppose slavery. made 19 journeys back into the South to help as many as 300 other slaves escape. In 1822. Walker’s Appeal: David Walker was a free black from Boston who published his Appeal in 1829. However. Tubman was known as "Moses" among blacks. David Walker. who became a powerful aboltionist orator. He also published a newspaper. Expansion to 1840 . They intended to sieze the federal arsenal at Richmond. underground railroad: The underground railroad was a secret network of antislavery northerners who illegally helped fugitive slaves escape to free states or Canada during the period before the American Civil War. and slavery which attracted large audiences.
Santa Anna: Santa Anna was elected president of Mexico in 1833. In he 1835 went to Texas and joined the revolution against Mexico. retaliated at the battle of San Jacinto. 1840. The Mexican government never recognized this treaty. but could no longer afford to fight. the Texans killed half of Santa Anna’s men in 15 minutes and Houstan captured Santa Anna and forced him to sign a treaty recognizing Texan independence. Davy Crockett: Davy Crockett was a politician. After this defeat. However. Sam Houston. •TEXAN WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE: In 1836. greatly outnumbering Travis’ 200 troops. However. From 1827 to 1835 Crockett represented Tennessee in Congress. the Texas War for Independence resulted. The battle lasted less than 20 minutes. After Mexican president Santa Anna invaded Texas in1835. but got captured at the battle of San Jacinto in 1836. Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged San Antonio and the city’s 200 Texan defenders retreated into the abandoned mission. He was killed while defending the Alamo in 1836. became colonel in Texas Revolution. but many began moving west intermittently. At San Jacinto. in 1834. In 1836. Austin became one of the leaders of the Texas Revolution. Travis and all of his men died in battle. Before. Alamo: The Alamo was a mission in San Antonio. who had contracted 300 American families to move to Texas by 1825. during which after Santa Anna was captured and forced to signed a treaty granting Texans their independence. a frontiersman. Mexican president Santa Anna invaded Texas and brutally crushed the rebels at the battle of the Alamo. they mainly settled the areas east of the Mississippi River and avoided the arid Great Plains region. a great majority of Americans lived east of the Appalachian Mountains. so when the Mexican government tried to restrict the rights of these settlers. Exaggerated stories written after his death made Crockett an American folk hero. Travis became a war hero when he was ordered to defend San Antonio and the Alamo. that became the setting for and important episode in Texan war for independence from Mexico. Stephen Austin: Austin was a prominant leader of Americans in Texas. he overthrew government and named himself dictator. In 1835. In 1836. In the 1820s. Texas was a popular destination for American settlers. San Jacinto: The battle of San Jacinto was the last battle of Texan war for independence.1n 1790. William Barrett Travis: Travis was a lawyer before he moved to Texas in 1831. Texas. He invaded Texas in 1835. the leader to the Texans. When Santa Anna and his men attacked. and a soldier. All of the Texans were killed in their attempt to fight the Mexican army. so Texas became the Lone Star Republic. he was forced into . he was a highly successful empresario. Texan General Sam Houston and 800 of his men ambushed Santa Anna and the Mexican army. especially southern planters with slaves.
Sam Houston: Houston was a military commander and an American statesman who served in House of Representatives from 1823 to 1827. throughout the 1840s. This would spread the glorious institutions of civilization and democracy to the barbaric Native Americans. and other such ethnocentric acts. He was overthrown in 1845. He opposed slavery. Republic of Texas: Texan rebels declared their independence from Mexico in 1836. where he captured Santa Anna and achieved Texan independence. However. Americans did not flinch at atrocities such as provoking war with Mexico or slaughtering Indians. but he was not an abolitionist. Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny is the belief that Americans had the right. In 1836. This area. the present -day Midwest. he was the Liberal Republican nominee for president.retirement until 1838. In order to accomplish this destiny. The concept justified westward expansion in all its forms and ramifications. was characterized by its arid climate. he founded the New York Tribune. or even the duty. He was editor of the New Yorker and a Whig associated with Governor Seward of New York. Was it Imperialism?: American annexation of territories such as Oregon are generally not considered imperialistic because these lands were obtained by negotiation between two equal powers and the people there were not opposed to joining the Union. Great American Desert: The "Great American Desert" was a nickname for the Great Plains. They drafted a constitution modeled after the United States Constitution and chose Sam Houston as their president. a flat topography. and lack of trees. The term itself was coined by John O’Sullivan in an 1845 magazine article. Texas was an autonomous nation from the time Santa Anna recognized Texan independence at the battle of San Jacinto until it was annexed by the United States in 1845. but called back in 1846 to fight in the Mexican War. are considered imperialistic conquests. to expand westward across the North American continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. •"MANIFEST DESTINY": "Manifest Destiny" was the term used. to describe Americans’ belief that they were destined by God to spread their beliefs across the continent. Houston was chosen as president of the Texan rebels. such as the Mexican cession. In 1872. the persecution of the Indians. including the Mexican War. Because of these features. lands gained by force. Horace Greeley: Greeley was a journalist and political leader. In 1841. This sense of duty created a sense of unity among the nation and stimulated westward expansion. . it was considered inhospitable and early settlers chose to cross it on the way to the Willamette Valley of Oregon rather than settling there. He led them in the battle of San Jacinto.
California. Polk believed that the land was part of the Louisiana Purchase. Mexico claimed that the Nueces River was boundary of Texas. This treaty was defeated in the Senate. However. However. instead advocating lower tariff. Reannexation of Oregon: Prior to 1846. . the Whigs nominated Henry Clay. In 1844. Also. •JAMES K. and in 1844 he succeeded in sending a treaty to Congress for the annexation. Polk favored American expansion. Tyler started a campaign to annex Texas. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny. and he won the election. he was a "dark horse" candidate for president. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. Joint Resolution under President Tyler: In 1843. the Mexican governmen began war preparations when Texans accepted annexation. in 1844. Rio Grande. in early 1845. Polk began to demand that America obtain the entire territory. but Polk insisted that the Rio Grande River was the boundary line.Annexation of Texas. In compromise. Birney. large numbers of Irish immigrants turned out to vote for Polk. however. and therefore it belonged to the United States. separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. 54° 40’ or Fight!: In the election of 1844. Congress passed a joint resolution to annex Texas because of the growing popularity of annexation. the line 54° 40’ N. Disputed Territory: A dispute over the southern boundary of Texas contributed to the Mexican War. consisting of a small group of northern antislavery Whigs who were alienated by Clay’s indecisiveness. America and Great Britain had jointly occupied the Oregon Country. Reoccupation of Texas: After Congress voted to annex Texas. A deadlock at the Democratic national convention resulted in the nomination of dark-horse candidate James K. The Liberty party. especially advocating the annexation of Texas. a treaty was signed in 1846 giving the United States all of Oregon south of the 49th parallel. POLK: Polk was a slaveowning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. He opposed Clay’s American System. latitude. and the two countries divided Oregon at the 49th parallel. and Oregon. nominated James G. implying that the he would declare war if Britain did not give the United States all the Oregon territory up to its northern boundary. In response. However. Nueces River. were divided between Martin Van Buren and Lewis Cass. he was not received by the Mexican government because the threat of military revolt left the Mexican president to weak to negotiate. •ELECTION OF 1844: In the election of 1844. Slidell Mission to Mexico: Slidell was a negotiator sent to Mexico by James Polk with orders to gain Mexico’s recognition of the independence of Texas and to purchase California and New Mexico. The Democrats. Polk. in 1846 Polk agreed to negotiate. but later. and he won by a small margin. Polk used "54° 40’ or Fight!" as a campaign slogan. Polk sent troops to occupy Texas and the disputed territory south of the Nueces River.
His troops won important victories in northern Mexico at Matamoros. married adventurer John C. Jessie Benton. but it was a significant slice of Mexican territory." In 1846. and gave $15 million to Mexico in compensation. and managed to send a detachment of his army south into Mexico in time to join Taylor in the Battle of Buena Vista. •MEXICAN WAR: The Mexican war lasted from 1846 to 1848. and his resulting popularity helped him win the presidential election in 1848. Taylor was put in control of all of northern Mexico. John C. The main cause of the war was American desire for territory. They wanted Trist to convince Herrera to lower the price he was asking for California and to give . and Chapultepec. and declaring the independence of the "Bear Flag Republic. His daughter. Partially because of disorganization and instability in the Mexican government. gave California and New Mexico to the United States. the war resulted in and American victory. Fremont. Battle of Buena Vista: The battle of Buena Vista was a battle during Mexican War. In 1846. and Buena Vista. made the southern boundary of Texas the Rio Grande. Stephen Kearney: Kearney was an American colonel in the Mexican War. he led an army to Santa Fe and took the New Mexico territory without firing a shot. He was sent to Mexico by Polk to negotiate with Mexican president Herrera. Fremont: Fremont was an explorer. and led those troops victory at Vera Cruz. Fremont became the first presidential candidate for the Republican party. Five thousand American troops commanded by General Taylor defeated three times as many Mexican troops under Santa Anna. seizing the city of Sonoma. and politician known as "the Great Pathfinder. He represented Missouri in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. and Benton used his influence to have records of Fremont’s explorations published as government documents. General Winfield Scott: General Scott commanded American troops during the Mexican War." In 1856. Nicholas Trist: Trist was the chief clerk of state department and a peace officer. Senator Thomas Hart Benton: Senator Benton was an American statesman. Monterrey. He also led the final defeat of Santa Anna when he captured Mexico City in 1847. ending the war. Kearny then suppressed a rebellion of both Indians and Mexicans. The war took place mainly on Mexican soil. Cerro Gordo.The land between these two rivers was uninhabited. especially Texas and California. General Zachary Taylor: Taylor was an American major general who became a war hero during the Mexican War. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. He ran for president of United States in 1852. soldier. he assisted in the annexation of California by capturing insurgents. This American victory also hastened end of the War. As a result of this battle.
Nevada. In 1846. This territory included California. was being used by Canadian rebels when it was attacked by the government of Canada in late 1837 in American waters. Aroostook War: The Aroostook War was a boundary dispute between settlers in Maine and New Brunswick from 1838 to 1839." Many settlers traveled to Oregon overland by way of the Oregon Trail or around Cape Horn in the newly invented clipper ships. New Mexico. The fertile farmland available in the Willamette Valley attracted many farmers. Full-scale war was avoided through an agreement in 1839. People in the East heard exaggerated. but this tension was soon eased. this movement failed because the acquisition of California and her ports satisfied Polk. However. Texas. Missouri to the Willamette Valley. The treaty was very popular in the North because the United States got more than half of the disputed territory. many Americans traveled to the Oregon Territory in order to start a new life. the first major fur trading post in Oregon. All Mexico Movement: Many Senators in Congress wanted the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to include all of Mexico. Herrera rejected the offer. and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. The event heightened tensions between the United States and Britain.000 miles from Independence. because they believed that to have control of all of Mexico would give the United States more power. Oregon Trail: The Oregon Trail was an overland route to the Oregon territory. Caroline Affair: The American steamboat. the Caroline. The pioneers . •MEXICAN CESSION: The Mexican Cession was the land that Mexico ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo in 1848. Webster-Ashburton Treaty: The Webster-Ashburton Treaty was a treaty negotiated by Lord Ashburton of Great Britain and Daniel Webster of the United States in 1842.Americans the right of movement over the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. convincing them that Oregon was a "pioneer’s paradise. It settled a dispute over the boundary between Maine and New Brunswick. enthusiastic reports from missionaries and pioneers. stretching almost 2. John Jacob Astor: Astor was a wealthy New York merchant who invested in real estate. •OREGON FEVER: During the 1830s and 1840s. Arizona. He created the American Fur Company and established Astoria. Utah. In 1842 Daniel Webster asked for an apology from British government. and the issue was settled by Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842. This was an important part of westward expansion. The addition of so much land to the United States exacerbated conflict over the expansion of slavery because some Northerners feared that the extension of slavery into California and New Mexico would deter free laborers from settling there. He became involved in the fur business and organized a fur trading empire from the Great Lakes to the Pacific Ocean and to China and Japan.
Election of 1848: Cass. especially those from the Mississippi River Valley. Sutter’s holdings were found invalid by the Supreme Court. Brigham Young: Brigham Young was the patriarch of the Mormon church who took control of the church after Joseph Smith was killed. Willamette Valley: The Willamette Valley was an area of fertile farmland in the Oregon Territory which attracted large numbers of farmers in the 1830s and 1840s. Young has been criticized for both his support of polygamy and his intolerance towards opposition. increasing the negative sentiment towards Mormonism. In a 1846 treaty. Reports of the abundance of this land sparked the movement of many pioneers to the West Coast. after which. Mormons: The Mormon religion was founded in 1827 by Joseph Smith. John Sutter: John Sutter was granted 49. he discovered gold. It is estimated that about 11. The Mormons are characterized by their preference to be set apart from the rest of the community. Their church is based in Utah and they believe that the Book of Mormon is the supplement for the Bible.500 emigrants used overland trails like the Oregon Trail to reach Oregon between 1840 and1848. where they prospered. Originally they had jointly occupied the entire territory. Land squatters disputed over Sutter’s land claims and.. Joseph Smith: Joseph Smith was the founder of the Mormon church.who traveled this trail in wagon trains faced many dangers. After being charged with treason and jailed. subsequently. Smith saw himself as a prophet. Lewis Cass was the Democratic candidate. Taylor: Zachary Taylor was the Whig candidate in the election of 1848. Prior to 1846. In 1848. . but a compromise was forged in 1846 because president Polk demanded title to this territory and neither side wanted to go to war over it. the Oregon Territory had been jointly occupied by Great Britain and the United States with its northern boundary the line 54°40’. This discovery led to the onset of the California Gold Rush. he was killed by a mob in 1844. Illinois. he and his followers set up a model city and temple in Nauvoo. dividing it at the 49th parallel. He translated the Book of Mormon in 1827. the two countries split the territory. Taylor won election on his popularity. 49th Parallel: The 49th parallel was the line of latitude dividing the United States’ and Great Britain’s portions of the Oregon Territory after 1846. Oregon Territory: Congress made the Oregon Territory an official territory of the United States in 1848. apparent in their views. which were antebellum in the time the religion was born. Both parties avoided making the issue of slavery a campaign issue. After the Mormons were forced out of Illinois.000 acres of land by the Mexican government in 1834 and established a sawmill on the land in 1846. Young led them to Utah in 1846. and his platform was based solely on personal popularity because he was a war hero.
They believed slavery should not be extended into the newly acquired U. It never passed the Senate. 10. panic of 1857: The causes of the panic were overspeculation in railroads and lands. It also reversed the trend of replacing certain specifics for ad value duties and dropped the minimum valuation principle. and by doing this. 1846. Their party slogan was "Free Trade.S. and a break in the flow of European capital to American investments as a result of the Crimean War. territory and were pro-Wilmot Proviso. Free Speech. They left in 1848 to form the Free Soil Party but rejoined after the election of 1848. 1846: The Walker tariff was created by Robert J. a Congressman from Pennsylvania. when Polk was elected in 1844. The South’s less industrial economy suffered less than the North. Polk: After Van Buren was defeated in the election of 1840 by William Henry Harrison.forty-niners: In 1849. Barnburners: The Barnburners were a part of the Democratic party in New York. Free Labor. This also kept the government’s money out of state banks. but passed the House. Mexico gave . along with immigrants from Europe." •TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO: This was the peace treaty between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican War. false banking practices. proposed that slavery be banned in land acquired from the Mexican War. The bill slashed all duties to the minimum necessary for revenue. Through the treaty. The proviso was given to Congress in August 1846.000 died the first year and few even benefited from the expedition. It was taken out of the War Appropriations bill in order for Senate to pass the actual bill. who viewed this as a proof of superiority in both Southern economy and slavery. The tariff was signed July 30. in 1846. kept public money from private business corporations. he brought back the Independent Treasury System. Walker Tariff. Expansion and Slavery The expansion of slavery into new territories and onto the western frontier became a major issue after the Mexican-American War. Walker. Competition led to violence and greed. Polk’s secretary of the treasury. As a result of inadequate shelter and food and the lack of medical supplies. the Independent Treasury System was repealed.000 Americans. However. Independent Treasury System. Independent Treasury System. 100. Wilmot Proviso: David Wilmot. Van Buren: The system was introduced by Martin Van Buren in 1837 and it passed through Congress in 1840. The bill had the federal government keep their revenue. Free Men. Southerners fought to assert their rights while many Northerners wished to prevent the expansion of slave labor into new states. Asia and South America rushed to California in search of easy riches. This intensified the divisions between the Whigs and Democrats.
most states do nor allow omnibus bills. Colorado. Calhoun: Calhoun is most known for the "nullification crisis" in 1828 between he and president Jackson over the tariff of 1828 (tariff of abominations). He supported the Compromise of 1850 on the basis of the theory of nullification. There was controversy on the issue of it being a free or slave state. •COMPROMISE OF 1850: The Compromise of 1850 was an eight part compromise devised by Henry Clay in order to settle the land disputes between the North and South. Conscience Whigs. John C. Slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia. Henry Clay: Henry Clay was an influential American politician who earned the title of "The Great Pacificator" with his development of three compromises. Although they were unable to carry any state. In the end. Today. California decided to petition to become a state in September of 1849. Webster argued that years of tension built up from the North’s growing power would be relieved by the compromise and that the North would make the South its equal. California applies for admission as a state: Because the population grew during the gold rush and they were in need of a better government. They nominated Martin Van Buren on a platform of opposition to any kind of slavery. though. The U. and Nevada. Henry Clay introduced the bill as a whole. the treaty worked to expand the U. but it was later pushed through Congress as separate measures. thus saving the Union. assumed all claims of the American people against the Mexican government and also paid Mexico 15 million dollars. 1848. unsuccessfully. for president six times and devised the "American System" that favored a protective tariff and federal support of internal improvements. The issue of slavery eventually did lead to future conflicts. while a stricter Fugitive Slave Law was enforced. Utah. Despite his efforts. California was admitted as a free state. but through the Compromise of 1850. while slavery itself was not abolished and sectional peace returned to the northern and southern states for a few years. Free Soil Party: The Free Soil Party created by the Barnburners. The bill most commonly known for being omnibus is the Compromise of 1850. territory to include parts of Arizona. and the former Liberty party members in the election of 1844. Wyoming. the speech made few converts. Webster’s 7th of March speech: Webster’s speech was an eloquent one presented in favor of the Compromise of 1850. they had enough influence in North to convey their point.Texas with Rio Grande boundary. Calhoun was also a war hawk. and New Mexico to the United States. Omnibus bill: The omnibus bill is a term used to describe a bill that has many unrelated and separate topics within it. California was admitted a free state. . As part of the compromise.S. He ran.S. He was a senator during the debates over the compromise. California . The treaty was signed on February 2.
permitted American ships to buy coal in Japan. a challenge to the fugitive slave law of 1793. The laws included the prohibition of the use of state jails to confine alleged fugitives. but habeas corpus was not valid as a result of Chief Justice Taney’s decision that a court or judge has certain limits of power. Prigg v. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad. opened Japanese ports of to U. and include the island in the Union. Pa. the battle for federal supremacy commenced. rejected the manifesto. He was arrested on charges of theft and violation of the Fugitive Slave Law. but Burns was resold to friends who freed him. Gadsden Purchase: The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. in 1853. to rescue Burns.. section 2 of the Constitution deems the return of fugitive slaves a federal power. Perry and Japan: Commodore Perry opened relations with Japan. In turn. and ended Japan’s isolation. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement. a country closed to the rest of the world for 2 centuries. Booth: Booth was arrested for aiding the escape of a fugitive slave in 1859. Because article IV. 1842: This case resulted when Pennsylvania attempted to ban the capture and return of runaway slaves within its territory. The treaty he forged protected the rights of sailors shipwrecked in Japanese territory from inhumane treatment. Northern resistance demonstrated that the slavery issue could not be ignored. The Wisconsin Supreme Court issued a writ of habeas corpus to release him. Ableman v. the state law was declared unconstitutional. Ostend Manifesto: American ambassadors to Great Britain. even force. France. During the trial. however. commerce. President Pierce sent him back to his master. unsuccessfully. and Spain met in Ostend. the 1850 slave law was more strictly enforced.Fugitive Slave Law: Unlike the previous 1793 slave law. Southern states objected to the laws because they violated sectional equity and reciprocal trust. Anthony Burns: Burns was an American slave who escaped in 1834. a mob of Boston abolitionists stormed into the courthouse to attempt. . Belgium in 1854 to issue an unofficial document that gave the United States permission to attain Cuba by any necessary means. •PERSONAL LIBERTY LAWS: Discontent with the injustice of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. northern states passed "personal liberty laws" in order to strengthen the use of the habeas corpus writs and prohibit state officials from accepting jurisdiction under federal law.S. President Pierce. The results of the law were that the North became a hunting ground for slaves and slaves were denied a trial by jury and other protections they were entitled to. The anger of the slaves led to riots and other acts of violence.
a part of the Compromise of 1850 and Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. Each claimed to be the lawful one. The purpose of the bill was to facilitate the building of the transcontinental railroad on a central route. Lecompton Constitution: This constitution was devised by the anti-slavery delegates of Congress in 1857 to protect the rights of the slaveholders in Kansas and advocate popular sovereignty. "Bleeding Kansas" and Lawrence: Topeka and Lecompton were the two rival governments of Kansas. sacked the town of Lawrence. but their attempt . blocking slavery and territory north of that line. He was also a strong supporter of the Compromise of 1850. thus armed themselves and commenced guerilla warfare. 36° 30’ line: The 36° 30’ line was established by the Missouri Compromise and drew on parts of California and New Mexico. Pottawatomie Massacre: John Brown led a small group of abolitionists into a proslavery settlement in 1856 to kill unarmed men and boys at Pottawatomie Creek in retaliation to the border ruffians’ invasion and sacking of the abolitionists’ town of Lawrence." following the advice of an antislavery minister that rifles would do no more than Bibles to enforce morality in Kansas. The Wilmot Proviso sought to extend the boundary line westward.Stephen A. Douglas was an advocate of the annexation of Mexico. they dubbed their guns "Beecher’s Bibles. Missouri "border ruffians. a pro-slavery posse armed with guns mobbed through the town. It was proposed by Stephen A. but supported it so that Kansas could be admitted as a state. •KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT. Northerners sent antislavery settlers into this area in 1854. It was passed. Polk supported the idea of expansion to end the discussion of whether the new territory acquired was slave or free. The act enforced popular sovereignty upon the new territories but was opposed by Northern Democrats and Whigs." those who supported slavery. however. 1854: The Kansas-Nebraska Act ended the peace established between the North and South by the Compromise of 1850. also led a retaliation two days later . an abolitionist. who aroused the question of slavery in territories with the development of the KansasNebraska Act in 1854. because President Pierce supported it. John Brown. The retaliation was preceded by a pro-slavery posse’s armed raid through Kansas. Buchanan disapproved of it. Ridiculing the free staters. popular sovereignty: this compromise solution was first proposed during the time of the Wilmot Proviso: the residents of each territory had the option of determining whether it would be a free or slave state.Stephen Douglas a strong advocator. Douglas of Illinois and repealed the Missouri Compromise. In 1856. New England Emigrant Aid Company: Aiming to prevent the expansion of slavery into Kansas. Douglas: American politician known for his debates with Abraham Lincoln prior to the election of 1860. "Beecher’s Bibles": Because the abolitionist government in Kansas was organized in 1856.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Harriet Stowe." referring to the slavery issue. Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 during Illinois senatorial campaign: The LincolnDouglas debates were a series of seven.was unsuccessful. southerners rejected the doctrine because it did not insure the rights of slaves. Douglas’ "Freeport Doctrine" stated that exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. The issue of slaver polarized people. Lincoln condemned Douglas for not taking a moral stand against slavery. The meeting itself led to the ultimate decision on the compromise. a Northern abolitionist outraged by the Fugitive Slave Law. and others were translated into 20 languages. and Southern slaveowners felt that their rights and interests were no longer being fairly represented. Lincoln’s "house divided" speech: The "house divided" speech was a speech presented before the Republican party’s state convention in 1858 in Springfield. The 1850s: The Road to Secession During the 1850s.S. It warned the people that a "house divided against itself cannot stand. where Douglas argued on the basis of his opposition to the Lecompton Constitution and depicted Lincoln as a radical abolitionist. Nashville Convention: Delegates of the northern and southern states assembled in the summer of 1850 to decide on the issue of the Compromise of 1850. . though the majority of settlers originated from Missouri and the Midwest. raided a mass of Irish canal workers. Freeport Doctrine: Stephen A.000 copies were sold in the U. a reaction that hurt him in the election. They were labeled "fire-eaters" due to their recklessness and by making their presence strongly felt by all those around. The novel stimulated Northern action against slavery. Settlers were mixed in their views on slavery. Fire-eaters discussed southern rights. Settlers from New England arrived slowly. while suspicion of their secession rose amongst the northerners. contributing to the Civil War. They walked out on the Nashville convention in 1850. so tensions between the two-sided mounted until Southerners became convinced that nothing short of secession could protect them Northern persecution. Illinois. In 1858. and whipped and lynched slaves in the 1860s. fire-eaters: The fire-eaters were extreme advocates of southern rights. 500. Though the South denounced the novel. Northerners began to increasingly support free soil and even abolition. wrote this novel to illustrate the evils of slavery. sectional issues such as slavery became very divisive. Lincoln predicted in his speech that there would mean eventual freedom for the slaves.
Harriet Beecher Stowe: Stowe was an abolitionist writer who wrote powerful novels attacking slavery both before and after the Civil War in such novels as Dred. birth of the Republican Party: The party was formed in 1854 by northern Democrats who left the party because of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Know-Nothing Party: This election was between John C. "The Crime Against Kansas. He is well-known for handing down the Dred Scott decision. At his death. and James Buchanan of Democratic Party. Fremont of the Republican Party. election of 1852: The election of 1852 was the end of the Whig Party. leading to the cruel treatment slaves. Sumner-Brooks affair: Charles Sumner. yet rich in pathos and dramatic incident. also. the federal government had increased power over foreign . Former Whigs and KnowNothings were party members. Charles Butler. Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act split the Whig Party. and the nomination of General Winfield Scott exacerbated the sectional split. Buchanan won the election. and that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because it violated the fifth amendment. southern fear of future slave uprisings increased. which did not allow Congress or territorial governments to exclude slavery from any area. Butler’s nephew came into the Senate chamber and hit him on the head. Chief Justice Roger B. It was determined that temporary residence in an area did not make one free. John Brown’s raid: The raid took place at Harper’s Ferry in 1859. Franklin Pierce of the Democratic party won the election with 27 of 31 states. Taney ruled that Scott was not a citizen because he was a slave in 1856. made a speech titled. Millard Fillmore of the Know-Nothing Party. All opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act and believed that slavery should be banned from all territories of the nation." denouncing slavery. election of 1856: Republican Party. except those states where slavery already existed. Taney: Taney was a Southerner appointed by Jackson as the 5th justice of the Supreme Court. therefore. Under his leadership. a senator from Massachusetts. A Tale of Great Dismal Swamp (1856) and The Minister’s Wooing (1859). and was conducted by an abolitionist to raid the federal arsenal and start a slave uprising. The novels are rambled in structure. Preston Brooks. She also wrote short stories and poetry. at the same time. increasing the popularity of the Republicans. Fillmore’s inexperience weakened his party. ridiculing the South Carolina senator. The loss of votes from the South was the result of Scott’s campaign. Republicans became more suspicious of Slave Power in Congress. It failed and Brown was convicted of treason and hanged because he had ties with the northern abolitionists. making Brooks a hero in the South. and. he did not have the right to sue in federal court. in 1856. •DRED SCOTT DECISION: Chief Justice Roger B.
was organized in favor of the Northerners. each with opposing viewpoints on the slavery issue. He is regarded a martyr to the cause of human freedom. Buchanan and the secession crisis: Buchanan declared secession of states illegal. an economic system based on protective tariffs. Republican Party of 1860: In order to lure votes from Northern states to their party. Lincoln’s nonchalant views towards slavery led them to victory. an opposer of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Lecompton constitution. Whigs nominated Bell in 1860. They nominated Abraham Lincoln. This plays a major role in justifying the secession of the Southern states by stating that a state had the right to withdraw from the political entity it created. Breckenridge. who had the desire to preserve the Union. Bell created the new Constitutional Union party. They were unable to agree on a platform based on the protection of slavery. His life ended when he was hanged for murder and treason. yet he had no power to prevent it. nominated John Bell. His nomination completed the split of the Democratic party. He was the leader of John Brown’s raid and the Pottawatomie massacre. Compact Theory of Government: This theory involves the idea that the United States of America was founded by the union of thirteen individual states creating a federation of states. federal aid for internal improvements and the distributing of 160-acre homesteads to settlers in order. John Bell: Opposed to both Lincoln and Douglas. which had a platform based on the preservation of the Union. This increased the tension between the North and South. He refused Southern demands to remove troops from Fort . John Brown: John Brown was an American abolitionist who attempted to end slavery through the use of violence. parties.relations. The constitutional party. An unsuccessful second attempt to reach a consensus in Baltimore led them to nominate two candidates. The democrats nominated two candidates. John Breckenridge: A division in the Democratic Party led to the nomination of two candidates for the 1860 election. Democratic Party conventions: The first assembly of delegates in Charleston in 1860 resulted in the split of the Democratic party as the Southern "fire-eaters" left the convention. Buchanan’s vice president. was nominated by secessionists on a platform based on protection of slavery in territories. Douglas and Breckenridge. who held a moderate view on slavery. created by Whigs. Taney ruled in 1861 that Lincoln exceeded his authority in suspending habeas corpus. and not on the controversial slavery issue. issues: A united republican party attempted to appeal more to the North in order to win the campaign and developed an economic program to amend the damages of the 1857 depression. •ELECTION OF 1860: candidates.
Lincoln’s innauguration South Carolina. It divided the nation and resulted in the death of more Americans than all other wars combined. to restore the Missouri Compromise. Florida. The North in comparison with the South in these areas makes the North seem more advantageous. •South’s advantages in the Civil War: The Confederate States of America had a strong advantage in the fact that they were fighting a defensive war in familiar territory. and an established railroad system to transport these material resources. In addition to that. Louisiana.000 Americans died and thousands of fields. It became the nation’s fourth largest producer of iron products. . but not before 620. mineral resources. but it also had advantages buried deep within its much stronger military tradition.Sumter. Mississippi. and to guarantee protection of slavery below this line. •North’s advantages in the Civil War: The Union clearly had more military potential with its larger population of 22 million. The amendments were to bar the federal government from intervening in southern states’ decision of slavery. the Union had more advantages in terms of material goods such as money and credit. he left the office disappointed and discredited. and Texas had seceded. Southerners came from a rural rather than urban environments and therefore had more men experienced in the use of firearms and horses. By March 1861. factories for manufacturing war goods. eventually won. Lee. Crittenden Compromise proposal: The compromise was proposed by John Crittenden in an attempt to preserve the Union. Georgia. and entire towns were destroyed. Tredegar Iron Works: guided by Joseph Reid to success during a time when the economy in the North and South began to plunge because of their increased divergence. bloody war fought mainly over the issue of slavery. Because his efforts to supply the fort failed and due to failure of a constitutional plan. with advantages such as greater organization and prosperity. such as Robert E. It also repealed personal liberty laws. This allowed the Confederacy to produce a more able corps of officers. The Union. homes. During the Civil War the company contributed to the Confederacy cause. food production. The Civil War The Civil War was a terrible. secession: Slavery fueling the states’ rights issue along with the loss of Congress and Northern opposition to the new Fugitive Slave Law made the election of 1860 the straw that broke up the union. Alabama.
on his famous march to the sea. Lee: Commanding the Army of N. The Confederates under Beauregard bombarded the fort and were eventually victorious. Carolina. He would run for president in 1864. At Chancellorsville Jackson again flanked the Union army but was mortally wounded by his own troops. Lee repulsed Union advances at the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville and Grant’s assaults in the Wilderness Campaign. with a force of 60. South Carolina and it was the site of the first conflict of the Civil War on Apr. and won the battle of Gettysburg. Virginia. Meade: He made himself known in 1862 at Seven Days Battle and the battles of Bull Run. Jackson: At the 1st battle of Bull Run Jackson earned his nick name when he and his brigade stood "like a stone wall. near the bridge over Bull Run River and drove them to the Henry House Hill." Serving under Lee. Bull Run: On July 16. Antietam. but he allowed the Confederates to withdraw across the Potomac and was again removed.Fort Sumter: Fort Sumter is a fort in Charleston harbor. barely escaped defeat at the Battle of Shiloh and ended Confederate control of the Mississippi in Vicksburg. The Confederate ironclad frigate Merrimac had sunk the Cumberland and defeated the Congress in Hampton Roads but was forced to withdraw March 9 after an engagement with the Union’s ironclad Monitor. with aid from the forces of Johnston. Jackson flanked the Union army to set up the Confederate victory at the second battle of Bull Run. Commanding in the West. Sherman: He fought in the Vicksburg and Chatanooga campaigns and ge undertook the Atlanta Campaign. he thoroughly defeated Bragg at Chattanooga. After capturing Savannah. and later at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. He directed the Union army in the Wilderness Campaign and he received Lee’s surrender. General McDowell began to move on Confederate General Beauregard at Manassas Junction. He burned Atlanta and set off. He commanded of the Army of the Potomac from 1863. but the fort was eventually retaken by Union forces in 1865. McDowell attacked Beauregard’s soldiers. he turned north through S. but Jackson checked the advance and routed the raw Union troops. and received the surrender of General Johnston. devastating the country. McClellan: He was criticized for overcaution in the unsuccessful Peninsular Campaign and removed from command. he checked Lee in the Antietam Campaign. he took the offensive in the 7 Days Battle and beat the Union army at the 2nd battle of Bull Run. Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomatox Courthouse. but he was criticized for not following up his victory. Monitor and the Merrimac: March 8. 1862 was the date of first naval battle between ironclad ships. Grant: In 1862 he captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in Tennessee. 1861. . built by John Ericsson.000. 12. Called on again in 1862.
. Indiana.Vicksburg: It was a battle fought for control of the Mississippi River. Congressman Clement L. He was elected vice president of the Confederacy. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9. Louisiana. Vallandigham: Vallandigham was the leader of the Copperheads during the Civil War. but Lee’s own advance was halted by McClellan. cotton versus wheat: Efforts by the Confederate government during the Civil War to convince planters to grow to wheat instead of cotton received little success.S. Then the South took the Peach Orchard but were repulsed. The surrender at Appomattox virtually ended the Civil War. Antietam: In September 1862. the Union was pushed to Cemetery Hill. congressman from Georgia and was opposed to secession but he remained loyal to Georgia when the state seceded. The term Copperheads was also used to label all Democratic opponents of Lincoln. food shortages plagued the Confederacy. On July 3 Lee ordered George E..S. Copperheads: Copperheads were Northerners who sympathized with the South during the Civil War. 1865. the so-called bloodiest day of the war. He was briefly imprisoned in 1863 for maintaining in a speech that the war was being fought to free African-American and enslave whites. As president of the Confederacy. The group was led by Clement L. By late 1862. Meade and Lee met just west of Gettysburg. Grant opened siege. Robert E. but the rest of the Confederate forces did not surrender until May 26 at Shreveport. Lee sent Jackson to capture Harpers Ferry. Jefferson Davis: He left Washington after the secession of Mississippi. Lee surrendered to Union Gen. who attacked him at Antietam Creek. Pickett’s division forward in its infamous disastrous charge against the Union center. Vicksburg’s fall completed the encirclement of the Confederacy. U. and Ohio. Alexander Stephens: He was a U. and Lee surrendered without his approval. on September 17. It was a Union victory only in that Lee’s advance was stopped. As a result. Appomattox: Confederate Gen. he assumed strong centralized power. While some planters heeded the government’s pleas. In May of 1863 U. Gettysburg: It was Lee’s second invasion of the North. Maryland. many clung to the belief that cotton would never fail them. trying to invade Maryland and Pennsylvania. Vallandigham and was especially strong in the states of Illinois. and he was against many of the policies of President Davis. the Union controlled all of the river except for the 200 miles south of Vicksburg. and weakened the states’ rights policy for which the South had seceded. The 1864 Democratic platform reflected his pro-Southern views. First. After the war he was interned for several months. and after 6 weeks the Confederates surrendered.S. He had many disputes with Confederate generals.
Lincoln used it to intimidate border states into rejecting secession. The Gatling gun was created created a man by the name Gatling. This allowed poor farmers to obtain land in the west and increased westward expansion.suspension of habeas corpus: Writs of habeas corpus are court orders requiring that the a cause of imprisonment be demonstrated before a person is jailed. so at first the blockade was not as effective as northerners had hoped it would be and blockade-running was a common way for Southerners to obtain supplies Anaconda Plan: The Anaconda Plan was a Union strategy in the Civil War calling for the establishment of a naval blockade around the Confederacy to prevent the importation of supplies from Europe. This weapon contributed to the high number of casualties in the Civil War. but it was the most effective of early models. Homestead Laws: The Homestead laws were laws passed in Congress in 1862. Republican legislation passed in Congress after Southerners left: banking. This basic civil liberty was suspended by both Lincoln and Davis during the war to deal with dissent. homestead. They were able to hit targets more accurately at large . It was slowly implemented and only partially successful. Submarines were used only to a limited degree in the Civil War. who intended to make war so horrible that it would make peace. and when they were. They permitted almost any American citizen to acquire a homestead of up to 160 acres of land in the West. Despite the many hardships that it entailed. railroad: After the South seceded. Northern blockade: During the Civil War. the north attempted to establish a blockade of all Southern ports in order to stop the flow of essential supplies to the Confederacy. on the condition that the homesteader cultivate the land for 5 years. Submarine: Four submersible vessels were built during the American Civil War by the Confederates for use against the federal fleet. but sunk itself as well. Acts such as these had been blocked by southerners. Black Soldiers: It was not until late in the Civil War that African American soldiers were allowed to participate in combat. The Union navy was fairly weak. One of these submarines successfully dragged a mine through the water to sink a northern ship. military service was a source of pride for blacks because it symbolized their freedom. northerners in Congress enacted legislation such as the Pacific Railroad Act authorizing a transcontinental railroad and the Homestead Act granting free land in the west. and they were far from perfected. but the blockade did contribute to the Northern victory. tariff. Gatling Gun: The Gatling gun was one of the earliest machine guns. they suffered a far higher mortality rate than white troops. Rifle: An improved rifle was one of the important technological advancements that transformed the Civil War.
two Confederate emissaries who were on board and he interned them in Boston. ironclad steamers. This was another source of diplomatic tension during the Civil War. Laird rams: The Laird rams were two double-turreted. It was issued by President Lincoln after the battle of Antietam. In order to balance Abraham Lincoln’s Union ticket with a Southern Democrat. The claims were not resolved until the Treaty of Washington in 1871. the Republicans nominated Andrew Jackson for vice president. election of 1864: In 1864. This also contributed to the high number of casualties during the war. The claims were for compensation for damages inflicted on Union property by a Confederate steamship built by the British.. •Emancipation Proclamation: The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order ending slavery in the Confederacy. Trent Affair: In Nov. In the Trent affair. making open fields a hazard. the Alabama. The United States threatened war if these ships were released to the South. During the Civil War the Union embraced this idea. the Trent. so that trench warfare became a necessity. but the issue increased tension between the Union and Britain. so the British purchased them for the royal navy. This proclamation had the dual purpose of injuring the Confederacy and preventing Great Britain from entering the war in support of the Confederacy. contains contraband. although he failed to stop the sailing of the Alabama. It also pushed the border states toward abolishing slavery. The Emancipation Proclamation only freed slaves residing in the territories in rebellion against the government of the United States. regardless of the number of stops made before arrival in the port. 1861. conscription. a raider built in Great Britain for the Confederacy. but contained many loopholes. and removed Mason and Slidell. draft riots: The Federal Militia Act of 1862 and the Confederate Conscription Act of 1862 allowed for conscription. A Union captain stopped and boarded a British vessel. he was instrumental in averting hostilities between the two nations.distances than previous guns. seizing ships traveling from England to the West Indies with the final destination of Confederate ports. helped to keep the British from recognizing the Confederacy. Lincoln was . Alabama claims: There were a series of claims for indemnity made by the United States upon Great Britain in 1862. "continuous voyage": The concept of "continuous voyage" involves the idea that a voyage intended for an enemy port. Charles Francis Adams: Adams was an American diplomat who. as ambassador during the Civil War. Riots in 1863 by anti-conscription protesters and impeded the process of drafting soldiers. but the establishment of a draft prompted volunteering. President Lincoln released Mason and Slidell. a number of Republicans sought to prevent Lincoln’s renomination. built by a company in England for the Confederate navy.
C. assassination of April 14. escaped with a broken leg." She not only helped the war effort by nursing. •Lincoln’s ten percent plan: In it all southerners. Ex parte Milligan: Ex parte Milligan was an 1866 Supreme Court limiting the authority of martial law and the suspension of habeas corpus in times of war." .. Andrew Johnson. John Wilkes Booth: Booth was a Southern sympathizer during the Civil War. a Union nurse during the Civil War. but he was shot later. Reconstruction lasted from the end of the Civil War in 1865 until the Tilden-Hays Compromise in 1877 restored the Democrats to power in the South. could get a full pardon and restoration of rights after taking an oath. On Apr. D. John Wilkes Booth. 1865. After that the state would once again be eligible for representation in Congress and readmitted to the Union. The assassin. This led to high inflation. he shot President Lincoln during a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theater in Washington. 1865: President Lincoln wass assassinated while attending a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theater in Washington.C. was known as "the Angel of the Battlefield. There were many disagreements about the best way to accomplish this and many important pieces of legislation emerged as a result. which she headed until 1904. citizens could vote in elections that would create new state governments and new state constitutions.able to overcome Democratic candidate George McClellan and win a second term in office. 14. D. but was later shot and killed. He escaped. financing of the war effort by the North and the South: In order to pay for the Civil War. who plotted with six fellow-conspirators to assassinate Union leaders. both the Confederate and Union governments were forced to sell public lands and tax. When ten percent of the 1860 voting population had taken this oath. pledging loyalty to the Union and accepting the end of slavery. Clara Barton: Clara Barton. greenbacks. Lincoln was succeeded by his vice president. the governments issued bonds and. In this case. except high-ranking Confederate officials. The fear that heavy taxation would cause unrest and corrode support of their cause. After the War. Reconstruction Reconstruction was the process of bringing the southern states that had seceded during the Civil War back into the Union. and organized the American Red Cross. in the North. the court declared that "martial law can never exist where the courts are open in the proper and unobstructed exercise of their jurisdiction. Barton worked for the International Red Cross in the Franco-Prussian War. she also helped the Union obtain medical supplies.
The decision also declared secession unconstitutional. was a case which involved the disposition of Civil War bonds used by Texas. and Charles Sumner. scalawags: A scalawag was a white Southerner who joined the Republican party during the Reconstruction period. Among their leaders were Carl Schurz. Wade Davis Manifesto: Congress. Joint Committee on Reconstruction: The Joint Committee on Reconstruction was the Congressional committee consisting of leaders of both houses of Congress which led Congressional Reconstruction after the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 were passed. They issued Wade-Davis Manifest. passed the Wade-Davis Bill. conquered territory theory: The conquered territory theory was a popular theory held by many Reconstruction policy makers after the Civil War that the southern states which seceded from the Union to form the Confederate States of America should be treated as if they were territories conquered from a foreign nation. 1869: The trial of Texas v.•Radical Republicans: The Radical Republicans were a group of Republicans unhappy with the corruption and policies of Grant’s administration. the unreconstructed South: This term refers to failure of Reconstruction to permanently reform the South. It was held that states in rebellion did not lose their existence or identity. When the states were readmitted into the Union. radicals sought to displace him. •Reconstruction acts. Scalawags were considered traitors to the Southern cause and were condemned by Southern Democrats. but unpopular with many of the leaders of his party. After Lincoln pocket vetoed this bill. Military commanders in the districts were appointed to oversee constitutional conventions in the districts and the creation of state constitutions. there was corruption in the states. calling for a stricter form of Reconstruction than that proposed by Lincoln. . civil rights legislation was practically overturned with open discrimination. The party nominated Greeley for president. in July 1864. Greely was a choice acceptable to the Democrats. Horace Greely. which declared the primacy of Congress in matters of the Reconstruction. This military occupation would last until the states created new constitutions that included black suffrage. 1867: The Reconstruction Acts divided the Confederate states except Tennessee into five military districts. White. so Grant won reelection despite the corruption within his administration and his poor leadership. and exploitation of African-Americans was common. Texas v. and ratification of the 14th Amendment. White in 1868. which had left the Union. The term scalawag was applied both to entrepreneurs who supported Republican economic policies and Whig planters who had opposed secession. This committee would exist until after Hayes was elected president. Wade-Davis bill. Even after Republicans withdrew. the permanent disfranchisement of Confederate leaders. veto.
As commissioner of the Freedmen’s Bureau after the war. Andrew Johnson: As president he was denounced by the radical Republicans for his Reconstruction program. It was also concerned with the regulation of wages and working conditions. harsh vagrancy laws meant to intimidate the freedmen. Essentially. he was unable to prevent many abuses to freedmen. He was one of the leaders of the radical Republicans’ Reconstruction program and was also an active participant in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. "forty acres and a mule": "Forty acres and a mule" refers to the desire of Radical Republicans such as Thaddeus Stevens to carry out land redistribution in the South.carpetbaggers: Carpetbaggers were Northerners who went to the South during Reconstruction. and to needy whites as well. . Thaddeus Stevens: As a leader of the radical Republicans’ Reconstruction program after the Civil War." He sincerely desired the betterment of the lives African-Americans. the maintenance of schools for illiterate former slaves. Charles Sumner: Sumner was the aggressive abolitionist who was physically assaulted by Preston Brooks after making a strong antislavery speech. General Oliver O. the radical Republicans passed a resolution of impeachment against him for violation of the Tenure of Office Act. It was founded in the South in 1866 in opposition to Reconstruction. Stevens saw the Southern states as "conquered provinces. to terrorize AfricanAmericans and their supporters. whippings and lynchings. they condemned the newly-freed slaves to conditions not unlike slavery. black codes: The black codes were local laws intended to force African-Americans to continue working as plantation laborers. Antietam. Gettysburg. He proposed the Fourteenth Amendment. The African-American vote won them important posts in Republican state governments. Freedmen’s Bureau: The Freedmen’s Bureau furnished food and medical supplies to blacks. Forrest disbanded the Klan in 1869. Howard: Howard was a Civil War general who took part in the Bull Run. Chancellorsville. Forrest. and most intended to settle in the South and make money there. They imposed prohibitive taxes. rituals. restrictions on blacks’ ability to own property. Proposals such as these failed in Congress and state legislatures. When Johnson tried to force Stanton out of office. and Chattanooga campaigns. guaranteeing civil rights and was a leader in the impeachment of President Johnson. but managed to provided needed food and medical and employment aid to many people. but the Senate failed to convict him by one vote. Members used disguises. Ku Klux Klan: The KKK was an organization formed by ex-Confederates and led by Nathan B. and the distribution of lands abandoned by or confiscated from Southern proprietors. He wanted to subdivide confiscated land and distribute it among the freedmen. They carried their belongings in carpetbags.
Secretary of War Stanton: Edwin Stanton served as the secretary of war under Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. and it attempted to redress the issue of slavery by defining all persons born in the nation as citizens. the right to sue. when he created a national bank system. states could not "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. It said that no state can make or enforce any law which "deprives any person of life. 24. Fourteenth Amendment: The Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868. give evidence in court. color. by removing Secretary of War Stanton faced impeachment. •IMPEACHMENT: Impeachment is the formal accusation by a legislature against a public official. however. without due process of law. Chief Justice Chase: Salmon Chase was the sixth chief justice of the Supreme Court and an abolitionist. They were both . liberty." This amendment guaranteed freedom for African Americans. make contracts. was as secretary of the treasury. His greatest achievement. Bruce: Revels and Bruce were the first two AfricanAmerican politicians to serve a full term in the United States Senate. convey. It also specified the rights of citizens. The formal accusation of Johnson went through the House on Feb. he presided over the impeachment trial of President Johnson. Hiram R. and the trial that may follow.Civil Rights Act: This act was passed in Congress with nearly unanimous Republican support in March 1866." Also. hold. 1868. after violating the Tenure of Office Act. 1870. This is the only instance of impeachment of an American president. but the Senate failed to convict him." Fifteenth Amendment: Secretary of State Hamilton Fish ratified the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution of United States on March 30. President Andrew Johnson. or articles. Blanche K. and inherit property. but his dismissal by President Andrew Johnson and his subsequent refusal to leave office act precipitated the impeachment of President Johnson in 1868. This amendment explicitly forbid denial of the right to vote for citizens "on account of race. As chief justice. It prohibited the president from dismissing any cabinet member or other federal officeholder whose appointment had required the consent of the Senate unless the Senate agreed to the dismissal. to remove him from office. or property. or previous condition of servitude. Thirteenth Amendment: The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution was ratified in 1865. Johnson’s violation of this act caused the impeachment crisis. Revels." Tenure of Office Act: The Tenure of Office Act was a measure passed by Congress in 1867. It prohibited "slavery or involuntary servitude except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. The term includes both the bringing of charges.
. sharecropping: It was the farm tenancy system that arose from the cotton plantation system after the Civil War. Hayes was unanimously awarded the electoral votes from Oregon and South Carolina and the ones from Louisiana by a commission vote of 8 to 7. Southern society changed in order to adjust to emancipation. but former slaves were still relegated to inferior and submissive positions through economic. The committee consisted of five Democrats. 1877. five Republicans. seed. Landlords provided land. Radical Republicans intended to exploit the South by forcing it into economic and political submission. A cycle of dependency and debt would be the result of these systems. Once they gained control. lowered taxes. the Democrats cut back expenses. This practice of keeping the races separate would not officially broken up until the mid-twentieth century. The croppers contributed labor and received a share of the crop’s value. and Gone With the Wind. political. This along with the crop lien system held back African Americans economically. minus their debt to the landlord. and social restrictions of their rights. and limited the rights of tenants and sharecroppers. The Legacy of Reconstruction Reconstruction changed the lives of southerners. especially those of the many slaves who first tasted freedom during this period. •Compromise of 1877: As a result of the electoral vote from the election of 1876. Reconstruction Myth: The Reconstruction Myth is the false belief that during Reconstruction. segregation: Segregation was the practice held in the South after legislation made explicit discrimination in law illegal. on January 29. . and credit. In response to that legislation the concept of "separate but equal" dominated the policies Southern policy makers. the South became solidly Democratic.representatives from Mississippi. Such beliefs were promoted by movies such as Birth of a Nation. and were the only two African-American Senators during Reconstruction. Solid South: After Reconstruction. wiped out social programs. to resolve the dispute concerning the electoral votes between Tilden and Hayes. These white southerners remained a major force in national politics well into the 20th century. and five Supreme Court justices. The social and political atmosphere of the postwar South would endure long into the 20th century. Black economic rights were eroded away with this crop lien system and along with sharecropping. crop lien system: Through this system. Congress created a 15-member bipartisan commission. the white southern landowners possessed a tight hold over African American farm production during much of the Reconstruction periond.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish: Fish served as Grant’s secretary of state. Grant did manage to make some important accomplishments in the area of foreign policy. the U. but it added a significant amount of territory to the United States. His successful imperialist ventures were overshadowed by a failed campaign in Mexico to create a French-Mexican Empire and the Franco-Prussian War. Napoleon III proclaimed himself the Emperor of France. Although he was a strong military leader. 1867.9¢ per acre. The treaty also provided for arbitration of disagreements over the Canadian-American boundary and fishing rights. Napoleon III: After his election in 1848. which resulted in his deposition. Treaty of Washington. Critics ridiculed this purchase as "Seward’s icebox. He arranged the Treaty of Washington. Grant was admired throughout the North and was endorsed by Union veterans. He was involved in the Trent Affair and his most notable act was the purchase of Alaska. . created chaos in national politics. but his cabinet was riddled with corruption. Grant: Grant was an American general and the 18th president of the United States. Maximilian in Mexico: Maximilian was instructed by Napoleon III in 1864 to establish a French empire in Mexico.S. and Great Britain settled many minor disputes such as the Alabama claims. This purchase was denounced at the time as "Seward’s folly. but his ability to cope with domestic controversy. The United States invoked the Monroe Doctrine as justification for their demand for French nonintervention. but the Mexicans were hostile to Maximilian and loyal to President Juárez. Although the French drove Juárez’s army from the capital. he prevented American filibustering expeditions against Cuba from escalating into war with Spain. and rebuilt Paris. Also.S.2 million purchase at 1. especially the economic issues which began to arise. Maximilian’s empire disintegrated when French troops withdrew. which settled disputes with Britain over the Alabama claims the and Canadian-American boundary. Grant was elected president of the United States in 1868 because he was a war hero. Secretary of State William Henry Seward arranged the $7. Ulysses S. Grant proved to be a passive president with little skill at politics. A war hero. Secretary of State William Seward: Seward was the American Secretary of State who handled diplomatic issues during and after the Civil War. 1871: The Treaty of Washington was a treaty arranged by Hamilton Fish.Grantism and Postwar Politics Ulysses S. which had arisen during the U. purchase of Alaska: Alaska was ceded to the United States by the Russian Czar Alexander II in a treaty signed on March 30. Civil War. instituted reforms. In it." but it expanded American territory at a reasonable price.
This issue divided both major parties and was compounded by the repayment of federal debt. he loyally defended his subordinates. farm prices plummeted. once the depression began. gold market. allowing the candidate to focus on his campaign rather than fundraising.000 in unpaid taxes."Whiskey Ring": Grant’s private secretary. Liberal Republicans: The Liberals Republicans’ revolt marked a turning point in Reconstruction history. Panic of 1873. a politician named Sanborn was given a contract collect $427." a group of distillers who bribed federal agents to avoid paying millions in whiskey taxes. On May 10. and the new party collapsed. Republicans unhappy with the reelection of President Ulysses S. The public was shocked. 16 distillers in areas of Saint Louis. and Chicago were captured. Black Friday: Scandal caused a short-lived financial crisis in the United States that occurred on Friday. 1869. Banks closed. leading to a Democratic victory in the next congressional election. Grant formed the Liberal Republican party and nominated as their candidate the journalist Horace Greeley. Congress voted a 100% pay raise and a 50% increase for itself. "Salary Grab Act": In the Salary Grab Act of 1873. . called the Credit Mobilier. He took a bribe to sell lucrative Indian trading posts in Oklahoma. in order to cheat the government out of money allotted to the construction of the Union Pacific Railroads. but it was another example of the corruption of the postwar government. was unmasked in 1875 after taking money from the "whiskey ring. The act was later repealed. supporting the Republican southern policy while attacking regular republicans on several key issues and denouncing Grantism and the spoils system. James Fisk and Jay Gould.S. Sanborn Grab Fraud: In the Sanborn Grab Fraud. Greeley was defeated. Grant’s vice-president. and one out of four railroads failed. Colfax. steel furnaces stood idle. Bribing of Belknap: William E. demand rose. Orville Babcock. Credit Mobilier: Officials of the Union Pacific Railroad created a fake construction company. depression: Transforming the northern economy. Belknap resigned in 1876 when voters learned of his corruption. 1875. attempted to corner the U. was linked to this scandal. the Panic of 1873 triggered a five-year depression. receiving a 50% commission for all money collected. Both raises were made retroactive two years back. Although Grant was not personally involved. However. He then used this commission as Republican campaign funds. Although he was also endorsed by the Democrats. Milwaukee. election of 1872: In 1872. The panic was precipitated when two financial speculators. They split the Republican party. Belknap was Grant’s secretary of war. September 24. Fisk and Gould probably made a profit of about $11 million through their manipulations.
"Waving the bloody shirt": During the election of 1876. and promoted the inflation of farm prices. politics played an increasingly important role in the lives of the common men. which promised to pay the war debt in "coin. Specie Resumption Act: The Sherman Specie Resumption Act promised to put the nation effectively on the gold standard in 1879. political and economical problems of the newly industrial nation. and a Congressional committee gave all of these to Hays. With some convincing. In 1883. he had the courage to endorse the act which reformed the spoils system. he ended military rule of the South. the Republicans backed Rutherford Hayes against the Democratic candidate. Although President Arthur was a Stalwart. to private citizens. Senator John Sherman of Ohio and other Republican leaders obtained passage of the Public Credit Act of 1869. fought to keep greenbacks in circulation. There were 20 disputed votes. Taking its name from the novel. known as Greenbacks. • PENDLETON CIVIL SERVICE ACT: Because of the Pendleton Civil Service Act. robber barrons schemed to corner the gold market. They resorted to a tactic known as "waving the bloody shirt. Unfortunately. Greenbacks." Grant signed this act. . The tactic emphasized wartime animosities by urging northern voters to vote the way they shot. Diverse groups participated in the political arena as they attempted to reform the social." Debtors favored the Greenbacks because they could repay debts easier with this inflated currency. the era referred to the decades from the 1870s to the 1890s where Americans struggled to battle corruption in a morally deteriorating society. political candidates were forbidden from soliciting contributions from government workers. In exchange. The Gilded Age. Gilded Age Politics As America modernized. it changed the minds of the Republican voters who also wanted to continue Greenbacks for the sake of "easy money." which was used in the last two elections. making him president. Ohio Ideas: During the Civil War the Union had borrowed money through the sale of war bonds. As prosperity returned. This act also set up a civil service commission to prepare competitive exams and establish standards of merit for a variety of federal jobs. Congress enacted a civil service law introduced by Senator George Pendleton of Ohio. the Greenbacks faded. election of 1876: The presidential election of 1876 resulted in neither Democrat Samuel Tilden nor Republican Rutherford Hayes receiving the 185 electoral votes necessary to become president. The party elected 14 members to Congress . Greenback-Labor Party: The Greenback party was formed in 1876 with James Weaver as its presidential candidate. The party adopted the debtors’ cause. Samuel Tilden.
Mugwumps: This term designated dissident members of the Republican party. known as "Mugwumps. were lead by New York Senator Roscoe Conkling. The battle over patronage split the Republican party into two factions: the Half-breeds and the Stalwarts. Cleveland supported low tariffs. secretary of state under Garfield. while the Republicans dominated the Senate. and a presidential candidate under the Republican Half-Breeds. High Tariffs: Republicans preferred high tariffs. Blaine was considered one of the most popular Republicans of his time. Stalwarts. Romanism.S. who. drinkers and patriotic Democrats. but disputes over patronage split it into two: Stalwarts and Halfbreeds." supported Cleveland. in the presidential election of 1884. Instead. refused to support the nominee of their party. Roscoe Conkling: The Stalwarts. who was later elected. who favored the spoils system of political patronage. Blaine: Blaine was a Republican Congressman. They were joined together as the Republican party. Romanism. civil service legislation. Blaine’s mistake allowed Cleveland to obtain New York’s electoral votes.Chester A. Arthur: He became president after the assassination of Garfield. The Half-breeds supported civil service reform and merit appointments to government posts. Treasury surplus: The high tariffs were feeding a large and growing budget surplus. Blaine. This surplus stood as a continual temptation to distribute it in the form of veterans . The term was first used derisively in a New York City newspaper. The Independent Republicans. a clergyman denounced the Democrats as the party of "Rum. Election of 1884: James G Blaine was nominated by the Republicans. while Democrats preferred low ones. they supported the Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland. and Rebellion": At a rally on election eve. while Grover Cleveland was the Democratic nominee. The two differed mainly over who would control the party machinery. James G. "Rum.S. rose above the political corruption prevalent during the times and headed a reform-oriented administration that enacted the first comprehensive U. He supported the passage of the Pendleton Act in 1883. the Sun. This 21st president. who served from 1881 to 1885. senator. The Wilson-Gorman Protective Tariff also unsuccessfully attempted to create an income tax. The Democrats controlled the House. which cost Blaine the election." Blaine failed to repudiate the remark and the Democrats widely publicized this insult to Catholics. and Rebellion. The Dingley tariff of 1879 increased rates to an all-time high levels while the Currency Act of 1900 officially changed the U. and was elemental in his party’s success in elections. gold standard. James G. who ran against Conkling. Half-breeds: They argued with the Stalwarts on the issues of who would control the party of machine and would distribute patronage jobs.
veterans formed the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) to lobby for pensions. His tariff message upset many corporate boardrooms who thought that lowering the tariff would hurt their prosperity. It generally promoted business confidence." which many felt would have horrible consequences. but in 1879. the economy recovered from a severe depression. and continued. issues: Because Blaine decided not to run. bowing to GAR pressure. Benjamin Harrison. He appointed a past GAR commander as commissioner of pension. and the Republicans became identified with economic prosperity. The Republicans falsely portrayed the Democrats as advocates of "free trade. known as pork barrel projects. secretary of defense. McKinley Tariff: His administration enacted a higher tariff in 1897 and committed the country to the gold standard in 1900. The secret ballot is also known as the Australian ballot. . Presidential Succession Act of 1886: This act determined that if both the President of the United States and the Vice President both died or if they were both disqualified. Billion dollar congress. Harrison signed the pension bill that Cleveland had earlier vetoed. candidates. He argued that lower tariffs would not only cut the federal surplus but also reduce prices and slow the development of trusts. The Republican Congress of 1890 became known as the Billion-dollar Congress. secretary of treasury. The ambassador fell into the trap and advised Murchinson to vote for Cleveland. This was a Populist goal articulated in the Omaha Platform. Harrison won in the electoral college by defeating Grover Cleveland. Cleveland’s 1887 annual address: Cleveland focused his entire annual address message to Congress on the tariff issue. Republican focused on the tariff issue. 90% of all the states were convinced to adopt a new ballot like the one in Australia. The Republicans gracefully publicized the "Murchinson Letter" as a foreign attempt to meddle in an American election. Election of 1888. Probably in part because of these policies. The paper ballot emerged as a dominant voting method. the Republicans turned to Benjamin Harrison. secretary of state.pension or expensive public-work programs. The line started with first the president pro tempore. Pension GAR: After the Civil War. "Murchinson letter": Charles Murchinson wrote a letter to the British Ambassador to ask how he should vote during the election of 1888. there would be a line of succession. rather than Harrison. The GAR actively encouraged veterans to file claims. which was a method of voting that listed voter options. Cleveland was convinced that surplus constituted a corrupting influence. Veterans disability pensions cost the government millions dollars a year. Secret ballot: Between 1888 and 1896. Congress had eased the rules for securing them. In 1890. Czar Reed: Harrison quickly rewarded his supporters.
Election of 1892: The Republicans re-nominated Harrison. which restored confidence in the government. the U.S. and opportunities for overseas investments.S. did expand its influence in other countries. $7. It was passed by William McKinley’s administration during a time when both the House of Representatives and the Senate were dominated by Republicans. but later proved to be an excellent addition. Subsequent to this act. James Blaine: In 1881 Secretary of State James G. to the gold standard. Wilson-Gorman Tariff: In order to increase the sight of the governments role in an age of towering fortunes. the United States hoped to further its international standing by emulating European nations that were expanding their influence throughout the world. but the supreme court declared it unconstitutional in 1895. markets for surplus production. bonds at a special discount." it was generally thought to be useless. Although the U. The Populists nominated James B Weaver who did not did better than expected. and he won the election. The government then bought gold. It did have a modest income tax of 12% on all income over $4000.S.S. 1900: This act officially put the United States on the gold standard. During the 1870s. Cleveland’s conservative economic policies brought him support. The Currency Act of 1900 officially changed the U.S. went on and off the gold standard several times and abandoned it in 1971. it preferred market expansion to the traditional European territorial colonialsim. Voters generally reacted against the high McKinley Tariff. Seward negotiated the purchase of Alaska in 1867. which increased rates to all-time high levels. Also known as "Seward’s Icebox" or "Seward’s folly. Morgan and August Belmont agreed to lend the government $62 million in exchange for U. the gold reserve dwindled to $41 million.2 million was paid to Russia for Alaska. Alaska: Secretary of state William H. Gold Standard Act. this tariff became a law without the signature of approval from Cleveland. "new imperialism" was directed towards finding access to resources. and it was highly contested by Congress. Pan Americanism. Dingley tariff: The McKinley administration furthered its conservative platform through the Dingley Tariff of 1897. while the Democrats turned to Grover Cleveland who was a Conservative. "New Imperialism" Growing into a leading nation. the U. Cleveland turned to Wall Street bankers J. there was little protest against the Dingley tariff.P. Blaine advocated the creation of an International Bureau of American Republics to promote a customs . Morgan bond transaction: During the depression of 1893 to 1897. Due to the discovery of gold in Alaska and the prosperity of farms prices.
Captain Mahan.S. and requested U. Using the incident as a pretext to begin hostilities. He was promoted to the rank of captain in 1885. and the captains of industry created . Port of Pago Pago: Restless stirrings in America were felt in the far-off Samoan Island in the South Pacific.S. Emperor Meiji took it upon himself to enact tariffs. the planters deposed Queen Liliuokalani in Jan 1893. the Japanese army in Manchuria moved troops into the area. Sino-Japanese War: A Chinese patrol clashed with Japanese troops on the Marco Polo Bridge near Beijing on July 7. 1937. navy sought access to the Port of Pago Pago as a refueling station. Corporations emerged. ratified a treaty with Samoa in 1878 which gave America trading rights and a naval base at Pago Pago. proclaimed the independent Republic of Hawaii. The title of The Influence of Sea Power upon History. Although many opposed the large businesses when they hurt individuals. Japan controlled its own tariffs. precipitating another SinoJapanese war. The U. Hawaii was claimed as an American territory in 1898. Even the common man shared in the American desire to gain wealth through the new industrial economy. the industrial sectors of society rapidly expanded. Hawaiian Revolution: Hawaii’s wholesale sugar prices plummeted as a result of the elimination of the duty-free status enjoyed by Hawaiian sugar. Mahan served in the navy for nearly 40 years. Although the war was never actually declared. Industrial America During the late 19th century. annexation. received international recognition as a comprehensive of naval strategy.major industrial empires that drastically changed the face of American business. from its traditionally isolationist feudal society into a world power. A Union naval officer during the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865. Americans generally favored industrialization.union of trade and political stability for the Western Hemisphere. taking on imperialistic quailites. Tariff autonomy to Japan: During the Meiji period following the collapse of the shogunate. The United States also worked to bring an end to the War of the Pacific which was fought between Chile and the alliance of Peru and Bolivia. The Influence of Sea Power: . . The assassination of Garfield kept Blaine from his organization until 1889. Facing ruin. Japan transformed. The U.S. US mediation of border disputes: The United States offered its aid to promote the peaceful resolution of border conflict between a number of states. and thus.
and natural consumer preferences as forces leading to optimal prosperity and freedom. Rockefeller helped form the South Improvement Company in early 1872. automatically regulating the supply of and demand for goods and services." At the age of 33. "Robber Barrons": Known as the great captains of industy and as robber barons who lined their pockets. It allowed Americans to travel from coast to coast in a week. these captains.000. Rockefeller: He is famous for his Standard Oil Company. He had a desire for cost cutting and efficiency. but spend the surplus each year for benevolent purposes. Hill. "beyond this never earn. it had previously taken several months to do so. and he arranged with the railroads to obtain substantial rebates on shipments by members of the association." He endorsed a laissez-faire approach to economics and was the first to define the system of capitalism. Horizontal consolidation: Within three years. make no effort to increase fortune. which was an association of the largest oil refiners in Cleveland. or villains. Utah in order to connect the two. CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD: The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 had authorized the construction of the transcontinental railroad. It had slashed the number of refineries in half." • UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD. Rockefeller. Andrew Carnegie: Carnegie decided to build his own steel mill in 1870. his brother William. and John D. the first corporate trust. Rockefeller integrated the petroleum industry horizontally by merging the competing oil companies into one giant system. Rockefeller integrated the petroleum industry vertically by controlling every function from . and several associates. The doctrine favors capitalist self-interest. competition. he said. the Standard Oil Trust had consolidated crude oil by buying throughout its member firms. This. Standard Oil Company: The Standard Oil Company was organized in 1870 by Rockefeller. Some of these Robber Barrons were Jay Gould. Adam Smith believed that self-interest was an "invisible hand in the marketplace. Vertical consolidation: The Standard Oil Trust had consolidated crude-oil buying throughout it members firms and slashed the number of refineries in half. His philosophy was simple: "watch the costs and the profit will take care of themselves. It began in the late 18th century as a strong liberal reaction to trade taxation and nationalist governmental control known as mercantilism. when he had an annual income of $50.Laissez-faire: It meant non-governmental interference in business. was declared an illegal monopoly and ordered dissolved by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1892. Adam Smith. The Wealth of Nations: In The Wealth of Nations. published in 1776. John D. In 1882 Rockefeller formed the Standard Oil Trust. of industry made their money by manipulating the stock markets and company policies. The Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads were joined together to form the first transcontinental railroad in May 1869 when railroad executives drove a golden spike into the ground at Promontory Point.
Charles Schwab: He became president of Carnegie Steel when he bought half of the company for half a billion dollars. and the first was recording cylinder introduced in 1885. His other inventions includes the induction balance. senator from California.S. he started the Central Pacific Railroad Company. Leland Stanford: An American Railroad magnate and a politician. and motion picture projector had advanced the life of modern society. After the agreement. An American inventor. he combined Carnegie’s company with Federal Steel. Hill. Paul and Pacific Railroad. Cornelius Vanderbilt: An American industrialist and philanthropist. Steel corporation.production to local retailing. electric generating system. he served as the Republican governor of California and the U. and became president in 1886. combined with cost analysis. Carnegie’s steel mill profits rose every year despite labor troubles and a national depression. Henry Clay Frick: Frick’s job was to manage the daily operations of Carnegie’s company. he became associated with the New York and Harlem Railroad in 1867. sound-recording device. The bessemer invention offered a means of driving up profits. Since the age of 18. He shared the same dream as Carnegie to interconnect industry system with technology. With Frick’s great leadership. lowering cost. . With Henry’s help. Bell had been working on the idea of transmitting speech. Great Northern Railroad: He reorganized and expanded the railroad industry in the 1870s and 1880s. his development of a practical electric light bulb. This became the first business to capitalize at more than $1 billion dollars. and he served as its president from 1896 to 1904. He founded the Vanderbilt University. With Hill. Therefore. he founded the Southern Pacific Railroad Company.S. He also founded the journal Science in 1883. At the same time he began to act as head of the Vanderbilt family. He controlled all aspects of manufacturing from mining to selling. provided a learning railroad experience for Carnegie. James G. Carnegie was free to pursue philanthropic activities. This new technology. Morgan set up the U. and in 1870. He and three other partners bought the St. Bessemer process: The process consisted of a shot of air blasted through an enormous crucible of molten iron to burn off carbon and impurities. Alexander Graham Bell: An American inventor and teacher of the deaf. he was most famous for his invention of the telephone. He was exemplified as a robber baron who manipulated stock markets and company policies. He was one of the cofounders of the National Geographic Society. Edison: He epitomized the inventive impulse. and improving efficiency. audiometer. Thomas A.
the Northern Pacific. Gary was a strong foe of unions. but then sold the stock when prices rose. When gold prices tumbled. Jay Cook Co. The family concentrated on cigarette production in 1881.: He was a Philadelphia banker who had taken over the new transcontinental line. investors were ruined. originally a steel company town. and Philip Armour turned pigs and cattle into bacon. he started his career in the banking firm of Thomas Mellon and Sons of Pittsburgh. government securities on a massive scale. a Chicago meatpacker. J. and steaks. and educated at the University of Pennsylvania. Mesabi Range: Andrew Carnegie bought an ore company in the newly opened Mesabi Range in Minnesota in 1892. is named after him. He also marketed U. which was the largest in the nation. and made a profit while ruining the business of other investors. in 1902. . This was during 1890 when the stock market was at an all time high. his vault was full of bonds that he could no longer sell. Pierpont Morgan: When national depression struck a number of railroads in 1893. He later became a partner and the president. Gustavus Swift.. The hills contained large deposits of iron ore. Iron production began there in the late 19th century. Gould and Fiske salvaged their own fortunes. industrialist. James B. Phillip Armour: Swift. Some who "stock watered" persuaded the populace to buy up stock. pork chops. They also developed the technique of refrigerating food in order to ship food across seas.United States Steel Corporation. Jay Gould and Jim Fiske: They attempted to corner the gold market in 1869 with the help of Grant’s brother-in-law. They both won a large share of the eastern urban market for meat. Elbert H. Unfortunately. Grant’s reputation was tarnished and could not be restored.S. In September of that year. "Stock watering": This term referred to the act of issuing stock certificates far in excess of the actual value of the assets. Gary: Gary was a lawyer who later became president of the Federal Steel Company in 1898. The city of Gary. James lead and dominated the national market. Within few years. Duke: An American tobacco industrialist and philanthropist whose career originated with a small family business. Andrew Mellon: An American financier. Morgan refinanced their debts and built an intersystem alliance by purchasing blocks of stock in the world of competing railroads. Cook fail to meet obligation and his bank. James. was shut down. merged to form the American Tobacco Company in 1890. of the firm that developed into the Mellon National Bank. and statesman. but he introduced profit sharing and encouraged higher wages and better working conditions. The Mesabi Range is one of the chief iron-producing regions in the world. along with four partners. Indiana. in 1869.
while the trust was a legal device that centralized control over a number of different companies by setting up a board of trustees to run all of them. The Interstate Commerce Act prohibited rebates for railway rates because they discriminated between different groups. The Sherman Antitrust act failed to define either trust or restraint of trade clearly. who made many short hauls. the government prosecuted only eighteen antitrust suits. INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION: The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 was passed to provide that a commission be established to oversee fair and just railway rates. short haul: It was cheaper to ship a long haul on the railroads than it was to ship a short haul. Long haul. This Act was passed in 1887 with the Interstate Commerce Commission. • INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT. Holding Companies: A holding company is a corporation that owns a controlling share of the stock of one or more other firms.Pool. Trust: Competition became so vicious that railroads tried to end it by establishing pools in order to divide the traffic equally and to charge similar rates. When Standard Oil faced the problem of antitrust suits in 1892. outlawed rate discrimination as a result of protests led by the Grangers." . The pool lacked legal status. were discriminated against. 1890: Fearing that the trusts would stamp out all competition. and require annual reports and financial statements. In the 1870s. • SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT. As a result. the Panic was triggered by economic downturns in Europe and by the failure of Jay Cooke’s bank. between 1890 and 1904. Fourteenth Amendment’s "due process clause": The fourteenth amendment declared in its first clause that all person born or naturalized in the United States were recognized as citizens of the nation and as citizens of their states and that no state could abridge their rights without due process of law or deny them equal protection of the law. Brought on by over expansive tendencies of railroad builders and businessmen during the immediate postwar boom. lawyers invoked New Jersey law that allowed permitted corporations to own property in other states by simply reorganizing the trust as an enormous holding company. end discriminatory practices. Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890. the Interstate Commerce Commission. Small farmers were angered that they. many state legislatures. the country was hit by an economic depression known as the panic of 1873. Rebates: A rebate is a partial monetary return of an amount paid. Small farmers were angered that they were required to pay more than other interests were. which allowed the government to investigate and oversee railroad activities. Depression of 1873: Early in Grant’s second term. which outlawed trusts and other restraints of trade. The act established a new agncy. Violators were fined up to five thousand dollars and one year in prison. prohibit rebates. and it was instead used to hinder the efforts of labor unions who acted "in restraint of trade.
This organization was founded in Philadelphia in 1869. He led the AFL for forty years. published in 1901.Frank Norris. stressed cooperation between management and labor instead of strike actions. Feeling that they were helpless against the practices of the large corporations. He bought share in Atlantic Constitution in 1879. as a means of obtaining labor demands. William Sylvis: In 1866.S. an end to child and convict labor. As editor. In their organization. • AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR (AFL): Confronted by big business. They did not intend to have a violent revolution nor political radicalism. . • KNIGHTS OF LABOR. as president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). who was also the head of the Garment Cutters of Philadelphia. The Octopus:The U. and The Pit . and liquor dealers. but also embraced banking reform and an end to conviction labor. lawyers. URIAH STEPHENS. Samuel Gompers and Adolph Strasser put together a combination of national crafts unions to represent the material interests of labor in the matter of wages. he. His best-known works. Labor Unions. workers collectivized to gain power through their numbers. and was led by Uriah Stephens. they excluded bankers. The Growth Of Labor Reacting to the emergence of big business." which referred to a rejuvenated south. workers organized themselves to protect their welfare. journalist and orator born in Athens. Georgia. such as the National Labor Union and the Knights of Labor. was a noted pioneer of naturalism in literature. hours. published in 1903. professional gambler. he did much to restore friendly relations between the North and South during a period of bitter hatred and conflict. The Octopus. mining. and demanded equal pay for women. His novels portray the demoralizing effects of modern technology on the human fate. The organization supported the eight-hour day movement. National Labor Union.S. novelist Frank Norris. TERRENCE POWDERLY: The Knights of labor dreamed of a national labor movement. They welcomed all wage earners. Henry Grady: Henry Grady was a U. and manufacturing. New South. acting on his dream of a nationwide association to represent all workers. He often lectured on the concept of "The New South. They demanded bargaining in labor contracts with large corporations such as railroads. and safety precautions. were created in order to establish forums for workers to express discontent. Sylvis called a convention in Baltimore that formed the National Labor Union (NLU). until his death in 1924. and cooperative employer-employee ownership. attack the railroad and wheat industries in the United States. Samuel Gompers: An American labor leader.
at the McCormick reaper works in Chicago. The AFL demanded collective bargaining in labor contracts with large corporations. it was a company-sponsored labor union that was dominated by the management. 100 people died in the strike. Yellow Dog Contracts: With the formation of labor unions. • haymarket square riot: Strikers and police had a confrontation while a strike was in progress on May 4. 1886. and they got them.Collective bargaining: The major function of unions is collective bargaining. Hayes sent in troops to stop the strike. or prohibitory in nature. The workers wanted unions. which which made getting another job later much harder. The police were attempting to break up the meeting when a bomb was thrown by a protester. either in process or threatened. 1877: A group of railroad workers on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad rose up and began to strike due to wage cuts. Injunctions are generally preventive. President Rutherford B. It provides that employees in the bargaining unit shall be union members and remain in good standing in the union as a condition of employment. the National Detective Agency. This spread up and down the railroad line across the nation. the Pinkertons fired on the strikers. Pinkertons: They were a group in Allan Pinkerton’s organization. requiring a defendant to refrain from committing a specific act. In the Homestead Strike. They often spied on the unions for the companies. killing many of them. Many of these shops were banned by the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947. but they were controlled by the management. a process by which unions and employers negotiate terms of employment. Railroad roadhouse were torched. restraining. Great Railroad Strike. Company Union: First adapted by the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company in 1915. Blacklist. injurious to the plaintiff. He was criticized for pardoning the anarchists who threw the bomb in the Haymarket Square . It is an order or decree in the law of equity. employers blacklisted employees that went on strike. Closed Shop: The closed shop is an agreement between a trade union and an employer which is a collective bargain. Several protesters were shot by police the day before. In 1877. and a protest against police violence was called. The terms are set forth in a written agreement that the union and the employer promise to enforce. Injunction: An injuntion is a court order. A violent gun battle ensuedin which seven police were killed. when a railroad strike broke out. they were called in as strikebreakers. so the company had the final word on the labor policy. John Peter Altgeld: He served as the liberal governor of Illinois from 1893 to 1897. workers began to strike to obtain better conditions. They also made employees sign yellow dog contracts. It was generally used against strikers. However. which forced the employee to agree not to strike or join a union. Many police and civilians were injured as well.
He was the party’s presidential candidate five times: in 1900. Amidst this chaos." Urbanization Rapid urbanization began in the 1870s as people flocked to the cities. These urban centers quickly crowded. His action was considered dangerously radical by the American public. which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894. He also sat on the board of directors of three major networks of railroads. He later became a lecturer and organizer for the Socialist movement. history. after meeting socialist Victor Berger. it was a union created in a short-lived attempt to bring all of the railroad workers into one organization. American Railway Union: Created by Eugene V. it was one of the most violent strikes in U. Pullman Strike: The American Railway Union and Eugene V. Steel. killing and wounding many strikers. Debs was arrested and the strike was broken up. in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. and 1912. company guards and Pinkertons opened fire on the strikers after four months of striking.S.Riot and for objecting to the use of federal troops in the Pullman strike. and Tin Workers. The state militia dispersed the strikers. The union was involved in the 1894 Pullman Strike. Danbury Hatters Strike:. that unions were prohibited from setting up boycotts in support of strikes.S. Eugene V. which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company. Debs. he helped bring about the shut down of western railroads with the 1894 Pullman Strike. and many cities became impersonal metropolises that were divided into business. It was said that a boycott was a "conspiracy in restraint of trade. On July 6. This union was a precursor of the union movement that followed in the 1930s. . He was arrested for these actions. President Grover Cleveland interfered and stopped the strike by saying that they had interfered with the right of the government to maintain the uninterrupted transport of mail. residential. Connecticut. It was against the Homestead Steel Works. The General Manager’s Association attempted to get an federal injunction from Olney against the strikers for refusing to move cars carrying U. Debs: As the president and the organizer of the American Railway Union. which was known for its hat industry. 1904. Richard Olney: He was the United States Attorney General from 1893 to 1897. mail. social and ethnic centers. The Supreme Court declared in 1908. He also helped organize the Social Democrat party in 1897. 1908. Debs led a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads. after a strike by workers in Danbury. Homestead Strike: Called in 1892 by the Amalgamated Association of Iron. because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers.
Tenements: Built by a landlord. Smith. However. it is the name for the New York Democratic party machine. he became an illustrator for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper in 1855. The streetcar system allowed people to live farther away from their work. had a reputation for being one of the most honest bosses. or to get him to the position of a sergeant. Streetcar Suburbs: The creation of electric streetcar systems allowed families to move farther from the city’s center. The practices included paying bribes to make an individual a police officer. which bought votes. he controlled New York politics. There was a lack of fresh air and light in these housing units. ran for president of the United States. they were inhabited mainly by new immigrants. and that contained filth. "Honest Graft": This term. he was skilled in winning numerous votes for party candidates by associating with and being kind to the people in New York. • TAMMANY HALL: Founded by anti-federalist William Mooney. and in addition. He held New York City and state political posts where he increased his power. Its leader. the boss of Cincinnati’s Republican political machine. Boss Tweed: He was an important figure in New York’s political machine. It appeared as if the nation was modernizing quicker than it could deal with problems of urbanization. and encouraged judicial corruption. This facilitated the move away from the city’s center. poorly built. created by George Washington Plunkitt. Boss George B. He later worked for Harper’s Weekly. and was opposed by reform groups. Thomas Nast: A political cartoonist and caricaturist. to get him a promotion. He was paid by these candidates. Streetcar companies purchased land on the city’s periphery and made tremendous profits on the sale of the real estate. and he received generous rewards. also known as the Tammany Society. He was best known for his cartoons slandering the corrupt Tammany ring of New York during the period from 1869 to 1872. he helped with many public works in the city. Tammany Hall gained a great reputation for its corrupt practices. The worst tenements became known as slums. Cox: Cox. In addition.corruption thrived as political bosses ran the city for their own personal gain. He worked his way up the ladder from being a newspaper boy to being the head of the political machine. Forming the Tweed Ring. the Tammany Society. Alfred E. referred to the police corruption that took place in the Tammany Hall political machine. George Washington Plunkitt: A minor boss in Tammany Hall and a member of the New York State Assembly. tenements were small housing units that were extremely overcrowded. whose supposed goal was to preserve democratic institutions. . It began to gain power with the rise of Boss Tweed in 1868.
and early social documentaries in American history. known as The Eight. and he introduced many innovations. He created the philosophy of "Organic Architecture. James Bryce: He was a British historian and statesman who became the leader of the Liberal Party. John A. He began as a designer for the Adler Sullivan firm." Ashcan School: This school contained a group of painters. Roebling: Roebling was one of the creators of the suspension bridges. in his construction. the Ashcan School focused on more contemporary subjects. political institutions. One of his most famous works was the Brooklyn Bridge which he completed shortly before his death. metal furniture. It was an international exhibition in which modern art was first shown in the United States. which later became associated with the Grange movement. It became known as the Comstock Law. Led by Robert Henri. and air conditioning. Together with his partner Dankmar Adler. popular. Louis Sullivan: Sullivan was an American architect who used steel frames to design skyscrappers. mails. along with steel cables. who helped organize the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice in 1873. Anthony Comstock: Comstock was a reformer. rather than on the academic and impressionist styles of the 19th century.Denis Kearney: He was a labor leader who protested the increasing numbers of Chinese laborers when California had an economic depression in 1877. who later became a famous architect. A quarter of a million paid to see the show. He was also influential in the passage by Congress of the 1873 law concerned with obscenity in the U. He wanted to reform tenement housing and schools. he formed the Workingman’s Party of California. including double-glass windows. He was also the author of The American Commonwealth (1888). of which he became secretary. How the Other Half Lives: Riis was a social reformer and writer who wrote one of the most influential. He was also the founder of what is now the Chicago School of Architects. he produced over 100 buildings. In addition. 1913 at the 69th Regiment Armory.S.S. He served as the ambassador to the United States from 1907 to 1913. Armory Show: It was an art exhibition that took place in New York between February 17 and March 15. Frank Lloyd Wright: Wright was one of the greatest twentieth-century architect and is cosidered a pioneer of the modern style. Jacob Riis. he was influential in bringing about parks and playgrounds in overcrowded neighborhoods. . which is one of the most discerning studies ever written on U. His most famous pupil was Frank Lloyd Wright. With his support. who exhibited their style together as a group in 1908. He also created and manufactured steel-wire ropes which he used.
came from Germany in the 1840s and 1850s. They were the largest group of immigrants that migrated to the United States. The panic of 1893 greatly increased its membership. It died in 1911. and Armenians.S. and Welsh immigrants. one and a half million traveled over from Ireland. American Protective Association: Founded by Henry F. this was a secret antiCatholic society founded in 1887. anarchists. Bowers. gushed into the already overcrowded metropolises. However. In addition to these difficulties. By this law. Scottish. From Melting Pot To Salad Bowl The earlier immigrants to American consisted mainly of Northern Europeans. Jews. There had also been increasing labor violence against the Chinese. which totaled 2 million.Thorstein Veblen. prostitutes. persons suffering from loathsome or contagious diseases.S. "New Immigration": They were a new group of immigrants coming into the United States that consisted of Italians. and the numbers continued to increase for the next three decades. the law enlarged the group of immigrants that could be excluded from the United States. They were often discriminated against. it was one of three laws that attempted to solve the increasing immigration problem. and any immigrant who could not pass the tests was not allowed entry into the U. during the 1870s. "Old Immigration": This Term applies to those migrating from Western and Eastern Europe. Most of the immigrants came from peasant and poor backgrounds and boosted America’s foreign-born population by 18 million. The Theory of The Leisure Class. In the 1890s. their numbers first began to increase. Greeks. They came from both Southern and Eastern Europe. a flood of immigrants. Introducing the concept of "conspicuous consumption. and also from the Middle East. All of these immigrants came over in search of jobs and of new economic opportunities. The largest group of approximately three million. and all convicts. which was published in 1899. Literacy tests: Passed by Congress in 1917in order to restrict immigration. Literacy tests were imposed on all immigrants. . the new immigrants often faced prejudice from nativist Americans. arriving from Southern and Eastern Europe. In addition. in Clinton Iowa. Next came the British. and persons liable to become public disturbances and problems were all excluded form the U. Chinese Exclusion Law. 1882: Passed by Congress. Many immigrants faced the dual problems of changing cultures and migrating from a rural life to an urban one. and it supported the Republican Party until it split over the question of whether or not to support William McKinley." his writing was an assault on the values and lifestyles of the Gilded Age businessmen. immigrants had to be examined. Slavs. polygamists. The Theory of the Leisure Class: Thorstein Bunde Veblen was best known for his book.
which was the first settlement house in the U. Although these citizens strove to aid their fellow man. Salvation Army: Founded by Methodist William Booth. Addams played a large role in the formation of the National Progressive Party and the Women’s Peace Party. He sought to solve social problems caused by the industrialized society by applying Christian principles. In 1908 the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America adopted a social creed that called for many improvements in society. in many cases. Geological Survey. many people united in this league in the fight against saloons.S. it is a religious and charitable organization dedicated to spreading the Christian faith and giving assistance to those in . and it also served to combat juvenile delinquency and to assist the recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. there was a prevalent feeling of condecension towards the poorer classes. The movement preached and taught religion and human dignity to the working class in order to correct the effects of capitalism. Hull House: She was a social worker and a Nobel laureate. He worked with Walter Rauschenbusch as a leader of the Social Gospel movement. protecting society’s weaker classes. It was a welfare agency for needy families. in 1912. middle class Americans strove to enact reform measures that would aid their society. Anti-Saloon League: During and after the American Civil War. the laws regulating many aspects of saloons were either reduced or eliminated. He also helped found the Society of Jesus to publish periodicals for the working class. Walter Rauschenbusch: He was a clergyman who was one of the leaders of the Social Gospel movement. Washington Gladden: He was a Congregationalist minister who became known for his pragmatic social theology. which include Working People and their Employers. By 1916 they enacted anti-saloon laws in 23 states and in 1917 they passed the 18th amendment beginning prohibition. he wrote 38 books. In addition. and preventing the destruction of natural resources. • SOCIAL GOSPEL: It was a Protestant liberal movement led by Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch that applied Christian principles to the numerous social problems that affected the late 19th century United States as a result of industrialization. Lester Frank Ward: Ward worked with the U. He argued against William Graham Sumner in his Dynamic Sociology and stated that the laws of nature could be changed by mankind through government experts regulating big business. In addition. Groups were formed to aid the less fortunate Americans who inhabited the slums of the cities. she created the Hull House in 1889 in Chicago.S. He linked theological liberalism with strong social concern.The Middle Class Reform Impulse As Americans viewed the poverty throughout their cities. Jane Addams. As a result. With the help of Ellen Star.
control all social order and they can not be changed by man. Henry George. Herbert Spencer: Spencer was a British philosopher. Principles of Psychology. He was also editor in chief of the religious and political periodicals Independent and The Christian Union. he wrote his book Our Country. but in reality. he stated that unchangeable laws of nature. It was believed that human progress depended highly on competition. In the U. His works include Social Statics. He created a system of philosophy that included his own theory of evolution. YMCA: British Sir George Williams founded this organization in response to unsanitary social conditions in large cities at the end of the Industrial Revolution. Henry Ward Beecher: Beecher was the pastor of the Plymouth Church of the Pilgrims in Brooklyn.S. whose goal was to give aid to the London slums. Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis in 1885. • SOCIAL DARWINISM: It is a theory developed in the late 19th century by which individuals and societies believed that people. New Nation. This novel led to the formation of many socialistic clubs. like all other organisms compete for survival and success in life. such as survival of the fittest. Josiah Strong: Strong was the secretary of the American Home Missionary Society and the minister of Cincinnati's Central Congregational Church. where he stated that cities were centers of anarchy and destruction. William Graham Sumner. who was regarded as one of the first sociologists. he was an effective champion of women's rights and suffrage. it began constructing gyms. Rev. Also. in 1891. In this book. Afraid that poverty was escalating. and the less fit in society would be poor and the lower classes. and A System of Synthetic Philosophy.. and these people reap the benefits of the rise in value of the land. which was entitled Looking Backward. 2000-1887: He was an essayist and journalist who founded the Springfield Daily News. Many felt that this theory was expounded by Charles Darwin. It was founded in 1865 in England as the Christian Mission.need of both spiritual and material aid. and then turned toward literature. and summer camps. Bellamy created the journal. He recommended a shift to what he called a single tax. libraries. who was also one of the earliest and best known abolitionists. This novel was a depiction of an ideal society in the year 2000. Progress and Poverty: George was an economist and social philosopher. Looking Backward. What Social Classes Owe Each Other: Sumner was a sociologist and author of What Social Classes Owe Each Other. . He published his most famous work in 1888. 2000-1887. but also incorporated all existing fields of knowledge. Those who were best fit for survival would become rich and powerful. and to stop the young workers from gambling and engaging in other disreputable. In his book Progress and Poverty. • Edward Bellamy. they misinterpreted his words. To further publicize his views. New York. he stated that land ownership is concentrated in the hands of a few.
Russell Conwell. He wrote about the impact of European culture on Americans who traveled or lived abroad. In His Steps: He was a Congregational clergyman and a social reformer. came a fervor of cultural display.The Single Tax: Developed by social philosopher and economist Henry George. Many Catholic socialism movements are derived from this. Charles Darwin: Darwin was a British Scientist who created the theory of modern evolution. Rerum Novarum. The Wings of the Dove. Rev. The doctrine was described in his book Progress and Poverty. The Flowering Of American Culture Along with the new social currents of the day caused by rapid urbanization. He also founded the Bible Institute in Chicago in 1889. and it was influenced by 17th century philosopher John Locke and British economist David Ricardo. he began a series of revival meetings and opened the Northfield Seminary for Young Women and the Mount Hermon School for Boys. it was the Catholic social doctrine. This was the message in his "Acres of Diamonds" lecture. In his theory. American culture diversified as Americans saw the society around them drastically changing. the development of organisms came through a process called natural selection. He used religious virtue to justify the quest for wealth as a Christian endeavor. it was a doctrine of social reform where all taxation should be reduced to a single tax on land. causing them to strive to express their views through various forms. Henry James: James was a writer and brother of philosopher William James. Some of his famous writings include The Ambassadors. Scientist. It emphasized social problems which tied it into the Social Gospel Movement. Dwight L. 1891: Formulated by Pope Leo XIII." His theories were presented in his novel The Origin of Species. which is often called "survival of the fittest. He was also the author of the book In His Steps . immigration. It held private property as a natural right. which he gave over 6000 times. After a remarkable recovery from sickness. "Acres of Diamonds": Conwell was a Baptist minister who preached about ordinary man's and capitalist's materialistic longings. Together with Ira Sankey. and it found fault with capitalism for the poverty and insecurity that it left the working class in. and The Golden Bowl. and the growth of business. Mary Baker Eddy: She was the founder of the Christian Science Association and the Church of Christ. Moody: Moody was the creator of the Illinois Street Church which was later renamed the Moody Memorial Church. Charles Sheldon. she published . which is the story of people who tried to pattern their lives after the life of Jesus.
and those who got rich in the postwar boom. buoyancy and free-spending. This act gave each state $15. about the fundamentals of her metaphysical system of healing. • "gilded age": Given its name by the novel by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley. as well as strikes. he became the president of Harvard. It is world renowned for its medical school and its applied physics laboratory. Morrill Land Act. in political science here. immigration. Chautauqua Movement: Methodists John Heyl Vincent and Lewis Miller founded this movement. he was a professor of mathematical physics for 34 years. he was an assistant professor of mathematics and chemistry there for five years. Many universities such as Michigan. The span of this era ranges from the end of the Civil War. In 1869. and urban growth. who remodeled the curriculum on a liberal basis. and Purdue profited from its provisions.Science and Health. Nouveau riche: It was the new class of people which was created by the wealth and prosperity generated from the industrial capitalism and the big businesses. They were called land grant colleges and were located in the Midwest and West. Eliot. Johns Hopkins University: Financed by John Hopkins. It was founded in 1876. Proceeds from the sale of public lands were given to states to fund the establishment of these universities of agriculture and mechanics. Charles W. He created a set of books containing 50 volumes known as Harvard Classics. 1862: Introduced to Congress by Republican Justin Morrill. 1887: It was an act written by Representative William Henry Hatch of Missouri. swindlers. lectures. Maryland. 1869. Iowa State. which the government in order to promte the teaching of agriculture. The real importance of his studies and theoretical descriptions of the behavior of subatomic particles have only been recently recognized. In addition. westward expansion. depressions. He laid the foundations of the modern understanding of electromagnetic phenomenon and thermodynamics.000 a year to help establish and maintain agricultural experiment stations. to the turn of the century. she founded the international daily newspaper Christian Science Monitor. This class . It was a supplement to the land grant colleges. it is an institution of higher learning in Baltimore. Former President Woodrow Wilson received his Ph.D. despair and bitterness. Harvard: Educated at Harvard University. which combined daily Bible studies with healthful recreation. the act introduced a bill to establish state colleges of agriculture and to bring higher education within the reach of the common people. and courses in science and humanities. The movement was imitated numerous times in the United States. It later expanded to include concerts. Josiah Willard Gibbs: At Yale. Hatch Act. it is a time period which criticized the lobbyists. The period was characterized by industrial production. politicians who took bribes.
including A Fearful Responsibility. and the purpose of thought is to guide action. . These stories included "The Luck of Roaring Camp" and "The Outcasts of Poker Flat. Robber barons were included in this class. The Black Riders and Other Lines. Godkin. He is characterized by his humor and sharp social satire. a Girl of the Streets. Stephen Crane: Cranes was a writer and poet who began the use of the naturalistic style of writing. It was written by Twain. Maggie. and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. The Gilded Age.L. Bret Harte: Harte was a writer who was also the editor of the Overland Monthly. Frank Norris. which is summed up in his lectures entitled Pragmatism: A New Name for Old Ways of Thinking. In his life he wrote many works. He and others codified the standards in the Victorian era in both literature and the fine arts. it is a philosophical doctrine stating that the test of the truth of a proposition is its practical utility. Mark Twain: Twain was a writer named Samuel Langhorne Clemens. was influential in the reform movement." He published a collection of his works called The Luck of Roaring Camp and Other Short Stories. the effect of an idea is more important than its origin. Most of these people were self-made and showed their importance through ostentatious displays. E. who came up with the philosophy of pragmatism. As a psychologist. which he edited. Pragmatism: Developed by William James and Charles Sanders Pierce. and The Open Boats and Other Stories. editor of The Nation: Godkin was an editor. He was also a former mugwump and anti-imperialist. Mark Twain and Charles Dudley: It is a novel written in a time when materialism and corruption controlled the lives of Americans. His many famous novels include The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn. Mark Twain. he wrote his famous Principles of Psychology which established him as one of the most influential thinkers of the time. and Henry James. He published these stories under the titles MainTravelled Roads and Other Main-Travelled Roads. whose criticism in his book The Nation and New York's Evening Post. His most famous novels include The Red Badge of Courage. which published many of his famous works. who used Mark Twain as his pseudonym. He also wrote for Atlantic Monthly. Hamlin Garland: Garland was a short story writer who used his experiences working on farms in Iowa and South Dakota as central themes for his countless short stories that denounced American farm life. Tom Sawyer. and The Rise of Silas Lapham. William Dean Howells: Howells was a novelist. William James: James was a philosopher and psychologist. and War is Kind and Other Poems are two volumes of his poems. critic.grew during the Gilded Age. and editor of the Atlantic. He was also president of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. who championed authors such as Stephen Crane.
Susan B. Many of the characters in the novel were recognized by readers of the book as figures in society. In the newspaper circulation wars of the 1890s. His novels held a theme of rags to riches. He is also well known for his portraits. She traveled from county to county in New York and other states making speeches and organizing clubs for women's rights. Hearst was quite willing to take credit for this. As millions of women began to work outside the home. Winslow Homer is best known for his watercolors and oil paintings of the sea. publisher Joseph Pulitzer was one of the leading combatants. William Randolph Hearst: Through dishonest and exaggerated reporting. and began to demand certain rights. His chief opponent was William Randolph Hearst. actually helping to cause the Spanish-American War. including sensational yellow journalism. to encourage people to buy their papers. and his most famous Ragged Dick. and perseverance. James McNeill Whistler: Whistler was an etcher and painter who was a champion of modern art. William Randolph Hearst's newspapers whipped up public sentiment against Spain. He also incorporated Japanese styles of art and made many technical innovations in art.and Dudley was the coauthor. Anthony fought for women's suffrage. as his New York City newspaper testified in an 1898 headline: "How Do You Like the Journal’s War?" The Emergence Of Modern Woman The new urban environment fostered the growth of feminism. The White Girl and Twelve Etchings from Nature are his most famous etchings. Winslow Homer: One of the greatest American painters. The two used every tactic. She pleaded her cause with every president from Abraham Lincoln to Theodore Roosevelt. • HORATIO ALGER’S BOOKS FOR YOUTH: Alger was a writer of juvenile fiction. . they crusaded for pressing reforms. Anthony: For more than half a century Susan B. Tattered Tom. By emphasizing merit rather than focusing on social status as the way to determine success. Joseph Pulitzer: Joseph Pulitzer was a large newspaper publisher. These paintings often have great dramatic effect because of the way they show man's powerlessness in the face of the unfeeling and mysterious forces of nature. his more than 100 novels had a major impact on the youth of that time. where poor youth would win fame and money by having virtues of honesty. Along with their male counterparts. such abolition and prohibition. they saw themselves in a new light. diligence. Many women asserted their independence by participating in social reform movements. Among his collection are Luck and Pluck.
She succeeded in 1881. she headed the search for missing soldiers. Though Catt was forced to resign in 1904 due to her husbands illness. Nation would appear at a saloon.S. Catt continued to play a large role in the fight for Women's rights. woman suffragist who was born in Moorestown. Alice Paul: Alice Paul was a U. After this. Higher education was broadened by the rise of women's colleges and the admission of women to regular colleges and universities. middle and upper-class women turned to bicycle riding as a source of exercise. berate the customers. later called the National Woman's party. Its activities included welfare work. She was a prominent leader in the campaign for what became the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution which guaranteed female suffrage. Clara Barton: Single-handedly. She was the scourge of tavern owners and drinkers alike in Kansas. six states adopted Prohibition by 1890. Frances Willard. Carry A. A young lecturer and educator. became famous for building the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). Anthony retired in 1900 from the NAWSA. By 1900 this had increased to more than one third. prison reform. Bicycling emerges as a hobby for women: Constraints on women were loosened toward the end of the nineteenth century when bicycling swept the U. labor arbitration and public health. Carrie Chapman Catt: When Susan B. Francis Willard: In 1874 a temperance crusade swept the United States. Partly through their efforts.J. For 23 years she directed Red Cross work in every great disaster.S. and proceed to damage as much of the place as she could with her hatchet. and a way to escape the restrictive Victorian attitudes towards female physical activity. she chose Carrie Chapman Catt to take her place. Carry A. recreation. Willard stressed religion and morality in her work. . It became the nation’s first mass organization of women. Nation: A vehement foe of alcoholic beverages. In 1872 she campaigned to organize a branch of the Red Cross in the United States. She led the Congressional Union for Women's Suffrage. Women’s Christian Temperance Union: The Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was founded in 1874. Stanton helped to organize a political movement that demanded voting rights for women. she organized supply depots to serve Civil War soldiers. In 1870 an estimated one fifth of resident college students were women. For four years after the war. as well as in many other states. joined the movement. She soon became the president of the newly formed union. for activities in woman suffrage movement. in lobbying for the right to vote during World War I. Colleges admitting women: By the end of the 19th century the number of women students had increased greatly.S. She was imprisoned three times in England and three times in the U. Fearful of waning vitality. N.Elizabeth Cady Stanton: A pioneer in the modern quest for women's rights. she remained active in NAWSA and in 1915 became its president.
Great American Desert: For years. This was due to more opportunities for women which made them less economically dependent on their husbands. . This lead to many conflicts. the Cheyenne were being led by Chief Black Kettle. Maps published prior to the Civil War often called the Great Plains area the "Great American Desert.S. led by Colonel John M. Indian Appropriations Act. Colorado in 1864. Plains Indians: Great Plains tribes began attacking wagon trains carrying settlers during the 1850s. the geography of the U. Chivington.S. but violations continued to occur. but it was often at the expense of the Native Americans who already occupied the land. America expanded across the continent. clothing. were still to be considered valid. Accustomed to allowing their cattle to roam the open range. Chivington Massacre: The United States Army. An increased number of people living in the cities also contributed to the fact that cities had higher divorce rates than rural areas. Their perceptions of western regions were drawn from descriptions left by early travelers. 1862: This act cut up Western public lands into many small holdings for the free farmers.Divorce rate: By the turn of the twentieth century divorce rate in the United States had started to steadily grow. Others used it to fence in land or cattle that did not belong to them. many farmers objected to barbed wire. including that between the Sioux and the U. As Americans continued to move the frontier farther and farther west." It was a region deemed unfit for settlement. The Frontier West As America expanded. They had been angered by settlers who drove away the buffalo herds they depended on for food. though. or a treaty would be made in which they lost part of their lands. was unknown to most Americans. It was originally started by Andrew Johnson as the first homestead bill but met strong opposition by Southern Representatives and therefore could not be passed until the secession of the Southern States during the Civil War. Homestead Act. Joseph Glidden: Barbed wire was invented and patented by Joseph Glidden in 1874 and had a major impact on the cattle industry of the Western U. the Indians would either be defeated and transported. at Little Big Horn. Federal government policies intended to facilitate the move westward.S. When war would break out. Barbed wire. attacked and massacred the Cheyenne Indians that were settled along Sand Creek. and shelter. Existing treaties. and were attacked despite a previous agreement made with the governor. 1871: By this act Congress decided that Indian tribes were no longer recognized as sovereign powers with whom treaties must be made. At the time. many Americans desired to move westward and cultivate new lands.
Dawes. Helen Hunt Jackson. Col. After the incident.by turning Indians into farmers. the Ghost Dance movement which had been recently revived by Indians rapidly died out. under Sioux leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse. shaped the American character and institutions. on Dec. The ritual allowed them to reaffirm their culture amidst the chaos. Wearing the Ghost Shirts.Battle of Little Big Horn: The Sioux refused to sell the land to the government in 1875. A Century of Dishonor: This book. 1887: It was proposed by Henry L. Joseph agreed. The main point of the law was to emphasize treating Indians as individuals as opposed to members in a tribe. FRONTIER THESIS: In his analysis of how the frontier. Joseph led his people in an unsuccessful resistance to white settlers who were confiscating land. the nomadic traditions of the Indians. and was passed in 1887. he attempted to escape to Canada with his followers. South Dakota. moving from east to west. She gathered information regarding American Indians and their lives while serving on a federal commission investigating the treatment of Indians. but when three of his tribe killed a group of settlers.the lack of private property. This event ended the conquest of the American Indian. Chief Joseph: When he became chief of the Nez Perce Indian tribe in the American Northwest in 1871. wiped out General Custer's men in 1876. 29. He also justified overseas economic expansion as a means to secure political power at a time when America began focusing on expanding its influence throughout the world. the United States Army massacred more than 200 Indians at Wounded Knee. • DAWES SEVERALTY ACT. the absence of a Christian based religion. they engaged in ritual dances that they believed would protect them from harm. When the Sioux refused. and refused to leave the area to inhabit reservations. or severalty. Ghost Dance Movement: As the Sioux population dwindled as a result of the federal government policies. Custer. they turned to the Ghost Dance to restore their original dominance on the Plains. The tribe was ordered to move. and the general instability in their way of life -. . by Jackson. Jackson also wrote Ramona concerning the same topic. 1890. was sent to enforce the order. the army under Lieut. Battle of Wounded Knee: Convinced that Sitting Bull was going to lead an uprising. Turner decisively rejected the then common belief that the European background had been primarily responsible for the characteristics of the United States. It was designed to reform what well-meaning but ignorant whites perceived to be the weaknesses of Indian life-. was a discourse concerning the plight of American Indians published in 1881. • FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER.In this battle the main body of Indians.
The railroads appealed to the Supreme Court to declare the "Granger laws" unconstitutional. enacting immigration restriction. Nevada was built.S. and small profits. and Nevada granted statehood in 1864. The Omaha platform of 1892 nominated James Weaver of Iowa for president. the Populists strove to bring their reforms into the political limelight.Safety Valve Thesis: This assertion stated that as immigrants came to the eastern United States during the late nineteenth century and "polluted" American culture. An influx of settlers came to Nevada. and stores. 1892: The Populist party. and in 1892 gave way to the Populist party. Farmers’ Alliance: This alliance was a political organization created to help fight railroad abuses and to lower interest rates. OMAHA PLATFORM. Reform Populism In The 1890s Populism emerged in the 19th century in order to reform the system from within.S. They failed to unite. however. It was founded in New York in 1873. • POPULIST PARTY PLATFORM." It was created towards the end of the nineteenth century. creameries. It called for government regulation of the economy in order to redress their greivanes. Some of their goals included creating postal savings banks. was a party that represented the "common man. This discovery contributed to the speed by which Virginia City. and consisted of the Northwest Farmers' Alliance in the north and the National Farmers' Alliance and Independent Union in the south. the farmers made their grievances known through the Granger Movement. farmers were beset with problems of high costs. Illinois. The Populist platform represented views of farmers in the West. To counteract unjust business practices. • GRANGER MOVEMENT: During the decade of the 1870s. Comstock Lode: One of the richest silver mines in the United States was discovered in 1859 at the Comstock Lode in Nevada. Granger Laws: The Grangers in various states lobbied state legislatures in 1874 to pass maximum rate laws for freight shipment. setting a graduated income tax and limiting the presidency to a single six-year term. Instead. Only in 1877 did the Supreme Court rule that states could regulate businesses of a public nature. There was little the farmers could do concerning prices. the farmers were urged to start cooperatives such as grain elevators. U. Creating the Populist Party with James Weaver as their presidential candidate. or people's party. debts. . Membership peaked in the mid-1870s. would have the West as a "safety valve" to which they could go in order to revitalize their pure Americanism. citizens of the U. the Court ruled against the railroad’s objections in Munn v. many of their reforms were later enacted. Although they did not succeed in electing their candidate to the presidency.
"Crime of 1873": This is the term given to a federal law of 1873, which adopted the gold standard over the silver standard. This dropped silver coinage in favor of gold coinage, by advocating free silver. This "Crime of 1873" was one of the motivating forces behind the beginning of the Free Silver movement. Bland-Allison Act: This act was passed over the presidential veto in 1878 and required the secretary of the treasury to buy at least 2 million dollars of silver each month and coin it into dollars. Because of its weight and bulk and the fact that it had not been coined since 1806, most of the silver did not circulate; rather, remained in the treasury. Sherman Silver Purchase Act: This act forced the treasury to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver each month.. However, the price of silver did not rise and precious gold was being drained away from the treasury while cheap silver piled up. This act, therefore, helped to precipitate the panic of 1893, and it caused a decrease in foreign investments in the U.S. economy. Bimetallism: Bimetallism is the use of both silver and gold as the basis of an economy as opposed to the use of one or the other or none. During the gold and free silver campaigns of the early 1900s, the Republicans believed in a money system based on the single gold standard, while the democrats believed in bimetallism. "Coin" Harvey: The silverites’ most influential piece of propaganda was William H. Harvey's Coin’s Financial School, published in 1894. It explained the monetary issue in simplified partisan terms, denounced "the conspiracy of the Goldbugs," and insisted that the free coinage of silver would eliminate the debt. Free silver: This was a chiefly unsuccessful campaign in the late 19th-century U.S. for the unlimited coinage of silver. Major supporters of this movement were owners of silver mines, farmers, and debtors, for whom silver production would be economically favorable. William Jennings Bryan led the democratic party to support free silver during the 1890s. 16 to 1: During the Panic of 1873 the world market ratio of silver to gold fell below the ratio of 16:1 for the first time in world history. This coincided with the opening of rich silver mines in the Western united States and also with post-Civil War deflation. It resulted in the movement in favor of free silver and bimetallism of the populists Depression of 1893: This panic swept the country two months after the second inauguration of President Grover Cleveland. Banks closed their doors, railroads went bankrupt, and farm mortgages were foreclosed. People hoarded gold, and the treasury’s gold reserve was depleting. A notable cause was the struggle between the free silver and gold advocates. Coxey's Army, 1894: This was actually a band of unemployed people who marched to Washington DC during the depression of 1894 under the leadership of Jacob S. Coxey, a
quarry operator. They urged the enactment of laws which would provide money without interest for public improvements, which would create work for the unemployed. Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, 1893: In 1893 President Grover Cleveland, who stood for the gold standard, succeeded in having the Sherman Silver Purchase Act repealed over the strong objections of William Jennings Bryan. However, little gold was in the treasury; thus, the panic of 1893 could not be avoided and the crisis remained until 1896. Ocala Demands, 1890: These demands were essentially a platform of the Democratic/ Populist party for the 1892 election created at a gathering in Ocala, Florida in 1890. Northern leaders generally favored a third party candidate, while Southerners feared that it would weaken the southern Democratic Party. Tom Watson: An U.S. journalist, legislator, and a southern alliance leader from Georgia, he urged southern farmers to recognize their common plight and act together. He was also the Populist party’s presidential candidate in 1904 and 1908, served as a senator from 1921 to 1922, and edited The Weekly Jeffersonian, a populist magazine. James B. Weaver: An United States legislator and prominent figure during the Populist movement, he served as a congressman from 1879 to 1781 and 1885 to 1889. He was the presidential candidate of the Greenback and People’s parties in 1892. Weaver was also a former civil war general. "Pitchfork" Ben Tillman: An U.S. Populist party leader born in South Carolina, he was elected governor of South Carolina in 1890 and 1892, and he served on the U.S. Senate from 1894 to 1912. Very progressively minded, Tillman promoted many reform programs in South Carolina, including better public education. Mary Ellen Lease: She was a fiery lawyer from Wichita, Kansas who was very active in the movements for agrarian and labor reform. She burst out on to the scene in the 1890's as a spellbinding Southern alliance orator vehemently crying that the farmers needed to "raise less corn and more hell." "Sockless" Jerry Simpson: He was an intelligent rancher from Kansas who lost his stock in the hard winter of 1886 to 1887, and he became a major Southern Alliance leader. When he mentioned the expensive silk stockings of a conservative politician and remarked that he could afford no such fineries a hostile newspaper editor named him "Sockless Jerry." Ignatius Donnelly: A noted United States writer and a champion of the Populist Party, Donnelly served as an U.S. Congressman from Minnesota from 1863 to 1869. He also wrote Great Cryptogram in an attempt to prove that Francis Bacon wrote William Shakespeare's works.
JENNINGS BRYAN: Despite the fact that he was defeated three times for the presidency of the United States, William Jennings Bryan, the principal figure of the Populist party, molded public opinion as few leaders have done. A surprise to the public, he polled many votes during the 1896 election, which may have been a direct result of his "Cross of Gold Speech." For many years he was the leader of the Democratic party, and it was his influence that won the Democratic presidential nomination for Wilson in 1912. "Cross of Gold Speech": William Jennings Bryan won the national Democratic convention's nomination for the presidency in 1896 through a vigorous appeal for free coinage of silver known as the "Cross of Gold" speech. Turning to those who wanted only gold as the monetary standard, he exclaimed: "You shall not crucify mankind upon this cross of gold." As a Populist, he did not support the gold standard since it would deflate the currency, which would make it more difficult for citizens to repay debts.
OF 1896, CANDIDATES, ISSUES: The presidential candidates were the Republican William McKinley from Pennsylvania, and the Democrat William J. Bryan. The Populists also supported Bryan for the presidency, but chose Tom Watson for the vice presidency. The Republicans believed in the gold standard, while the Democrats believed in bimetallism and the unlimited coinage of silver. McKinley won the election. The Populism collapsed after 1896, but Progressivism emerged in its wake. Marcus Hanna: He was an industrialist who became convinced that the welfare of industry, and therefore the nation, was bound by the fortunes of the Republican party. To further his goals he waged the most expensive political campaign the nation had ever seen to get William McKinley elected president in 1896. He also served in the Senate.
As the 19th century came to a close, many voices cried for American expansionism to match the imperialistic ambitions of Europe and Japan. The dream for global destiny was justified by such logic as the expansion of overseas markets, desire for a stronger navy, and the spreading of Christianity to uncivilized peoples around the globe. Eventually, this expansionism translated into conflict, climaxing in 1898 with the Spanish-American War. James G. Blaine, Pan-Americanism: As Secretary of State, Blaine fostered closer U.S.Latin American relations and brought about the first Pan-American Congress in order to forge commercial, social, economic, military, and political cooperation among the 21 republics of North, Central, and South America. Venezuelan boundary dispute: Venezuela had a dispute over its boundary with the British Colony of Guiana. In 1895, while the British refused to resolve the issue, United States Secretary of State Richard Olney sent a message to London declaring that the US would be "practically sovereign on this content."
Bering Sea seal controversy: When the US purchased Alaska in 1867, it included some small Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea. Congress leased the island to a US company which killed seals with the understanding that they would not kill more than 10,000 male seals per year. This led to the regulation of pelagic sealing in 1893. "Yellow journalism": Two rival newspapers in New York City, William Randolph Hearst’s Journal, and Joseph Pulitzer’s World, sensationalized editorializing on the issues to increase circulation. One of Hearst’s gimmicks was "The Yellow Kid," which gave the name of Yellow Journalism to this tactic. Josiah Strong, Our Country: Reverend Josiah Strong wrote the book Our Country: Its Possible Future and Present Crisis expressing his fears of the inability of relief organizations to cope with the explosive growth of the urban poor in the 1870’s and 1880’s.
•Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890)
helped create and develop the expansionist movement. Mahan, former head of the Navy War College at Newport, Rhode Island wanted to expand United States Navy to build an isthmusian canal, and to establish strategic colonies as cooling stations, and to protect US political and economic interests. Samoa, Pago Pago: America’s Navy wanted to establish a port in the Samoan Islands, so their ships could refuel in the island of Pago Pago. This was an example of the United States Navy’s expansion efforts in the pacific. Their goal was to obtain more ports so they could have more ships out on the ocean to control the seas. Virginius: In 1873 a Spanish gunboat captured the Virginius, a ship fraudulently flying the American flag, in Cuba. Secretary of State Fish and the Spanish minister came together in Washington and signed a protocol bringing the end to the Virginius affairs. Spain paid the US $80,000. de Lôme letter: On February 8, 1898, Hearst’s Journal published a private letter written by Spanish minister to the United States Depuy de Lôme regarding his reservations for Cuban independence and disparaging President McKinley. Many Americans would have agreed, but they resented hearing it from a Spanish diplomat. Maine explodes: When an explosion rocked the Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898, killing 266 American crewmen, irritation turned to outrage. A review of the evidence later concluded that a ship-board ammunition explosion caused the blast. Still, a navy inquiry blamed the blast on a "Spanish mine."
•Teller Amendment: The U.S. had been motivated o war in part by the desire to aid the
Cubans in their attempt to liberate themselves from the colonial rule of Spain. To this end the Teller Ammendment was added to the Declaration of War. It speciffically prohibited the annexation of Cuba, as a cause of the war.
Queen Liluokalani: Liluokalani was the Queen of Hawaii who did not like Americans since they built their port in Pearl Harbor. Action started on May 1.S. had the same rights under the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. Rough Riders. Roosevelt resigned to become second in command of the Rough Riders. Queen Liluokalani was overthrown when Hawaii’s sugar prices dropped 40% and planters wanted the independent Republic of Hawaii. 1898. 1898 during the American advance on Santiago during the Spanish-American War.• SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR: The Spanish-American War lasted just three months with only a few days of actual combat. Treaty of Paris. Spain agreed to abandon Cuba and exchange Puerto Rico. acting largely on his own. Annexation of Hawaii: In 1890 under the McKinley Tariff. the Hawaiians decided to request United States annexation. This fleet destroyed and captured all ten Spanish ships that were assigned in Manila Bay.1898. Hawaiians were uncertain if they wanted annexation at all. 1898: The Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American War and developed an American empire overseas. placing the American army on high ground overlooking Santiago. . After Hawaii’s sugar prices dropped 40% and Queen Liluokalani was overthrown. Forming the Anti-Imperialist League. when George Dewey’s fleet steamed into Manila Bay in the Philippines and seized or destroyed all ten Spanish ships anchored there. The treaty gave the United States a new imperialistic reputation. captured the hill. they believed that every country captured by the U. The Filipinos celebrated their freedom from four hundred years of Spanish rule on July 4. Manila Bay: The first action of the Spanish-American War came in 1898 when Commodore George Dewey’s fleet steamed into Manila Bay in the Philippines. The war ended after Spanish Admiral Pascual Cervera attempted to break through American forces losing 474 men. Commodore Dewey. In 1898. domestic sugar growers ended the duty-free status of Hawaiian sugar. Roosevelt was an impatient disciple in the Spanish-American War. One American and 381 Spanish men died in the attempt. President Grover Cleveland was troubled with the crisis in Hawaii since Hawaiians claimed to want annexation. American Anti-Imperialist League: The critics of imperialism were many and influential. Cleveland and Hawaii: In 1887 the United States gained the right to establish a naval port in Pearl Harbor. once their queen was overthrown. A division including the Rough Riders. However. Guam and the Philippines to America for $20 million. Assistant Secretary of Navy Theodore Roosevelt: Theodore Roosevelt was appointed as Assistant Secretary of the Navy by President William McKinley in 1897. under the command of General Kent. San Juan Hill: The battle of San Juan Hill was fought on July 1. In the treaty.
Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico: By the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain recognized Cuba’s independence and ceded the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific Island of Guam to the United States in exchange for $20 million. As 1899 dawned Americans possessed an island empire from the Caribbean to the Pacific. Walter Reed: In 1900 Walter Reed was appointed to the Yellow Fever Commission as a result of his investigation of the disease. After being sent to Cuba to find out more about Yellow Fever, he discovered that the disease was carried by a mosquito. He later became a curator at Army Medical Museum and a professor at Army Medical College. Insular Cases: The decisions regarding whether the Constitution applies to Puerto Rico and the Philippines are known as the Insular Cases. They ruled that the residents are inhabitants but not citizens of the United States. Because of this ruling, these countries were not honored by the Constitution and were treated as colonies.
Amendment: Senator Orville Platt, at the request of the War department, made a revised bill to remove some of the restrictions stated in the Teller Amendment. The Platt Amendment stated that the United States would withdraw from Cuba if they did not sign a treaty with any other foreign power. It also gave the United States the right to interfere with Cuba if they believed that it was not a fit enough country to take care of itself. Also, they established the right to hold a naval base in Cuba. Protectorate: When a more powerful state controls the economy, foreign affairs, or police power of another state, it is considered a protectorate. In the case of the United States, Cuba was a protectorate as a result of the Platt Amendment. Other examples might include Nicuaragua, the Dominican Republic, Hawaii, and other Pacific islands.
Philippine insurrection: In 1896 Emilio Aguinaldo started a Filipino movement for independence to get out of Spain’s control. When Spain surrendered, Aguinaldo drew up a constitution and proclaimed the Philippines’s independence. When the Treaty of Paris gave the United States power over the Philippines, Aguinaldo became angry and tried to fight. He soon realized that he would lose and gave up. Secretary of State John Hay, Open Door Notes: John Hay’s Open Door Notes was a policy that explained the importance of American commercial influence on foreign policies. The Open Door Notes stated that the pre-thought "informal empire" was correct as opposed to overseas colonies being favored by imperial power. Boxer Rebellion: The Boxers, a secret group of Chinese men known as I Ho Ch’uan, opposed Christianity in their country. Numbering 140,000, the Boxers killed thousands of foreigners as well as Chinese suspected of being Christian. British, American, Russian, Japanese and French soldiers were sent to China to end the "Boxer Rebellion." Extraterritoriality: Extraterritoriality is a principle in international law that allows certain visiting foreign citizens or their property to be exempt from the laws of a host nation. Foreign heads of states traveling abroad and diplomats representing their home countries are examples of people benefiting from extraterritoriality.
Most favored nation clause: The most favored nation clause is a commercial treaty that regulates special low tariffs on goods imported to the United States. All countries awarded the Special Nation Status must be treated equally. Duties for the same group of goods should be the same low regardless from which country signatory of the status they are imported.
Roosevelt & Progressivism
Many intellectuals increasingly challenged the foundations of the social order. Voices of reform thundered over the nation calling for democratic government, better cities, and the curbing of corporate power. This movement, labeled progressivism, found its first national leader in Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt actively pursued many of his goals: labor mediation, consumer protection, conservation, business virtue, and activism abroad. His successor, Taft, continued in Roosevelt’s aims but lacked his political genius. Election of 1900: candidates and issues: William McKinley, the Republican candidate, beat William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic candidate, for President. The Republican campaign theme of prosperity, summed up in the slogan "A Full Dinner Pail," easily won him a second term. McKinley had 284 electoral votes where as Bryan had 115.
Big Stick diplomacy: One of Roosevelt’s most famous statements was "speak softly and carry a big stick." An example of his meaning in this statement was when Canada wanted the Alaskan land that America owned. They were fighting over the boundaries because of gold found in the area. Roosevelt simply stated that if the boundaries would change, there would be serious consequences. Because of his problem solving method, Roosevelt was known to use "Big Stick" diplomacy. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty: The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 stated that both the United States and Britain promised not to claim control over any canal built between the oceans that separated their countries. This included the Panama Canal which America later took over anyway. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty: In 1901, the United States planned to construct the Panama Canal. This meant they would be in need of a new treaty. Secretary of State John Hay and British Ambassador Sir Julian Pauncefote agreed on a new treaty that would drop England’s claim on the canal. Panama Revolution: Financed by Philippe Bunau-Varilla, chief agent of the New Panama Canal Company, the Panama Revolution was a planned revolt by Panamanians against Colombian occupation of the Isthmus of Panama. The United States did not encourage the revolution, but it did make clear that it would not allow it to fail.
• The Panama
Canal: When a French company supposed to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama went bankrupt, it offered to sell its assets to the United States. The Hay-Herrán agreement, which would have granted the US a ninety-nine-year lease on a
strip of land for canal construction, was rejected by the Colombian senate. Determined to have a canal, Roosevelt found a collaborator in Philippe Bunau-Varilla, who organized a "revolution." After Panama was recognized, the canal building commenced. Virgin Islands purchased: Denmark, in 1917, sold to the United States its West Indian territories for $25 million, including the Virgin Islands. These islands, located at the perimeters of the Caribbean, were of great military importance during the Second World War. They mainly served to protect the US mainland as well as the Panama Canal. Goethals and Gorgas: George Goethel was a civil engineer who directed a completion of the Panama Canal. William Gorgas helped to make it possible to construct Panama Canal by killing mosquitoes carrying yellow fever and malaria. Theodore Roosevelt later appointed these men important positions in The Panama Canal Zone. Venezuela Crisis, 1902: In 1902 the country's debts became so large that European creditor nations blockaded Venezuela; the United States intervened to obtain arbitration of the dispute. Castro's departure for Europe in 1908 opened the way for his deputy, Juan Vicente Gomez, to seize power. Drago Doctrine: Luis Maria Drago was an Argentine diplomat who formulated a supplement to the Monroe Doctrine known as the Drago Doctrine. In 1902, Great Britain, Germany, and Italy imposed a joint naval blockade on Venezuela in order to coerce that country into paying its debts.
Corollary: In 1904, Roosevelt created the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. This doctrine justified U.S. intervention in the affairs of Latin American nations if their weakness or wrongdoing warranted such action. An example of this interference was the American intervention in Haiti when it was not wanted. The document was primarily a pass for the US to interfere with other countries’ business when it was not wanted nor needed. U.S. intervention in Haiti: In 1915, President Woodrow Wilson sent the United States Marines into Haiti. The purpose was to calm the anarchy that the US claimed existed in the country. In 1916, Congress ratified a treaty that would allow the US ten years of control over Haiti to maintain order and give political and economic assistance. Dominican Republic: In 1915, after bloody upheavals in Haiti and the Dominican Republic, Wilson ordered the marines. A Haitian constitution favorable to U.S. commercial interests was ratified in 1918. The marines remained in the Dominican Republic until 1924, and in Haiti until 1934. Revolution in Nicaragua: In 1911 a US-supported revolution in Nicaragua brought to power Adolfo Díaz, an officer of the American-owned Nicaraguan mining property. American bankers loaned the Díaz government $15 million in exchange for control of most of Nicaragua. When a revolt broke out, Roosevelt ordered in the marines.
Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth: The Russo-Japanese war (1904-05) was the first conflict in which an Asian power defeated a European country. Fighting began when the Japanese attacked the Russian fleet at Port Arthur after Russia, which had occupied Manchuria during the Boxer Uprising in China, refused to withdraw its troops. San Francisco School Board Incident: American relations with Japan suffered when the San Francisco school board, in 1906, ordered all Asian children to attend segregated schools. Summoning the school-board members to Washington, Roosevelt persuaded them to reverse this discriminatory policy. Elihu Root: As secretary of war in the cabinets of William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, Root reorganized the army and established the Army War College. As Roosevelt's secretary of state from 1905 to 1909, he reformed the consular service, improving US relations with Latin America, and sponsoring a series of arbitration treaties. Taft-Katsura Memo: By the Taft-Katsura Memo of 1905, the United States and Japan pledged to maintain the Open Door principles in China. Japan recognized American control over the Philippines and the United States granted a Japanese protectorate over Korea.
Agreement: In the 1890’s, workers feared their jobs would be taken by the Japanese immigrants and they wanted a law preventing any more immigrants to move to the United States. In 1907 Japan proposed the Gentlemen’s Agreement which promised that they would halt the unrestricted immigration if President Roosevelt promised to discourage any laws being made that would restrict Japanese immigration to the US. Great White Fleet: This was a naval fleet that went on a voyage around the world. After 15 months, when the fleet returned, President Roosevelt met all the crew members personally. The two objects of this voyage were being friendly with the nation’s allies but also to show other nations the naval power of the United States. Lodge Corollary: When a Japanese syndicate moved to purchase a large tract of land in Mexico’s Lower California, Senator Lodge introduced a resolution to block the Japanese investment. The Corollary went further to exclude non-European powers from the Western Hemisphere under the Monroe Doctrine. Root-Takahira Agreement: In 1908, Japan and the United States signed the RootTakahira Agreement. Through this document the two nations promised not to seek territorial gain in the Pacific. These two nations also promised to honor an open door policy in China. Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917: Robert Lansing, Secretary of State under President Wilson, negotiated the Lansing-Ishii agreement on November 2, 1917 with Japan,
The government created was based on the Constitutional model. Mexican migration to the U. In 1914. efficiency. the ABC powers called a conference to prevent a war between the United States and Mexico caused by the Veracruz Incident. "watchful waiting": "Watchful waiting" refers to Wilson’s policy towards the events unfolding in Europe. Pershing was sent with 12. and Chile. .000 Mexicans had migrated to the United States. 1916 (Philippines): In 1916. Eventually. It established the Sea Land service to prevent carriers and shippers from using unfair pricing practices. Archangel expedition: In 1918. Massive US response angered some Mexicans and led to hostilities. General Pershing: During the political turmoil of Mexico in 1916. a bill was finally passed to actually grant the Filipinos their independence. They filled partly the US need for labor during war.whereby the United States recognized Japan's special interests in China. bandit Pancho Villa murdered 16 Americans. this led to Mexican-American hostilities. In 1934. overthrew Porfirio Díaz. it was America’s policy of neutrality throughout most of the First World War. Carranza: Rebels. Brazil. the US still felt they had a right to China.: In the period from 1877 to 1910 economic conditions were worsening in Mexico. Pancho Villa. Its establishment encouraged parallel pricing for all carriers.S. Jones Act. However.000 troops to catch Villa with no avail. led by Francisco Madero in 1911. Russia to defend Allied military stockpiles from German attack. This policy was taken although it was clear that the United States had obvious ties to Britain and would likely favor it. Allied forces later became antiBolshevik and seized the port. Democracy. Huerta. Congress passed the Jones Act which provided for a government for the Philippines and committed the United States to granting Filipino independence. outraged.S. General John J. With the U. In 1913. United States involvement in this campaign compromised American neutrality. When president Carranza rejected the proposal for a new Mexican government. By 1914 more than 100. Mexican Revolution. Allied forces landed in the port of Archangel. Jones Act. These new immigrants found mainly in railroad industries and agriculture where jobs were vacated by the war. pragmatism: Democracy is a form of government in which a substantial proportion of the citizenry directly or indirectly participates in ruling the state. Allies favored the Whites during the period of Russia’s civil war. then burned down Columbus in New Mexico. Díaz. the conference came to an end. Madero was overthrown by a military regime led by Victoriano Huerta. 1917 (Puerto Rico): The Jones Act of 1917 was passed by the United States to regulate trade in Puerto Rico. ABC Powers: The ABC powers consisted of Argentina. In effect. The US refused to recognize Huerta’s government because it had come to power violently.
Wealth Against Commonwealth: A leading opponent of business monopolies. marking the beginning of the individual progressive spirit. David Graham Phillips. was a leader of the muckrakers. Jacob Riis. He wrote a series of articles that documented corruption in American cities. The Shame of the Cities: An eminent American reformer and journalist. They were given this name because of their tendency to "spread the muck around. His photographs. Phillips was also a prominent journalist.Pragmatism is a philosophical movement. How the Other Half Lives: A journalist. asserting that some cities were run by political bosses who remained in power with the help of powerful businessmen. His best-known works. The Theory of the Leisure Class: Thorstein Veblen is best known for his book The Theory of The Leisure Class (1899)." Henry Demarest Lloyd. Lincoln Steffens. photographer. Henry Demarest Lloyd was one of the pioneer muckrakers of the late 19th century. The Octopus: The U." Veblen continued to write other books dealing with the same general theories. His "Treason of . Frank Norris. Thorstein Veblen. Joseph Lincoln Steffens. attacked the railroad and wheat industries in the United States. novelist Frank Norris was a noted pioneer of naturalism in literature. His novels portray the demoralizing effects of modern technology on human fate. He developed his antimonopoly theme as financial writer and editor at the Chicago Tribune.S. Veblen’s book is a classic of social theory that introduced the concept of "conspicuous consumption. and books focused on the squalid living conditions of the city's poor and spurred legislation to improve those conditions. They were highly honored internationally and a monument to them was built at Kitty Hawk. Tarbell became famous as a muckraker through her well-documented articles on political and corporate corruption in McClure's Magazine and American Magazine. The Treason of the Senate: Author of many popular problem novels of the early 20th century. which holds that both the meaning and the truth of any idea is a function of its practical outcome. Wright Brothers. Kitty Hawk: Wilbur and Orville Wright created the modern field of aeronautics. articles. and reformer. and biographer. developed in the United States. Muckraker was a term first used by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906. The Octopus (1901) and The Pit (1903). Jacob August Riis publicized the plight of immigrants in New York City slum tenements. History of the Standard Oil Company: As a Pennsylvania journalist. "Muckrakers": Those American writers who early in the 20th century wrote both fiction and nonfiction to expose corruption in business and politics were called the muckrakers. After over 200 calculations and tests at Kitty Hawk they built the first practical airplane. Ida Tarbell. editor.
a progressive economist. The School and Society. He founded the Laboratory School. especially at the ballot boxes where voters could be easily swayed. was an economics research professor at Northwestern University. As a jurist he interpreted the Constitution in a very liberal manner. greatly affected educational techniques." "learn by doing": Dewey’s ideas of progressive education. earning him the name "the Great Dissenter" among his colleagues. The referendum allowed voters to express their opinions of specific issues. Oliver Wendell Holmes. Edward Ross: Ross wrote one of the first books dealing with social psychology.the Senate" series of articles (1906) in Cosmopolitan magazine were an important contribution to the muckraking movement in American journalism. of each party nominate the party’s nominees for public office. Australian ballot (secret ballot): Many electoral reforms gave voters greater control over the government. Initiative. formed to educate the youth of America. described in The School and Society. Through recall voters were able to directly remove public officials from office. He founded the American Economic Association in 1899 and was the first economist to suggest that government interference in regulation of the national economic was not harmful but even sometimes helpful. Initiative allowed voters to enact laws directly. His ideas conflicted with McDougall’s. a school in which students learned of life by actively doing things rather than following a strict curriculum. recall: These were three types of progressive electoral reforms passed by some western states. He analyzed the transmission of social behavior through society by its transmission from one person to another. Jr. It provided that the members. referendum. It attacked the commonly accepted idea that women should be economically dependent on men while suggesting alternatives such as cooperative kitchens and day-care programs. Woman and Economics: Gilman was a leading American feminist writer known for Woman and Economics (1898). Supreme Court: Holmes was a professor of law at Harvard who resigned to become a member of the Supreme Court. Boy Scouts. John Dewey. Charlotte Perkins Gilman. ." They focused on teaching children of their proper patriotic role in society and working to broaden the horizons of their members though a number of varied activities. Direct primary: The direct primary was another progressive municipal reform. It originated in Wisconsin (1903) and rapidly spread throughout the rest of the United States. heavily embody Dewey’s concept of "learn by doing. another psychologist who believed that the process of evolution created instinctive sociological behavior. Girl Scouts: The Boy and Girl Scouts. not the leadership. a feminist classic she wrote. "progressive education.. Richard Ely: Ely.
strongly supported by Roosevelt and Pinchot. It is remembered for the militancy of its early organizational drives and its fight against sweatshops. Roosevelt instead mediated a series of negotiations between the strikers and the owners over issues of wages. followed by the National Conservation Commission. . on a speaking tour against the Northern Securities Company.By 1910 all states had replaced the corrupt system of preprinted ballots with a new secret ballot. It insured that all natural resources would be managed by experts. George F. fire: An accidental fire at the Traingle Shirtwaist Company killed 141 workers. International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU): This union of American needle-trade workers launched drives to improve working conditions. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good. Anthracite coal strike. It prodded the concerns of many progressive reformers since the workers. Forest Reserve Act. he began to create several groups to raise public awareness of nature and the necessity of conservation.500 people. end the practice of workers paying for their own equipment. which was much more difficult to rig. Baer: The Anthracite coal strike was the first strike in which the government became involved but did not side with the management. 1902: Roosevelt drafted the Newlands Reclamation Act when he noticed that decades of rapid industrial growth had destroyed much of the limited natural resources of the land. created a system of national forests. Newlands Reclamation Act. were killed by brutal working conditions. and union recognition. Conservation conference. safety conditions. By 1916 they enacted anti-saloon laws in 23 states and in 1917 they passed the 18th amendment beginning prohibition. Funding came from public-land sales and was used to build irrigation projects. The first meeting was of the White House Conservation Conference. Triangle Shirtwaist Co. As a result. These concerns raised new questions of human and immigrant rights and of existing labor laws. consisting of approximately 200 million acres. 1891: The Forest Reserve Act. Square Deal: Roosevelt. begun in Australia. which were protected from the short-sighted greed Roosevelt saw in many large companies. locked in the factory and unable to escape. Anti-Saloon League: During and after the American Civil War the laws regulating many aspects of saloons were either reduced or eliminated. and raise working rates. 1902. many people united in this league in their fight against saloons." This progressive concept denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trustbusting attitude. Through this act Roosevelt also enlarged Pinchot’s forest staff from 123 to 1. 1908: As Roosevelt’s conservative trend began to permeate through the public mind. called for a "square deal.
Northern Securities Co. passed in 1906. historian. granted the Interstate Commerce Commission enough power to regulate the economy. • "trustbuster": Teddy Roosevelt. It allowed them to regulate cable and wireless companies dealing with telephone and telegraph lines. prevented corporate officials from pleading immunity in cases concerning their own corporation’s illegal activities. followed by 43 other cases. deeply conservative at heart.B. Mann-Elkins Act. began a quality rating system. It was not originally given enough power to regulate the monopolized railroad system.B.E. DuBois. case: This was the first company Roosevelt filed suit against in his trustbusting stage. The Elkins Act strengthened the ICC by stiffening penalties against secret railroad rebates to favored shippers. He left many of the larger companies serving the public good alone. and provisioned for a federal department to inspect meat. He earned the "trustbuster" name when he filed suit against the Northern Securities Company. in 1905. and sociologist. to require a uniform system of accounting by regulated transportation companies. DuBois and other black leaders who shared his views founded the Niagara Movement. but he broke up many other large. Previously.E. It was a large holding company formed by railroad and banking interests. Hepburn Act. It created strict sanitary requirements for meat. The ICC was also given greater rate-setting power as well as the ability to begin court proceedings against companies disputing the new rates. 1910: The Mann-Elkins Act further extended the regulatory ability of the ICC. monopolistic companies in the interests of American welfare and economy. In 1902 Roosevelt "trustbusted" them by claiming they violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in holding money against the public good.E. W. Ont. did not want to destroy the big corporations that he saw necessary to American life. in conjunction with the Elkins Act.. 1906: The Hepburn Act. believe that they must be held to strict moral standards. rebates: The Interstate Commerce Commission was initially created to regulate the economy for the federal government. W. Meat Inspection Act: The Meat Inspection Act was passed by Roosevelt as a strong response to Sinclair's book describing the conditions of food as well as wartime scandals in 1898 concerning spoiled canned meats. however. He helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and was its outstanding spokesman in the first decades of its existence. 1903. in an attempt to reduce the corruption in the railroad industry. It allowed the ICC to set freight rates and. Members of the Niagara group joined with concerned liberal and radical whites to organize the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. The company was dissolved.Elkins Act. Immunity of Witness Act: The Immunity of Witness Act. was a leader of the civil rights movement in the United States. .B. many officials used this immunity plea to avoid testifying in any way concerning their actions. Niagara movement: At a meeting in Niagara Falls. He did. DuBois: For more than 50 years W. a black editor.
sponsored educational programs. a conservative gold standard. The Crisis: The Crisis was the magazine of the NAACP. It eventually led to the enactment of the Pure Food Act. and strict credit policies. issues: The Republican platform consisted of Taft and Sherman. did not have a perfect record. Washington represented a period of increasing anti-black violence. All products must be clearly labeled and must explain a product which cannot be seen or judged by a consumer. Taft easily won. The large anti-black riot in Springfield in 1908 was representative of the peak of a period of harsh discrimination. He helped manage several campaigns including the Republican presidential nomination of . DuBois to safeguard civil. white resentment of black advances. eventually leading to the Panic of 1907. and increased international trade. In 1906 he discharged an entire regiment of blacks accused of rioting in Brownsville. This panic brought the need for banking reform to the forefront of political activity. legal. It generally reflected the views of the blacks and whites who headed the NAACP. Mark Hanna: Hanna was a successful American politician and businessman. and mass public segregation.Springfield Ill riot. conservation. Panic of 1907: Roosevelt’s constant trustbusting of large corporations caused questionable bank speculations. DuBois was editor of The Crisis from 1910 to 1934.B. They ran for continued anti-trust enforcement. This unfair and illegal action was later reversed by Congress once all involved parties had died. It lobbied for legislation. human. Upton Sinclair.E. This book exposed the unsanitary working conditions in the stockyards of Chicago. He often wrote that Blacks should develop industry and business separate from the white economy in order prove their non-dependence on white society Brownsville Incident: Roosevelt. and political rights of black Americans. Pure Food and Drug Act: The Pure Food and Drug Act. gave consumers protection from dangerous and impure foods. and engaged in protest actions. W. eventually leading to an investigation of both working conditions and the conditions of food. The Socialist Party was represented by Eugene Debs.E. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP): The NAACP was an organization founded in 1909 by blacks and whites under such leaders as W. though not as racist a president as those before him. Election of 1908: candidates. William Jennings Bryan ran for the Democratic Party on a similar anti-trust platform. This act solved problems concerning fraudulently labeled items. 1908: The period of Booker T. enacted through the efforts of Harvey Wiley and Sinclair in 1906.B. finally culminating in the Federal Reserve Act. The Jungle: Sinclair was an American writer and reformer who wrote The Jungle. economic.
to new heights. increased corporate taxes. Hanna was later selected chairman of the Republican National Committee. Businessmen pushed for citywide elections and for the city-manager system of government. Florence Kelley. In 1899 she was selected general secretary of the National Consumers’ League. Hull House: Addams was a prominent social reformer in the US and Europe. She saw its evils as a resident in Hull House for several years. broke from this party in 1924 when he realized big business was dangerously out of control. It also tried to teach immigrants English customs. He became foreman of the Midvale Steel Company in 1878 and used mathematics to determine maximum industrial productivity. these problems were solved. The middle class began the movement and was the core of urban beautification. The populace agreed with this opinion by electing him governor as an independent. "laboratory of democracy": La Follette enacted sweeping changes during his governorship of Wisconsin in 1900. • Municipal Reform: The beginning of the Progressive Era is marked by a great increase in municipal reform. Addams also played an important role in the National Progressive party. Under this form of government the city was run by a committee of three elected commissioners. In an effort to end the abuses of the rich capitalists regulatory commissions were created to divide the concentrated wealth. Frederick W. Scientific management. and passed other progressive reform legislation. He adopted a direct primary system. Nearly all elements of the urban population participated in these reform efforts. regulatory commissions became more prevalent and numerable. using time and motion studies to find what each worker should for the highest efficiency. . the state. In reforms concerning the commoners. La Follette: La Follette. an organization he used to collect a large war chest to assist in McKinley’s election. but as the progressive movement entered the national government. a settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. The new state level of regulation had some inherit problems. Wisconsin. The excesses of the monopolistic railroad companies became known to all. They locally ran the county rather than allowing the state to handle affairs. He took the reform movement. consumerism: Kelley was largely responsible for the regulation of child labor.McKinley. initially a Republican in Congress. Taylor: Taylor was an engineer who first integrated scientific management with business. He also created a legislative reference library for lawyers. • Robert M. Jane Addams. This municipal level reform soon moved to the state level. began to regulate the railroads in his state. which used organized consumer boycotts and strikes to force improved factory conditions. previously only found at the municipal level. In 1889 she created Hull House in Chicago. home rule for cities: Home rule was a new form of city government other than the mayor-council form that emerged in the Progressive Era. even the political bosses assisted. Regulatory commissions: As the Progressive Era advanced.
Tom Johnson. and beautified his city. turned against Taft after his passage of the 1909 tariff and completely separated after he supported the Payne-Aldrich Tariff. a plan in which many beautiful pre-skyscraper buildings were designed in Chicago. William Howard Taft: As president. as a result. Taft focused primarily on a continuation of trustbusting and reuniting the old conservatives and young progressives of the Republican Party. commission plan: This form of government replaced the traditional mayor/council version in several cities. It began in Texas when progressives removed the corrupt mayor and council. Taft lost standing with the progressive Republicans. Bureau of Corporations also in 1903): This department was created in 1913 with the intention of assisting the welfare and working conditions of the general worker. Taft also strongly supported a national budgetary system. They were experts in rebuilding the ruined city. San Jones reformed profit sharing and education in Toledo. Many Progressive reformers considered this a sign that the companies and various special interests were preventing consumer prices from reaching reasonable levels. Progressives and Democrats joined to remove much of his power in 1910. He strongly opposed many progressive reforms and was thus not very popular in the house. Johnson reformed public ownership of utilities in Chicago. Brand Whitlock. but after numerous compromises in the Senate it became a protective measure. The separation between progressive and conservative republicans was caused by this group. in conjunction with John Root. City manager plan. Department of Labor (from 1903 Department of Commerce and Labor. Hazen Pingree: These were all progressives who reformed the political process. 1909 Chicago Plan: Burnham. Payne-Aldrich Tariff. the honesty in government. Since Taft have given him support. Daniel Hudson Burnham. . Pingree reformed taxes. 1909: This tariff was initially intended to lower several other tariffs. It was empowered to investigate and report illegal corporative activities. Ohio. Insurgents: Insurgents was a nickname for a small group of reformist Republicans. built the first steel-frame buildings that later developed into modern skyscrapers. replacing them with five elected commissioners. Under investigation it was found that Ballinger did nothing illegal though he did bend the government's environmental policies. Ballinger-Pinchot controversy: Pinchot charged that Ballinger was giving the nation's natural resources to private corporate interests. allowing the Republican-Democratic coalition to run the Senate. He was unable to reunite the two parties and. Burnham was the designer of the famous Chicago Plan. Sam (Golden Rule) Jones. including La Follette and Norris. which is what they were elected to do. the Democratic party swept the 1912 elections. This group. Uncle Joe Cannon (Old Guard): Cannon was a Republican who served as Speaker of the House from 1903 to 1911.
American Tobacco case: In 1911 a progressive interpretation of the Sherman Act was enacted by the Supreme Court. only "unreasonable" combinations restraining trade were illegal. They advocated primary elections. woman suffrage. opposing Taft’s support of numerous tariffs as well as the Old Guard in Congress. Taft-Roosevelt split: In 1912 the Democrats finally regained control of the presidency due to the Taft-Roosevelt split. It was created in his anger of Taft being nominated in the Republican Party. President Taft moved to construct his own competing rail system. President Taft sought to avoid military confrontation by using money to increase foreign interest in the US. Most of the money was stolen by corrupt government officials. Manchurian railroad scheme: In an attempt to force Japan and Russia to sell their land in Manchuria for railroad investment. He also created the Tennessee Valley Authority. As he ignored the limitations of party politics he slowly lost support. a dam building company. His efforts were largely a failure as most of the money never reached the actual people of Latin America. social. Taft’s inability to associate with the progressive elements of his party convinced Roosevelt to return. According to this "rule of reason" principle. was created by Theodore Roosevelt after his split with Taft. • "dollar diplomacy": In an effort to avoid Roosevelt’s "big stick" economic policy. He planned to promote better relation. Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party and thus siphoned enough votes to cause the Republicans to lose the election. Progressivism to Wilson . Roosevelt’s Osawatomie.Senator George Norris: Norris was a reformist senator who favored federal regulation of public utilities. Kansas speech: The differences between Taft and Roosevelt were revealed in Roosevelt’s 1910 Osawatomie "New Nationalism" speech. Through a change in House rules he ended the rule of the Speaker of the House Joseph Cannon. This interpretation emerged when the court broke these two companies into smaller firms. They outpolled the Republicans but lost to the Democrats. This was planned to quiet revolutionary thoughts and to prevent foreign financial problems. Rule of reason: Standard Oil case. formally known as the Progressive Party. but the US kept a portion of the military in the Dominican Republic. and prohibition of child labor. Bull Moose Party: This party. Roosevelt unveiled a plan in which he called for a protection of welfare over property. Secretary of State Knox: Knox was responsible for the creation of the Latin American Division of the State Department. He planned to donate large sums of money to generate economic. China refused to approve Taft’s plan and Japan and Russia began to grow suspicious of the US’s motives. and political stability in Latin America rather than sending the military to force stability.
Except on the issue of race. and minimum wages. democracy. They were never large." was a radical labor group formed by "Big Bill" Haywood. Specifically. Taft. National Monetary Commission: The National Monetary Commission examined monetary data collected by the Pujo Committee and recommended a new form of . corporate regulation. Though they won several strikes. Roosevelt copied many of his ideas for his New Nationalism platform. Wilson ran with the Democratic Party. Daniel DeLeon. they were more rhetoric than action. Roosevelt tried to run with the Republican Party. Socialist Party: Eugene V. Woodrow Wilson easily glided to victory as the Democrats also took both houses of Congress.In 1912. This platform was essentially identical with many of the progressive reforms later passed under Wilson." This platform followed the previous trustbusting and regulation trend as well as alleviating many common progressive concerns such as child labor. had a past history of 45 ballots without a nomination. • Election of 1912: Wilson. All of the platforms dealt primarily with economic reform.issues: The election of 1912 was very interesting for most Americans since there were 4 active political parties. Herbert Croly. He did not. indicating the change that Americans wanted. Debs . His Socialist party was quite popular until it splintered apart along internal divisions. Eugene V. IWW. support trustbusting in the same way that Roosevelt did. To him. running under a compromise platform. and individualism. The Promise of American Life: Croly best captured the nature of progressivism in this book. to which Wilson belonged. Wilson’s agenda included tariff reform. but they captured many people’s imaginations as they preached revolution. and labor legislation. He dreamed of an activist government which would serve all citizens. Wilson’s "New Freedom" campaign was concerned with progressive programs similar to both parties. all big business was morally evil and should be broken up. New Freedom: The Democratic Party. Debs was an American Socialist leader and five time presidential candidate. Wobblies. Debs. • Woodrow Wilson. nicknamed the "Wobblies. Debs even received 900. Debs continued to run on the Socialist platform. the divided Republicans were no match for the united Democrats. He received nearly one million votes for president while he was imprisoned in jail. • Theodore Roosevelt. but Taft was chosen. He left and created the Progressive Party. New Nationalism: In the election of 1912 Roosevelt was nominated under a platform nicknamed "The New Nationalism. A Federal Trade Commission was also planned to regulate the economy. In 1897 he created the Social Democratic Party of America. "Big Bill" Haywood: The Industrial Workers of the World. Roosevelt.000 votes. Four amendments to the Constitution within the span of eight years demonstrated the efficiency of the progressive impulse. To overcome this stumbling block the Democrats united with the Progressives. banking and currency reform. he suggested a redefinition of government. woman’s suffrage. however. the election identified the party firmly with reform for the rest of the century.
They each believed that history must be reexamined from a modern perspective and that the economic. It also began a trend towards hour-long. . The Great Train Robbery: The Great Train Robbery. political. demonstrating the revolt against conventional social standards that was beginning. Eugenics movement: The Eugenics movement is one of the best examples of progressive ideas contradicting science. Charles A. used to adjust the value of money to keep the economy stable. Griffith revolutionized the field of motion pictures after his production of The Birth of a Nation in 1915. many progressives moved to create censorship boards for these films. Scott Joplin. movies costing a nickel each. published in 1916. His work’s realism and irony contrast with the romantic and sentimental trends in progressive literature. It used new innovations such as the intercutting of scenes shot in different settings. These scenes were later unified to form a coherent narrative ending in a scene of suspense. Bell. The Passing of the Great Race: This book. D. The right to do so was upheld in the court case Buck v. Some Americans believed that the society could be improved by controlled breeding. This story demonstrated the power of film propaganda and the racist effects it had on people. They accomplished this by sterilizing many criminals and sex offenders. suggesting a secure Treasury reserve and branch banks. W. later became the Federal Reserve System. Madison Grant. His 1899 release of "Maple Leaf Rag" was the beginning of popular ragtime music. dramatic. W. Beard. Written in the Progressive Era. well-acted films. and a forced eugenics movement by crime and by race type. was the first major American film. This advice.banking. and social threads of present time must be followed back to generate a clearer picture. He believed that ragtime should evolve into an indigenous black American opera style. is a preview to the ideas later espoused by Adolf Hitler. Ragtime: Scott Joplin was a pianist and one of the most important developers of ragtime music. Nickelodeons: Nickelodeons. Spoon River Anthology: Edgar Lee Master’s poems are unique in that they are presented as the voices of a town’s graveyard talking about their lives. Noticing the lack of moral oversight. Griffith. became extremely popular in the Progressive Era due to the freedom they offered children from parents. Immigrant children could easily imagine away their restrictive home conditions. Historical revisionism: Mary and Charles were two historians that pioneered a new perspective on history. Edgar Lee Masters. immigrant restriction. The Birth of a Nation: D. this book calls for absolute racial segregation. produced by Edwin Porter in 1903. Mary Ritter Beard. Edwin Porter.
Eighteenth Amendment: The Eighteenth Amendment. The discount rate at which the federal bank lent the money determined the interest rate. a law which prevented the distribution of birth control. granting women the vote in 1920. proving to the nation that women could effect political changes. They found that the money and credit of the US is localized inside a small group of rich capitalists. The broadcasts of his revivals are considered among the most effective ever. She was convicted for this "public nuisance. In 1916 she opened the first American birth-control facility. and eventually gained the right for birth-control. As women felt their power in politics increasing. She attacked the Comstock Law." won an appeal. passing many progressive reform measures. Pujo Committee: The Pujo Committee researched and later reported on the concentration of money and credit over the general populace. Charles Evans Hughes: Charles Evans Hughes was an American jurist and statesmen. This amendment is the midpoint of a growing drive towards women’s rights. Sixteenth Amendment: The Sixteenth Amendment. It authorized the income tax thereby allowing the Underwood-Simmons Tariff of 1913 to lower many tariffs. Margaret Sanger: Sanger was a leader among birth-control advocates. This amendment invalidated an earlier Supreme Court decision calling the income tax was unconstitutional. As governor of New York he eliminated much of the corruption in government. in which he used broadcasting to strengthen people’s bond with Christianity. It split the US into 12 regions with one Federal bank in each region. He served as the chief justice of the Supreme Court in the depression years of the 1930s and supported many aspects of Roosevelt’s liberal New Deal. He conducted regular ‘revivals’ throughout the nation. Commercial banks bought stock from this bank. fair society in the eyes of progressives. ratified in 1913. is an obvious indicator to the Progressive era in which it was passed. moved the election of senators from the state legislatures to the general populace. prohibited the non-medical sale of alcohol. This law was intended to create a more democratic. Seventeenth Amendment: The Seventeenth Amendment. In the spirit of progressivism they were granted the vote in 1920. ratified in 1919. Federal Reserve Act: The Federal Reserve Act was a compromise designed to stabilize the currency in the US.Billy Sunday: Billy Sunday was an American Fundamentalist preacher and professional baseball player. . It followed the ideas already laid down by the Australian secret ballot and the direct primary. This amendment resulted from intense efforts among various women’s movements. This committee’s findings later led to the creation of the Federal Reserve Banking system. they began to demand the ability to vote from their male peers. is a logical progression from the prohibition movement. ratified in 1913. Nineteenth Amendment: The Nineteenth Amendment.
The right of unions to strike. to correct for this monetary loss. Income tax: The income tax. It investigated economically unfair business practices and regulated these. created by the Federal Trade Commission Act. "Brandeis brief": In 1916.Underwood-Simmons Tariff: The Underwood-Simmons Tariff reduced the tariffs from the Payne-Aldrich Tariff to about 29%." heavily advocated it. cease and desist orders: The Federal Trade Commission. The treaties were undermined by disputes of individual national interests. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan: From 1913-1915. a Jew. Federal Trade Commission. the United States should keep Americans off belligerent ships. noticing that it followed his principle of "New Freedom. Bryan served as Secretary of State to Wilson. Louis Brandeis. Panama Tolls dispute: In 1912. Practices such as local price-cutting and price discrimination were made illegal. This new power was first used in the Tariff Act of 1913 which set the tax of corporate income at 1%. Income tax has been greatly increased as tariffs have been lowered. labor’s Magna Carta (?): The Clayton Act was designed to clarify the Sherman Antitrust Act in terms of new economic issues that had arisen. An example of such a treaty is the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. arbitration treaties: The arbitration treaties were negotiated by Secretary of State Root with 25 other nations. After some dispute the United States eliminated the exemption clause and the president signed the bill in 1914. Great Britain opposed the move saying it violated the 1901 Hay-Pauncefote Treaty. boycott. International disputes could be deferred to the Hague Tribunal as stipulated by the arbitration treaties. originally declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. • Clayton Antitrust Act. to the Supreme Court. It included a graduated income tax. Wilson. a differing view on neutrality. which was briefly opposed because of anti- . He later was part of the Roosevelt administration and was involved in New Deal legislation taking his traditional Wilsonian democracy to the New Deal era and its actions. promoted free and fair trade competition. the United States passed a bill that would exempt the United States from payment in the use of the Panama Canal. was later ratified as the Sixteenth Amendment. Colonel House: Colonel Edward M House was part of the Wilson administration and served as an advisor to the president. The commission also regularly generated statistics of economic and business conditions to the public. but unfavorable court interpretations rendered many of its pro-labor sections powerless without further legislation. This act would have been labor’s Magna Carta had it been followed. and picket was also confirmed. Woodrow Wilson appointed Louis Brandeis. The US’s stubbornness on the issue of neutrality rights led Bryan to resign his position in 1915. He felt that instead of insisting on passenger’s rights. made legal by the sixteenth amendment to the Constitution. It also levied a 1% tax on all rich families.
Federal Highways Act. It was part of the governments plan to encourage a growth in American agriculture. Oregon. 1916: The Adamson Act of 1916 was a compromise that avoided a railroad strike. This aided the automobile industry and allowed for the existence of more cars. which allowed farmers to more easily secure long-term. It stated that federal funds would match appropriations made by states funds for highway construction. In 1908 in Muller v. enacted in 1914. it gave the federal government greater control over education because it required that states submit proposals for education to a federal board. using land or crops as the loan security. 1916: The Federal Highways Act of 1916 was pushed by Wilson and supported by the Democratic congress. the employee had to prove they were not at fault and that it was not a normal risk.Semitism. Federal Warehouse Act: Wilson heavily supported the Federal Warehouse Act.Hughes Act: The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 created the Federal Board for Vocational Education to encourage agricultural growth. regardless to the party responsible. An example of Wilson’s sympathy to labor and was one of his important worker protection laws. his Brandeis brief provided evidence as to why women need limited work hours. Smith-Lever Act: The Smith-Lever Act. farmers had to use actual money or property as security. This law was particularly important because it was the first attempt by Congress to regulate interstate commerce. Prior to the passage of this act. low-interest credit. This act created scales of compensation for any injury. This represented the Court’s adapting to the new. as well as pay and food quality. changing industrial society. Included provisions regulating work hours. It set an eight hour day for interstate railroad workers with a salary of one and a half for overtime work. Keating-Owen Act: The Keating-Owen Act. Smith. It forbade interstate shipment of products whose production was due to the labor of children under fourteen or sixteen. Furthermore. It applied to US ships as well as any ship docked in a US port. Adamson Act. passed in 1915. Students not in college benefited because they were taught agricultural skills by county agents. Prior to this act. attempted to prevent the problem of child labor. . Workmen’s Compensation Act: The Workmen’s Compensation Act heightened the rights of employees to bring legal action against their employers for injuries. La Follette Seaman’s Act: Passed in 1915. The act signaled a major victory for railroad workers. making loans harder to obtain. created a system of agricultural extension work funded by federal grants. the La Follette Seaman’s Act improved working and living conditions as well as making ships safer. from regional Farm Loan Banks. The act was designed to attract Americans to ocean occupations.
and Serbia were created. eventually going on the offensive in 1917 by itself blockading Britain at the cost of American involvement. France and Russia had signed treaties with each other. in turn drawing Great Britain into the war. Charles Evans Hughes was the Republican candidate who attacked the inefficiency of the Democratic Party. Balkan Wars: The ancient Ottoman empire had lost its grip throughout the late 1800’s. Wilson won the election. Bulgaria. The Arabic was sunk in the same year and Germans followed with the Arabic pledge promising to stop attacks on passenger vessels. Germans sunk the Sussex and made the Sussex pledge to promise a stoppage of attacks. Wilson declared war in 1917. Wilson. Triple Entente: Allies: Beginning in the early 1900’s.Hungary. Great Britain owed the United States over $4.First World War When war burst upon Europe in August 1914." Yet the United States and Britain were linked by extensive economic ties and many Americans felt close emotionally with the British. After Austria declared war on Serbia. most Americans wanted no part. Germany. Fearing a world dominated by imperial Germany. election of 1916: Hughes. . Also. Triple Alliance: Central Powers: The Triple Alliance consisted of Germany. Germany responded with its U-boats.2 billion by the end of the war. so was able to continue his idealistic policies. Serbia’s allies by treaties. In the Balkan Wars. as well as Italy. loans to the Allies: In total. Sussex pledge: In 1915. and seething over violation of neutral rights on the seas. it led to increased reparations for Germany because of allied indebtedness. Wilson immediately proclaimed American neutrality and called on the nation to be neutral "in thought and in action. had in encouraged the war declaration on Serbia." From it." Ottoman Empire. the newly independent nations of Romania. Germany declared war on Russia and France. Germany declared war on the allies (Russia and France). Arabic pledge. "Sick man of Europe. called the "sick man of Europe. Lusitania. British blockade: In an attempt to win the war of attrition that was World War I. the British Lusitania was sunk bringing protests from Wilson. Balkan States gained their independence from the Ottoman Empire. This system of alliances had escalated what was once a localized incident. Afterwards. Great Britain utilized its sizable navy to blockade all trade going in and out of Germany. issues: Wilson ran for reelection for the Democrats on the call that he had kept the United States out of the war. the United States lent the Allies over $10 billion. In 1916. This great indebtedness led to conflict later when the United States attempted to collect. with its blank check provision to Austria. AustriaHungary. Britain.
The Creel Committee. 1917. People felt obliged to buy bonds because they were afraid of being seen as unpatriotic. a new democratic world order led by the United States would follow. In other words. 1917. Anything German was frowned upon. commonly called the October Revolution. the Zimmerman note was a message intercepted by British intelligence from Germany to Mexico in 1917 proposing that in the event of a German war with the United states. Wilson foresaw the vengeful atmosphere that would follow a prolonged war. • Zimmerman Note: Also known as the Zimmerman Telegram. March and Bolshevik: In March 1917 a revolution overthrew Russia’s tsarist regime. a repudiation of the Sussex pledge. formed in 1917. Eventually. "Make the world safe for democracy": "Make the world safe for democracy" was Wilson’s famous line justifying United States involvement in the World War. Russian Revolutions. was an armed coup organized by the Bolshevik party. or Liberty Loans. President Wilson called a special Congressional session for April 2. Americans sided with neutrality.unrestricted submarine warfare: On January 31. At the beginning of the first World War. The declaration was passed by the Senate by a vote of 82 to 6 and in the House by a vote of 373 to 50 before it was then signed by Wilson. Wilson’s "Peace without victory": In 1916 President Wilson called for a "peace without victory. This action was backed by the German belief that this would lead it to victory before the Americans could become involved in the war. Mexico should attack the US. April 1917: On March 2. in which he proposed the declaration of war against Germany. The CPI was a propaganda committee that built support for the war effort in Europe among Americans. • Creel Committee: The Committee on Public Information. was successful in raising widespread American support for the war effort. 1917. bond drives: Treasury Secretary William Gibbs McAdoo organized the raising of funds. war declared. Germany announced it would resume unrestricted submarine warfare. necessary for the war with five campaigns between 1917 and 1919 with much excitement. they raised over $21 billion for the war. . The second Revolution. This was one of a few events which led to widespread public support for the Allies and eventual United States involvement in the World War." His words were a call to the European nations to stop the conflict based on a balance of power and to form a peace in which nations together would keep the peace. was headed by journalist George Creel. It would be a Mexican opportunity to retake the Mexican Cession. and served to censor the press. It depicted Germans and other enemies on bad terms. It was based on the belief that from this international power struggle. and sink all ships without warning whatsoever. a democratic revolution could arise. or CPI. These revolutions were caused by and led to Russia pulling out of World War I.
sent 2 million men to France under General John J. Eugene V. Men from 21-30 were to register for the military. Shooting down 22 planes. prices. Eddie Rickenbacker: Rickenbacker was an American Aviator during World War I. 1918: The Espionage Act of 1917 enacted fines and imprisonment for false statements. Made into a party-like atmosphere. postal service. Most enlisted in search of action and adventure. involvement in the war and for warning of the dangers of war and militarism. His imprisonment was an example of the reactionism and hysteria of the period. on May 18.War Industries Board: Created in July 1917. . he served in the US Air Service as commander of the 94th Aero Pursuit Squadron. 24 million registered. AEF: From 1917-1918. Pershing. the AEF. He received the Distinguished Service Cross as well as the Congressional Medal of Honor. inciting rebellion. he was America’s leading pilot. selective service: As part of US mobilization for war. The United States insisted the AEF be independent of French and English armies because it was believed the U. Food Administration: The Food Administration was created in 1917 as part of the war effort. instituting strict production and purchasing controls. and 3 million were actually drafted. 1917.S. and a response to the poor harvests of 1916 and 1917. During the war.S. The Sedition Act of 1918 made illegal any criticism of the government. Sedition Act. or American Expeditionary Force. It encouraged conservation with such days as "meatless Tuesdays. It was poorly applied and used to trample civil liberties during the war hysteria as in the example of the imprisonment of Eugene Debs. Bernard Baruch: Bernard Baruch was a Wall Street broker before being chosen by President Wilson in 1918 to head the War Industries Board. standardizing manufactured products. At the time. Herbert Hoover. 1917. Headed by Herbert Hoover. Also papers which opposed the government could be banned from the U. He was aided by a coalition of 100 businessman who advised him on fiscal policy. it set prices for agricultural goods high to encourage the production of agricultural products. production. the Selective Service Act was passed. Debs imprisoned: Eugene Debs was questionably imprisoned and was given a 10 year prison term for giving a speech at a Socialist’s convention. would have a stronger bargaining voice with a separate army. and paying high prices to businesses. and labor relations." Espionage Act. This was part of Wilson’s effort to take stronger action in the war effort. or obstructing recruitment or the draft. the War Industries Board controlled raw materials. the United States military was in poor disarray and men were desperately needed. It also encouraged production by allocating raw materials. The speech criticized American policy.
" and the resulting treaty proved a disaster. Each had a different prerogative and differing interests. George. meeting in Geneva. the League of Nations. Big Four: Wilson. so the conference became not an American but a Democratic affair. it existed from 1920 to 1946. Implemented at the Versailles conference. Clemenceau. Wilson promoted his Fourteen Points while other Allies sought vengeance. The US never joined because of controversy over Article X of the League Covenant that took away the United States’s freedom of determination in world affairs. and attorney Henry White. Colonel Edward M. In a fourteen-point speech to Congress. Orlando: The Big Four were the dominating four at the Versailles conference after World War I. . Blatantly missing from the delegation were any Republican leaders. and included Secretary of State Robert Lansing. General Tasker Bliss. The other points dealt with self determination and finally a general association of nations. The peace conference. Wilson failed in his most cherished objective. The aims of the other allies were not as liberal as that of the US. a peace based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points. until it was taken over by the United Nations. arms reduction and free trade. They dealt with the things that led to the first World War. House. • Versailles Conference and Treaty: The Big Four dominated the conference in 1919 that determined the postwar world order. Lloyd George for Britain. freedom of the seas. The treaty found Germany liable for the war and established new nations based on self determination. and Vittorio Orlando represented Italy. Wilson summed up United States war aims and its noble objectives. • Fourteen Points: The Fourteen Points were Wilson’s proposals and beliefs for a postwar world order. During the conference of Versailles. Ultimately.Postwar Aims During the war. American membership in the League of Nations. For example. These provisions set the stage for World War II. held at Versailles in 1919. The enormous reparations settled on was representative of this atmosphere. It also made German colonies mandates under the League of Nations and included the controversial article X that kept the US out of the League. • League of Nations: The organization promoted by Wilson in his Fourteen Points was the League of Nations. President Woodrow Wilson represented the United States. Wilson believed that United States involvement would translate into a new democratic world order. the first points called for open treaties. Clemenceau for France. After WWI. aims of Allies and US at peace conference: The main goal of Wilson and the American delegation was to secure an international peacekeeping organization. it divided German colonies into mandates of various League members. US Versailles delegation: The delegation was headed by President Wilson himself. November 1918 saw the war grind to a halt. Switzerland. Wilson pushed the Fourteen points and was partly successful. was dominated by conflict among the "Big Four.
Estonia. This article was a large part of why the US rejected the League. Even with the doctrine of self determination. those of the respective countries. Czechoslovakia Poland. reservations: Senate reservationists did not fully oppose the League except for mainly one Article. The colonies became in actuality. Wilson . Germany’s colonies became mandates of the League of Nations and delegated to France. La Follette: The irreconcileables were those in Congress who felt the United States should not be a member of the League under any circumstances. The belief manifested inself in the international world court that was established and later in the establishment of the United Nations after the demise of the League. boundaries for new countries still left many misrepresented and under others’ control. allowing for the rise of Hitler and World War II mandate system: As a provision of the Versailles Treaty. Hence. Austria. Self determination meant every nationality getting their own country. new nations. Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty: By Article 231.• collective security: Collective security was the dogma behind Article X of the League of Nations covenant of the Versailles Treaty. and Finland were new nations which filled this definition. Senate rejection. Germany accepted total responsibility for her and her allies for starting the First World War. They did not want the United States going to war defending another League member without Congress’s permission. Japan and Britain. all others must become involved. Reparations payments were based on this claim. it was felt that this would ensure peace in the postwar world order. It stated that every nation would serve to protect the territorial integrity and existing governments of all other League nations. Article 10 of the Versailles Treaty: The most controversial of the League of Nations covenants. Germany was forced to pay a huge sum. Lithuania. Article 10 said that all nations must protect the territorial and political integrity of other League members. Yugoslavia. The article meant that if one nation was engaged in war. This huge amount led to Germany’s economic downfall. Johnson. Hungary. They opposed nearly all of the provisions of the League of Nations and felt that the League obstructed the United State’s freedom of self determination. Latvia. reparations: Reparations were implemented by European powers wanting vengeance against Germany. They wanted that article removed before ratification. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. so new nations were created to allow this. which was one of their purposes in fighting the war. as was stipulated by Article X. self determination: The idea of new nations and self determination was behind some of the aspects of the Treaty of Versailles. It led to hatred among Germans and inadvertently contributed to conditions precipitating World War II. some $33 billion to the Allies for civilian and veterans costs. • "irreconcileables": Borah.
Congressional elections of 1918: In 1918.5 million deaths on both sides. Russia and Germany by far lost the most men at 1. In comparison. the wartime spirit saw new racial violence and fresh antiradical hysteria. Led to racial tension and violence in the North. For all its horrors. Women’s Roles in World War I: Prominent women’s leaders like Carrie Chapman Catt and Anna Howard Shaw saw war as an opportunity for women’s rights. farmers. Palmer raids: In 1919. . black migration to Northern cities: During the war. they will have an opportunity to gain power and rights. wartime manpower losses: During World War I. Some were deported under the Alien Act. In all. The Red Scare in the United States followed Communist revolutions in Russia. women should play a role so that after the war.000 blacks migrated North during the war. In November 1919. Among the victims was Attorney General A. Impact of the War The war affected the lives of millions of industrial workers. About 500. Republicans no who had traditionally supported Wilson’s plans in Europe no longer supported him because of his cry to voters for a Democratic Congress. Harriet Stanton Blatch: A prominent women’s leader who during the war offered a view on why women should play a role in the wartime effort. The wartime mood also gave a boost to moral-reform movements. there was a string of bombings. the United States lost only 126. Still.000 men. Red Scare. This growing concentration of blacks led to the Harlem Renaissance. women. Thousands of American Women took vacated jobs and became involved in industrial production as well as volunteer agencies at home and abroad. and blacks in important ways. military casualties alone accounted for just over 8. The antiradical panic crested in the Red Scare of 1919-1920. revealed their feelings in the election of 1920 leaving Republican Warren Harding in the office. Americans. the Republicans gained an advantage in both the House of Representatives as well as the Senate. Supplied America’s labor needs. In a variant of Wilson’s theme of determining the postwar peace.7 million killed each.attempted to overcome them and get ratification for the League but was unsuccessful in his campaign. Mitchell Palmer. tired of idealism. Palmer led raids and arrested around 700 suspected communists and anarchists. over 21 million men were injured during the war. World War I brought prosperity to the American economy. The United States never joined the League of Nations. blacks left their traditional homes in the South and migrated North for job opportunities in the war industries.
Republicans chose Senator Warren G. to powerful businessmen. coal.2 million for prenatal and baby-care centers in rural areas. inflation during the First World War: As Americans were sent to Europe to fight in World War I. 1920. Twenties Domestic Affairs America of the 1920s was a period of prosperity as well as industrial and technological growth. election of 1920: candidates. vice-presidential candidates: The democrats nominated James M. Harding was the Republican dark horse with running mate Calvin Coolidge. Normalcy: Coined by Warren G. Harding of Ohio and Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts. the immediate abandonment of the foreign and domestic policies of Wilson. inflation. The government responded with troops to break up the strike. They advocated a "return to normalcy" from the war environment. Harding sensed popular longing for calm and won in a landslide victory.strikes: 1919. and Franklin D. Esch-Cummins Transportation Act: Also known as the Transportation Act of 1920. brief depression. 1920-1921: A brief depression occurred from mid-1920 to the end of 1921. 1920 and attempted to insure the operation of the railroads. Lewis struck as well. . James Cox. Roosevelt for his running mate. this term came to symbolize. issues. They ran on a platform endorsing the League with reservations. It was followed by the improved economy of the 1920’s until the Great Depression struck. Cox and Franklin D. Harding in an address before the Home Market Club on May 14. Chicago police struck and were all fired. 1917 until Mar 1. Roosevelt were the Democratic nominees. The United Mine Workers of America under John L. With the recent end of World War I. issues: Senator Warren G. Election of 1920: candidates. this act allowed the government to take over the railroads from Dec 26.1920 in Boston. The most famous strike was in a Seattle shipyard. Harding. thus turning to the leadership of Warren G. The result was the Act of Feb 28. It was due to decreased European purchases from American industries after the war. The rise in prices was regulated by the WIB which set prices. fueling the Red Scare. a labor shortage was created. steel. With the shortage came higher wages which led to more purchases and in turn. police: Post-war strikes occurred because of an increase in prices. They were forced to carry heavy traffic while ignoring maintenance. Prices fell and unemployment was over 12% at its height. Americans yearned for a return to "normalcy" and political leaders that could provide it. This act provided $1. Sheppard-Towner Act: Lobbying for child-labor laws as well as worker protection for women and support for education by the Women’s Joint Congressional Committee resulted in the Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921. This meant a return to high protective tariffs and a reduction in taxes.
Unfortunately. Teapot Dome. believed the government had no obligation in protecting citizens against natural disasters. Harry Daugherty. 1922 (CPPA): A committee designed to revive the practices of the progressive era. Under his jurisdiction. •Harding scandals: Charles Forbes. Conference for Progressive Political Action. his ordinary. Coolidge. They were formally disbanded in 1869. KKK revival: A KKK was an organization founded in Pulaski. All suspects evaded prosecution.S.S. Nathan Bedford Forrest served as the first Grand Wizard for this organization. where his silences became legendary. Tennessee in 1866. 1923. This also restricted immigration to 2% of the total number of people who lived in the U. from their respective country since 1890 and completely rejected the immigration of Asians. the Supreme Court overturned many progressive reform measures that were opposed by popular business interests.000 people annually. and government ownership of railroads and utilities such as telephones and electricity. They aimed to destroy radical political power and establish white supremacy in the U. Harding. his administration was full of scandals and on Aug 2. and warned of "the tyranny of bureaucratic regulation and control. president of the Mammoth Oil Company.: Although Harding lacked the qualifications for presidency. profarmer.•Immigration Acts 1921. Fall leased government oil reserves in 1921 to Sinclair. The Bureau provided for a more efficient management of the budget within the treasury department. 1921. was exposed and convicted of stealing funds from it for personal economic growth. An example of this was the 1919 federal law imposing taxes on the products of child labor that he overturned. Daugherty. Simmons. but then it was revived in 1915. friendly manner and advocacy of a return to "normalcy" resulted in a landslide vicotry in the election of 1920. they limited the number to 164.000 people annually." Taft. director of the Veteran’s Bureau. in 1924. 1924. was forced from office in 1924 after receiving payments from violators of prohibition. he held an antipathy to progressivism. appointed attorney general. Sceretary of Interior Fall. Calvin: Harding’s death brought vice president Coolidge to the presidency. The intent of these provisions was to reduce the immigration of foreign people in the United States. Warren G. Chief Justice William Howard: Taft was appointed by President Harding in 1921. . quota system: In 1921 Congress limited annual immigration to about 350. Bureau of the Budget: Created by the Budget and Accounting Act on June 10. led by William J. Harding died in San Francisco of a heart attack. Harry Sinclair: Forbes. the CPPA adopted policies of pro-labor. As president. In 1924. It helped defeat the conservative Republican candidates in 1924. this act provided for the Bureau to be located in the treasury department with the director appointed by the president.
Al Capone: The Volstead Act of 1919 established the Prohibition Bureau within the Treasury Department. vetoes: The veto of the McNary-Haugen Bill by Coolidge reflected a fear of "the tyranny of bureaucratic regulation. his illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties. Congress submitted the 18th amendment prohibiting the manufacture. Secretary of Treasury tax cuts: Mellon was the secretary of the treasury under Harding. He also helped reject further tax cuts for the rich. Coolidge. and Hoover. election of 1924: candidates. Capone was a mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. backgrounds: Candidates Al Smith and Herbert Hoover represented the social and cultural differences of the 1920s. Davis. Alabama to automaker Henry Ford for only a portion of the value of the land. Massachusetts. yet he won. Under his administration. Sacco and Vanzetti Case: On Apr 15. Hoover was an inexperienced candidate that had never sought a public office before. McNary-Haugen Bill. Volstead Act. Progressive Party: CPPA delegates revived the Progressive Party at the meeting in Cleveland in July of 1924 and nominated Robert La Follette for president. but it lacked financial stability and was ineffective. Robert La Follette. •Prohibition: Prohibition was first an issue before World War I." He denounced the bill as an unconstitutional scheme because it would benefit American agriculture at the expense of the general public’s welfare. Congress lowered the income tax rates for the wealthy. closet manufacturing of alcoholic beverages and a rise in criminal activities within the cities due to illegal importation of alcohol led to its repeal with the 21st amendment in 1933. Progressives saw it as a way to deal with the social problems associated with alcoholism. The Democratic Party nominated John W. Federal Farm Board: This action was a result of Hoover’s response towards the problems faced by agriculture. The Republicans nominated Coolidge. Muscle Shoals: Norris successfully prevented President Coolidge from selling a federal hydroelectric facility at Muscle Shoals. sale. who won with 54% of the vote. Mellon also succeeded in balancing the budget every year from 1921 to 1928. or transportation of alcoholic liquors in 1917. Nicola Sacco and Bartholomeo . He secured the passage of legislation that established the Board to Promote Cooperative Commodity Marketing. Norris. personalities.Mellon. also. 1920 two robbers killed a clerk and stole money from a shoe factory in South Briantree. Election of 1928: candidates. However. a compromise candidate. Smith was the Democratic candidate with the experience of being the governor of NY. Senator George. By doing so he was permitted to raise farm prices while still preserving the voluntarist principle. the Socialist party and AFL supported this nomination.
Billy Sunday’s most famous quote reads. literature flourished and flappers defined a social trend. This boom also was started with the invention of the affordable automobile. KDKA. •fundamentalists. 1927. William Jennings Bryan agreed to assist prosecution. based in Pittsburgh. The jury found them both guilty. It also shows that not only famous cases have been products of social developments. were angered by the theory of evolution. Darrow was the head of ACLU’s lawyers. •Prosperity: This is a term that refers to the economic stability and opportunity experienced during the 1920s. While the movie industry produced new celebrities and jazz music became popular." Evangelist McPherson used drama and theatrical talent in her sermons. the Tennessee legislature outlawed the teaching of evolution in public schools. The American Civil Liberties Union volunteered to defend any teacher willing to challenge this law. This can be seen as an example of the progressive spirit that still survived in the legislative branch and its effect on society. Clarence Darrow. Protestants who insisted on the divinity of the Bible. broadcast the news of President Harding’s election. The economy during this time was stimulated by the new and booming electrical industry. Roaring Twenties American culture and society in the 1920s were marked by a wave of new lifestyles and ideas. An evangelist. This radio station also influenced the establishment of the Federal Radio Commission. Pittsburgh: This was the first successful radio station in the U. Federal Radio Commission. "If you turn hell upside down you will find ‘Made in Germany’ stamped on the bottom. 1927: The FRC was created by Congress and extended the principle of governmental regulation of business activity to the new radio industry. William Jennings Bryan: In 1925. Americans began to stray from traditional values as the culture changed. and jitterbugs. Both men died in the electric chair on Aug 23. 1920. A growth oriented business climate of the time was expansionist regarding American capitalism. Leopold and Loeb Case: The case in 1924 involved the murder of a young boy by two rich and intelligent college students.S. The inventions of new consumer goods and home electrical products contributed to this prosperity. Fundamentalist legislatures even introduced bills to prohibit the teaching of evolution in schools. This case has been referred to for its moral lesson on human nature. to start broadcasting on Nov 2. Billy Sunday. jazz. Americans responded to criminal cases also. . Scopes Trial. Amidst the speakeasies. winning many followers. Aimee Semple McPherson: During the twenties. It began the radio era when KDKA.Vanzetti were arrested and both were charged with the robbery and the murder.
lawyer. Garvey. He used musical rhythms and the traditions of African American culture in his poetry. James Weldon: American author. he started a weekly newspaper called the Negro World. the movement depended on the patronage of white people. Universal Negro Improvement Association: Garvey was a black nationalist leader who created the "Back to Africa" movement in the U. Ford. Rudolph. he led a printers’ strike for higher wages at a printing company in Kingston. de Mille. the AntiSaloon league was spurred by the Women’s Christian Temperance Movement in 1893. In 1908 he started production of the Model-T. Alice Paul: During the twenties. Marcus. •Harlem Renaissance. feminist Alice Paul’s National Women’s Party lobbied for an equal-rights amendment to the Constitution. Anti-Saloon League: Another organization formed during the progressive era. Charlie Chaplin was a silent film actor who appeared in 1914 with the Keystone Film Company. the Women’s Christian Temperance movement grew in momentum during the progressive era. Progressives encouraged the legal abolition of alcohol. Sloan. Other feminists. radicals. In 1920 he became the NAACP’s first black executive secretary. Langston Hughes: Hughes was an American writer known for the use of jazz and black folk rhythms in his poetry. De Mille produced and directed the first feature film made in Hollywood called The Squaw Man in 1914.: He was an American motion picture director and producer who in 1913 joined with Jesse Lasky and Samuel Goldwyn to form the Jesse L. Chaplin. Cecil B. The Harlem Renaissance refers to the black cultural development during the 1920s. James Weldon Johnson served as field secretary of the NAACP from 1916-1920. His first silent film was The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921) but his peak was with The Sheik (1921). Valentino. In 1914 he founded the UNIA and in 1916. and labor activists condemned Paul’s stance on this issue. Alfred P. Ford completed the construction of his first automobile and in 1903 he founded the Ford Motor Company. However. In 1907. the Model T. This occurred because the war with Germany fermented wider support for the movement. Unfortunately. National Women’s Party. The result of the efforts of the ASL was the 18th amendment passed in 1918. the proposed amendment never succeeded through the party. In the 1920s he was a prominent figure during the Harlem Renaissance and was the Poet Laureate of Harlem. In 1913 Ford began using standardized interchangeable parts and assembly-lines in his plants. Johnson. By 1917 it successfully established prohibition in 19 states.Women’s Christian Temperance Movement: Formed in 1874. Lasky Feature Play Company. . Charlie: Valentino was an actor who was idolized by female fans of the 1920s.S. Henry. and diplomat who reflected his deep consideration of black life in the United States.: In 1893.
Sinclair. Fred Astaire was involved with the choreography in the movie along with other famous dancers such as Berkeley. Main Street. The writers include: Ernest Hemingway. This name also refers to the general prosperity and liberation of the people during the time. and lack of values in American middle-class life. He began in 1914 on the Baltimore team of the International League. The American Mercury: Mencken founded the magazine The American Mercury in 1924. and William Carlos Williams. he was the first person to make a nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic. but individually they were all influential writers. F. emotional frustration. Flying in his single engine plane. Bitter about their World War I experiences and disillusioned with different aspects of American society. They never formed a formal literary movement. Babe. Spirit of St. Lindbergh. Jack Dempsey was an American professional boxer who became world heavyweight champion in 1919 but lost the title in 1926. Dempsey. Such a title reflects the revolution in music during the time. editor of the magazine.. Jack: Babe Ruth was the most popular player in the history of baseball. The Jazz Singer: The Jazz Singer was a movie. Barton. he flew from New York City to Paris. 1927. the Jazz Age: The Jazz Age is the general label of what the twenties represented. Scott Fitzgerald. . Charles. Louis: Lindbergh was an American aviator. He targeted his work at the shortcomings of democracy and the middle-class American culture. when jazz music became popular and in style. these writers were seen to be ex-patriots. His lectures in 1909 at Clark University advanced psychoanalysis in the United States. his ideas became popular during the 1920s. engineer . However.Ruth.L. Babbitt. those were the "good times. Lewis. On May 20. that started a demand for dancers who could fulfill the expectations of the 1920s. made in 1927. Mencken. H. •"the Lost Generation": This term refers to a group of American writers who lived primarily in Paris during the 1920s and 1930s. Bruce. comments on how people conform blindly to the standards of their environment. Spirit of St. Balanchine." By this he referred to the public’s admiration of leaders like President Harding. Louis. and De Mille. The Man Nobody Knows 1925: Barton was an advertising executive that described Jesus Christ as a managerial genius who "picked up twelve men from the bottom ranks of business and forged them into an organization that conquered the world. Mencken remained the editor until 1933." Freud’s. written in 1922. Babbitt: Main Street was written in 1920 and is where Lewis first developed the theme of the monotony. Sigmund theories: Freud was a Viennese physician whose studies of human sexuality and human psychology first appeared in the 1890s. and Pulitzer Prize winner.
and men of simple character and primitive emotions. Focus during this era was upon domestic affairs more so than foreign affairs. Fitzgerald. An American Tragedy had great success. Flappers: Called a flapper because they would leave their boot flaps open. This was Hemingway’s second most important novel next to The Sun Also Rises (1926). New restrictions on immigration and a lack of membership in international organizations. as reflected through its foreign policy during the twenties. This poem that is one of the most widely discussed literary works. dangling cigarette. The Great Gatsby: Fitzgerald wrote this book in five months and completed it in 1925.S.. such as the League of Nations and the World Court. •Collective Security: The term "collective security" was first mentioned in the inaugural speech made by president Franklin D. while women themselves turned to a more liberated attitude. 1937. Dreiser believed in representing life honestly in his fiction and accomplished this through accurate detail and descriptions of the urban settings of his stories. Women of the twenties were noticed more for their sex appeal and presented as thus in the advertising industry. the flapper was usually characterized by her "bobbed" hair. and her ever shortening skirt length. heavy make-up. for Americans sought to secure their nation after the effects of World War I and maintain prosperity. Independent and representing the rebellious youth of the age. The plot was a sensitive and satiric story of the pursuit of success and the collapse of the American dream. Written in 1922. Hemingway. . contributed to this isolationist period of America. F. The Waste Land: Eliot won the Nobel Prize for literature for his poem The Waste Land. In that speech Roosevelt refereed to the need to quarantine aggressor nations by acting upon them in a collective measure. Theodore. A Farewell to Arms: In Hemingway’s novels. Roosevelt on Oct 5. An American Tragedy: In 1925. he usually depicted the lives of two types of people: men and women deprived of faith in their values by World War I.Eliot. the flapper was the stereotype of a woman in the 1920s. New woman: During the 1920s changes in postwar behavior had a liberating effect on women. Being one of the writers of the Lost Generation. He also portrays his characters as victims of social and economic forces. the United States drew into isolation. T. Ernest. Foreign Policy in the 1920s In relation to the rest of the world. The isolationist disposition of the U. called for collective security. The Waste Land expresses Eliot’s conception of the contrast between modern society and societies of the past. Dreiser. Fitzgerald was bitter because of the effects of the war.S. thus saying that nations need to stick together in order to combat evil. Scott. The burden of domestic chores were alleviated with new technology.
From this conference came the ideal of setting a standard on the desired tonnage that each nation should have.5 billion gold pieces to the US from Germany. The principle is to hear cases that extended from the different participants in the court. The numbers are the allowed amount of tonnage for each nations’ supply of battleships. and Japan) discussed respect towards Pacific nations. USSR. Young Plan: The Dawes Plan. Twenty-One Demands: Japan in 1915.75-France. Lansing-Ishii Treaty: Signed on Nov 2.S. Five Power Treaty. at the end of WWI. Dawes Plan.. This act prompted the formulating of the Twenty-One demands written by China. 1920 at the Washington Arms Conference. 5-GB. The 9 Power Treaty restated the Open Door Policy. Signed by Frank Kellogg of the US and Aristicie Briand from France on Aug 27. this treaty was a series of notes between U. Aug 1924. Secretary of State Robert Lansing and the Japanese military informer Kikujiro Ishii. The money is usually given to a nation that has been damaged by the destructiveness of war due to the acts from the other county. invaded the city of Shandong and forced China to hand over the right of Japanese imperialism in the former German regions plus the city of Shandong. GB. At the conference which was called by the United States the issue of the arms race and the idea of keeping peace on the Pacific ocean were discussed. Four Power Treaty. the World Court was established in 1946 exceeding from a charter that was established by the UN. 1. . Kellogg-Briand Treaty: This treaty of 1928 denounced war between countries when it was used for the purpose of handling relations between countries. 1929 was for the final installment of the reparation payments and reduced the amount due by Germany significantly. These demands recognized Japan’s rights in Shandong. Fr. and the desired amount of battleships that each nation should have. reparations were a major concern. The Young Plan signed on Jun 7. 3-Japan. Fr.75 ratio: These ratios were conceived on Dec 14.75-1. 5-5-3-1. Nine Power Treaty: The 4 Power treaty (US. the World Court has the option of choosing cases. It also helped to reinstate the Open Door Policy. Pertaining to this treaty was the reconciliation of the two countries on the issue of foreign policy in the Far East.. •Washington Disarmament Conference: Also called the Washington Naval Conference it convened during 1921-1922. 1917. not all cases submitted would be tried. reparations: Reparations is a term applied to the issuing of money from one nation to another. regarded reparations payments and consisted of an annual allotment of 2. GB. The ideal tonnage ratio for the countries were 5-US. 1. The 5 power treaty (US.75 Italy. During the First and Second World Wars. it sought to bring about a change in the way countries dealt with foreign policy. 1928.World Court: Also named the International Court of Justice. and Italy) halted battleship construction for 10 years and developed the ideal tonnage ratio.
the unregulated trade within the process of buying stocks. Black Thursday: Black Thursday refers to Oct 29. 1922: The ideal quality which every American should possess. and the stock market crash of 1929 resulted. Welfare capitalism: Hoover welcomed this idea and urged further movement in this direction. 1927-1928: The United States refused to recognize the government established in Nicaragua under the regime of Emiliano Chamorro. and the ensuing struggle of the government to relieve Americans and recover the economy. "Rugged Individualism". He believed that economic development demanded corporate cooperation in the areas of workers wages and production regulations. it also warned member banks not to loan money for the purpose of buying stocks. The crash was caused by a number of ailments: the decline of agriculture. 1929 when the great stock market crash occurred. .S. 1922: This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. and the panic which led to bank foreclosures all over the United States. Calvin Coolidge. came the onset of the Great Depression. his ideologies and legislation were not as effective in restoring prosperity to the nation. by 1933 Hoover expelled the troops for they were no longer needed. the president at the time felt it necessary to send troops to Nicaragua. However. To accomplish this they increased the rate on federal reserve notes to decrease speculation. The Fordney-McCumber Tariff. Hoover saw this as a way to accelerate the decade’s trend towards corporate consolidation and cooperation. Americans viewed him as a man who would further boost the nation’s growing prosperity. would become self sufficient.Sending troops into Nicaragua. Federal Reserve Board: The Federal Reserve Board tried to establish an easy credit policy. During his term of office. Hoover Administration When Herbert Hoover was elected to the presidency in 1928. American Individualism. The goal of this tariff was to push foreign competition out of the way of American markets and after an isolationist principle was introduced. Unfortunately for Hoover. however. Hoover also believed that cutthroat capitalism was unnecessary. Their message went unheard. "rugged individualism" meant people who were self made individuals. relations. These ideas were encompassed in Hoover’s book. the U. who could handle the pressures given by a damaged society. Voluntarism: Hoover believed that a socially responsible economic order could only be brought about by the voluntary action of capitalist leaders and not through governmental persuasion. and who would rise above them in order to succeed.
Reconstruction Finance Corp. The goal for the committee was to coordinate efforts between other agencies in order to provide relief for the massive unemployed during the years of the Great Depression. the RFC was designed to give out loans to banks. the Trickle Down theory was an economic ideal which held the belief that the government should get involved in the economy by pumping money into it. the uncontrolled policies of the stock market. Emergency Committee for Employment: The Emergency Committee for Employment was created in 1930 under the presidency of Herbert Hoover. the overproduction of goods by industries. Hoover Dam provides flood control. Trickle Down Theory: Applied by Herbert Hoover. Within the act a five man Home Loan Board was created and the creation of banks to handle home mortgages provided money to homeowners that needed loans. and thus creating a surplus supply of money that would "trickle" down onto the rest of society.•Causes of the Great Depression: The Great Depression was not solely caused by the stock market crash in Oct of 1929... The inflation in agriculture. the Hawley-Smoot Tariff. 1930: Like the Fordney-McCumber Tariff. Located on the Colorado River in Arizona. (RFC): Created under the presidency of Herbert Hoover. Depression as an International Event: Due to the devastating effects that the Depression had on the American way of life a spiral of depressions sprung up all over Europe. America could not keep up with international trading thus further deepening the problem. the HawleySmoot Tariff also rose protective tariffs on the United States. Federal Home Loan Act: Under the presidential term of Hoover in 1931 the Federal Home Loan Act was created. . exports. As part of the New Deal it was constructed between 1931 to 1935 and began operations in 1936. and monopolistic companies in order to pump money back into the economy during the years of the Depression. it stands 726 feet high and 1244 feet wide. The isolationist principle also reflect the isolationist move the US was moving towards in the 1920s. The areas hardest hit was England for it depended greatly on U. to provide lending agencies that would be able to give banks. the National Credit Corporation under the persuasion of Herbert Hoover got the largest banks in the country. and irrigation for farms. It pushed rates on imported goods to the highest point they’ve ever been. at that time.S. electricity. On the contrary there were many other factors involved. the loss of enthusiasm directed at the consumer products that were being produced and a loss of mirth in the economy created a no buying situation. money that could be used for loans. National Credit Corporation: Created in 1931. on the brink of foreclosure. Hoover Dam: Originally called Boulder Dam. railroads.
Hoover Moratorium: The Hoover Moratorium was held in 1931 to discuss the payment of the allied war debts sustained during WWI. The number of battleships was a great concern to these nations for they wanted to live in peace with one another. to China and Japan. Mexico’s naturalization of oil: . Though the issue was never reconciled due to the fact that Britain and other European Countries went off the gold standard before the plan could be implemented. not in a war like situation. and Italy convened in 1930 to come to a mutual agreement pertaining to the number of battleships that were in existence. in 1932 the deadline for the veterans was pushed back by the government to a latter date thus causing the group to march onto Washington to demand their money. Representative J. Excessive force was used to disband these protesters. unfriendly disposition that Hoover took on the policy of helping out the poor.S. from England and the United States. it was contradictory to the ideals of the Roosevelt Corollary. 1932.The president of Mexico in 1938 was a man named Lazaro Cardenas. Out of the meeting came the decision to withhold grain and livestock from the economy. The purpose of the meeting was to reinstate the principles of the Monroe Doctrine to the events that were happening in Latin America. London Naval Conference: US. concluded that the U. Stimson Doctrine: Based on the principles of the Kellogg-Briand pact. The main issue that he focused on was the methods he could use to reconcile differences between the Mexican government and the Church. Clark Memorandum: The memorandum was called by the U. .P.Farmers’ Holiday Association: In 1931 farmers from the Midwest got together to discuss the methods they would use in order to stop the policies that devastated the agricultural economy.Reuben Clark in Dec of 1928. the HooverStimson doctrine was a collection of letters from the U. Ambassador Morrow: Turned into an ambassador for Mexico. GB. Japan. valued then at 450 million dollars. Dwight D. Hoover’s popularity plummeted because of it.S. did not formally recognize any change in territory if it was brought about by armed forces. These letters written on Jan 7. The conditions were that Mexico had to give fair compensation to the countries. France.S. •Bonus Army: The Bonus Army was a group of WWI veterans who were supposed to be given economic relief from the government due to their involvement in the war. The name was termed due to the cold. "Hooverville": "Hooverville" was a name given to any shanty town that manifested itself during the period when Herbert Hoover was president. and because they were veterans and heroes of this country. Hoover believed that giving economic aid to the poor would stifle the economy. However. Cardenas nationalized many oil companies. Morrow also named Ambassador Morrow was a worker for J.Morgan and Company.
or to promote a political issue. sell products. Perkins strengthened the Department of Labor. musical programs. She mostly fought for women and minority groups. these legislative measures dealt with assisting people financially. While not all were entirely successful. issues: The Republican candidate was Hoover and the Democratic one was Franklin D. Also. Berle.S. Frances. During her term. Roosevelt in 1932. Perkins. and recover the prosperity before the Depression." Roosevelt won. humanitarian and displayed her politics and social issues as a wife of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. the Social Security Act. The issue was ending the Great Depression. Age of the Radio: Radio reached its climax in the 1930s when millions of Americans listened to network news commentators. Moley was conservative while Tugwell and Berle were interested in reform. . Fireside Chats: During the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office Roosevelt held informal radio conversations every so often that were dubbed "fireside chats. and the means that were going to be taken in order to revive it. the prevention to perform work. and the restraining of an act committed by either a group or of an individual striker. Rexford Tugwell. though gradual. Perkins was also a social reformer. Overall. Roosevelt’s extensive program to restore the economy made up the New Deal. and comedy shows.Norris-La Guardia (anti-junction) Act. Election of 1932: candidates. Hoover’s platform was to increase the government’s role in the economy. Brain Trust: The term brain trust refers to the individual people outside the Franklin Roosevelt appointed presidential cabinet that helped in the decision making process of the president. 1932: The Norris-La Guardia Act forbade the issuing of injunctions to maintain anti-union contracts of employment. and Fair Labor Standards Act (1938). the president and business companies utilized this resource to attract people." The topic discussed was the economy that had been plagued by the depression. Secretary of Labor: Being the first woman to be appointed to a Cabinet position (1933-1945). Roosevelt and the New Deal Declining appeal of Hoover to the public led to the election of Franklin D. The men most known are: Raymond Moley. Many of her books include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and This Is My Story and On My Own. Eleanor: Eleanor Roosevelt is portrayed as a U. Roosevelt. pushed for a limit on employment age. reform other systems and institutions. and developed the CCC. Roosevelt. and Adolph A. the various programs all contributed to the eventual. Roosevelt’s message was "Pay attention to the forgotten man at the bottom of the economy period. recovery of the economy.
The solution is to have the government spend while maintaining low taxes and when there is demand that a tight budget should be created. This is done to stimulate the economy through the rise in government costs or due to the decrease of taxation. This would increase sales and cause a demand for that product. Emergency Banking Relief Act. This demand in turn will produce jobs for the poor. deficit spending is also seen as inefficiency of government spending. Through these measures. banking system). and Reform: These three areas.e. The Relief category was defined by the acts implemented in the area of aid to the unemployment. are the categories into which the New Deal was split. Import duties are still possible. FDR proposed a series of relief and emergency measures known collectively as the New Deal. Fiscal policy is regulation of trade between domestic or foreign goods. fiscal policy: The policy gave government control of the money supply and created a high economic rate to stabilized prices and wages. this theory pumped governmental money to the poor so they could buy products. Hundred Days: Measures taken during Roosevelt’s first days in office. The Recovery category put forth measures that would help aid in the speedy recovery of areas hit hardest by the depression (i. Recovery. Deficit spending: The manner in which the government spends more than it receives is refereed to as deficit spending. Now that the poor have jobs they have the necessary income to buy products and this cycle occurs again. Pump-priming: Supported by Roosevelt. •Relief.e. but fiscal policy makes an exception because its purpose is to raise revenue. Further help to relieve the problem of the foreclosing of banks was the Emergency Banking Act which was passed during the holiday to help open more banks. by relieving the plight of the people. recovery. recovery and reform: key phrases from the New Deal itself. FDR intended to revive the lost prosperity of the economy by reforming other institutions and programs. "Bank Holiday": Franklin Roosevelt in 1932 called for a "bank holiday" which permitted banks that were hurt from the depression to close down for a few days in order to regain stability.•Keynesian economics: Keynes looked at the economy in a wider sense: macroeconomics. New Deal: In light of the Great Depression. agriculture and industry). and reform. Monetary policy. enabled FDR to pass acts critical to stabilizing the economy. from Mar 9 to Jun 16. 1933: Implemented during the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt’s first term the Emergency Banking Relief Act allowed the reopening . and thus recover the nation’s wealth. Reform was a category in which the government tried to recreate areas that seemed faulty (i. The Hundred Days symbolized the beginning stages of the New Deal because the measures taken focused on relief. On the other hand. relief. He theorized that the relationship between supply and demand was critical: when the demand doesn’t meet expectations there is unemployment and depression while if demand surpasses production inflation occurs.
the government. This program created jobs that would try to conserve the nation’s natural resources.of healthy banks. The government also tried to restrict the production of certain commodities. Glass-Steagall Act. In addition. The act itself made 750 million dollars that had once been kept in the governments gold reserves now able to be used in the creation of loans to private businesses and other major corporations. set wages and working conditions. Wagner helped organized labor by not allowing employers from discriminating against union members. the NIRA focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. second AAA 1938: The first AAA was rendered unconstitutional years after the Act of 1938. the National Industrial recovery Administration was designed to administer the codes of "fair competition" brought forth by the NIRA. granted subsidies to farms who did not continually use the same plot of soil. The act provided healthy banks with a Treasury Department license and handled the affairs of the failed banks. both which stifled the economy. The Federal Deposit Insurance Committee allowed all bank deposits up to 5. National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA): Placed under the PWA. Jun 1933. it separated deposit banking from investment banking. In order to stop the problem of "dust bowls" created by the overuse of soil. the CCC aimed at men particularly in the age group from 18-25. under the AAA. 1933: In February of 1933 the Glass-Steagal Act was signed. Hugh: Hugh Johnson was the head of the National Recovery Administration who quickly created the organization and rallied support for the NRA by throwing parades in all of the main cities across the United States. The NIRA pumped money into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition. It tried to help mend the ailing problems that had plagued agriculture since the ending of the First World War. Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. •National Industrial Recovery Administration (NRA): Promoting recovery. and disallowed price cutting and unfair competitive practices. Section 7a of the NRA: Developed by Senator Robert F. "The Blue Eagle" was the symbol of the NRA. "The Blue Eagle. teach fire .000 dollars. section 7a allowed the workers to organize and enabled them to bargain collectively." Johnson. Such codes established production limits. Wagner of New York. The main focus of the NRA was to break wage cuts and strikes. passed in Jun of 1933. •Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA). (FDIC): This measure as the second of the banking acts enacted during Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office. •Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): Created under Franklin Roosevelt. The CCC would take these men out of the workforce and place them on jobs that would reforest certain areas.
mortgages to become refinanced which would prevent another Great Depression Farm Credit Administration: During Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA): One of the most powerful social workers. bridges. the Secretary of Interior. each man would work for one year. it also helped to restore the livelihood that was missing in agriculture. he set up the National Youth Administration to provide part time work for high school and college students. This valiant effort allowed one-fifth of all U. Public Works Administration (PWA): Harold Ickes: Headed by Harold Ickes.S. Harry Hopkins. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): The SEC. it was named the Farm Credit Administration.prevention and soil conservation. and public buildings. protected investors. established in 1934. and help to stop soil erosion. It was designed to help rural Americans refinance their farmland. Civil Works Administration (CWA): In Nov 1933 relief administrator Harry Hopkins convinced Franklin D. This stimulation allowed a . Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA): Senator Norris: Pushed for by Senator George Norris. Federal Housing Authority (FHA): This agency forced small down payments and lowinterest loans on home sales and thus stimulated the economy. the PWA was a governmental agency which spent $4 billion on 34. and controlling floods. National Youth Administration (NYA): As part of President Roosevelt’s New Deal plan. this measure allocated $500 million to relieve cities and states. listened to complaints. the HOLC refinanced American home mortgages. administered this program directed at local causes. Created in 1933.000 public works project which constructed dams. who was cautious and suspicious. The SEC required the registration of all companies and securities and required disclosure of company information and registration of all company securities exchanged. an important federal agency was established. Between 1933-1942 3 million men were put to work under the CCC. the construction of hydroelectric dams. issued licenses and penalized fraud. Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC): As part of the Hundred Days that understood the nation’s tragedy of foreclosed mortgages. the TVA was eventually curtailed in 1980 when nuclear plants were introduced. Roosevelt created the FERA in May 1933 and as a part of the New Deal. Roosevelt to create the CWA. The CWA provided temporary public works that allocated a billion dollars for short-term projects for the jobless during the winter but was demolished when the spring arrived. Franklin D. This agency served more than two million people and was set up because students were the most rebellious due to their exposure to new ideas. the TVA was a governmental agency which ruled several federal programs of building dams.
1935: The Gold Clause Act stated that private contracts dealing with certain railroad bonds were unable to interfere in the coining of money. it satisfied the requirements of the governmental concern of sharecroppers.000 bridges. it catalyzed the force of unionization.000 schools. the eight year program employed 8 million people and provided $11 billion dollars to the economy in which 650. the NLRB controlled the secret ballot elections during collective bargaining and managed the complaints of unfairness by the employers or unions. there were many loopholes. and post offices were built. (Also known as the National Labor Relation Act) National Labor Relations Board (NLRB): This agency was assembled by Congress in 1935 and oversaw the National Labor Relation Act (1935). Hopkins. The regulation in the value of money for those areas defined were specifically the areas given to Congress when the Constitution was written. •Works Progress Administration (WPA). This program was so successful that by 1941 40% of these farms had received electrical power. As an integral part of the New Deal. and established the National Labor Relations Board.000 miles of roads. this agency created loans for small farmers and sharecroppers to buy their own farms. 1935: Supported by R. Soon the program was expanded to include dependents. F. Federal Arts Project: Directed by Harry Hopkins in 1935. Resettlement Administration: As part of the New Deal and led by Rexford Tugwell. Social Security Act: Created by the U. this act supported old-age advantages by utilizing a pay roll tax on employers and employees. As an expression of the class spirit of the Second New Deal. hospitals. Harry. Gold Clause Act. and 125. Wagner.1935. As an independent agency. 1935: This act allowed the government to raise a spectrum of tariffs ranging from personal taxes at higher income levels to rises in corporate taxes to having heavier levies on gifts and estates. Wagner Act. secured workers the right to bargain collectively. Congress on August 14. . Rural Electrification Administration (REA): The REA was an agency that provided low-interest loans to utility companies and farmers’ cooperatives to reach the 90% of rural farmers who lacked electrical power. This originated from the Townsend clubs which pushed for a $200 pension.new market for private homes that accelerated the construction-industry through the utilization of technology to mass-produce homes. the Wagner Act of 1935 established defined unjust labor practices. Even though the Resettlement Administration lasted two years. arts. Revenue Act. The Federal Arts Project created positions for artists by making positions for art teachers and decorated posts for offices and courthouses with murals. 124.S. and adjusted with the inflation. the disabled.
By 1941. Results of the New Deal: Several accomplishments of the New Deal contributed to the nation’s economy. by providing benefit payments to farmers who practiced soil conservation methods. The amendment also set the date of the President’s inauguration back to Jan 20. 1936: The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act was formulated to replace the Agricultural Adjustment Act. It established a minimum wage for most workers while it concurrently created a forty-four hour work week and banned child labor. Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenancy Act: The act created the Farm Security Administration and replaced the Resettlement Administration.Emergency Relief Appropriation Act: As part of the Second New Deal in relation to the high unemployment rate in April 1935. Twenty-First Amendment: Ratified within the span of 10 months. The legislative measures brought reform and reinstated confidence in the people. Congress was forced into passing the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act in which Roosevelt was granted five billion dollars. Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act. helped to stem the overproduction in agriculture thus stabilizing farm prices. Wikersham Convention: Officially named the National Committee on Law Observation and Enforcement. Ultimately this resulted in support from Latin America during World War II. This agency created low-interest loans allowing farmers and sharecroppers to buy their own land. vastly increasing the power of the president. they had loaned 1 billion dollars assisting thousands of farmers. the federal government assumed responsibility in reviving economic prosperity. the ideology was that the U. the treatment of juvenile delinquents. Twentieth Amendment: Also known as the Lame-Duck Amendment the Twentieth Amendment in 1933 called for the ending of the "lame-duck" sessions of Congress from Dec of the even numbered years until the following Mar. the Twenty-First Amendment on Dec 5. Good Neighbor Policy: Stated in 1933 by Roosevelt in his inaugural address. This policy was used on various occasions of armed troops being sent to Latin America to maintain political stability. and other similar problems that faced society during that era. part of which he used to set up the Works Progress Administration. 1933 repealed the eighteenth amendment which dealt with the passing of prohibition. Fair Labors Standards Act: maximum hours and minimum wage: This act was created by the Roosevelt administration of northerners to undermine the South’s competitive edge.S. the Wikersham Convention in May of 1929 discussed the probing problems of prohibition. The amendment also permitted states to levy a tax on alcoholic substances. For the first time. the cost of law enforcement. . would respect the rights of other nations. The act.
Enacted on Jun 18. it allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U. and political stands. South: Franklin D. at the treaty of Versailles. safer working conditions. Indian Reorganization Act. American Federation of Labor. unions. The size of the union grew as production in the 1900’s grew. 1933: The United States didn’t recognize Russia because of the betrayal when Russia withdrew from WWI due to the Russian Revolution in March of 1917. SWOC gained recognition by striking against U. By 1935. Only until Roosevelt’s presidency did the U. big city machines. Steel. "conservative coalition" in Congress: Because of the combination of a majority in Congress and the agreeableness of President Franklin D. An example of this is that the Emergency Banking Act passed through Congress in one day.S. . many other companies began to do the same. Lewis. John L. Also. 1934: Authorized by the U. Because of this action. This type of passive resistance allowed the employees to halt production.000 members out of which Lewis co-founded the CIO.S. SWOC: Led by Philip Murray. Because blacks. This tactic was utilized in the strike by the United Automobile Workers against General Motors in 1937. Coalition of the Democratic Party: blacks. Steel recognized the union. intellectuals. Wilson and the other Allies agreed to weaken Russia. U. Roosevelt. 1934. big cities machines. UMW: This union was created by militant leader John L. and accepted a 40-hour week. a constitution. In 1935 it had about 250. thus paralyzing the business. Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). Congress. AFL: The AFL was led by Samuel Gompers and was composed of craft unions that excluded unskilled and semiskilled workers. recognize Russia. Steel Workers Organization Committee.S. By March 1937. government. and Southerners favored these relief programs. sit down strikes: These strikes were characterized by employees occupying the work place yet doing nothing. the dissidents formed the Committee for Industrial Organization.: John L. and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs. Roosevelt relied on state and local Democratic leaders who pushed beyond the traditional Democratic base. steelworkers. This 2 million-member group welcomed all autoworkers. credit.S. Lewis in 1890. gave the workers a wage increase. the Congress was viewed as conservative.S. based on his stands on increases in pay. reflect Lewis’ military style.Recognition of the USSR. they merged with the Democratic Party. United Mine Workers. and electrical workers. its methods. Lewis of the United Mine Workers and Sidney Hillman of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers established the CIO in the November of 1935. intellectuals. it provided the Indians direct ownership of their land.
Long. •"court packing" proposal: This proposal was announced by Franklin D. Douglass. Frankfurter. Jones & Laughlin Steel. Francis: Townsend developed the Townsend Plan in 1933 which embraced 5 million supporters.: Both radical agitators. In addition." Smith decried blacks. New Members of the Supreme Court: Black. Hughes. Townsend.S.Liberty League: This group was made of conservative Democrats who were against the economic and fiscal policies of Franklin D. This resulted in some New Dealers leaving the president’s side and humiliated President Franklin D.: These four men were appointed by Franklin D. Smith. these charges resulted in the Supreme Court declaring the NRA unconstitutional by stating that the NRA was regulating interstate commerce a violation of federal regulation. Alf Landon. Roosevelt between 1937 to 1939 to guarantee a foundation for a liberal majority and thus extending Roosevelt’s New Deal policies after leaving office. Davis. Smith and John W. Chief Justice Charles Evans: Hughes guided the Supreme Court in the attack against President Roosevelt in his plan to "pack" the Supreme Court in 1937. Gerald L. It called for a pension for citizens over 60 years of age to receive $200 provided by the federal government. He asserted reactionary views and revolved around anti-New Deal and ant-Semitic views. Roosevelt allowing the president to appoint new Supreme Court members for each one over 70 years of age. Catholics. United States: This case took place in May 1935 when a New York company was charged with a violation of an NRA poultry code. Townsend’s ideals were an early foundation of the Social Security Act. Ending in 1940. Congress and the American people disapproved of the action as well. he upheld the Wagner Act in which workers had the right of collective bargaining in the National Labor Relations Board v. Hugo. they supported the Republican candidate. It lasted for four years and was composed of famous members like Alfred E.. Share the Wealth. America First Party (1944). Election of 1936: candidates. Wall Street. William O. Roosevelt from the Democratic Party. and the Christian National Crusade (1947). Stanley F. Reed. Schechter v. issues: The candidates included Franklin D. he created the magazine Social Justice which attacked Communism. Also. Although Congress rejected it. and William . Communists. Felix.K. Huey. Coughlin. Roman Catholic "radio priest" to announce his political and economic views. totaling six in all. Roosevelt. Alfred M. After Chief Justice Evan Hughes’ leadership in expressing their disapproval in this plan. Dr. Roosevelt’s New Deal. Father Charles: Coughlin used his status as a U. Landon from the Republican party. and labor unions in the Union Party (1936). Long was known for his Share the Wealth program that painted a picture in which "every man [was] a king. and Jews.
FDR won in a landslide victory. The Grapes of Wrath written by Steinbeck in 1939 illustrates the plight of a dust bowl family. and limited donations from individuals which were to be given to political campaigns. 1936. this act was an amendment to the Clayton Act. the Second New Deal focused on and enlarged the federal program to incorporate the jobless. •dust bowl. 1939. Roosevelt and expressed in his State of the Union Address in January 1935. In the end. and merchants large or small. and unemployment statistics increased. create harder regulations on businesses. Okies. it eliminated unfair business practices and destroyed monopolies. On Jun 19. and to incorporate social-welfare benefits. Literacy Digest Poll: The poll was initiated by Franklin D. Roosevelt wanted to levy heavier taxes on the rich. to give assistance to the rural poor. 1936: Originated from a Federal Trade Commission chain store investigation. It disallowed bribery of votes. Roosevelt’s New Deal policies. "Roosevelt recession": Although the economy improved in 1936 and early 1937. John Steinbeck. and social welfare. the Hatch Act tried to exterminate corruption during elections. it once again fell back in mid 1937." once fertile land. A violation of this would be an unfair method as stated in the Federal Trade Commission Act. restricted federal employees from political campaigning. this act was passed and applied to all buyers or sellers. also known as "dust bowls. Gallop Poll. There. This occurred because after two generations of a melange of drought and poor farming techniques these areas. they debated on the validity of each poll in relation to Franklin D.Lemke from the Union Party. when industrial production and steel output declined. The principal issue was how to exploit the New Deal’s popularity. The Grapes of Wrath: "Okies" were poor farmers who moved west to California and Arizona during the 1930s or moved to the crowded cities. Roosevelt during his presidency and involved in a court case: Literacy Digest poll v. organized labor. Some of the major factors of this recession were federal policies that greatly reduced consumer income. GATHERING STORM . Hatch Act. •Second New Deal: Created by President Franklin D. Miller-Tydings Act. to help the unemployed receive jobs. 1939: Supported by Senator Carl Hatch of New Mexico and passed by Congress on Aug 2. Robinson-Patman Act. became waste areas and unusable. 1937: The purpose of this act was to amend the Sherman Anti-Trust Act by exempting any contract or agreement ("horizontal agreements") in which a product would be set at a significantly lower price.
1933: Meeting of 19 American republics. Tydings-McDuffie Act. 1936: It was opened by Roosevelt when he stated in a speech that any non-American state seeking "to commit acts of aggression against us will face a Hemisphere wholly prepared to consult together for our mutual safety and our mutual good. delegation to the conference endorsed a document that declared "no state has the right to intervene in the internal affairs of another. to the future independence of the Philippines. and Supreme Court justices were to be appointed by the president. the Philippine Congress was made elective. it expressed the U. Montevideo Conference: This conference was held in 1933. which provided for the . Act of Havana. Additionally." Also a pact was adopted promising consultation if war was imminent Lima Conference. Depression and out of control inflation totally destabilized Germany’s government and allowed the rise to power of the Nazis. 1916: This act provided for the government of the Philippines and committed the U.The two decades prior to the outbreak of hostilities in World War II were a period of increasing unrest both politically and socially in many areas of the world. Jones Act. in which the American treaty of reciprocal Assistance was signed. and also restated the sovereignty of the American states. determination to resist "all foreign intervention or activities that may threaten them. XIV entitled "Declaration of Panama. Descendants of Spanish subjects in 1899 were designated citizens. committing each republic to assist another in times of any attack or if an American republic were threatened by a situation not involving an armed attack.S. sixteen resolutions were passed to deal with the outbreak of war in Europe." stated that American waters should be free of hostilities from non-belligerent nations. Resolution no. 1939: Adopted at Panama city by the foreign ministers of the American Republics. Philippines: The act eliminated certain objectionable provisions of a previous act known as the Hawes-Cutting Act. It stated that the American Republics would take over and administer any European possession in the New World endangered by aggression. members would meet and decide necessary actions to be taken Buenos Aires Conference. It was unanimously approved by the Pan American Nations." Declaration of Panama. 1940: The act was created to prevent the transfer to European colonies to Germany in the western hemisphere. the Lima Conference adopted the Declaration of Lima. Rio de Janeiro Conference.S.S. Voting rights were given to all literate male citizens over 21. 1938: Another conference before WWII. 1934. Some of the issues were related to unresolved conflicts left over from World War I. A U. who were able to capitalize on a German sense of injustice and nationalistic frustration. Secretary of State furthered the interests of Latin American States when he asked for a reduction of trade barriers.
In July of 1936. In 1931. He also pursued an aggressive policy which won him support in every sector of the population. effective 10 years after the inauguration of an authorized government. Spanish Civil War. In 1937. was powerless to stop it.S. This united or popular front formed in 1938.S. this committee was headed by Senator Gerald Nye. fascist Franco led the Spanish army units to overthrow the elected government in Spain. In 1935. and Roman Catholic hierarchy.independence of the Philippine Islands after 12 years. Russia’s Commissar of Foreign Affairs MaksimM. . Popular Front: In order to gain the support of the Allies. Japan attacked the Chinese province of Manchuria and installed a puppet government. Chiang Kai-shek. industrialists. Japan Attacks China. Mussolini: Mussolini founded the Fasci de Combitimmento after being kicked out of the Socialist party in 1919. prohibited loans to belligerent nations. •neutrality legislation: A series of Neutrality Acts were passed in 1935. He came into power in the 1920s.S. and by 1926. Nye Committee: Instituted due to public concern over the issue that the U. Russia sought a formation of united-front governments in foreign countries. Mussolini had transformed Italy into a single-party totalitarian regime. China’s leader. Litvinov asked for action against fascist governments.S. The revolution was supported by Spanish conservatives. banks and corporations financing WWI and supplying arms and loans to the Allied nations. these laws placed an embargo on exports of war materials to belligerents. Ethiopia: Mussolini was intent on building an African empire comparable to those of the European nations.S. had to purchase the goods they wanted as well as provide their own vessels in which they could be shipped out to their country. "merchants of death": This term refers to the business corporations and banks who were blamed for dragging the U. It also provided for trade relations with the U. citizens not to travel on belligerent vessels. was dragged into WW I. and instituted the cash and carry policy which meant that nations that were seeking to trade with the U. into the war because they were desperate to protect the millions of dollars invested in loans and weapon sales to Britain and France. landowners. 1936. and 1937. Franco: This war lasted from 1936-1939. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia which did not have a way of stopping him from invading because Ethiopia was such a weak nation without a strong army and a supply of ammunition. Japan declared war against China. The Committee held hearings between 1934 and 1936 and compiled evidence of involvement of U. It also warned U. Chiang Kai-shek: Japan was taken over by a militaristic government that had expansionist dreams. All these allegations were investigated by the Nye committee.S. called for a collaboration of Communist Socialist to fight fascism. monarchists.
Jewish businesses and schools were wrecked and looted. Finally. His racist views targeted all non-white Christians who expressed anti-German ideas. though not officially in the war. signed a pact with Nazi Germany on August 24. Thousands of homes were vandalized and synagogues were burned to the ground. the United States attempted to maintain a distance. Nazism: Adolf Hitler’s Nazi party came into power in 1933 and clamped a dictatorship on Germany.S. However. •Munich Conference. Supporting the Allied forces. He pursued a militaristic and expansionist foreign policy. Nothing was spared. In a 1937 speech. not one to push ahead of public opinion. He proclaimed an Anschluss between Austria and Germany and German troops rolled into the capital city Vienna. Nazi sympathizers in Austria welcomed Hitler’s annexation of Austria. This was a severe blow to the Popular Front. Hitler. the United States. made a formal apology and promised indemnities later set at $2 million.Panay Incident." 1937: Roosevelt recognized the power of the antiwar feelings demonstrated at home. evident in his plan to raise a half million man army and expand German borders to Russia. appeasement. the United States was fenced in and forced to choose a side. the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor pulled the United States into the global conflict. he assured a visiting Australian leader in 1935 that America would never enter a war. Japan accepted responsibilities of bombing the ships. Chamberlain was very much blamed for the oncoming of WWII due to his actions toward Hitler. Hitler’s actions here furthered his plans to expand German borders and his rule. representing England. as hostilities escalated in both the East and West. was considered a legitimate target by the Axis." this rampage was carried out by Nazis all over Germany and Austria to destroy Jewish homes and structures. nonaggression pact between Germany and USSR: Stalin. Kristallnacht: Meaning "The Night of Broken Glass. who advocated a popular front against fascism. Chamberlain. "Quarantine speech. . He was replaced soon after by Winston Churchill. After France fell to Germany. 1937: Japanese bombers engaged in war with China bombed and sank the marked U. gunboat Panay and three Standard Oil ships. pressure increased on the United States. 1939 agreeing not to make war on each other and divided up Poland between the two nations: the USSR and Germany. Neville Chamberlain: This conference was held in 1938 between England and Germany. which were evacuating American officials from China. Austria Annexed: Hitler annexed Austria in 1938 and expanded the German borders. he suggested the possibility of a "quarantine" of aggressor nations. gave in to Hitler’s demands on territory that Germany had lost after the end of WWI. Many people in Britain were very disappointed in Chamberlain and how easily he had appeased to the demands of Hitler. Gathering Storm 1940-1941 As World War Two began in Europe.
appointed Prime Minister.. In 1941.S. 1939. and in 1940 made Minister of War. 22 France capitulated. The Committee. and even joined the America First Committee to demonstrate his antiwar sentiment. Axis Powers: Group of countries opposed to the Allied powers. he was faced with stiff resistance by the America First Committee in 1940. fall of France: Hitler’s launched his blitzkrieg on France in 1938. An extreme militarist. Charles: Isolationism was the foreign policy practiced by America after WWI. The committee was compromised of many pro-isolationist who thought that the allied powers could do nothing to stop the war. Mussolini attacked from the South at the same time. Charles Lindbergh was a big supporter of this policy. The Axis powers were Japan. Resigned 1944. In Sept. This meant that the allied countries had to only pay for the goods and the United States would ship them. Nations who wanted to trade had to purchase the materials from the U. and carry them on their own vessels. Led the Japanese army against Manchuria. England evacuated 338. and imprisoned individuals not because of any acts of violence or espionage. America First Committee: When FDR expressed a desire for American intervention in WWII.Invasion of Poland.S. advocated total war. Blitzkrieg: When Poland refused to restore the German city of Danzig lost after WWI." and quickly occupied many western European nations. Became Army Chief of Staff in 1937. as most citizens did not want to be involved in many international affairs. but rather for their rhetoric and their views on the American government. Hitler’s troops attacked Poland on Sept. or "lightening war. and controlled government and military operations during WWII. Belgium and Luxembourg. It was largely used in the later years of communist hysteria.000 men from the English channel. Isolationism. 1940. The British were already being driven back when Hitler attacked Netherlands. . and on Jun. Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies: Instituted by Roosevelt to oversee loans and other such financial activities occurring while Germany attacked Britain.1. Smith Act: The Smith Act was created in 1940 and outlawed any conspiracy to overthrow the government. to make sure they stayed isolationist. Originated in the RomeBerlin Axis with the 1936 Hitler-Mussolini Accord and their alliance in 1939. Italy and Germany. oversaw lend lease policy implemented by Roosevelt for purposes of protecting America and also to help stop Germany in Europe. Lindbergh. Tojo: Japanese leader during WWII. it was extended when Japan was incorporated into the Axis by the signing of the Tripartite pact. "cash and carry": A precautionary move by the U. April 1940. Hitler unleashed his Blitzkrieg.
soil.S. the entire country pitched in to help the war effort. Tripartite Pact: The Tripartite Pact was a 10 year military and economic alliance also known as the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis. France. and 8 battleships. and endorsed the principles of collective security and disarmament. and 3 destroyers were sunk or crippled. August 1941: FDR met Churchill to discuss joint military strategy. USSR. Their public statement expressed their ideas of a postwar world.S. The major issues were WWII and military spending. issues: Roosevelt was nominated by the Democrats for a third term. •Pearl Harbor. Homefront Though World War Two was not fought on U. and the Republicans nominated Wendell L. S. affirmed national self-determination. In less that 3 hours. 1940. The United States government established many wartime organizations to monitor supplies and food as well control propaganda. and to strafe the planes parked side by side at nearby air bases. of which the United States received $6 billion in repayment by these nations. Britain gave the United States 99 year leases to establish military bases on British possessions in the Western hemisphere. Worst loss of U. Everyone on the homefront was expected to do his or her part in the war as well." March 1941: Program set up to loan the Allied nations arms and other materials to wage war against the Axis powers. and frowned upon aggression. Willkie. •"Lend Lease. over 300 aircraft were destroyed or damaged. The Lend-lease bill was approved by Congress in 1941. which originally authorized $7 billion. By August 1945. December 7. Roosevelt endorsed the nation’s 1st peacetime draft and advocated a military spending increase. arms in history. Families were encouraged to help fathers and brothers by not buying tin or rationing sugar or buying war bonds. Thirty-five other nations besides Great Britain. Atlantic Charter. election of 1940: candidates. and China received loans from the lend lease. the amount totaled $48 billion. 3 light cruisers. 1941: On the morning of December 7.destroyers-for-bases deal: In exchange for fifty old WWI American destroyers which had in been recommissioned in 1939 and 1940 and were serving on neutrality patrol. •Japanese Relocation: Japanese-born Americans and immigrants from Japan were sent to concentration camps in the early 1940’s because of a fear that they would leak out . Housewives grew Liberty Gardens and went to work in place of the drafted men. Japan signed this alliance in September. Each of the signatories pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the U. scores of Japanese dive-bombers and torpedo planes flew across Oahu to bomb the ships that were anchored in Peal Harbor. with the previously allied Italy and Germany.
and the war industry. FDR established the War Production Board. 1 million still died. including works of publishers and broadcasters.S. although it was late in inception. Office of Strategic Services: FDR and the Joint Chief of Staffs formed the Office of Strategic Services which served as an intelligence agency during WWII and was a . The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas. Most of these people were suspected of being spies for the Japanese. bond drives: In order to finance the war and give people a sense of involvement in the war effort.000 Jews and 20. coffee and shoes. to Japan. Although Congress refused to grant him a progressive tax. The War Labor Board acted as the mediator to prevent massive strikes and wage increases that occurred with the demand for workers. limited or stopped the production of civil goods. It allocated scarce materials. War Production Board: In 1942. Office of Price Administration (OPA): Instituted in 1942. Office of Censorship. and FDR apologized to them. this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation. The captured Japanese were released in 1942.information about the U. and also to study how profit can be gained through the production of weapons and supplies. sugar. meat. in 1942. in order to maintain the positive public opinion in America. The bonds raised half the money for WWII.000 non-Jews. In order to get the necessary amount of raw materials. FDR announced a plan for massive war production. and sought to prevent strikes and out of control wage increases. profiteering. The treasury department sold about $40 billion "E" bonds to investors. Roosevelt wanted to pay for as much as possible through taxes. hoarding and price administration. the War Labor Board was instituted to mediate disputes between management and labor. Although it saved 200. War Refugee Board (WRB): FDR established the War Refugee Board in 1943 to help rescue and assist the many people who were condemned to death camps. oil. the Revenue Act raised the top income-tax rate from 60% to 90% and added middle class and lower income groups to the tax bracket as well. It relocated many refugees in need. bond drives were held. butter. Office of War Information: Roosevelt wanted public opinion to be positive during the war. and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers. War Labor Board: Established in 1942. though there was no solid evidence to support such accusations. War Manpower Commission (WMC): FDR established the War Manpower Commission in 1942 to help supervise the mobilization of males and females in the military. and nearly twice the amount in higher denomination. as well as all letters going overseas. Revenue Act of 1942: Because of the expenditure on the war. he established the Office of Censorship. and in 1941. It examined all written documents.
rockets. tanks.predecessor of the CIA. Eisenhower. both as civilian support personnel and in the uniformed services in the Woman’s Army Corps (WAC) and Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service in the Navy (WAVES). He was the strategist behind the Pacific Wars. replacing those men who had entered the military. Blacks moved into service in all areas of the military. He became Secretary of State for President Truman. advanced jets. it employed an allied army of more than 100. It began on June 13. It spent $1 billion dollars to produce sonar. and the Second World War The United States was involved in two major areas of conflict. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD): Formed in 1941 to contract out the development of new medicines and ordinances. including heavy industry. From bases in England and Africa. and the development of DDT and other pesticides. Operation Torch: Undertaken in November 1942. Discontinued by Truman in 1945. although most in segregated units until 1948. and was highly respected by his peers in the armed forces. General MacArthur was credited for the great successes that the Americans had in the Pacific wars. Island hopping proved to be the only way the United States could retake the Pacific from the Japanese. •African-Americans in World War II: Many civil rights groups used the need of the government for the cooperation of all its citizens in the war effort to push a new militancy in redressing discrimination. freeing men for combat pilot positions. and to analyze the enemy. General.000 troops. Women moved into the civilian workforce. and as such played an important role in aiding the postwar economic recovery of Europe with the Marshall Plan. which provided assistance to war-torn Western Europe. the Allies would concentrate on the Japanese threat. MacArthur. Women pilots ferried planes from station to station.1942 to conduct espionage. the troops landed in Morocco and . Marshall. A large migration of blacks from the South to Northern industrial areas made civil rights a national rather than regional concern and broadened the political effects of black votes. the Allied forces hammered at the Italian and German lines. gather intelligence information required for planning. •Women in World War II: Women served in significant numbers during World War II.S. Opting to first prevent the complete takeover of Europe. The U. Led by General Eisenhower. General: Eisenhower led the D-Day invasion with great success. the struggle in Europe and the battle in the Pacific Theater. the United States hoped that after Germany was defeated. radar devices. George Catlett: An American military commander who was Army Chief of Staff during World War II.
Winston: British Prime Minister during WWII. Cairo Conference. 6 million perished.000 allied troops landed on the beach of Normandy. An additional million waded ashore in the following weeks. The Russians were victorious at the battle. D-Day. 1943: FDR met with Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek. Casablanca Conference. 1944: In the first 24 hours. 1943: In the middle of the North African campaign. When Germany first began attacking Britain. In a clever move. But. FDR and him and were the major parties involved in allied conferences. By the end. and tried to reduce Soviet mistrust of the west. and thus were able to launch a counter-offensive against Germany and drive the Nazis from Russia. Churchill. but Churchill objected and Roosevelt agreed for a plan to invade Sicily in the summer on 1943. member of the Big Three. when the allies were better equipped to fight. Roosevelt and Churchill met at Casablanca and resolved to attack Italy before invading France. June 6. 150. the head of the Chinese government. Roosevelt was convinced by Churchill to delay the second front from 1942 to a later date. in the form of equipment and arms.. and have forces in Africa to protect English colonies since Germany was attacking Africa. arriving in Paris by August. and allies reached inland in July. By summer’s end British secured Belgium and the Americans recovered France and Luxembourg. second front: The plan that was going to be used to aid the Soviet Union in fighting the Germans. he asked for assistance from the U. During WWII.S. where Jews were methodically executed by means of poisonous gas or other forms. Stalingrad: The site of one of the bloodiest battles during WWII. "Final solution": Hitler persecuted Jews in Germany and sought to rid Germany of them. Battle of Midway: In 1942.Algeria and pressed eastward to entrap the German forces being pushed by British forces in Libya. the Germans surrendered in May 1943. he ordered dive-bombers to destroy the ships. Italian military leaders surrendered to the allied forces on September 8 1943. Japanese codes were decoded and Admiral Nimitz knew the exact plans and location of the Japanese ships. FDR promised Chiang that Manchuria and Taiwan would be . The Big Three was compromised of Stalin. Thousands of soldiers died at the hands of German and Russian armies during the battle of Stalingrad. Genocide. the Japanese were determined to wipe out any remaining ships of the decimated American fleet when they sailed toward Midway. allied forces seized control of Sicily. In roughly a month. They also vowed to pursue the war until the unconditional surrender of the Axis power. Invasion of Sicily: Stalin pleaded for a second front in Russia. Surrounded. he set up many concentration camps.
in 1941 FDR launched a secret program to produce an A-bomb before the Germans. "unconditional surrender": Term used by the allied powers to describe what kind of surrender they wanted from Japan-one without negotiations. to coincide with the Russian offensive from the east. Teheran Conference. Battle of the Bulge: As the allies prepared for an attack on Germany after penetrating up to Germany’s border. Robert: The scientific director of the Manhattan project. There was also debate on whether such a potent and powerful weapon should have been unleashed before proper tests were conducted on the long-term effects.S. Okinawa was 350 miles from Japan and a key area for staging the invasion of Japan by the American troops. Hitler threw the last of his reserves to fight against the allied troops in December of 1944. After the A-bomb fell on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. to impose reparations on the Reich. and Stalin promised to fight Japan after Hitler’s defeat. . J. Afterward. drove the Nazis back to Rhine. had undertaken to build the atomic bomb before Germany. Americans celebrated this Victory in Europe day with ticker tape parades and dancing in the streets. The bomb unleashed terrible fury on the two cities. They agreed to divide Germany into occupation zones. and did was by relying on Nazi scientists. which the U.S. Oppenheimer was later employed by Harry Truman to work on building a more destructive weapon known as the Hydrogen bomb. 1943: FDR met with Stalin and Churchill and set the date for the invasion of France for May or June 1944. but with the explosion of the Abomb. the Cold War Era had just begun. Okinawa: The island of Okinawa was secured by the Americans after the battle of Iwo Jima. On Dec. •Atomic bomb: The atomic bomb was successfully built in 1944 and was employed in bombing the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 1943. V-E day: As Russia pushed the Germans back into Germany and reached the suburbs of Berlin. 25.returned to China and that Korea would be free with the hope that Chiang would fight until Japan surrendered unconditionally. the new German government surrendered unconditionally on May 8. turned its full attention to the War in the Pacific Manhattan Project: Because Nazi scientists were seeking to use atomic physics in a harmful manner. Japan surrendered. U. the Manhattan Engineering district worked to stockpile U-235 and in 1945 attempted to use it in a bomb. Oppenheimer. The assault forces suffered nearly fifty thousand casualties in the battle before being able to subdue Japanese resistance. the allies stopped the last German counter-attack and within a month. killing hundreds of thousands of people through the incinerating heat and radiation poisoning. In 1943 and 1944.
"Iron Curtain" speech: Asked for Anglo-American cooperation to combat an "Iron Curtain" that cut across Europe from the Baltic to Adriatic. Vietnam and Korea were divided into zones to be held by US. Churchill. Stalin and Churchill in Crimea. •POTSDAM CONFERENCE: Truman. Some 80. The spread of communism into Asian and South American countries exacerbated anticommunist feelings in the United States and contributed to the pressure for increased buildup of defensive forces. agreed to drop demands for reparations from Germany. Germany. Winston. France. Charles: The French President during WWII. Churchill and FDR promise for Soviet concessions in Manchurian and return of lost territories. Germany: As decided by the Potsdam by the Council of Foreign minister.S. The result was statement of Soviet intent on entering the Pacific War two to three months after the end of the European war. approved plans for a UN Conference and promised free elections in Poland. Roosevelt’s death and the beginning of Truman’s presidency brought new tensions to the relationship. French and US zones. The Soviet Union agreed to drop demands for reparations and Germany was decentralized into British. he was also active in several treaty conferences.000 people died immediately and 1000s more died of radiation poisoning in later years. The iron curtain was the satellites and territories held by the communist Soviet Union.Hiroshima. Nagasaki: The 1st A-bomb was dropped on Hiroshima by the U. 2 to decide on postwar arrangements begun at Yalta. •YALTA CONFERENCE: Conference of Russia. which obliterated the city. A Council of Foreign Ministers was established to draft treaties concerning conquered European nations.1945 with leaders FDR. In 1935 Stalin endorsed a "Popular Front" to oppose fascism. Vietnam. Great Britain and US in Feb. Origins of the Cold War Although relations with the Soviet Union were already strained. de Gaulle. Russia’s traditional paranoia led to the establishment of a communist satellite buffer zone around the USSR. Stalin: Ruler of Russia from 1929-1953. The next day a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki killing. Stalin recognized Chiang as China's ruler. Stalin and Churchill met in Potsdam Germany from July 16-Aug. in 1945 after Japan refused unconditional surrender. and to make provisions for the trials of war criminals. Stalin also had considerable influence in the Yalta agreement as well as . An early theory for Soviet containment. Russian. Britain and the Soviet Union and then reorganized through selfdetermination. partitioning of Korea.
socialism and communism became fearful subjects after WWII as fears of war led to hatred against socialist and communist American troops. looting and atrocities against soldiers and citizens of occupied countries. to discuss plans for an international organization to be named the United Nations. 1945. electing Trygve H. foreign currencies would be valued in relation to the dollar and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). These superpowers consisting of the United States. and the Secretariat. was to curb Stalin's and communist influence. Trusteeship Council. Nuremberg trials: Thirteen trials held accusing leaders of Nazi Germany of crimes against international law from 1945-1949. . These "satellites" were nations conquered by the Soviet Union during the counteroffensive attack of the Russians against the Germans during WWII. Dumbarton Oaks Conference: An international conference held August-October 1944 at Dumbarton Oaks Washington D. Conferences represented the superpowers and their importance in postwar reconstruction. From the Bretton Woods Agreement. The "Barouch Plan" set up the International Atomic Development whose goal was for use of peaceful potentials for atomic energy and to provide nations with security against surprise attacks. the Soviet Union. Lie of Norway as Secretary General. General Assembly. satellites: The countries surrounding the Soviet Union created a buffer zone between Russia and the rest of Europe. and Great Britain began proceedings such as the Yalta and Potsdam. superpowers: The world powers after WWII created a new balance of power. 39 delegates from US. Fear and hatred against communism and Socialism continued throughout the Cold War. San Francisco Conference. the primary focus of Amer. and UN Charter: A meeting of world nations to establish a international organization for collective security. Bretton Woods Conference: Meeting of Allied governments in 1944. communism: Two forms of governing. The conference established committees. Great Britain and Russia gathered. After WWII. Secretary-General: January 10. Economic and Social Council.C. UN: Security Council. socialism. The UN represented a worldwide attempt for a peaceful world after the hidden treaties and chaos caused by WWII. the International Court of Justice. Atomic Energy Commission: To oversee the control and development of nuclear weapons. General Assembly. General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and World Bank were created.being a leader of one of the world's superpowers. Accusations included murder. 1946 was the first UN General Assembly. enslavement.
•TRUMAN DOCTRINE: From Truman’s address to Congress on March 12. Voice of America was a US government radio station sent to Eastern Europe nations.S. Reforming the Departments of War and Navy they became the Departments of Army. 1947. •MARSHALL PLAN: Truman's secretary of state George C. Aid was rejected by communist nations. Vietnam.outside pressure. The Truman Doctrine became a major portion of Cold War ideology. X who wrote "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" in the magazine Foreign Affairs advising a policy of restricting Soviet expansion to protect western institutions. Tito. Marshall: Marshall Tito is the name used by Josip Bronz since 1934. He was also the anonymous Mr.. a communist coup led by Klement Gottwald took control of the Czechoslovakian government after the October 5 announcement of Moscow's plan to block the Marshall Plan in Europe.: An advocate for tough foreign policy against the Soviets. Plan would make provisions to supply US investment capital and personnel to agricultural and industrial development as well as development in other national interests. 1948. Voice of America. The Marshall Plan was expanded to mass economic aid to the nations of Europe for recovery from WWII. Yugoslavia. •CONTAINMENT. . Point Four: A post-WWII foreign aid treaty devised from the fourth point of President Truman's inaugural address in 1950. the president announced that the United States would assist free people resisting "armed minorities or. Tito was the communist dictator of Yugoslavia until proclaiming himself president in January 1953. a title proved by US actions in the UN." Meant as a offer for aid against communism the Truman Doctrine established the United States as a global policeman. George F. Navy and the new Department of the Air Force. Czechoslovakian coup: On February 25. a feeling of personal responsibility for the containment of communism.. The theory of containment was accepted by the U. 27. government and seen through the domino theory and US actions in Vietnam and Korea. Through his rule he kept Yugoslavia independent of Soviet control and was recognized as the only lawful authority in Yugoslavia. Korea and Egypt. CARE: A part of the US Information Agency. Kennan was the American charge d'affaires in Moscow through WWII.Department of Defense created: The Department of Defense was created in 1947 by the National Security Act. The Marshall Plan also hope to minimize suffering to be exploited by communist nations. Czechoslovakia became a communist satellite of the Soviet Union. 1947 after the British told the US they could not afford to continue assistance to the governments of Greece and Turkey against Soviet pressure for access to the Mediterranean. Marshall proposed massive economic aid to Greece and Turkey on Feb. Result of need for a consolidated department. Kennan.
1920 led nonviolent disobedience movement for independence for India. "lost China": Mao Tse-tung. and Romania after the signing of the NATO treaty in 1949. Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) and the Australia. Israel created. The NSA-68 called for a massive military buildup and increase in defense spending through raising of taxes in fear of Soviet aggressive intentions and military strength. . Czechoslovakia. During 1924 led another civil disobedience movement for India's freedom in exchange for India's help against Japan Assassinated. Norway. 1948: From the UN General Assembly on April 28. Hungary. June 24. The organization considered an attack against one member of the alliance. Tse-tung. Mao. Southeast Asia Treaty organization (SEATO).Gandhi: Spiritual and political leader of India. head of the Chinese Communists demanded US halt military aid and for US forces to leave China in January 1945. the Palestine partition of Arab and Jewish states. 1949 creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.S. The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington on April 4. In 1949. fall of China. Denmark. 1948 Israel proclaimed independence and US recognized the new state but the Arabs rejected the proclamation and declared war against Israel.N in 1949. and Portland joined the Canadian-US negotiations for mutual defense and mutual aid. Albania. Admitted in U. East Germany. on October 1948. 1948 the Soviet withdrew representation from the Allied Control Council and refused to allow US. an attack on all. complied with Communist demands. Warsaw Pact: Treaty unifying communist nations of Europe signed May 1955 by: Russia. New Zealand US (ANZUS): All these treaties were formed post WWII as mutual defense pledges in an attempt to halt the spread of communism through Europe and Asia. The airlift provided food and supplies to the blockaded people and intensified antagonism against Stalin. Bulgaria. On May 14. the communists controlled major cities and to avoid a full scale war with China. •BERLIN BLOCKADE: On March 20. and the U. After 321 days in 1949 Russia agreed to end blockade if the Council of Foreign Ministers would agree to discuss Berlin. Italy. 1947. The NSC-68 became of major importance throughout the Cold War as it spoke of the need to remain a step ahead of the Soviet Union to protect its own security. •NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO): Following the Vanderberg Resolutions on April 4. •NSC-68: In the 1950's President Truman called for a top secret investigation from the CIA to review national defense policy. Poland. the Western Powers began Berlin Airlift to supply residents of Berlin. British. and France to gain access to Berlin. Communist China dedicated support but did not sign the treaty.
1953." 1949: The United States Relations With China. the Communist army attacked the Nationalist held islands of Quemoy and Matsu. It was accepted June. Matsu: On September 3. but laid the seeds for the later women’s movement. 1950 North Korean troops attacked the Republic of Korea. giving the president power to defend Formosa without committing to defense of islands. These attacks led to the Formosa Revolution which Eisenhower issued. all the citizens in the United States wanted was a return to normalcy. and economic deficiencies. new factories and equipment. The "limited" war was to hold the 38th parallel without beginning WWIII. 1944: Congress enacted the bill to provide living allowances. A cease fire was installed on July 26. Needed to facilitate cooperation in the war effort between the . the Nationalist government moved their headquarters to the city of Formosa. Truman and Domestic Issues With the return of large amounts of soldiers from the Second World War. tuition fees. Chiang Kaishek was opposed by the communist leader Mao Tse-tung who opposed US involvement in the war. provoking war. After losing major cities. June 24. Truman-MacArthur controversy: During WWII. At the beginning of the Korean War. Bill of Rights. Formosa: Chiang Kai-shek was the Nationalist leader in China whom the United States supported during the Chinese civil wars. •KOREAN WAR. MacArthur was general in the Pacific Wars. Also. G. and loans for homes and businesses. military. the population in the United States increased rapidly with the baby boom. Korea was divided at the 38th parallel between Soviet troops to the north and the People's Democratic Republic and US troops to the south. He was recalled from duty after expressing unpopular opinions about the US policy in Korea. Quemoy. 1944 and helped to stimulate economic growth and the accumulation of wartime profits.State Department "White Paper. At this point in time. Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion: A 1943 organization that controlled all aspects of the economy. With Special Reference to the Period 1944-1946 warned that the Nationalists were on the verge of collapse because of political. Chiang Kai-shek. women were forced to return to their homes as former soldiers reclaimed the workplace. US gained UN approval to stop the considered communist domino. limited war: After Japan's defeat in 1945. he became the United Nations Commander in Korea. supplies.I. medical treatment. and US interference would lead to outbreak of war. This exodus of working women promoted the idea that the proper place for the women was in the home.
He supported that tax measures favorable to the wealthy and no minimum wage increase. baby boom: The number of babies being born between 1950-1963 rose substantially and the mortality rate dramatically dropped allowing for a 19% increase in the population. Strom Thurmond: They helped Truman win by showing how the communists in the Wallace campaign forced liberals back into the mainstream Democratic Party.government and representatives of industry and the military. production. extension of the OPA vetoed: Congress instituted a ration program to conserve materials and battle inflation. Taft-Hartley Act: Congress modified the Wagner Act in 1947 to outlaw the practices of delaying a strike. "right to work" laws: An area across TX and southern CA called the Sunbelt outlawed unionized shops which were to prevent non-unionized workers to benefit. and purchasing power. increased war production 33% in May 1943.A. The National War Labor Board tried to contain restriction by limiting wage increases and Congress gave the president the power in 1942 to freeze wages to help combat inflation. Truman vetoed Congress’ 1946 bill that would have extended O. he warned that entering into NATO would provoke an arms race with Russia and force the United States to provide military aid to Europe. Employment Act of 1946: Truman promised economic growth and established the Council of Economic Advisors to assist the president in maximizing employment. Strom Thurmond was able to collect 1. 1948 election.M. and brought green lawn and suburbs. a republican devoted to National unity and Strom Thurmond. plants moving their corporate headquarters here. Because of opposition from food producers. Robert A. Truman vetoed the measure. who represented the Dixiecrats. Wary of federal deficit spending and increased presidential powers.W. and retailers. Sen.P. Truman wins with 24 million votes and the platform of the some of the New Deal and bipartisan foreign policy. Because it proved detrimental to certain unions. Congress cut the goal of full employment. candidates. representing states rights. and permitting the president to call an eighty-day cooling period. and thus ended price controls. closed shop. consumer prices rose only 8% while the total cost of living rose 28% between 1940-1945. the O. manufacturers.2 million votes and ran under the Democratic party symbol. postwar inflation: Two years after the war.’s life. issues: Truman ran against Dewey.: Representing a small group of Republican senators. . J. transformed through technology. Taft. although Congress overrode it. low taxes and energy costs. This generation was able to fuel the economy and widen the realm of education. Dixiecrats.
National Securities Act of 1947. •HOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE (HUAC) : FDR established this organization to serve as a platform to the denunciation of the New Deal and communism growth in the U. slum clearance. agricultural subsidies. health insurance. This laid the foundation for the investigations of the House Un-American Activities Committee." It resulted from the agitation following FDR’s running for and being elected to a third or fourth term of office of president. Wallace’s’ campaign forced liberals back into the Democratic party. It enlarged the New Deal by adding housing. federal aid to education. Used to investigate and expose communist influence in America and blurred the line between dissent and disloyalty. Considered the true New Deal liberal. domestic paranoia concerning communist infiltration increased. economic security. increased the minimum wage. building of low income housing units. •FAIR DEAL: Truman proposed a social and economic program during his State of the Union message in 1949. Citizen participation was essential through direct democracy which was equal in only one way : all can exercise the right to vote. 1949: The CIA was enacted to pursue and conduct espionage and analyze information and facts concerning the actions of foreign countries. . It also became involved in undercover operations to destroy operations made to be hostile toward the U. flood control.S.S. expanded public power. McCarthyism As a result of the recent escalation of the Cold War and the spread of communism throughout the world. Americans for Democratic Action (ADA): Founded in 1947 to initiate the development and promotion of a national liberal agenda of public policy. few said anything. this bill proclaims that "No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice. conservation. reclamation. expanded social securities.Progressive Party. soil conservation. supported social-welfare programs and justice and equality for minorities. It also brought about hysteria and caused blacklisting to occur so that people considered to be "communists" never found work. Taking advantage of this "Red Scare" was Senator Joseph McCarthy who utilized the fear and panic of United States citizens to advance his own interests. Though many Americans believed the investigations were wrong. Henry Wallace: He was nominated for President after being fired by Truman for questioning action taken towards Russia. Twenty-second Amendment: adopted in 1951.
•MCCARTHYISM, McCarthy, Senator Joseph: He started the hysteria that occurred after the second Red Scare and accused U.S. citizens of being communists. These accusations appealed to Midwestern Americans who found that anti-communism was to fight against liberals and internationalists. It took over the U.S. as a means of fighting communism without realizing that the U.S. was in danger of losing what it was fighting for, Freedom and the Constitution. McCarthy, Senator Joseph: Republicans support and political power was given to senator McCarthy to instill fear within the Democratic Party. He was supported by the GOP party and many resented that he accused many people of being Communists without having proof of their disloyalty. By accusing many of communism, McCarthyism arose. Hiss, Alger: Identified as a member of the communist party by and initially denied claims. Proof was given that Hiss was involved in espionage in the 1930s with the transmitting of information to the Soviet Union through microfilm. Indicted for perjury and sentenced to five years in prison, 1950 McCarran Internal Security Act, 1950: Required all organizations that were believed to be communist by the attorney general to submit a roster of the members and financial statements to the Department of Justice. It also excluded communists from working in defense plants, passports to communists and deported aliens suspected of subversion. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg:. In March of 1951, based primarily on the testimony of their alleged accomplices, Henry Greengrass and Harry Gold, the Rosenbergs were found guilty of conspiring to commit espionage. Their electrocution in 1953 represented the anti-Communist fever that gripped the U.S. Hollywood 10: The 10 people from the entertainment industry called before the House Un-American Activities Committee as "unfriendly" witnesses in October 1947 became known as the Hollywood Ten. All refused to state whether they were communists, served prison sentences, and were blacklisted in the film industry. Fuchs, Klaus: He was a German physicist who was a British citizen from 1942-1950 and an atomic scientist in the United Kingdom and the United States from 1942 on. He was sentenced to prison in England in 1950 for having given atomic secrets to the USSR. After he was freed in 1959, he went to East Germany. "Pink Lady" - Douglas, Helen Gahagan: When Richard Nixon ran against the liberal Democratic Jerry Voorhis for a California congressional seat in 1946, he won easily by suggesting that Voorhis had left-wing tendencies. When Nixon ran for the Senate in 1950, he used similar charges to defeat the Democratic candidate, Congresswoman Douglas. •ANTI-COMMUNIST VOCABULARY: Red, pink or pinko, left-wing, and commie were some of the slurs thrown around during the McCarthy years to brand people with a communist "taint." These campaigns were known as witch-hunts by those who opposed
HUAC tactics, and like the Salem witch-hunts, accusations alone, without any proof of wrong-doing, could be enough to ruin someone and get them "blacklisted" and unable to find employment.
Eisenhower and the 1950s
Hailing Eisenhower as someone whom one might have as a regular neighbor, the country overwhelmingly elected the former and celebrated World War Two Allied forces commander. Although a former military leader, Eisenhower strongly believed in the ascendancy of civilian control over the military and condemned what he termed the "military-industrial complex." During Eisenhower’s administration, the USSR made several advances in the space race pushing the United States to catch up. 1952 election: candidates, issues: Truman would not seek reelection. The Democrats drafted Adlai Stevenson, who was unsuccessful. The Republicans decided to back the war hero Dwight D. Eisenhower who chose Nixon as his running mate. The GOP controlled both houses. •IKE AND MODERN REPUBLICANISM: He provided Americans with the stability they craved, and labeled his credo "Modern Republicanism." In general, he was conservative on monetary issues and liberal "when it came to human beings." During his term as president, he backed the most extensive public-works program in U.S. history: the Interstate Highway Act and also extended social security benefits and raised the minimum wage. "fiscal management": Large scale labor organizations and social welfare were used to deal with powerful pressure groups. It rejected an extreme step to the right side of politics and a return to the pre-New Deal policies. Also, it abandoned the goal of a balanced budget in favor of increased spending to restore prosperity. Niebuhr, Reinhold, Rand, Ayn, The Fountainhead: Niebuhr was a theologian who expressed neo-Orthodox Protestant views and liberal social thoughts. Ayn Rand was a U.S. novelist who became a citizen in 1931 and wrote about the struggles of poverty. Her work was important in expressing life’s hardships and was published in 1928. McCarran-Walter Immigration Act, 1952: Passed over the presidents’ veto, it validated the quota system firmly based on the idea that national origin restrained immigration from southern and Eastern Europe. This act also empowered the attorney general to exclude and deport aliens suspected of being communists. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW): Eisenhower transformed the Federal Securities Agency into the H.E.W. and gave it cabinet rank in 1953. This agency allowed for the reorganization of government in order to achieve greater efficiency and a better economy.
Interstate Highway Act: Passed by Eisenhower, this was the largest and most expensive public-works system in American history that allowed for the building of 41,000 miles of expressways in 1956. Allowed for suburban growth, the decay of central cities, and increased America’s reliance on cars. St. Lawrence Seaway: Approved by Eisenhower, this seaway linked the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean in 1954. It was built to accelerate suburban growth, expand trade to promote economic prosperity, and allowed boats greater access to transport goods. It connected Montreal and Lake Ontario promoting good relations with Canada. Landrum-Griffin Act: Passed in 1959 to regulate the government of unions, guarantee members’ rights, provisions for anti-corruption, and fair elections. Enacted due to the concern of financial misconduct on the part of union officials and connected to gangsters and organized crime. Hoffa, Jimmy: He became president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters in 1957. Jury tampering was found after he was sentenced to thirteen years in prison for the fraudulent use of the union pension fund. After losing his appeals, he was sentenced in 1967 but only served about four years and nine months in prison. AFL-CIO merger: In 1955, this brought 85% of all union members into a single administrative unit, which promised aggressive unionism under the leadership of AFL’s George Meany as president and CIO’s Walter Reuther as vice-president. However, the movement was unable to achieve its old level of success. Alaska, Hawaii: Congress approved Alaska as the forty-ninth state of the Union in June and Eisenhower signed the Alaska statehood bill on July 7, 1958 . Congress approved of giving Hawaii statehood in March of 1959 and it was admitted to the Union on August 21, 1959. •FIRST INDOCHINA WAR: After WWII, Ho Chi Minh of the Vietminh declared himself leader of the Republic of Vietnam and began a war to drive the France imperialists out of Vietnam in Dec of 1946. After a 55 day siege, the French surrendered at the fortress of Diem Bien Phu and July 21, 1954 a truce agreement was signed with France surrendering North Vietnam and granting independence to Cambodia, Laos, and South Vietnam. Bricker Amendment: On January 7, 1954, Senator John W. Bricker proposed a constitutional amendment to limit the executive power of the president. His proposal called for a limit on the power of the president to negotiate treaties and executive agreements. Rejected February 26, 1954. Dulles, John Foster: Became Secretary of State under Eisenhower in 1953. Cold Warrior who supported "massive retaliation," brinksmanship, and preemptive strike. In 1951 he was author of Japanese peace treaty. Politically influential during WWII, from 19491959.
"massive retaliation": January, 1940s. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles signed the Strategic Air Command as the primary deterrent for Soviet attack. Great Britain, Turkey, and Italy stationed intermediate-range nuclear weapons in their countries to provide for a capacity for "massive retaliation." brinksmanship: This is another of the policies of John Foster Dulles that caused considerable controversy during the Cold War. Dulles declared that the United States must be prepared to "go to the brink" of war in order to attain its objectives. This stance was labeled brinksmanship. preemptive strike: A plan of acting first with nuclear or conventional weapons as a defensive action. A preemptive strike would solve the problem before it became an issue by acting first and swiftly. A preemptive strike is another Cold War term that generated fear for the beginning of a nuclear war. Khrushchev, 1955 Geneva Summit: The meeting of "Four Powers," US, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union. Also present was Khrushchev, the 1st Secretary of the Communist Party. Decided to reunify Germany, and on disarmament, and how to improve relations between east and west. Hungarian revolt, 1956: Antigovernment demonstrations in Budapest on Oct. 23, 1956 as revolutionaries demanded the denunciation of the Warsaw Pact and liberation from Soviet troops. On Oct. 21, U.S. announced it wouldn’t give military aid to the revolutionaries. On Nov. 4, Soviets attacked Hungary. Nasser Suez Canal crisis: Dec 17, 1955, the U.S. offered Egypt a loan to build the Aswan High Dam, withdrawing its offer after Egypt accepted Soviet Union aid and Pres. Nasser nationalized the Suez canal to use tolls to build the dam. On Oct 31, Israel invaded Egypt with French and British aircraft. •PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE: A term applied to the actions of the US under Eisenhower and USSR under Khrushchev for maintaining peace and reducing the possibility of war between the two nations. The implementation of the phrase is seen in the Geneva Summit where the "spirit of Geneva" was one of peace and collaboration to create a secure and peaceful world. March 1959 the USSR and the U.S agreed to suspend atomic testing. Eisenhower Doctrine: January 5, 1957, Eisenhower made a speech to the joint House of Congress to limit communist expansion. Authorized March 7, the Eisenhower Doctrine allowed the president to extend economic and military aid to certain nations as well as use of $200 million mutual security funds. Common Market: Established 1958 by the Treaty of Rome to set up a wide customs union in 1968 and was joined by Great Britain in 1972. The EEC developed world wide trading relations between European nations providing for a more solidified Europe, another symbol of rearrangement of power after WWII.
to better make scientific advancements. funds for training teachers. May 11 Eisenhower admitted to authorization of U-2 flights. NASA was created in 1958. A. ICBM's were one of the many factors that gave the American people the sense that war was imminent. The ICBM's with one or two nuclear warheads had the potential to destroy the USSR and the US.S. and a Secretariat and Commissions. Civil Rights to 1960 After the army became desegregated in 1948. "military-industrial complex": The demands of national security had produced the symbiotic relationship of immense military establishment and industry. 1957. a Council with a delegate from each state. the position of African-Americans in civilian society came under increasing scrutiny. the U. reshaped the educational system in efforts to produce the large numbers of scientists and engineers that Russia had. Landmark decisions in the Supreme Court as well as civil rights laws foreshadowed the changes and upheaval that would come in this and following decades. and for the development of new instructional material to ensure a higher level of national security. NASA released a cover story of a lost weather research plane. In addition. the USSR announced an American U-2 plane was shot down in Soviet territory. U-2 incident: May 3. Philip: President of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters who worked to build his March-on-Washington Committee into an all-black protest movement. Humiliated at being upstaged by the Russians. pilot Francis Gary Powers confessed to being a CIA spy. National Defense Education Act (NDEA Act) : Passed in 1958 to provide $300 million in loans to students of undergraduate and graduate status. Randolph. There was widespread recognition that the integration of society had not progressed as it was supposed to and that it was time for the African-American citizens to take a stand. it brought a national aeronautics agency to administer nonmilitary space research and exploration. May 5. These intertwined interests helped lead to leverage in government and threatened subordination of the military. Created by Congress. a Consultative Conference of Foreign Ministers. May 7. The . 1960. ICBM: Intercontinental Ballistic missiles were developed in the 1950's in America. •SPUTNIK: The Soviet Union launched this first satellite into orbit on October 4.Organization of American States (OAS): From the Charter of Bogotá regional association was established with US and Latin America states and formed a InterAmerican conference.
To Secure These Rights: The 1946 Committee on Civil Rights dramatized the inequities of life in the South and under the Jim Crow laws. On June 27. Charles: As an African-American physician.Committee also engaged in civil disobedience to protest racial discrimination in all aspects of American life. Detroit race riots. He specifically noted that Black veterans returned with very high expectations from civilian life due to war. He was the first president to deal with the legislative civil rights since the implementation of Reconstruction and fought for many other civil rights acts but was denied. 1950. Truman ordered American troops to invade South Korea. An American Dilemma: A Swedish economist." by President Truman. In the urban North. Led by James Farmer.N. and Communists. Myrdal. rural and Southern to urban and Northern : Eisenhower sought to give low income farmers increased training and trade as well as to improve industry and the health of citizens of the rural South . 1966: Erupted because of constant conflict between black citizens and white cops. Gunnar wrote about anticipated changes in race relations. unions. . resulting in the bloodiest riot in this half-century. as well as the problems between the races in 1944. It called for an end to racial discrimination and segregation. desegregation of the armed forces. it organized Freedom Rides that rode throughout the south to try to force desegregation of public facilities. Fair Employment Practices Committee: Roosevelt issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies. a great emphasis was put upon renovation and the rehabilitation of the cities opposed to clearance and reconstruction. General Douglas MacArthur sought total victory. Gunnar. Forty-three were found dead. 1948: Truman ended segregation in the army to provide support during World War II to ensure victory. he developed blood-transfusion programs for the British and French. he developed techniques for the storing and processing of blood for transfusion in 1944. and over $50 million in property was destroyed. He also conducted research on the preservation of blood and during WWII. and was called "an American charter of human freedom. Korean War: Seen as a Soviet-directed aggression to test American containment policy. direct action. thousands were wounded. and companies involved in war-related work for the purpose of enforcing an Executive Order and made possible the employment of 2 million blacks. Drew. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE): The Congress of Racial Equality was formed in 1942 to help combat discrimination through nonviolent. Dr. and in 1953 a cease fire was issued after a truce agreement was signed by the U.
Refusing to force the white south to accept the ruling. The court held that "separate but equal" violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and was unconstitutional. navy yards and veteran hospitals. Civil Rights Act. Ferguson in 1954 by ruling in favor of the desegregation of schools. •LITTLE ROCK. Neither act was able to empower federal officials to register the right to vote for African-Americans and was not effective."separate but equal": Enacted because of the inferiority complex given to blacks.1957: Eisenhower passed this bill to establish a permanent commission on civil rights with investigative powers but it did not guarantee a ballot for blacks. Resistance to desegregation of buses was finally overcome by the Supreme Court ruling that it was unconstitutional to segregate public transportation in November. Rev. On April 4. the death penalty. •BROWN V. it set forth an attempt to liberalize without losing control. Alabama. The school was then shut down in 1958-59. Martin Luther: An African-American leader who was the voice of his people. Because of her actions she is known as the "mother" of civil rights. This led to massive bus boycotts in Montgomery. and a mob of whites reacted by preventing the students from entering the school. . His philosophy emphasized need for direct action by getting every AfricanAmerican involved in the pursuit of equality and to build a community of brotherhood in his "I have a dream" speech." Marshall. Rosa Parks: In December of 1955. CRISIS: Governor Orval E. The Supreme Court said that it had no place in schools.. Many southerners saw it as "an abuse of judiciary power. Board of Education. Eisenhower then enforced a new court order that forced the men to withdraw. so it ordered the desegregation of schools. Parks refused to get up from her seat on the bus to give it to a white man. famous for his fight against discrimination. and his support of civil liberties and free speech. 1956. Previously a lawyer with such key victories as in Brown v. Then The National Guard was sent to protect the students from the violence for the rest of the school year. defiance toward the law sprang up. 1960: Eisenhower passed this bill to appease strong southern resistance and only slightly strengthened the first measures provisions. It was the first civil-rights bill to be enacted after Reconstruction which was supported by most non-southern whites. Faubus sent the National Guard to bar nine black students from entering Central High School in Arkansas in 1957. Thurgood: 1st African American justice of the Supreme Court.1968 he was assassinated. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA: The Supreme Court reversed Plessy v. •MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT. King Jr. and was therefore arrested. ARK. Civil Rights Act. founder of the NAACP Legal Defense.
: One of the most prominent black civil rights leaders. Board of Education of Topeka: The Warren court decided in 1954 that the separate but equal concept that legalized segregation was unconstitutional. nonviolent protest met by vicious dogs. white primaries: The grandfather clause was a provision used to exclude people who served in the war and their descendants from taking suffrage tests. He is famous for his "Letter from Birmingham Jail" which promotes the doctrine of civil disobedience. Implementation of Brown v. and other signs of the explosive discontent ravaged the nation. the poll tax was outlawed in all elections. The poll tax prevented AfricanAmericans from voting by requiring all voters to pay a tax. white southerners refused to comply. White primaries were used to control everything even with disenfranchisement and was declared unconstitutional in 1944. King Jr. Rev. blasting water hoses.literacy tests. a method of protests that urges blacks to ignore all laws that they believe are unjust. Angered by the court decision. Martin Luther. Rosa Park was arrested. Destroying the public’s complacency. It was declared unconstitutional in 1915. Southern Christian Leadership Conference: In protest to Jim Crow. Black leaders. Civil Rights to 1965 Frustrated by black disenfranchisement in the south and the blatant racism epitomized by segregated schools. freedom rides. and sneering racists shocked the nation. Black Power and the cry that "Black is Beautiful" resounded in the hearts of many African Americans. In 1966. black militancy grew. the president refused to enforce it and blacks continued to attend segregated schools. organized a massive boycott of the buses and took the case to a lower court where it was decided that bus seating would be based on a first-come-first-serve basis. Montgomery bus boycott: After refusing to give up her seat for a white man in the front of a Montgomery bus in Dec. This organization coordinated future protests and preached the need for civil rights activists. King called for black assertiveness and nonviolent resistance to oppression. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP): The NAACP was created in 1909 in New York to raise the quality of living for inner city . 1955. poll tax: Literacy tests were given to blacks with the idea that they would be denied the right to vote since most could not read. including King. which blacks could not afford. • ROBINSON. King organized the SCLC in 1957. JACKIE: He was the first African-American baseball player to play professionally in 1947. grandfather clause. He was able to break the color barrier and seemed to successfully overcome the racism so prevalent in his sport. It was made up of a group of ministers that supported the Montgomery bus boycott. Robinson was also was able to contribute to the winning of the pennant and Rookie of the Year in his first year of playing. Sit-ins. especially in the south where such actions were met by fierce resistance.
FREEDOM RIDES: Utilized in the spring of 1961. Urban League: Some southern blacks were not satisfied by the Brown v. sit-ins and freedom rides were forms of protest organized by CORE and utilized in the spring of 1961. Protestors sat in a segregated section on a bus or restaurant until they were forced to move by racists. the League advocated more militant tactics. March on Washington: King organized this massive civil protest march in Washington in August of 1963 as a result of the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It became a powerful legal force and argued cases in the Supreme Court which led to the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and Voting Rights Act of 1965. He also was one of the early recruiters for the NAACP and was the first field secretary for the state of Mississippi. Rejecting the courtroom strategy utilized by the NAACP. This type of action was used to expose the violations of the court decision to outlaw segregation in public areas and transit. Adam Clayton: Powell was a Black civil rights leader serving as a Democratic Congressman of New York and the Chairman of the House Committee on Education and Labor in 1960-1967. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). CORE also registered blacks to vote throughout the South. Rap Brown: SNCC was a organization of college students that utilized nonviolent forms of protest until Carmicheal and Brown rallied the members in favor of Black Power. The march reaffirmed the need for civil rights legislation and nonviolent protest. 1963. Medgar: Evers was an American civil rights leader who conducted campaigns to register black voters and organized boycotts of firms that practiced racial discrimination. Powell. When this happened another protestor took the place that had just been vacated. The group became more militant. pushing for direct armed confrontation with the police. Board of Education and formed the Urban League. Stokely Carmicheal. The speech was said to be inspiring and reaffirmed the need for civil rights legislation and nonviolent protesting.blacks. It was also the site where King made the "I have a dream" speech. The speech reiterated the American ideals of democracy and equality. "I have a dream" speech: King gave this speech during the historic civil rights March on Washington on August 28. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE): CORE was a group of black rights protesters created in 1942. •SIT-INS. They sought direct confrontation and violence with local governments. Under his direction the House Committee on Education and Labor passed the Minimum Wage Bill and Anti-Poverty Bill. It organized freedom rides through the south to expose the violations of the 1960 Supreme Court decision outlawing segregation on interstate buses and trains. . Evers. H.
Watts. His presence in Supreme Court drew more attention to the area of civil and individual rights. Seale and Huey P. a new office created to address the needs of those living in the inner city areas. It was originally a small community action group for defense against racism but later it began to urge black armament and direct confrontation with the police. California in 1966 by Bobby G. It also prohibited the use of the poll tax or any tax that denied the vote. The amendment gave Congress the power to enforce it with legislation. Robert: Weaver was the first black cabinet member appointed by President Lyndon B. Malcolm X: Malcolm X was an influential black leader who called for unity between blacks to combat oppressive forces in the United States. Angela: Angela Davis was an influential black leader and activist. •BLACK POWER: Black power was a slogan created by Malcolm X and widely used by Stokely Carmichael. leader of the Congress of Racial Equality. Tried in 1972 and acquitted. but broke with them to form a black nationalist group. she went into hiding after being accused of aiding an attempted courtroom escape that killed four persons. Black Muslims: Formally called the Nation of Islam. The slogan called for all blacks to organize together and overthrow the oppressive forces of racism in America. the Organization of AfroAmerican Unity (OAAU). adopted in 1964. and was a root for black militancy in America. The group was known for its strict adherence to Islam. gave voting rights to every American citizen. regardless of their race or religion. Black power became the basis for black militancy in the civil rights movement. she became the vice-presidential candidate of the Communist party in 1980. Johnson in 1966. It sparked a huge riot . Thurgood: Marshall was the first black residing under the Warren Court during the 1960s. Twenty-fourth Amendment: The 24th Amendment. Newton.Weaver. He served as the Secretary of Housing and Department of Urban Development. He was a part of the Nation of Islam. Davis. the Black Muslims was a religious organization of the Islamic faith that was also called the American Muslim Mission. Marshall. In 1970. Black Panthers: The Black Panthers was a black rights political organization created in Oakland. He advocated Black Power. The slogan was used by a number of new civil rights activist groups such as the Black Panthers. Marshall was famous for pursuing cases that dealt with controversial issues of civil rights and the status of racism in America. Detroit race riots: A confrontation between police and blacks in Watts and Detroit took place after the voting rights bill was passed in 1965. World Community of Al-Islam in the West.
He hoped for "more sacrifice instead of more security" in a nation on "the frontier of unknown opportunities and perils. and energetic. de facto. In the 1960s. This act was the strongest civil rights legislation since Reconstruction and invalidated the Southern Caste System. the commission concluded that white racism caused mounting violence. poverty. self-confident." . De jure segregation referred to the system of segregation that was legal in the North such as New York and Chicago." Kerner Commission on Civil Disorders: Created to investigate reasons for the massive outbreaks of riots in 1965. The act enabled federal examiners to register anyone who qualified in the South. •CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964. This act was a part of a series of new legislation that encouraged desegregation of blacks in America. The reaction slowed the civil rights movement because whites in power feared passing legislation and creating civil discontent and riots. this act outlawed segregation in public areas and granted the federal government power to fight black disfranchisement. JFK vigorously called on the American people to support his programs of domestic reform and foreign policy.that lasted six days. this meant that segregation was accepted as long as it was not outlawed. charming. de jure segregation: De facto referred to the use of power and authority in the absence of an actual government or legal authority. •WHITE BACKLASH: White backlash referred to white reaction against the massive ghetto riots of thousands of young blacks across the nation. Civil Rights Act. 1968: The Civil Rights Act of 1968 barred discrimination in housing sales or rentals. The National Guard was called to put down both riots. It prohibited the use of literacy tests as a part of the voter registration process which were initially used as a method to control immigration to the United States during the 1920s. 1965: The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed as a Great Society program under the Johnson administration. public accommodations section of the act: Passed under the Johnson administration. The act also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to prevent discrimination in the work place. •VOTING RIGHTS ACT. New Frontier Innovative. poor education and police brutality and recommended creating 2 million jobs and 6 million housing units to lower tensions. This violent growth of civil discontent was given the name "The Long Hot Summers. The suggestion was ignored. giving the power of the vote to underrepresented minorities. The act was a key piece of legislation which ensured blacks more equal rights.
VISTA: The Peacecorps and Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) were created by the Office of Economic Opportunity to work in poverty areas. The ruling reaffirmed the requirement that representation in legislative bodies would be based on the people’s vote. •"Impeach Earl Warren": The ultra-reactionary John Birch Society created the phrase. Wainwright: The Warren Court ruled in the case of Gideon v. Kennedy and the steel price rollback: In his attempt to lower business taxes and solve wage problems. The issues included which path of action to take against Russia to ensure an advantage of arms. one vote" needed to be maintained in all elections. Also. The treaty was the first treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union that called for a ban on atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. he lost the respect and admiration of the American public. Escobedo decision: The Miranda Decision referred to the 1966 case of Miranda v. This was a part of President Johnson’s training programs and support services created during the 1960s. Berlin Wall: The Berlin Wall was a concrete wire wall which divided East and West Germany after World War II. As a result. Steel raised their prices to $6 after JFK worked with the steel union for noninflationary contracts and minimal wage increases for workers. "missile gap": The election of 1960 was a race between Kennedy. It was erected by the government of East Germany in order to prevent a brain drain. in which the skilled artisans of the population immigrated to West Germany.S. 1963: The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963 was negotiated by Harriman Averell. "impeach Earl Warren" in 1954 as a result of Chief Justice Earl Warren’s rulings which affirmed the rights of alleged communists and the desegregation of schools and public areas. Wainwright that the state was required to provide attorneys for defendants in felony cases at the public’s expense. . Richard M. Gideon v. Arizona which required police to read a suspect their constitutional right which included remaining silent and having legal council present during police questioning. Carr: In 1962. Nixon. his political friends in congress. Peacecorps. and the "middle way" Republican candidate. who promised a new and better future for the nation. a diplomat to the Soviet Union after World War II. This ruling was a part of the effort to reform the criminal justice system and enable poor people legal council. and the government. JFK was faced with a crisis when U. The Escobedo decision labeled the Warren Court as an intrusive presence. thus closing the missile gap.election of 1960: candidates. this decision would prevent later voting frauds. The wall was dismantled in August of 1989. Miranda Decision. Baker v. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. the Warren court ruled that the principle of "one man. He threatened to file antitrust suits and the prices fell. Warren was branded a communist sympathizer by his enemies.
The Cuban soldiers were secretly trained by the CIA and supplied by the U. a hot line was established between the White House and the Kremlin to prevent accidental missile launches. Alliance for Progress: This was an economic assistance program proposed by President Kennedy in 1961.S. He became the first elected Marxist leader in the Americas. refused to help. The United States intervened with military forces and the Organization of American States restored peace by conducting elections where Joaquín Balaguer defeated Bosch. UN in the Congo: During the 1950s the United Nations was called upon to act as a peace keeping force throughout the world such as in Kuwait and the Middle East. Another treaty was signed between the . and the people.S. Dominican Republic.Castro Revolution: Fidel Castro led a nationalist uprising against the former despotic Cuban government. In the 1950s the United Nations sent a peace keeping force to the Congo. removed nuclear weapons from Turkey. government.S and Russia in 1962 following the discovery of nuclear missile sites in Cuba. Panama Canal treaties: After gaining its independence in 1903. a group of Cuban exiles invaded the Bay of Pigs. needed both a strong military program and atomic weapons to combat the forces of communism. for atomic weapons were never used. His socialist program led to inflation and strikes which resulted a military coup that overthrew his regime in 1973. Allende. "flexible response": JFK’s policy of "flexible response" called for the preparation of more conventional weapons versus atomic weapons. 1961.S. assistance.S. •Cuban missile crisis: The Cuban Missile Crisis was a major confrontation between the U. •Bay of Pigs: On Apr. which is located in Africa. The Cuban exiles were captured and traded back to the U. but American businesses feared the nationalization of their industries. he turned to Soviet communism. the current government regime. Salvador: In 1933. The program to give Latin America $20 million in aid was protested after the fall of the democratic government in Haiti. Kennedy felt that U. in an attempt to overthrow the Communist government and capture Fidel Castro. 17. He initially asked for U. When the U. Allende founded the Chilean Socialist party and was elected president of Chile in 1970. It was the most imminent threat of nuclear annihilation and thereafter.S. Their return embarrassed the United States and the nation acquired a reputation as a belligerent imperial country. for food. Panama gave the rights to use the Panama Canal to the United States. The U. 1965: A civil war broke out in the Dominican Republic between the Bosch forces. Kennedy placed a blockade on the island and Russia agreed to remove the missiles rather than provoke a nuclear war.S. He reasoned conventional weapons were essential. It was to settle disputes between member nations and discourage foreign intervention in their internal affairs.
Main issues of the election of 1964 included serious debates over the continuation of Johnson’s Great Society plan. Silent Spring: Rachel Carson was a marine biologist that wrote and published Silent Spring. Reich. It addressed her concerns on the environmental hazards of pesticides. defeated Barry Goldwater. Her writings coincided with many other novels which brought social issues to the surface such as Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique. Oswald was later killed by Jack Ruby on his way to a court hearing. the Warren Commission was created to investigate the controversial issues concerning a possible conspiracy. Reich expressed his desire for courts to expand individual rights to protect nonconformists from social standards in 1971. racial. They issued the Port Huron Statement which called for support of liberalism. the idealism would later give way to virulent conservatism and a return to traditional values. Oswald. and health programs. He stated that it was impossible to mix individual interests in large general tax bills. Lyndon Johnson attempted to continue his Great Society program after the election with small social legislation. Lee Harvey. John F. Rachel. •Election of 1964: LBJ. As a result. Charles. future civil rights legislation and the status of the war in Vietnam. 1963 in Texas. Kennedy was shot and killed by Lee Havery Oswald. Great Society An idealistic call for improved environmental. . the Great Society was inspired by JFK and prompted by LBJ’s insecure need to win over the American people. This social category consisted mainly of student protestors who envisioned a life of freedom and harmony. educational. this organization was created in 1962. The SDS became a focal point for activist students. Carson. They led pilgrimages to San Francisco and New York. conservation. the elected Republican majority leader. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS): As frustrations concerning government policies grew. Largely successful in the first two years of the Johnson administration. The SDS organized massive Vietnam Protests. Goldwater: In the election of 1964 Lyndon Johnson. Flower children: Flower children referred to the counterculture of the 1960s.United States and Panama stating that control over the canal was to be returned to the Panamanian government on December 31. but the counterculture rise was stemmed as the idealism turned into thievery. the elected Democratic party majority leader. rape. Warren Commission: On Nov. 22. The Greening of America: In his critical novel of the New Deal. 1999. and drugs.
Established by the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. led to the liberalization of immigration laws. and Project Headstart. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Created in 1966 to give aid to needy families located in poor inner city areas. which began the first funding for education. Kennedy gained the Democratic presidential nomination in 1968. Kennedy. Robert: Kennedy was the attorney general of the U. President Lyndon Johnson rallied for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 which gave federal aid to education. the Democratic candidate. Kennedy. to determine the amount of immigration from a certain area. but was assassinated in California during a campaign.Office of Economic Opportunity: The Office of Economic Opportunity was created as a part of President Johnson’s Great Society. Election of the 1968: Lyndon Johnson did not run for reelection in 1968 due to his dissatisfaction with the Vietnam War and public discontent. the office funded the Job Corps to train young people to work. He stressed that voting was the key to racial equality and pushed for the Civil Rights Act of 1964. War on Poverty: The term. They held idealistic views of civil rights movements. The law gave over one billion dollars to public and parochial schools for books and special education programs. Wallace. These laws abolished the restrictions and the quota based system previously used by the U. New Left: The New Left encompassed the liberalism of college students during the 1960s. Richard Nixon captured the presidency for the Republican party after he defeated George C. in 1968 and senator from New York. Humphrey. Medicare: A program of national health insurance created by the Social Security Amendments of 1965. VISTA.S. It was used to describe Johnson’s Great Society package that created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Economic Opportunity Office. Although some states refused to administer the insurance the Kerr-Mills Act of 1960 provided federal support for state medical programs. . and heralded the campaign against nuclear testing that created the nuclear test ban treaty of 1963. War on Poverty. the Department of Housing and Urban Development passed bills allocating funds to housing development projects under the leadership of Robert Weaver. supported the election of John F. the American Independent and Hubert H. referred to Lyndon Johnson’s statement describing his goal to create a better America. Elementary and Secondary Act: As a part of his Great Society vision. which included social legislation in 1965. this program gave health insurance for persons who were over the age of 65 or seriously disabled. Abolition of immigration quotas: President Lyndon Johnson’s program of liberalism. It was also the root of protest over Vietnam.S.
Wallace. my children. NOW lobbied for equal opportunity. the Chicago convention was disrupted by violence due to the party split over the nomination of the majority leader. the Rustbelt and Sunbelt. Armstrong. reeled under the triple blow of slumping exports. This amendment stated that "Equality of rights . The riot destroyed Democratic unity and resulted in a loss of support. Friedan’s personal demand for "something more than my husband. The Soviet Union replaced Dubcek with the staunchly pro-Soviet Communist regime. focusing on the failure of southern white efforts to destroy racial equality. Richard’s Southern strategy: In 1965. the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies invaded Czechoslovakia. The Feminine Mystique: The Feminine Mystique elucidated to readers that they were not alone in their unhappiness." Equal Rights Amendment (ERA): By 1972 Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the Constitution. He first came to national attention as an outspoken segregationist. •MOON RACE. Kennedy promised the American people to put a man on the moon before the end of the decade. About 11. Wallace ran for the presidency in 1968 and 1972 and was shot and killed during a 1972 election campaign stop in Maryland.Czechoslovakia invaded: In Aug. Burger to counter liberalism in the Warren Court. Nixon went on television to condemn the court that enforced bus desegregation. Neil Armstrong walked on the moon’s surface. Neil: Frightened out of complacency by the Soviet launching of Sputnik. Kennedy was determined not to allow Russia to win. Pouring vast amounts of money into the space program. Chicago. Nixon began his attack on radicalism in America. they filed lawsuits against gender discrimination and rallied public opinion "to bring American women to full participation. He also appointed W. a satellite. National Organization for Women (NOW): The National Organization for Women was formed in 1966. aggressive foreign competition. forcing the repeal of most of the reforms. Americans put fears of Soviet technological superiority to rest for the United States had been the first to launch a human out into space. with the installation of reformers Alexander Dubcek as party leader and Ludvik Svoboda as president. Sunbelt verses Rustbelt: The leading work industries. Tensions rose as young SDS protestors against the Vietnam war arrived to voice their discontent. Betty. and my home" rang true to a growing number of middle class American women who found joys in motherhood. Defining themselves as a civil-rights group for women. Governor: George Wallace was an American politician and three-time governor of Alabama. and technological obsolescence. On July 21. 1969. of 1968.5 million American workers lost jobs as a result of plant closings or lack of work. Democratic Party Convention riot: In August 1968. Nixon. Friedan.
Vietnam to 1968 As the French pulled out of an increasingly helpless situation.S. many states had liberalized their abortion laws and banned sex discrimination in job hiring.S. Ho Chi Minh refused to give up sovereignty which resulted in the First Indochina War. He led the Vietminh. it drew the U. He was a nationalist at heart and wanted Vietnamese independence far more than a communist government. Laos. in Vietnam. aided the French. •Domino theory: Eisenhower’s domino theory claimed that once one nation fell to communism. Unsafe at Any Speed: Ralph Nader. into the fight against communism. By 1972. North Vietnam. Nader. Gulf of Tonkin: The Gulf of Tonkin is the northwestern arm of the South China Sea.S. Thailand. the United States became more involved to fill the power vacuum. The separate regions resented this and nationalist stirrings caused widespread discontent among the people of each nation. Thailand. Laos. In 1954. South Vietnam. and Cambodia into one colony called Indochina.under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on the basis of sex. bordering countries would follow like falling dominoes. Though many liberal college students mounted large protests against the conflict.S. The theory was . First Indochina War: The French wanted Indochina back after losing control over the colony during the Vichy era of the Second World War. Not until the Têt offensive did massive opposition arise. but Vietnam became more staunchly communist after the war. he brought forth the movement of environmental concerns which would later launch major campaigns for federal regulations." National Women’s Political Caucus: The National Women’s Political Caucus (1971) endorsed candidates that promoted a feminist agenda in Washington and many other State capitals. and Cambodia: The French empire condensed North and South Vietnam. which committed the U. •Ho Chi Minh: Ho was the Vietnamese Communist leader and the principal force behind the Vietnamese struggle against French colonial rule. Ho later turned to the Soviet Union when the U. they defeated the French garrison at the battle of Dien Bien Phu. a graduate of Harvard Law School. exposed the danger of automobiles that were "unsafe at any speed". the majority of the nation supported the war. assistance in Vietnam’s struggle for independence. a group of guerrillas. China and the island of Hainan border it on the west by Vietnam. Ralph. It is the site for the famous battle that led to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Hoping for U.
Eisenhower increased American involvement in Vietnam. the Vietminh surrounded and laid siege to the French garrison. The nationalists successfully penetrated Saigon and took the United States embassy. involvement in Vietnam. This led to the increased U.used in context of the monolithic view of communism. refused to give aid to the French for fear of condoning imperialism. which was also the first day of the Vietnamese New Year known as Têt. could not let Vietnam fall after "losing" China to communism. the group pushed to overthrow the South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem. The demilitarized zone during the Vietnam War was surrounded the seventeenth parallel.S. the U. 1968. The delegates of the conference decided that Vietnam should be divided into North and South at the seventeenth parallel until national elections took place in 1954. •GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION. In support of Ho Chi Minh. The U. the National Liberation Front was a part of this group. The National Liberation Front consisted mainly of guerilla fighters. The National Liberation Front was partly responsible for the fall of Dinh Bien Phu and organization of the Têt Offensive. Facing this humiliating defeat. 1954: After the fall of the French garrison at Dien Bien Phu. Demilitarized zone: A demilitarized zone (DMZ) refers to areas in which military weapons and other installations are prohibited." granting him full authority against North Vietnamese forces. the offensive showed that the nationalists were still capable of fighting and that the government had lied. It was passed by Congress and gave Johnson a "blank check. forcing them to surrender. . The parallel and the DMZ were created as a result of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolutions. Johnson and his advisers drafted the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that committed the United States in Vietnam. The conference also created an area known as the demilitarized zone. Fearful of Soviet expansion. Popularity for the war vastly declined. National Liberation Front: The Viet Cong was the name given to the Vietnamese communist army. 1954. which claimed that all communist countries were in a conspiracy to destroy democracy in the world.S. the French decided to give up their futile attempt to fight nationalist stirrings in Vietnam. Applied to Asia. an international conference was called in Geneva in 1954 to discuss the status of the war in Vietnam. •Têt Offensive: The NLF and the North Vietnamese arm mounted a massive offensive against the South Vietnamese and American armies on January 31. •VIET CONG.S. After being told that the enemy was virtually defeated. 1964: After North Vietnamese gun boats assaulted American ships that were organizing air strikes and military moves. •GENEVA CONFERENCE. The elections were never held. Dien Bien Phu: On May 7.
Vietnamization and Détente Skilled in foreign politics. Leaving Vietnam without honor would endanger U. The Kent and Jackson State universities were sites of protest in which student protesters were killed. the invasion of Cambodia spread the war throughout Indochina which sparked massive American protests on college campuses. the locations of communist supply lines. •Vietnamization: Popular discontent forced Nixon to pull out of the Vietnam war. but he could not allow the United States to lose face. Le Duc Tho. He opposed the war. It was the largest port in Southeast Asia and site of the Indochina naval base. This act established the exchange program for American and foreign educators and students. My Lai. Vietnamization. children. Pentagon Papers: Daniel Ellsberg was a analyst for the Department of Defense. allowed the U. an organization of returning soldiers that renounced their war medals as a result. Senator Fulbright also served as the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. the president proceeded to lessen American-Soviet tensions through a call for "peaceful coexistence. who in 1971 released to the press the Pentagon Papers. Fulbright. he sent Henry Kissinger to negotiate with the communists’ foreign minister.S. With a major Cold War conflict over. Hanoi. Lt." Bombing of Laos and Cambodia: As Nixon began to withdraw American forces in Vietnam in 1972. to save its reputation and satisfy an American public weary with a futile struggle. Haiphong was located 10 miles from the Gulf of Tonkin. global dominance and give a considerable advantage the Soviet Union. Nixon gracefully pulled the United States out of Vietnam by turning over the conflict to the South Vietnamese. the process of replacing the American armed forces with South Vietnamese troops trained by American advisors. and old men in 1968. Calley was an inexperienced commander of an American army unit massacred 347 defenseless women.S. The papers revealed government lies to Congress and the American people. Kent State and Jackson State incidents: In 1972. During the war it was heavily bombed in an attempt to force the North Vietnamese to negotiate a peace treaty. The horrors of the massacre were revealed to the public and the Vietnam Veterans Against the War. In order to force a compromise. an account of American involvement in Vietnam created by the department during the Johnson administration. the president ordered massive bombings of Cambodia and Laos. Daniel Ellsberg. It was located in the northern part of the country. Senator: Senator Fulbright was an American senator of Arkansas. . who proposed the Fulbright Act of 1964. Haipong: Hanoi was the capital of Vietnam before the war. Calley: Lt.
the President’s plane landed in China. after Lyndon Johnson died of a heart attack. Aided by massive U. There were frequent bombings and raids amongst the countries for oil. After the war. His "shuttle diplomacy" ameliorated the hostility between the Middle Eastern countries and the United States. the SALT I agreement allowed Ford and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev to make enormous progress towards the new arms-control treaty. He organized a cease-fire in November of 1973. in 1974. Siberia. Part of his policy of détente. Yom Kippur War: Syria and Egypt. Nixon declared that a peace had been reached in Vietnam. recognition of China: On February 22. This war between the Israelis and their neighboring countries spanned several years. China visit. 1972.Paris Accords. 1973: In 1973. the president was given unprecedented authority. 1972. The China visit sealed the new Chinese-American friendship. This dramatic development marked a significant change in American foreign policy by developing a cordial attitude towards the communists. leaving Russia more isolated. HENRY.S. War Powers Act. It was also agreed that the future of North Vietnam would not be determined by war. • KISSINGER. Six Day War. "shuttle diplomacy": Henry Kissinger flew from capital to capital and bargained with the Israelis and the Egyptian people. This agreement was to limit each side to 2.400 nuclear missiles which would reduce the rate of war to a mere fraction. backed by Russia. Détente: The evacuation of American troops from Vietnam helped Nixon and Kissinger reduce Chinese-American tensions and achieve détente with the communist superpowers. 1967: Israel’s decisive triumph in the Six Day War had left the Arabs humiliated and eager to reclaim the militarily strategic Golan Heights which was taken from Syria. 1973: As an act passed by Congress. Nixon to Watergate . shipments of highly sophisticated weaponry. the Israelis stopped the assault and counterattacked. 15 million men had been trained and equipped with armed forces ready for battle. The Paris Accords ended the war between the North Vietnamese government and Thieu government of South Vietnam. SALT I Agreement: At a meeting in Vladivostok. Kissinger negotiated the peace agreement with the aid of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to end the Yom Kippur war. Thousands of special wartime agencies suddenly regulated almost every of American life. led an all out attack on Israel in 1973 on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. Nixon took advantage of the Sino-Soviet split to pit the former allies against each other by recognizing China.
Basing his support on the conservative New Right coalition. Appointing attorney general John Mitchell as the head. Spiro T.5% for wages and 2. Committee for the Reelection of the President (CREEP): Nixon created CREEP to ensure every vote for the election of 1972. The election federal judge. Nixon declared a ninety-day freeze on wages.. "New Federalism. and massive spending during the 1960s. the House Judiciary Committee took in the first article of impeachment.5% for prices and rents. Nixon actually broke from Republican tradition in environmental protection. . wage and price controls: In response to the troubled American economy. his resignation: Vice President Agnew was charged with income-tax evasion and accepting bribes. Dishonored and distrusted. prices. Watergate: The scandal exposed the connection between the White House and the accused Watergate burglars who had raided the Democrats’ headquarters during the 1972 campaign. Nixon. refused to accept the claim of those on trial that they had behaved on their own terms. The term Imperial Presidency referred to Nixon’s efforts to acquire absolute control over his Presidency. The president had abused his power." The Imperial Presidency: Nixon’s "New Federalism" promised to bring back law and order to the United States by promoting conservatism and executive authority. He relied on his diplomatic successes with China and Russia and his strategy towards the winding down of the war in Vietnam to attract moderate voters." "revenue sharing" was a five year plan to distribute $30 billion of federal revenues to the states. 6 out of 17 Republicans voted with the 21 Democrats to charge Nixon with interruption of justice for controlling the Watergate investigation. Congress passed it in 1972 in response to the failing economy caused by the inflation. and finding solutions to economic problems such as the severe inflation. Sirica. Agnew. Agnew left the government service with a three-year suspended sentence. trade deficit. He expected his southern strategy and law-and-order posture to attract the conservative Democrats. and rents which would be followed by federally imposed controls setting maximum annual increases of 5. "revenue sharing": As part of Nixon’s "New Federalism. CREEP financed many "dirty tricks" to spread dissension within Democratic ranks and paid for a special internal espionage unit to spy on the opposition. Nixon verses Congress: On July 27th. Yet Nixon’s insecurity as president and his abuse of executive power led to his downfall. election of 1972: Nixon’s reelection was assured." according to the trial judge. welfare reform. He pleaded no contest which was "the full equivalent to a plea of guilty.
McGovern. Muskie’s campaign was never a threat to Nixon’s reelection. but Nixon refused. Thus they could not impeach Nixon. Twenty-sixth Amendment: This amendment guaranteed the rights of those who were 18 years of age or older to vote as citizens of the United States. But the Senate still lacked concrete evidence on the president’s criminality. Nixon fired Dean and Haldeman and Erlichman who headed the White House Staff resigned.R. Edmund: The campaign of Senator Edmund Muskie of Maine collapsed when he started to cry in public while trying to respond to an accusation of prejudice against Canadian-Americans. 1992 by a security guard. Impeachment proceeding: The most damaging to the President was when the hearings exposed the White House’s active involvement in the Watergate cover-up. it would bring about the downfall of Nixon. Assumed as inferiors. H. They typically worked in the agricultural field as menial laborers and were unpaid and overcharged. John Dean. but Nixon still feared him. Muskie. this Republican undercover team obtained approval by Mitchell to wire telephones at the Democractic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate apartment/office complex. Sen. It gave the power to Congress to enforce and protect by appropriate legislation. Sen. All three and former Attorney General Mitchell were indicted on March 1974. Ehrlichman. The operation was thwarted on June 17. It also limited the power given to the vice president from the incapacitated president. Haldeman. but Nixon was insecure about McGovern’s popularity. John Mitchell: All were involved in the Watergate scandal.. . The amendment allowed the politicians to listen to the voices of younger people as voters. the senator contributed to Nixon’s downfall. they lacked all the civil liberties of citizenship. Chicanos: Chicanos were segregated Mexican-Americans and also included Puerto Ricans. George: George McGovern of South Dakota rose to fame on the energetic support of antiwar activists rushing to the Democratic primaries. He was seen as inept and radical. this amendment detailed the procedure by which the vice president was to take over the presidency if the current president could not uphold his status in office. Both the Ervin committee and prosecutor Cox insisted to hear the tapes. Dean refused to cover up Nixon’s involvement in Watergate.White House "plumbers": Led by Liddy and Hunt. Twenty-fifth Amendment: Ratified in 1967. Watergate Tapes: Another Presidential rumor shocked the committee and the nation by revealing that Nixon had put in a secret taping system in the White House that recorded all the conversations between his enemies in the Oval Office. John.
As a result. Arab oil embargo: Furious at American intervention in the Middle Eastern conflicts. there was great violence in the Middle East when Israel invaded Lebanon to extinguish the Palestinian Liberation Front from its headquarters. Consequently. Chavez’s leadership brought guarantees of rights for the farmers. a nation-wide recession resulted which forced Jimmy Carter to seek new economic programs at the end of his term in office. They advocated Red Power and demanded justice for past wrongs. Nixon appointed him to moderate the liberalism of the Warren court and its controversial decisions. the western world which relied heavily on petroleum was forced to seek other resources of fuel and energy. Yasser Arafat: In June 1982. The Middle East Crisis With a virtual monopoly on petroleum. Yet more turbulent conflicts existed in the Middle East: religious issues and territorial disputes inflamed tensions between Israel and the Palestinians. the economy in the western world fell into inflation and unemployment. and Wounded Knee was their trading post site. Chavez worked to win rights for migrant farmers. The reason they defiantly occupied Alcatraz Island was to protest their low status in America. Middle Eastern petroleum exporting countries formed a monopoly and agreed to raise the price of oil. The chaos and confusion escalated in Lebanon which was already plagued by its own Civil War. corporations could span several nations. American Indian Movement (AIM). However. 1969: Appointed in 1969. he could only do little to dispel the effects of the rising prices of oil. •ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC): In the 1970s. He was an important figure in the Brown Power movement. Warren Burger was to replace the old and retiring Chief Justice Earl Warren. OPEC drove up oil prices which caused severe economic problems for the United States. the Arab nations began to downsize the exportation of petroleum products to western nations. where transportation allows rapid communication and exportation of products. He was young and a new addition to the Nixon court. William appointed. Many took advantage of inexpensive labor in one country and depreciated taxes in another. Wounded Knee: Native-Americans occupied Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay in 1969. (PLO). Burger. Multinational Corporations: In the modern era. He is famous for a strike he organized with the help of grape pickers in California in 1965. Palestinian Liberation Front. .Cesar Chavez: As a Roman Catholic and a follower of King.
To put the nation forward. "stagflation" severely worsened the American economy." to lower interest rates to prevent stagnation would worsen the ongoing inflation. Amnesty: Elected to the Presidency in 1976. Election of 1976: Jimmy Carter was elected President of the United States in 1976. trade deficits: A U. They excluded nations which violated Carter’s humane standards through cruel business practices. Climaxing a remarkable rise to national fame. There was no simple solution to "stagflation. 1974. In foreign affairs. Carter was an advocate of human rights. SALT II: In June 1979. Carter. the Cold War thaw slowed." . Carter had been governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975 and was little known elsewhere at the beginning of 1976. economy would not survive. interest rates still increased. Nixon began such programs as "revenue sharing" and wage and price controls for regulation. Balance of trade. This treaty was met with staunch opposition by Republicans who felt that they "stole it fair and square. and the U. The U. 9. Gerald. Ford became the first vice president to inherit leadership of the nation after the president resigned.-Soviet relationship grew sour. Jimmy. As a result. Due to the invasion of Afghanistan by Russia. The federal government could not repay the loan. •"STAGFLATION": As a combination of business stagnation and inflation. Carter presented it to the Senate and they ratified it. Carter defeated Gerald Ford in the 1976 election.S.S.S. and it was forced to find other methods to collect revenue. Panama Canal Treaty: The Carter administration put together bargains on a number of treaties to transfer the Panama Canal and the Canal Zone to the Panamanians by 1999. many people were angry that the government could easily forgive corruption and dishonesty. Ford. Cold War tensions mounted as the Soviet Union became increasingly annoyed with Carter’s rigorous standard of human rights. Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev agreed and signed the SALT II treaty.The Energy Crisis and Carter Trying desperately to cope with the economic predicament spawned by OPEC. General Ford granted pardon for ex-President Nixon. boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. the balance of trade was thrown off and the economic experts worried that the U.S. As a result. economic report during the 1970s revealed that the nation imported more than it exported. When the government borrowed money to offset the drastic loss of tax revenue. both Ford and Carter dismally failed. Nixon Pardon: On Aug. He granted amnesty to countries who followed his foreign policy.
Department of Energy: Carter created the Department of Energy and created an energy bill including taxation on oil and gasoline.S. •REAGANOMICS: Also known as voodoo economics. inheritance taxes to encourage investments in a plunging economy. spending. and his running mate was Patrick J. and restrictions on business. Jimmy Carter proposed a innovative economic program.Camp David Accords: Camp David was a place where the Egyptian leader Anwar elSadat and the Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin came together with Jimmy Carter.S. gifts. When he announced his candidacy. yet Reagan expanded his theory by advocating supply-side economics as a method to solve the economic hardships. WIN: To compensate for the economic predicament caused by OPEC and the crisis of energy conservation. •ELECTION OF 1980: The election of 1980 included candidates such as Republican Ronald Reagan. tax credits for those who found methods on saving money and alternative-energy resources. taxes. Reagan Revolution Reagan promulgated a program to restore U. Ronald Reagan became the President of the United States in 1980 with the promise of ameliorating the American economy against the forces of "stagflation. Anderson as the Independent candidate. He hoped that it would run by itself. Lucey from Wisconsin. . he was serving his 10th term in the U. economy. It was a return to the laissez faire theory of Adam Smith." Anderson. and John B. Reagan proposed a 30% tax cut allowing the money supply to circulate. He was known for his strong liberal statements and spoke well on complex issues. He liberalized business taxes and decreased capital gains. Democratic nominee Jimmy Carter. 1981: Following his promise of bettering the U. It represented peace and harmony in the modern world. He advocated a more laissez faire policy through a lessening of government activism. House of Representatives. John: He was a Republican congressman from Illinois. They discussed certain negotiations and tried to hammer out a framework for a peace treaty for the Middle East. George Bush named this new economic strategy Reaganomics in the 1980 primary campaign. President Reagan believed that the government should leave the economy alone. It went well and the bill for energy consumption came down in 1978. The biggest issue at the time was American foreign policy. Economy Recovery Tax Act. and fight economic problems. and Ronald Reagan had a greater hand in that issue. WIN was to provide methods for conserving energy by creating the Department of Energy and regulating consumption of gas by automobiles.S. prominence and honor globally.
The project revealed the full cultural spectrum of America. NY: In the 1970s and early 1980s. James Secretary of Interior: James Watt received more than $400. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was also created to enforce the hygiene. Many people supported Reagan’s decisions in favor of women’s rights. "New Federalism" proposals. Niagara Falls. Both the New York state government and the federal government provided financial aid to help move families from the Love Canal to other areas. chemical wastes that had leaked from a former disposal site threatened the health of residents in that area. The people who had interceded with the Department of Housing and Urban Development were paid hundreds of thousands of dollars for federal subsides. National Endowment for Humanities: The National Endowment for Humanities was created to further promote artistic and cultural development in the United States. This was targeted to foreigners. Reagan assumed that if the economy provided the products and services. trucking: To reverse the flow of federal power. Environmental Protection Agency. Supreme Court. airlines. OHSA: It was created in 1969 by President Nixon to enforce government standards for water and the air quality for work safety.000 for making several calls to the Department of Housing and Urban Development officials. Watt. He reasoned government must take its "hands off" from the economy to encourage investments and free enterprise. NEH. Sandra Day: She was a feminist who generally deplored Reagan’s programs. she was delighted when he nominated her as the first woman justice on the U. a near catastrophe occurred at Three Mile Island when there was an accident involving a nuclear power plant. 1982: New Federalism proposed to reverse the flow of power and resources from the states and communities to the state capital. Consequently.Supply side economics: In contrast to Adam Smith’s belief in supply-and-demand. The president proposed a revenue sharing bill that transferred some federal revenues to the states and prominent cities. Deregulation-AT&T. Three Mile Island: In 1979. O’Connor. and trucking companies. the public would purchase them. However. The plants were placed far away to reduce the hazards of near fatal accidents. EPA. Love Canal. airlines. Reagan lowered income taxes to stimulate the economy by expanding the money supply.S. Reagan began to deregulate governmental controls over such companies as AT&T. Safety measures were taken so that a future incident would not occur. .
AIDS prompted a change from the "free love" attitude of the 1970s. The Moral Majority was started in 1979 as a secular political group. killing all aboard. Betty The Second Stage. It also includes a statue of three soldiers. Agent Orange: Agent Orange was a chemical sprayed by U. the memorial is a black marble wall sunken below ground level in Washington D. 1982: Constructed in 1982. The Moral Majority was politically active in targeting such issues as abortion. Election of 1984: Former Vice President Walter Mondale got the Democratic nomination over Jesse Jackson.S. 1986: The space shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds into flight. Friedan stresses the need to add family matters to the cause of women’s rights. and sex partners of high risk groups. but was resumed in 1988 with the flight of the Discovery. Ferraro was chosen by Walter Mondale to be his Vice-Presidential candidate in 1984. but in 1988. as a higher percentage of women voted republican in 1984 than in 1980. 51% of them were working from day to day. and influential. and school prayer. They was strongly conservative.000 cases were reported in 1989. 97. 60% of women worked. and were finished as a political force by the late 1980s. In the 1960s. to a "safe sex" attitude of the 1990s. pornography. planes on the jungles of Vietnam during the war which caused the defoliation of trees and shrubs and made enemy positions more visible. Ferraro. However. Geraldine: The first woman ever to be on the ticket of a major party. Even though women had children.Friedan. homosexuality. located nearby. who appealed to the young. needle-sharing drug users. Vietnam Veterans’s Memorial. Originally concentrated among homosexual men. her presence failed to win Mondale the election. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome): First diagnosed in 1981. The shuttle program was halted while investigators and officials drew up new safety regulations. Reagan’s campaign revolved around the optimistic slogan "It’s Morning in America" and he rode the tide of prosperity to a decisive victory. The Challenger Disaster. manufacturers agreed to pay veterans injured by the chemical. •"MORAL MAJORITY": The Moral Majority was Jerry Falwell’s pro-Reagan followers who embraced the new evangelical revival of the late seventies. Defeat of the ERA: As the argument over the ERA and abortion went on more women got jobs in the working industry. In 1984.’s National Mall. . anticommunist. backed by minority groups. In the 1970s it was found that Agent Orange was harmful to humans.C. The explosion was caused by a faulty seal in the fuel tank. On it are inscribed the names of all Americans who died or were missing in action. the disease soon spread. 1981: In her novel The Second Stage. 35% of women held jobs. She reasons no person should ignore such a significant issue while focusing on female independence and advancement in society. and Gary Hart.
Solidarity: He became the leader of Poland’s government in 1980. but they wanted them to change religiously. Reagan remained very popular and charismatic. Reagan verbally attacked the USSR as an "evil empire" yet his actions were friendly. Argentine troops invaded and occupied the islands. Anti-Soviet rhetoric proved to be only rhetoric and the two nations resolved many of their differences. Lech. Civil war in Lebanon. Walesa. He was called the Teflon president by some because nothing would stick to him. with the federal deficit exceeding $200 billion. HUD scandals: In 1989. but the stock market crash in October 1987 made higher taxes a necessity. sea and land battles broke out between Argentina and Britain. Russia wanted to setup some sort of pro-Soviet Afghan regime. Solidarity was a organization composed of about 50 Polish trade unions. Britain also responded by sending troops. Falkland Island War: In April 1982. Israel moves into Southern Lebanon: President Reagan sent 2. the Cold War was unofficially over. the United States picked up an anti-Soviet relationship towards everything that had to do with Russia. 1979-1989: The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in an effort to acquire more land for Russia’s use. Once again. Air. ships. revelations surfaced that during Reagan’s administration. Reagan’s popularity was unaffected. Not only did Russia try to take over Afghanistan. By the end of Reagan’s administration.000 Marines to Lebanon in 1982 in order to gain control over the crippled PLO. which unfortunately included the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. The "Teflon Presidency": Ronald Reagan’s popularity never seemed to change much despite the scandals and failures of his presidency. Afghanistan. Reagan proposed a new. simplified tax system that lowered the taxes of individuals and corporate incomes. The tax reform helped reduce the deficit by 1987. 1986: In 1986. Even with all the criticism. insure .Tax Reform Act. prominent Republicans had been paid hundreds of thousands of dollars for interceding with the Department of Housing and Development on behalf of developers seeking federal subsidies. 1980: When Carter and Brezhnev could not agree on the rules and regulations of the SALT II agreement. In Moscow’s attempt to take over Afghanistan. Walesa’s negotiations with Poland’s government that year led to the government’s recognition of Solidarity. Olympic boycott. Due to severe losses the Argentine forces surrendered in June 1982. Heating and Cooling of the Cold War Ambiguous in his position towards the Soviet Union. and planes.
Iranian crisis.S.S. The system carried a huge price tag. 2.S. Ortega: First.S." It was proposed by Reagan in 1983 in an effort to ward off the perceived threat of a Soviet strike as U. and put in a U.S. and resolutions against nukes were passed. was dragged into the conflict several times. Duarte: Fear of Soviet expansion helped shape policy towards third world revolutions. and help restore order to the war damaged country. and was fiercely debated until the end of the Reagan administration. In El Salvador. 1983: On October 23. nuclear freeze movement: The movement was a popular reaction to the military and nuclear buildup under Reagan. Sandinistas. Fighting spread throughout the gulf region and the U. the U. backed the military rulers in suppressing insurgents (leftists backed by Cuba). It proved difficult as fire broke out upon the U. began talks on strategic-arms reductions with the Soviets. but was never held accountable. Responding to pressure. The moderate Jose Napoleon Duarte was elected in 1984 with U.S. support. and overthrew the disruptive radical government. the warring nations signed a peace agreement. Ayatollah Khomeini: The Iranian crisis started when a Beirut newspaper reported that in 1985 the United States shipped 508 antitank missiles to the government of Iran. Arias Peace Plan in Central America: Oscar Arias Sánchez. Marine soldiers invaded the island of Grenada.-Soviet relations worsened. Contras.S. Carter backed the Sandinista revolutionaries in overthrowing dictator Anastasio Somoza in 1979. The system was never used. the president of Costa Rica. Marine soldiers. •SDI (STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE).S. Fear of another Vietnam-like war prompted Congress in 1982 to halt aid to the contras. the Shah. The new government that the United States had just installed was collaborating well with the local Grenadians. It was the first popular challenge to Reaganism. popularly dubbed "Star Wars. Iran-Iraq War: The war began in 1980 over territorial disputes. Protests. who was replaced by Daniel Ortega. "Star Wars": SDI was a proposed system of space based lasers and other high-tech defenses against nuclear attack. the U.S. 1983. Many argued it would escalate the conflict. either .000 U. The CIA organized an army of "contras" to oppose the Sandinistas. El Salvador.S. was very influential in pushing for peace in Central America which was stalled because of civil wars in the region and the tensions between Nicaragua’s Sandinista government and the U. intervention led to the American hostage situation held in Lebanon by pro-Iranian radical groups. In 1986. but his ineffective government was voted out in 1989. Reagan secretly began sending illegal aid to the contras. Reagan later reversed the policy thinking that the Sandinistas were procommunist. •NICARAGUA—Somoza Family.that they got out of Tunisia. This exposure of U. rallies.-friendly regime. Grenada.
Corazon Aquino: Resistance to the corrupt government of Pres. She was backed by the U. . 1987 (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty): The treaty was a 1987 agreement between Reagan and Gorbachev which banned INF’s but did little to end the nuclear threat as 95% of the world’s nuclear arsenal remained. glasnost. Philippines.S. apartheid. Many sought refuge in the United States.S. grand jury indicted Noriega on various drug charges. conviction: In 1987 the U. U. Key players included Oliver North.S. who had been jailed for 27 years. Haitians staged a revolt against Duvalier and he fled the country. Noriega. perestroika: Mikhail Gorbachev welded influence in transforming the Soviet Union into a less rigidly communist regime.-supported ruler of Panama. Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union continued to improve which furthered the thaw in the Cold War. as Iraq began preparing to invade Kuwait. Criminal charges were filed against only North. planes bombed five Libyan sites. This was followed by years of violent political turmoil in Haiti. Congress voted to boycott South Africa in 1986.being attacked or attacking hostile targets.W. Libya fired missiles at U. Gen. and John Poindexter. Hostilities continue in the region. Gorbachev’s call for more openness in government was given the name glasnost. Nelson Mandela. In 1986. Reagan admitted it and stated his aim had been to encourage "moderate elements" in Tehran and gain the release of American hostages. Haiti: Jean-Claude Duvalier. was profiting on the flow of drugs through his country. INF Treaty. Marcos.S. military planes and after an explosion at a German nightclub popular with American GI’s. In 1986. •GORBACHEV. (or Irangate): Caught selling arms to the anti-American government of Iran. Panama. The area remained a volatile region. realized that the U. to end apartheid.S. Col. F. dictator of Haiti from 1971-1986. South Africa. Libya: Colonel Muammar Qaddafi was a pro-terrorist and anti-American leader of Libya. Qaddafi. Free elections were held in 1994 and Mandela became president. •IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIR..S. He ignored the actions.S. The war ended in 1988. who sent millions of dollars from these sales to contras in Nicaragua when Congress had forbidden such aid. Ferdinand Marcos intensified after the 1983 assassination of opposition leader Benito Aquino. His wife. Marines were sent in and he was caught and convicted. Duvalier. used oppressive measures and a violent secret police force to control Haitian citizens. drug-trafficking indictment. President De Klerk worked with Mandela. and the country was to face turbulent times. who hid the affair from the president. A U. His program of economic and political reform was called perestroika or restructuring. Corazon led the surge after Marco’s fraudulent 1986 reelection and took control. De Klerk: When opposition to South Africa’s racist government grew in the U. Manuel Noriega. It is an example of the warming Soviet-American relations and renewed the arms control process.
Though it soon regained the loss and surged to new heights. The goal of the bill was to reduce the enormous debt of the Reagan years and to have a balanced budget by the year 1991. The USSR reduced its military force in its eastern satellites and allowed more freedom of expression. issues: Bush got the Republican nomination while Michael Dukakis won the Democratic nomination over Jesse Jackson. the bill required the automatic unilateral slashing of many budget items. Bush won fairly decisively on a negative campaign. resisted the Russian military’s attempted coup in 1991. and personal appearance were the main issues in 1988. the Cold War which shaped U. Jesse. policy for nearly a half-century finally died. Non-Communist political movements soon developed in Poland. it fell 508 points in the largest single day drop in history.S. and other political outsiders to try to gain nomination and election in 1984. Rainbow Coalition: Jackson. Germany. and was president from 1989 to 1993. Bush chose Quayle as his running mate for his good looks. Berlin Wall falls. Jackson ran several times for the presidency. On October 19. East Germany. 1987. but was not moderate enough to gain popular approval. Jackson. the effects of the era of Reaganomics. tried to build a "rainbow coalition" of blacks. • BUSH. unified in October 1990. having been divided into East and West Germany since World War II. Taxes. GEORGE: Bush was Vice President under Reagan.Bush and the Post Cold War Era With the disintegration of the Soviet empire. The wall which separated the two countries fell. As president. and fought Saddam Hussein in the Persian gulf. He was not as successful in domestic affairs as the economy dwindled and the deficit rose. and Czechoslovakia. Bush was successful in areas of foreign relations. Moscow began losing direct control over Eastern Europe. and citizens were once again permitted to travel between East and West Germany. once an associate of King. Stock Market crashes: The market had enjoyed incredible success for the past five years and had tripled in size. Hispanics. Rev. The threat of nuclear annihilation subsided and the American public breathed a sigh of relief. Germany reunited: The dismantling of the Berlin Wall began in 1989. These included many domestic and defense programs. Bush was defeated by Bill Clinton and Al Gore in the 1992 election. crime. 1987. Black Monday. the volatility and uncertainty remained. Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act: Passed in 1986. holes in the "Iron Curtain": Due to Gorbachev’s more liberalized policies. Election of 1988--candidates. displaced workers. . He eased relations with Russia. Hungary.
1991: After the failed coup in August of 1991. 1990. Iraqi president Hussein ordered the invasion of Kuwait after oil negotiations between the two broke down. was a contributing factor. and his first target was the violent drug lords of Washington. supports Chamorro. "drug czar"--Office of National Drug Control Policy: Bennett was chosen as "drug czar" by Bush in response to national concerns about drugs. Pres. Boris Yeltsin: In 1991. Ortega defeated in free election: President Daniel Ortega. the 15 Russian states declared independence. D. The coup failed. which hampered political unity. Fearful of centralized power but mindful of the economic pitfalls of independence. Violence erupted in some states. The U. 12 of the states formed the Commonwealth of Independent States and severed all ties to the old Soviet regime. Iraq had complained that Kuwait was exceeding its oil production quota and flooding the world market. which set stricter regulations on many airborne pollutants. Chamorro’s election signaled a more moderate turn for the Nicaraguans. William J. ozone damage and many airborne carcinogens. though the transition has met resistance. smog. who wished to give more power to the states.C. Nicaragua. •END OF THE COLD WAR. The act was a cornerstone in pollution regulation legislation. Tiananmen Square. Bennett.S. The Commonwealth was a loose economic union. hardline communists seized power from Gorbachev. Beijing: 400-800 students were massacred by government troops during a pro-democracy demonstration in Beijing’s central square. 1990 (also one in 1970): President Bush sponsored the bill. responded with outrage and cut everything but diplomatic relations. Gorbachev. The U. Yeltsin. Iraq invades Kuwait: On August 2. The economy was in shambles after the lifting of economic restraints and a severe drought. Clean Air Act.national debt triples from 1980 to 1989. A wave of repression and executions followed. The act was aimed at reducing the chemicals which cause acid rain. Saddam. .. Reagan’s administration increased defense spending drastically while lowering taxes. 908 billion to 2. His job was to coordinate federal programs against drugs.S. The debt skyrocketed during his term. August 1991. The commonwealth was very weak. difficulties between Russia and the new republics: The new republics were wary of losing power to Russia.9 trillion: In an effort to restimulate the economy. attempted coup in Moscow. but the political turmoil led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union into independent states. though it is still considered a single country. This was the direct cause of the Persian Gulf War. the leader of the Sandinista regime. by far the largest and most endowed state. the president-elect. driving prices down. Commonwealth of Independent States. called for Russians to resist the coup. His philosophy of supplyside economics. or heavy spending in the corporate sector. was defeated in 1990 by Violeta Barrios de Chamorro in national elections. Hussein.
They were aimed at provoking Israelite retaliation to fracture the Allied-Arab alliance but were countered effectively by the U. Gen.S. NBC. An estimated 110." Cable TV became a fixture in many U. 1990. "work fare": This Act tried to reform the welfare system. The resolution was evoked early on January 17 when Allied planes began the air offensive. 1991 Civil Rights Act: The act allowed women. Operation Desert Storm. Desert Shield.UN Security Council Resolution 661 (trade embargo on Iraq): On Aug. Patriots launched to destroy SCUD’s while still airborne. SCUD missiles. 1988. Schwarzkopf: Beginning with a bombing raid on January 17. The fighting claimed nearly 25. leading to the rise of smaller networks. Hussein responded by increasing his forces in Kuwait. Some of its provisions required women on welfare to work if they have no children under 3 years old. and religious minorities to collect punitive damages for intentional on-the-job discrimination. The air raid utilized the most advanced missile technology such as smart bombs and cruise missiles to weaken the Iraqi defenses.S.S. households. UN Security Council Resolution 678: The allied operation shifted to a potentially offensive nature with this resolution. Family Support Act. MTV: MTV was part of the "cable revolution.000 lives and created massive refuge problems for bordering nations. Once was dominated by ABC. It contained strict work and child support guidelines. It authorized the use of force by the allies if Iraq did not withdraw from Kuwait by January 15. Patriot Missiles: SCUD’s were Soviet-made surface to surface missiles used by Iraq to bomb Israel during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. the resolution imposed an embargo on Iraqi trade effectively halting oil shipments from Iraq and Kuwait.000 Iraqi soldiers died with about 300 U. It was led by General Collin Powell. •GULF WAR. who became so popular as to later contemplate a 1996 presidential run. President Bush ordered a buildup of troops into Saudi Arabia called Desert Shield. revolts in Iraq--Shi’ites in South. The UN created a safe zone for them. issued November 29. Desert Shield became Desert Storm on January 17 with the beginning of the allied air assault. The embargo had severe economic effects on surrounding countries who depended on Iraqi trade and oil. The U. 6. were far behind technologically. now stations like CNN. and CBS. MTV specifically became an important marketing tool for music and politics. and parents without custody could have child support payments withheld from their paychecks. The short ground war began on February 24 and ended two days later. though more numerous than the Allied force. Iraqi forces. people with handicaps. 1990.S. and MTV were legitimate contenders. Collin Powell: In August 1990. deaths. 1991. Gen. FOX. . Kurds in North: Postwar uprisings by Shi’ite Muslims in southern Iraq and Kurds in the North were crushed by Hussein’s army. Schwarzkopf. Desert Storm was directed by Gen. used force to protect the Kurds.
" people of the 1980s were interested with personal over public concerns. Anita Hill: Thomas. which had taken a turn for the worse at the end of the Bush administration. a former associate. The "yuppie" was a person preoccupied with physical fitness. yuppies bought run-down apartments and town houses in poorer districts and fixed them up. 1. The process often came at the expense of poorer and older residents.S. Some nations have loosened border and currency restrictions to make political unity easier. bombing of World Trade Center: In 1993. Jan. VCRs. 1993: The 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (except Switzerland) and the 12 European Community nations signed an accord to create an enlarged free-trade zone. The issue of illegal immigration became a hot topic politically. of the Independent party. and personal computers were common. the President: Because a Democratic President and a Republican Congress were elected in 1992. The charges were dismissed in a series of highly public congressional hearings. money. baby-boom generation hits middle age: Once called the "Me Generation. a bomb in a parking structure of the World Trade Center Building in New York killed six and injured nearly 1000 people. Many bills were passed in an attempt to limit immigration. the state of medical insurance. signaling a new pattern of immigration. and 30% have come from Asia. The major issues were the state of the economy. and materialism. dropped out of the running. involvement in the Persian Gulf War.Previously. TV’s. then returned near November with much less support. Ross Perot: The election of 1992 was primarily between the Democrat Bill Clinton and the Republican incumbent George Bush. especially in the south west and west. •ELECTION OF 1992—candidates. gentrification: Reversing the trend of the middle-class exodus from urban centers. the EEA." Congress vs. Ross Perot. increased Asian. and Bush’s record of foreign diplomacy. Officials later arrested militant Muslim extremists who condemned American actions towards Israel and the U. Clarence. including a great number of elderly citizens. This "gridlock" occurred midway through Clinton’s term. . It widened the definition of discrimination and forced businesses to respect citizens rights of equality. His nomination was plagued with controversy due to sexual harassment allegations by Anita Hill. was nominated and seated in 1991. European Economic Area. Hispanic immigration: 45% of immigrants since 1960 have been from the Western Hemisphere. many government projects and parks were closed down for several weeks. both had the power to obstruct the other. the second black justice on the Court. Supreme Court. only racial minorities could claim damages. issues. did well in early polls. Thomas. Unable to resolve a dispute. "gridlock.
Arafat. More than 300 GOP candidates signed a "Contract with America" pledging support of several popular initiates. The NAFTA victory for free trade set the stage for the GATT treaty. Bosnia. Dole became the Senate majority leader. capitalizing on Clinton’s perceived inactivity. but not the violence. "greenhouse effect": The large amount of fossil fuels burned by cars. the U. Many of Bosnia’s Muslims were victims of "ethnic cleansing. PLO-Israel Peace Treaty (1993).S.GATT. investments.S. protect Israelis in Palestinian areas. Yugoslavia split into Croatia.S. the U. homes. The plan also established an agency to deal with international trade disputes. was approved by the 117 members of GATT. . It eliminated trade barriers between Canada. Several compromises were attempted by Clinton. Slovenia.. and by 1994 the U. The problem is made worse by tropical deforestation. was sustaining casualties. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): After a fierce political struggle. making the flow of commerce more efficient. and Herzegovina. and Mexico. Macedonia. Whitewater: A scandal which has plagued Bill and Hillary Clinton while in the White House. Investigators began searching for incriminating evidence. Rabin: A historic treaty was signed between Yasir Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin which would allow Palestinian self-rule in parts of Israel. 1994 Congressional election: The Republican Party. Somalia: A massive famine caused by warring factions of the government prompted George Bush to send troops (along with the UN) to protect relief efforts in December 1992. Violence erupted in Bosnia as Serbs and Croatians fought. Carbon dioxide traps heat near the surface of the planet. Clinton’s health plan: Clinton’s dream of universal health care package died as the bill could not get approval by resistant Republicans. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: An international plan to reduce tariffs and establish laws governing trade of services. the Whitewater affair revolves around the question if the Clinton’s benefitted improperly from their involvement in a real estate venture. gained a majority in Congress." mass expulsions to promote a Serbian ethnic partition of Bosnia. The bill would have required employers to pay 80% of their employees’ medical costs. and a recognition of Israel and the PLO as legitimate entities. raising its temperature. Radical Israelis and Palestinians denounced the treaty and violence ensued. and other economic issues. Gingrich authored the contract and became Speaker of the House. the Whitewater Development Corp. and factories has led to a rise in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. disintegration of Yugoslavia: In 1991-1992. killing tens of thousands. left leaving the UN in charge. and has become a major environmental concern. Soon. among other major changes. NAFTA was approved by Congress in 1993. but the issue was dead by September 1994. The effort succeeded in ending the famine. called the World Trade Organization.
but Clinton resisted.000 black men came. Farrakhan preached the need for blacks to become active family and community members. Minister Netehayu. killing 68. Oklahoma City bombing. The future is uncertain under newly elected P. Officials Terry Nicoles and Timothy McVeigh were right wing militant extremists angry at the government. He acted in protest to the signing of the PLO-Israeli Peace Accord of 1993. The man who shot him was arrested on the scene.intervention in Haiti: The term referred to Operation Restore Democracy. 1995 a 2½ ton bomb exploded in front of the Alfred P. Officials estimated 400. budget showdown between Congress and the President: Negotiations between President Clinton and Congress regarding balancing the budget wrapped up in May 1997. but Aristide did little towards turning Haiti into a democracy. The blast destroyed the front section of the building. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. Farrakhan: Led by the radical Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. of whom 19 were children. Women were discouraged from attending. . The agreed upon plan is a moderate compromise. 1995: Israeli Prime Minister Yitzak Rabin was shot and killed by a Jewish settler just after speaking at a mass peace rally. Republicans had originally wanted a constitutional amendment specifying a balanced budget.000-837. Supported by the Clinton administration. a major rally for African-Americans was held in Washington DC. Million Man March. The mission was successful. 1995. Clinton later withdrew his support. the plan was designed to restore President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power. 1995: On April 19. Rabin assassinated.
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