Exploration

Explorers in the late 15th, 16th, nad early 17th centuries began the European phase of American history. Their "discoveries" in the New dispelled rumors of a northwest passage and settled ancient questions of world geography. Contact between Europeans and Native Americans would have a dramatic effect on Europe, but a devastating impact on those who were wrongly called "Indians." Christopher Columbus: Spanish explorer who, with the backing of Ferdinand V and Isabella I, discovered the North American continent on October 12,1492. Though he was originally seeking a westward route to India, his fleet of ships consisting of the Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria reached the island of Hispanola, claiming it for Spain. Giovanni Verrazano: Mariner who explored the East coast of the United States and Nova Scotia under the commission of France in 1524. He was commissioned to claim new lands in the New World and find a route to China. He was the first European to enter New York Bay. His land claims were not colonized until the 17th century. Ferdinand Magellan: Portuguese explorer who was the first person to sail across the Pacific Ocean and to circumnavigate the globe. Sailing under a Spanish commission, he attempted to reach the Spice Islands. After crossing the Pacific, Magellan was killed battling natives in the Philippines but two of his ships returned to Spain. Francisco Pizarro: Spanish explorer and military leader who conquered Peru. Pizarro was part of many early explorations of the New World and was involved in the colonization of Panama. When he found the Inca empire in Peru he organized a expedition of 180 men and destroyed the empire in 1531. John Cabot: Explorer sent by Henry VII in 1497 who explored and claimed Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and the Grand Banks for England. Cabot was originally sent by Henry in violation of the treaty of Tordesillas to find a direct route to Asia. Cabot, like Columbus thought he had reached Asia, unaware he was exploring a new continent. Pedro Alvares Cabral: Portuguese navigator and explorer who explored what is now Brazil. While making a trip to India on April, 22, 1500 his fleet was forced off course by weather and he reached what is now the state of Bahia, Brazil. He claimed this land for Portugal. Vasco Nunez de Balboa: Spanish explorer who is best known for being the first to reach the Pacific Ocean in 1513. While attempting to escape debt he joined an expedition lead by Martin Fernandez de Enciso where he took control of the party and led it across the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean, which he claimed for the Spanish monarchs. Jacques Cartier: French explorer who explored the Saint Lawrence River. In 1534 Cartier lead a two ship party to find the northwest passage to Asia. He explored

Newfoundland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. While exploring, he claimed the lands for France which made up most of its claim to Canada. Juan Ponce de Leon: Spanish explorer who discovered the present day state of Florida on March 27, 1512. Following reports of a fountain of youth, he sailed from his colony in Puerto Rico to the eastern shore of Florida where, upon landing, his party was attacked by natives and where he was mortally wounded before retreating to Cuba. Hernando Cortez: Spanish conquistador who is best known for the destruction of the Aztec Empire in present day Mexico. On February 19,1519 Cortez left Cuba with a force of 600 men. Upon landing, Cortez was greeted by the Aztecs who he began to subjugate. He destroyed all resistance and destroyed the Aztec capital in present day Mexico City. encomiendas: Grants that give a person the right to take labor in the form of slaves or any type of homage form a designated group of Indians. Christopher Columbus who was sailing for Spain and who was one of the first conquistadors also began this practice in Hispanolia. Spanish Armada, 1588: Naval force launched by Phillip II of Spain to fight England. The Fleet was the largest of its time in the 16th century. The Armada was severely damaged when it was attacked off the coast of England on August 7,1588 and cut nearly in half by storms upon return to Spain, making Britain the dominant sea power. Colombian Exchange: The exchange of biological organisms between continents. The diseases brought to the American continent that helped to nearly destroy the native populations is one example of that exchange. Besides disease, many plants and animals have been brought to new environments with varying consequences.

•Order of Colonization: (colony, date, prominent figure) Virginia in 1607, John Smith;
Plymouth in 1620, William Bradford; New York in 1626, Peter Minuit; Massachusetts Bay in 1630, John Winthrop; Maryland in 1633, George Calvert; Rhode Island in 1636, Roger Williams; Connecticut in 1636, Thomas Hooker; New Hampshire in 1638; Delaware in 1638; North Carolina in 1653; South Carolina in 1663; New Jersey in 1664; Pennsylvania in 1682, William Penn; Georgia in 1732, James Oglethorpe.

Virginia Settlement
One of the New England colonies and chartered by James I in 1606, Virginia was founded to give the English territorial claims to America as well as to offer a colonial market for trade. Jamestown, became a prosperous shipping and tobacco producing colony and the colony developed the House of Burgesses, a bicameral legislature in 1619.

Joint Stock Company: A business owned by investors through control of stocks. Examples operated in England and dealt with colonial markets in America. Such companies organized and supported the colonies through charters from the British government and while they worked with the government they made private profits.

•Jamestown: The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May,
1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop. starving time: The period early in any settlements development when food and supplies are scarce due to lack of preparation, unfamiliarity with the surroundings, weather, and inability to successfully grow crops. The starving time usually cost a large percentage of the settlers lives and lasted for the first few years. John Smith: Colonial leader who brought structure and stability to Jamestown during its starting years. As a member of the governing council of Virginia he was chosen to replace the previous president in 1608. Smith is credited with organizing trade with the Powhatan Confederacy and leading the colony through its roughest years. John Rolfe: English colonist and farmer who greatly aided the colony. Rolfe is credited with introducing tobacco as a crop for export, which ensured the colony of profits as well as bringing eight years of peace between Indians and colonists through his marriage to Pocahontas. purpose of Virginia: Virginia was founded primarily for the purpose of profit by the joint-stock owned Virginia Company of London. It was also important in giving England territorial claims in America to match Spanish and French expansion, and to also give England markets and resources in the New World. indentured servants: People who promised their lives as servants in order to get to the colonies. The servants, who were usually white, worked for a certain amount of time so to pay off their debt. This practice led to social tensions with such eruptions as Bacon’s Rebellion and eventually was replaced by race slavery. problems and failures of Virginia: Included trouble with Indians and a "starving time" in the winter of 1609 which the colony barely survived. Virginia also suffered from debt, a high death rate, fraudulent local officials, and more Indian trouble. The problems eventually made the Virginia Company go bankrupt. headright system: System enacted first in Virginia then in Baltimore to attract people to the sparsely populated colonies. The system worked by granting large amount of land to anyone who brought over a certain amount of colonists. In Baltimore, anyone bringing five adults at their own expense would receive two thousand acres.

House of Burgesses: A regular assembly of elected representatives that developed in the Virginia colony in the 1630’s. The House of Burgesses was split into two chambers in 1650, creating the House of Burgesses and the Governors Council. The House was a bicameral legislature that was a model for our congress. successes of Virginia: Virginia succeeded politically in terms of creating the House of Burgesses as a semi-democratic assembly and forcing governors to cooperate with the legislature. They did this through the power of the purse as governors did not control money, and therefore depended on the legislature for they salaries. Cavalier: The group of supporters of Charles I in the English Civil War which lasted from 1642-1648. The term Cavalier continued to be used to mean any supporter of the British crown, especially Americans who were British sympathizers during the American Revolution.

•Bacon’s Rebellion: Colonial rebellion against the governor of Virginia in 1676.
Nathaniel Bacon was the leader of the uprising protesting Governor Berkeley’s neglect of calls for a stronger military presence in the frontier to end problems caused by Indian hostility. The revolt succeeded in driving away the governor and it appeared it would achieve success when Bacon died shortly after the initial success before any progress was made and the rebellion dissipated.

Puritans
The Puritans first came to America in 1620 on the Mayflower. The Pilgrims, as they were called, were separating from the Anglican church and escaping religious persecution in England by escaping to America. Other Puritans soon flocked to America hoping to "purify" the Anglican Church and develop a colony which would be a model to the world ("a city upon a hill") Calvinism: The teachings and doctrine of John Calvin, a leader in the Protestant reformation. Calvinism is unique in its rejection of consubstantiation, the Eucharist and in its doctrine of predestination, the belief that no actions taken during a persons life would effect their salvation. The Puritan colonies were based on Calvinist doctrine. Church of England: The established church in England that is also known as the Anglican church. The Church of England was founded in 1534 by Henry VIII after a dispute with the Roman Catholic church over the annulment of his marriage which culminated in the Act of Supremacy, declaring the King to be the head of the church. Mayflower Compact: Agreement made by the Pilgrims in 1620 when they landed at Plymouth. The compact created the Plymouth colony and made a civil government under James I based on the will of the colonists. The Compact was important in the early organization and success of the colony.

Under the leadership of John Winthrop. It was anticipated that once the world saw this great city it would follow it example. but Pilgrims were a distinct group of puritans who were not only against the Anglican church but called for total separation from the church. Puritan Migration: The term given to the migration of Puritans to America in the early 17th century. where they originally had assembled and ended up in Plymouth with intentions of creating a community free of English control. who wanted to end ties with the established church and nonseparatists. The Pilgrims sailed across the Atlantic and reached America in 1620 where they founded the Plymouth colony and organized a government based on the Mayflower compact. The colony was created in 1630 and it was governed through a General Court selected by church members.William Bradford: The second governor of the Plymouth colony in Massachusetts. he was elected over John Carver in 1621 and was reelected thirty times. •City Upon a Hill: Name given to the Puritan society that was to be created in the New World. Following the restoration of James I to the throne Puritans in England . Puritans: Reform movement in the Anglican church in the 16th and 17th centuries and came to America in 1629. They included the Pilgrims who migrated to America. Pilgrims: The original group of puritan separatists that fled religious persecution in England and found refuge in what is now Massachusetts. The society was to be an example to all the world of what could be achieved. Non-Separatists: Separatists were a group of Puritans who advocated total withdrawal from the Church of England and wanted the freedom to worship independently from English authority. John Winthrop planned to create a utopian society based on Puritanism that would have no class distinction and would stress the importance of community and church. England. Massachusetts Bay Colony: Colony created by the Massachusetts Bay Company. a dangerous belief in religiously tense England. For this reason they fled the town of Scrooby. Cambridge agreement: Plan used in 1629 to colonize America by allowing immigration of puritan settlers who would control the government and the charter of the Massachusetts Bay company. The movement aimed at purifying the church of corruption split into separatists. Non-Separatists sought to reform the Church from within. The agreement was based on the creation of a market for trade but instead developed a religiously based government. He was important in the organization and success of the colony and kept a history of the development of the Plymouth colony that was published in 1856. PURITANS: Pilgrims and Puritans were extremely similar in most practices and beliefs. Separatists vs. Seeking religious freedom was a strong motivation for colonies in America. •PILGRIMS VS. The leader of the Puritan migration. the colony was created to provide the world with a model Christian society.

Under Puritan doctrine. He played a key role in the puritan migration and intended to create a utopian society in America. The Relation required that any member of the congregation must go through an examination before the congregation. The platform was the source for the Puritans of the government and organization for their colony. conversion relation: Part of the Massachusetts Puritans practice. The puritans fled England and came to America to have freedom of religion. it was a requirement of new members. Puritans were guided by their religion and created a government and society tied to the church. some that its is earned and others that it can be achieved by faith alone. later generations did not go accept it and the half-way covenant was adopted. dissenters: People objected to the accepted doctrine of the established church. Covenant Theology: Christian Theology that stressed that a agreement was made by God with humans with the death of Jesus for the salvation of mankind. Contrast Puritan Colonies with others: Because most colonies were created with financial or political gains in mind. The puritans came to American seeking religious freedom and had a strong work ethic enabling them to achieve a success not seen in other colonies. The puritans who migrated to America were dissenters from the Church of England who . Because of its unpleasantness. The theology differs from sect to sect. John Winthrop: The first governor and one of the founders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and a member of the Massachusetts Bay Company. Unlike other colonies. saints: High standing members of the church who gained recognition and were put on a council that governed the congregation. puritan colonies had a special distinction from them. Cambridge Platform: Agreement and plan formed by Puritans before they landed in 1629. Congregationalism: Protestant organizational system based on the freedom of each church to control its affairs. Congregationalism was part of the strong independence of the colonies. and it established a government under the authority of the King of England. to become a saint the person had to be a member of the congregation and have been chosen by the church council. He was elected governor twelve times and pursued a conservative religious and governmental policy. it was continued by the pilgrims in America where it was adopted by the new churches as a way to maintain local independence. some assert that salvation is granted to all.became persecuted and with the accession of Charles I to the throne the situation became worse. An offshoot of the separatist. New England Way: The Puritan dominance of New England and their desire to create a utopian society based on their doctrine created a distinct society in New England.

Most of the women were middle aged wives or widows. She was banished to Rhode Island in 1637 for her belief in antinomianism and her insistence on salvation by faith and not works. especially boiling over in Salem. Mass. the belief that the Gospel frees Christians from required obedience to laws. The idea was furthered in 1644 when it adopted a bicameral court with elected delegates. that replaced home education by creating a system in which small towns would have a person capable of teaching the children and every town of over one hundred homes would have a school.created a new church in the colonies. Williams was banished from Massachusetts for his belief in religious freedom. •SALEM WITCH TRIALS: The fear of witchcraft that came to a head in the 16911963. . Brattle Street Church: Church located in Boston. Many implicated others for fear of their lives. Massachusetts in 1692. and taxes for the following season. Completed in 1699. town meetings: The center of Colonial America political life especially in New England. such as town officers. Rhode Island: Early colonial clergyman who founded the religiously tolerant colony of Rhode Island in 1636. Voting Granted to Church Members: The New England puritans developed a more democratic system of government than in England that gave the power to elect the governor to all male saints. With the later generations of Protestant settlers unwilling to undergo the conversion relation. Town Meetings were gatherings where all the voters in the town or nearby countryside would all congregate and go over issues that most interested them. Religious outcasts from the puritan church such as Ann Hutchinson and Roger Williams were also dissenters. The law was a step towards creating a universal education system. Roger Williams. church membership was threatened and the compromise was made. antinomianism: Early New England religious leader who founded the doctrine of antinomianism. This fear ended with the death of many innocent women. The Salem Witch Trials pinpointed the underlying tension that was coming to head in many colonies due to religion and social standings. he established a colony at Providence in 1636 that tolerated all dissenters and was in good relations with the Natives. Thomas Brattle. The Church was strongly opposed to the Salem Witchcraft trials in 1692. a wealthy merchant and official of Harvard College organized the church against the will of Cotton Mather because of its closeness to the Church of England. Anne Hutchinson. Half Way Covenant: A modification in the Cambridge Platform in 1662 that enabled people who had not experienced the conversion relation to become part of the congregation. Massachusetts School Law: Law also Known as the Old Deluder Act of 1647.

starting a trend of religiously independent settlements. The contrasts between the different regions were involving crops. Regionalism As life in the colonies progressed. The Company was dissolved in 1684. Puritan settlers who founded their settlement at Boston first colonized the land. this was one of the largest industries in the colonies. The union was for the purpose of ensuring safety and peace between the colonies. but eventually became a commercialized "Yankee" society. Puritan society. Andros was extremely unpopular because of his suppression of colonial legislatures. the New Englanders prospered the least. The consolidation was strongly opposed by the colonists because of the elimination of all colonial legislatures. The Dominion was governed by New York governor Sir Edmund Andros. certain regions of America developed distinct characteristics and each had its own unique niche. religion. and control. As a clergyman in Massachusetts. Of all the colonies. Conn. •The Dominion of New England: Centralized government imposed upon the New England colonies by England in 1686 as a result of the Restoration monarchy’s need for control and renewed colonial interest. town meetings and enforcement of the Navigation Acts. •NEW ENGLAND: Region of the colonies lying on the northeast Atlantic Coast. New Englanders turned to fishing and the merchant marine. had the most overpopulated towns. The distinct regions were New England .Puritan Ethic: Term that characterizes the strong sense of purpose and discipline that Puritans had. and was ended by colonial insurrection. New England Confederation. Massachusetts Bay Company: Company in 1628 to govern the Massachusetts Bay Colony on granted by the Council of New England in America. and the frontier. and by 1700. Thomas Hooker: Religious leader in colonial America and founder of Hartford. and had the poorest soil. Sir Edmund Andros: Political leader appointment as governor of the Dominion of New England in 1686. Plymouth. Connecticut and New Haven in the years from 1643-1684. Boston colonists forcefully removed Andros from office in 1689. This work ethic also helped the Puritans find success in the colonies and translated to an American colonial work ethic. Hooker grew dissatisfied with the rigid practices and . Part of the work ethic also resulted from a belief that wealth and success were a sign of saintliness and that idleness was a sin. 1643: A concord among the New England colonies of Massachusetts. To make up for the lack of farming. The confederation was used most effectively advising during King Phillips War.the Chesapeake Bay area. the southern colonies. the middle colonies. It started as a highly religious.

it put the welfare of the community above that of individuals. which were published as The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America. Phillis Wheatly: African American poet who was brought to America by slave traders at the age of eight and was bought by the Wheatly family." Ann Bradstreet: The first woman to write poems in colonial America and receive acclaim for them. . The rebellion succeeded in disposing the governor and placing Culpeper in his position. Following the puritan ideal. Written by Thomas Hooker and similar to the government of Massachusetts Bay.government of the Puritan church. Culpeper’s Rebellion: Rebellion against the colonial government in Carolina in 1677. The Southern Colonies were also the only colonies with a large population of blacks and an ethnically stratified society. One of her works is "To the University of Cambridge in New England. Georgia: Colony founded in 1733 by a charter granted to James Oglethorpe. The Southern Colonies were distinct from other colonies mostly on their dependence for slave labor and for farming. leading to an absence of large cities in the south. such as bans on slavery and rum. it contained a preamble and 11 orders. separate from Britain. Phillis found her first fame while escorting one of the Wheatly’s in England. In 1767. Saybrook Platform: A modified version of the Cambridge platform that was used by Connecticut Congregationalists and contained a more centralized church government. Poor Richard’s Almanack: Publication written by Benjamin Franklin in 1732 that gained an immense following with its home remedies and practical wisdom. The high ideals of Oglethorpe. Her poems. Charleston became the fourth largest city in the colonies. The main crop in the South was rice. slowed growth as large settlement did not occur until after slavery was brought to Georgia. It can be said that Poor Richard’s Almanack helped define the American culture by giving them traditions and wisdom’s all their own. In 1635 he lead a group of followers to start a more liberal colony in Hartford. at the age of 8. asserted that women had the right to gain knowledge. She was born in 1612 as the daughter of the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: The constitution of the Connecticut colony that was established in 1639. The government was for the colony at Saybrook of which John Winthrop’s son was governor. •SOUTHERN COLONIES: Region consisting mainly of the Carolinas and Georgia. The rebellion was lead by John Culpeper and was directed against the government’s acceptance of English trade laws. but he was removed in 1679. But although most southern cities were tiny. The colony started with a settlement in Savanna created by Oglethorpe as a debtor’s colony.

and during this time the French Protestants gradually regained many of their rights. Virginia. after the Act of Religious Toleration was passed. sugar colonies: Colonies that produced sugar for England. which the Catholics ruled. received a charter from King Charles I for a tract of land to the northeast of the colony of Virginia. Maryland’s Protestant Association: Group of Protestants in Maryland during late 1600s who controlled the lower house but not the upper. Tidewater vs. Along with this equality Lord Calvert allowed a representative assembly for the Catholics. the Piedmont. Oglethorpe founded Georgia after a grant from King George II and settled with a small group on the Savanna River. in 1632. Piedmont: Two regions of contrasting economic opportunity. The Huguenots slowed the colonization process for the French. •CHESAPEAKE SOCIETY: Society characterized by few neighbors and isolated families whose lives depended on tobacco. Oglethorpe’s ideals in creating a debtors colony free of vice were a distinction from other colonies. most farms were located along Chesapeake Bay. The enlightened and religiously skeptical spirit of the 18th century. Because of this. Protestants formed a majority and the manors evolved into plantations. Chesapeake society also had a powerful merchant class who controlled both export and import commerce. and the Caribbean. It comprised the present-day states of Maryland and Delaware. however. The Maryland Act of Toleration was passed in 1649 so all types of Christians could have equal political rights. on the other hand. where most of the opportunity was in shipping and fishing.James Oglethorpe: English soldier and founder of the colony of Georgia in 1733. Chesapeake society also revolved around fertile soil near navigable water because tobacco needed such an environment to be grown profitably. Maryland. . The Tidewater was along the coast. like New Netherlands. Maryland: Proprietary colony originally intended to be a refuge for English Catholics. Huguenots: French Protestants. He wrote the charter for the colony but died before he got it. This contrast represented an East-West dichotomy to accompany the North-South one. Maryland was created in 1632 when Lord Baltimore (Cecilius Calvert) was given a land grant and created a manor based state with a headright system. Eventually. Slow urbanization also characterized society around the Chesapeake. However. Sugar plantation owners liked to use black slaves because they were able to work harder and longer. was opposed to religious persecution. New England. Maryland Act of Toleration: Act that resulted when the Catholics began feeling threatened by the overwhelming Protestant population. Sugar was produced because it could make people rich quickly because it was sold at very high prices. the Protestant majority barred Catholics from voting and threw out the governor and repealed the act. was where farming took place. because of the religious wars with French Catholics. Lord Baltimore: Founder of Maryland who.

thus showing a fear of tyranny of the church and state. New York. quitrents: Federal payments that the freeholders had to pay the people who were getting the land from proprietors. grain. various grains. New York." It formed the three orders of nobility with the proprietors at the top. •Middle Colonies: The middle colonies were Pennsylvania. These job seekers usually ended up competing for jobs with the black slaves. This practice became came over with the colonists and was introduced into common law. and Pennsylvania. the caciques in the middle. flour. The colonies enabled England to control the East Coast. All of these products were exported to Europe and the west Indies. With the Restoration and the creation of Restoration Colonies. with the money no longer going to the proprietors but instead to the king or queen as royal revenue. After a visit to Maryland. entail: The practice of passing on land to a son. Most of the colonists’ profit came from farming. John Locke. . wood. North Carolina originated as an extension of Virginia and South Carolina came from planters from Barbados. and skins. Fundamental Constitution: Intricate constitution written by Cooper and John Locke in 1670. and the landgraves at the bottom. Carolina. Thomas Bray received a royal charter from King William for overseas missionary work. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel: An organization founded in 1701 to serve the spiritual welfare of the colonists.Carolinas: Colonies created when Charles II rewarded eight of the noblemen who had helped him regain the throne from the Puritan rule in 1663 by giving them land. usually the eldest. when no will was left for the land. New York was built upon the rule of James Duke of York who sent out John Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret to be the first two proprietors of New Jersey. but it did not take long for the practice to die out in the colonies. meant to stabilize the government of Carolina by basing the social rank on one’s "landed wealth. which was picked by African-American planters who were imported by the Dutch in 1616. These colonies had governments that made a social hierarchy geared toward a dominant wealthy class. Restoration Colonies: Colonies created following the Stuart restoration in 1660 when England again took interest in America. Pennsylvania was built on the basis of being a religious haven for Quakers. New Jersey. the dues were still enforced. who founded Charleston in 1670. indigo. Charleston: City that became the fourth largest city in North America. Primogeniture. and tobacco which were exported to Britain. wood. It was seen as a conspiracy. staple crops of the South: The major staple crop of the south was rice. SPG. and New Jersey. It was a place where the upper class could pass their time so they could stay away from the heat of their plantations. Other crops were tobacco. Europe and the West Indies. all of which produced iron. Many whites were lured to Charleston in hopes of reducing the black majority.

In his constitutional type document Penn preached "that the will of one man may not hinder the good of the whole company. opposed war and slavery. They were based in Pennsylvania. George Keith: Member of the Quaker church who told the Quakers that they needed a formal doctrine. New York: Dutch. 1664 English: Charles II gave his brother James title to all the Dutch lands in America in 1664. Quakers: Religious movement founded in 1600 by a religious belief that divine revelation is immediate and individual and that all persons may perceive the word of God in their soul. Penn himself carefully oversaw land sales in the colonies to avoid improper disputes. He objected to political and religious authority. mainly Presbyterianism. and advocated divine communion as he practiced it. 1701 Frame of Government: The first set of laws set up in Pennsylvania which were written by William Penn. opposed war and slavery. For years to come there were conflicting claims to the territory and finally in 1702 it became a royal colony. They started with a strong government. and the Anglican population and political power rose. William Penn: Pennsylvania was founded as a refuge for Quakers by William Penn in 1681. so in 1692 he joined the Church of England. This liberal planning ensured no starving time. East Jersey then became dominated by Scottish Quakers whereas West Jersey became the home to many English Quakers. East/ West Jersey: They were colonies that resulted from the sale of the Jersey territory to Quakers. and believed that all human actions should be directed by inner contemplation and a social conscience inspired by God. and believed that all human actions must be directed by inner contemplation. He objected to political and religious authority. James became King in 1685 and appointed Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret as the first proprietors of New Jersey. so in 1674 Berkeley sold his half to a union of Quakers. Holy Experiment: The main part of this theology that George Fox taught was that people had an inner light that could spiritually inspire their souls. With his heresy conviction the Quaker population in Pennsylvania dropped.Pennsylvania." The document was revised seven times and held a strong executive. George Fox: Preacher of the "inner-light" doctrine who spoke against formalized religion. and a limited lower legislative chamber. English settlers resisted the original proprietors’ authority. The 1701 Frame of Government stated that the proprietors had no power to do mischief. liberal land laws in PA: Laws that were set up by William Penn which were very liberal because that was his nature. Penn and his people did not experience a starving time which was very common for starting colonies. The Quakers believed that an "inner-light" allowed them to be on a personal level with God. His ideas were not accepted among the Quaker majority. . They rejected a formal creed and regarded every participant as a potential vessel for the word of God.

grain. almost like the British landed aristocracy. as explained by Fredrick Turner’s Frontier Thesis. peacefully surrendered and gave New Netherlands to Charles II. Later. New York City and Philadelphia as urban centers: Both cities were the two biggest exporting cities in America thus making them rapidly growing urban centers. Benjamin Franklin: A notable American printer. leading to his arrest and death when his enemies gained control of the government. which democratized America by elimating the significance of voting property requirements. The frontier also offered limitless land. Bartram traveled extensively through the colonies. crops in the middle colonies: The middle colonies rich level lands produced lengthy growing seasons and gave good bumper crops. Leisler’s Rebellion: Anti-Stuart rebellion in which Captain Jacob Leisler took command over New York in hopes of protecting it from Andros and other supporters of James II. diplomat. and making maps. Similarly. author. He performed important experiments involving plant hybridization and in 1728 he founded the first botanical garden in America near Philadelphia. forming the New York and Jersey colonies with a large remaining Dutch population. the patroon owners emerged as a class of landed elite. writing. He first published Poor Richard’s Almanack in 1732 and played a crucial role in the American Revolution and community. In 1691. Maryland was founded by George Calvert in 1632 and served as a refuge for English Catholics. Peter Struyvesant: Dutch governor who was attacked by Charles II in 1664 so that the British could control North America. whose army was already hurt from Indian attacks. observing wildlife. The estates were created in order to raise revenue by collecting tenant rents. In 1731 he founded what was probably the first public library in America. and scientist. by about 1750. Their exports were rice. The middle colonies were major exporting colonies because of their accessible sea ports. wood. High population and bad sanitation allowed many of the people to catch viruses and diseases. the middle colonies as a religious haven: William Penn founded Pennsylvania originally as a religious haven for Quakers who were not accepted elsewhere in 1681. Leisler denied the passing of English troops to important forts. Recessions hit frequently and the job force was very unstable. John Bartram: Botanist who was known as the father of American Botany. and tobacco which were shipped to Europe and the West Indies.patroon system: The system of feudal estates created by large New York landowners in the early 1700s. Finally. philosopher. flour. iron. his contributions epitomized the Enlightenment. •FRONTIER: Area of land important in the development of a distinctly American culture and political life. Rhode Island was founded by Roger Williams in 1644 for dissenting Puritans. collecting plants. the frontier represented a raw environment that . Struyvesant.

was founded in 1651. and Black With the colonization of certain regions in America came conflicts with the Native Americans and the earliest traces of slavery in America. Tuscaroras and Yamasees: Two opposing Indians tribes whose disunity lead both to destruction. and ports. Red. In contrast. Pequot War: So-called war consisting of clumsy plundering by Massachusetts troops and raids by Pequots in 1637. the tribes in the confederacy were the Onondaga." and devastation through war and disease. and Tuscarors. White. Oneida. acuteness. the growers and farmers eventually began to rely on African-Americans and Native Americans as a free source of labor. Cayuga. By combining they were a stronger force against the colonists. the first of which. Seneca. assimilation as "Praying Indians" became the only option besides retreating farther west. praying towns: Towns set up by puritan missionaries for Indian converts to spread puritan Christianity. King Philip lead the natives. and the Yamasees were themselves defeated around 1715. Originally using AfricanAmericans only as indentured servants. fishing. Native American Relations in the first settlements: Relations characterized by resistance to the expansion of English settlement. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. and inventiveness. pragmatism. cities. As the Indian population in the east waned. The Tuscaroran people were defeated by the colonists with the help of the Yamasees in 1713. The chief of the Wampanoags. By the 1700s. and industry whereas the South was based on an agricultural society. The war tipped the balance of military power to the English. The colonists eventually won the alliance of rival tribes and waged a ruthless campaign. Mohawk.helped mold American civilization by giving it coarseness. strength. Natick. the South was characterized by cash crops. opening the way to New England’s settlement. . Also. the North had more towns. and plantations. Iroquois Confederacy: The joining of six sects of the Iroquoian family and of the Eastern Woodlands area. submission into "praying towns. an aristocracy. King Phillips War: War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. North-South economic differences: The North was much more concerned with shipping. Many of the Massachusetts Indians sought protection from Winthrop by selling their land and surrendering their independence. Both tribes were scattered and soon disappeared. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.

and 18th centuries under which governmental control was exercised over industry and trade in accordance with the theory that national strength is increased by a majority of exports over imports. •SLAVERY BEGINS: Followed the exploration of the African coast and the establishment of a slave trade Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. It was often noted as an inhumane code but the society revolved around slaves. Out of the Maryland Slave Code of 1661 came the establishing of other slave codes that set up strict legal codes. however because it was not yet profitable for slavery under the conditions.Beaver Wars: Wars that resulted from furious trading and hunting of Beaver pelts by the Dutch. 17th." It was issued by Maryland in 1661 in order to set up a distinct place for the slaves in the society. White owners relied on force and fear to control the growing black majority in the Carolinas. inheritable. in which twenty slaves robbed guns and ammunition from the Stono River Bridge along with killing civilians. Barbados Code: Code adopted by Carolina in 1696 to control slaves at the will of their masters. mercantilism: features. rationale. The colonies adopted mercantilism as business in which the mother country could benefit. Maryland Slave Code. Officials suppressed the rebellion and stopped any more chaos and damage. It was because of this absence that the colonies became more self sufficient and eventually it led them to a feeling of individuality that they feared losing. the French. Salutary Neglect Britain’s absence in colonial America due to pressing issues in England left the colonies alone for the most part to govern themselves. . Stono Rebellion: Slave uprising in South Carolina in 1739. impact on the different colonies: Economic policy prevailing in Europe during the 16th. Slavery remained small among the colonies. As trade and agriculture grew and a plantation system grew so did slavery. It was a significant encounter because it caused white apprehension and led to a new slave code. 1661: The first actual definition by the colonies of slavery as a "lifelong. impact on Great Britain. yet with a distinctly American flavor. and the New Netherlands. During this time they flourished and developed a British origin. The Overhunting of Beavers sent prices so high in 1742 that the Dutch armed the Iroquois and what resulted was bloody battles against Pro-French tribes. thus bringing forth the Declaration of Independence after a series of events. so laws like this were created in order to keep control in the society. The slave trade then moved in to America as the development of a plantation system in Virginia offered a market for slavery and the first slaves arrived there in 1619. racial status.

the Americans still managed to smuggle goods with the French Caribbean and India. Magna Carta. This occurred partially because Charles was trying to pay off his war debt. 1733: Legislation by the British Parliament for taxing and imposing shipment restrictions on sugar and molasses imported into the profitable colonies from the West Indies. They put this into effect to help stop innocent people from being thrown into jail with no specific reason why. and indigo—that the colonists could export only to another English colony or to England. This idea was adopted into our Constitution in Article 1. consignment systems: A system of drafting sailors into the British navy. 1750: Act specifying certain enumerated goods—principally tobacco. Petition of Right. that exactly established the relationship between the kings and barons and guaranteed ideas of free commerce. Many of the base rights in the United States Constitution are included in it. stop taxing without its consent and stop declaring martial law in a time of peace. 1699. These were attempts to prevent manufacturing in the British colonies that might threaten the economy of England. It was meant to create profitable trade as a protective tariff. It was very similar to the other previous Currency Act but this act was targeted towards the people and raising the taxes so that the Parliament could make more money. Section 9. 1764: Another Act passed by the British Parliament that affected the colonies and was meant to raise revenue for Great Britain. 1732: Iron Act. It was a clear example of how Salutary Neglect was coming to an end with the French and Indian War. However. Hat Act. 1215: A charter granted by King John. It can only be revoked in time of rebellion. The draft caused many problems in the life of young American men. 1628: Petition given to Charles I by parliament. but it was never meant to raise revenue. The British could freely use the soldiers at their convenience by the rules of this draft. Habeas Corpus Act: Act saying that a person can not be held in prison without being charged and tried. Currency Act. Many teenagers tried to avoid the draft by giving false information about themselves. Colonial trade was not very triangular because the Navigation Acts forced American merchants to trade only with Britain.triangular trade: Trade that takes place between three places is called triangular trade. Molasses Act. and the right to a trial by your peers. The point of this attack was to raise revenue for Great Britain. . the right to a fair trial. 1751: Act passed by British Parliament that affected the colonies by adjusting the currency. Woolens Act. asking him to stop sending soldiers to live in private citizens homes. Currency Act. rice.

and the number of merchants increased during the 1750’s as well. the courts awarded judges money for every conviction. Navigation Act. It was felt much more harshly by the colonists and led to hostility admiralty courts: These were courts that were created to bring sailors to trial for going against the navigation acts. merchants/markets: People and places involved in the trading system of the colonies were merchants and the markets with which they traded. a fact that the colonies viewed as being unconstitutional. 1663: This Parliamentary act disallowed colonial merchants from exporting products like sugar and tobacco anywhere except to England and from importing goods in ships not made and produced by the English. provided more penalties for evasion. It was only temporary and it stated that goods imported or exported by the colonies in Africa and Asia must be shipped out or imported only by English vessels and the crews must be 75% British. 1651: Parliament passed this legislation in 1651 in order to protect English trade from foreign competition. affecting the . it was passed to help English commercial interests in 1663 but helped the U.S. Also. The Navigation Acts opened up British markets to American merchants. capitalism. the Enlightenment: A period in the 1700s when a new method of thought was employed. In 1739 he declared war on Spain. 1660: This Parliamentary act renewed the 1651 act and specified certain innumerable articles which could be exported only to the English or to another English colony in 1660. Navigation Act. It also helped U. It allowed for methods of enforcing the acts. (of the Privy Council): This board was part of the Privy Council which was one of the committees formed by the British Parliament In 1793 Britain’s Privy Council sent out orders that any foreign ships caught trading with the French Islands located in the Caribbean to be automatically captured and taken away. In 1708 he was named Secretary of War. American shipbuilding thus prospered and there was a stable protected market for producers. and indigo. 1696: This was the fifth and final Parliamentary Navigation Act.Navigation Act. thus judges became more apt to find people guilty. Along with the 1660 act. They were often held away from the colonies. They deliberately waited to publish these instructions so that American ships would be seized.S. causing over 250 ships were captured. It was passed in 1696 in an effort to strengthen its effect on colonists. rice. Among these goods were tobacco. Robert Walpole: Statesman who is considered Britain’s first prime minister. It was a time when great minds awoke and started thinking. which caused division in his party (Whigs) for support for him in elections. and introduced use of vice-admiralty courts. Navigation Act. •BOARD OF TRADE. He entered the English Parliament in 1701 and became a well known speaker for the Whig Party.

but only if they were governed by "natural" law. It also made it illegal for a monarch to postpone laws. Bill of Rights. have a standing army. His ideas can be seen in the Constitution. More common people could get into government than before and make a difference which helped build the foundations of America. these were dominated by the colonial elite despite liberal qualifications for male voters. All of these ideas helped shape America’s way of government life. ROYAL COLONIES: These are three ways one could come upon owning land in Colonial America.colonies as well as Europe. John Peter Zenger Trial: Trial involving the founder of the New York Weekly Journal . colonial government only truly flourished in the major seaports. The colonies then interpreted the law and used it against the British (levy tax). or levy taxes without the okay of the British Parliament. British citizens saw this as a win in liberty for parliament would have more control than ever. confidence in human reason. and deism. One such way was for a company to give out land so an area would become populated. He criticized the "divine right" kings had and believed that the people should have a say and that the supreme power should be state power. So when Zenger published articles by his contributors that criticized Colonial government he was arrested and put on trial. The most significant development of colonial government was the rise of the assembly and the limiting of the power of governors. The house had the power of the purse which led them to being the more dominant house. law. John Locke’s Ideas: John Locke was a philosopher that supported Colonial America. Glorious Revolution: When Mary and William over run James II in England in 1688. optimism. •PROPRIETARY. •COLONIAL GOVERNMENT: Characterized by regular assemblies and appointed militia. CHARTER. and local administration. Some beliefs brought to the forefront were the laws of nature. Rise of the lower house: In Colonial America the lower house had increasingly equal if not more power than the upper house. Its ideas lead to revolutionary ideas. The problem is by the time it got back to England the information that had once been true was now old and wrong. his success paving the way for freedom of the press. Because of low voter participation and indifference toward politics. 1689: Bill that said no Roman Catholics could hold a position of king or queen in England. colonial agents: Representatives sent by Great Britain to the colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries. . Kings and Queens could also give away land as well as people having property passed on to them. Often. Moderate uprising that came out of the Colonial America during this time ended with William and Mary taking apart the Dominion of New England. They would observe the colonies and then send the information back to England. who received money from influential town members. He was announced not guilty. therefore having an influence on decisions the new powers would make.

Jonathan Edwards. Bay Colony. denomenationalism. an increase of Presbyterians. Key players were Theodore Frelinghuysen. and Congregationalists as the Presbyterians and Baptists increased. who accepted it and sometimes suffered persecution because of their religious fervor. Coming from Connecticut. The result was a schism (1741) in the Presbyterian church between the "Old Lights" and the "New Lights. A Careful and Strict Enquiry into. . in 1740 delivered a harsh sermon. Gilbert Tennent: American Presbyterian minister. . His presence helped raise the population by about 3000 people. Another one of his significant projects was the founding of his influential Log College which had teachers educated in all areas of study. New lights: Two groups of ministries who frequently had heated debates on the issue of God during the Great Awakening. Through the awakening emerged the decline of Quakers. and denominationalism. It also caused an emergence in black Protestantism. William Tennent: Presbyterian minister who played a chief role in the Great Awakening in Central New Jersey by calling prayer meetings known as the Refreshings around the 1730’s.Great Awakening A series of religious revivals swept through the colonies in the 1730s. The sermon also used the fury of the divine wrath to arouse religious fervor." led by Tennent. Harvard University: University located in Cambridge. an emphasis on inner experience. that was founded in 1636 on a grant from the Mass. religious toleration. Mass. and religious toleration. Anglicans.Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God." in which he criticized conservative ministers who opposed the fervor of the Great Awakening. most of his speeches were based there. Great Britain Versus France . George Whitefield: English clergyman who was known for his ability to convince many people through his sermons. He involved himself in the Great Awakening in 1739 preaching his belief in gaining salvation. Jonathan Edwards . Old Lights. That freedom of Will: Sermon about how one must have a personal faith and relationship with Jesus Christ to gain salvation instead of an afterlife in hell. The university eventually developed a more secular format effects of the Great Awakening on religion in America: Long term effects of the Great Awakening were the decline of Quakers. and George Whitefield. William and Gilbert Tenant. founding of colleges. The Old Lights rejected the Great Awakening and the New Lights. The school was originally organized to educate ministers because of the scarcity of clergy and lack of an educational institution in the new colony. "The Dangers of Unconverted Ministry.

With America as a new prospect for both France and Great Britain, tensions grew between the two countries. The result was a series of wars like King William’s War, Queen Anne’s War, the War of Jenkin’s Ear, King George’s War, and the French and Indian War. Changes in land Claims of 1689, 1713, 1763: Before 1689 almost all of the land belonged to Spain, and France with Britain only starting. Then by 1713 France was dominating the North America and Britain was spreading up and down the coast. In 1763 with the Treaty of Paris, Britain became the overwhelming power. Differences between French and British colonization: The French mostly had fur traders and posts in North America so they could get goods, they were more inland and made friends with the Indians. While the English were settling for good on the shore, making homes and government- they were all there to start a new life. Why Great Britain eventually won: When William Pitt joined the British leaders he turned things around. He began to treat the Americans like equals or allies instead of subordinates. This lead Americans to feel a sense of pride and a renewed sense of spirit that sent them into several victories that made France eventually concede. King William’s War: In Europe a war fought between the Grand Alliance and France which also embroiled the colonies. The entire war was battled over who would reign in England. In the colonies the Indians were fighting for the French. In 1697 fighting ceased due to the Peace of Ryswick which restored Port Royal to the French. Queen Anne’s War: The second of the four imperial wars that were fought between Britain, France and Spain. It took place from 1702-1713. Though many Spanish colonial towns were captured and burned by English forces, American colonists met with military failure creating a feeling of dependence on Britain. The war ended with Peace of Utrecht. Peace of Utrecht: Treaty that ended Queen Anne's War in 1713. Due to this treaty France had to give up Acadia, Newfoundland and the Hudson Bay territory to England but got to keep Cape Breton Island. The treaty also introduced a period of peace in which the American colonists experienced growth economically and politically. War of Jenkin’s Ear: This war was British versus Spain. It was fought in Georgia and North Carolina. Lieutenant Governor William Gooch led Virginia’s 400 men into the whole 3000 men colonial army and after their Colonel died Gooch succeeded him. When they attacked Cartagena it proved disastrous, though Gooch wouldn’t report it that way. King George’s War: War fought between Britain and France and Spain. It took place not only in Europe but also in North America with American colonists supporting the British with thousands of troops. In the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle Britain gained lands in India but lost Louisburg, which embittered Anglo-American relations.

•FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR: The French and Indian war was fought between Britain and France. It lasted from 1754-1760, with the colonies supporting Britain and the Indians supporting France. This war spanned three different continents and it was the main factor in the ending of "salutary neglect." This war planted the seeds of misunderstanding between Britain and the colonies and indirectly was one of the causes of the Revolutionary War. Britain came out victoriously with the Treaty of Paris. Coureurs de Bois- Unlicensed trader who traded illegally with Indians. Many young men seeing only the prospective wealth left their families and traded illegally with Indians, some even married into the tribes. They also enlisted Indians in the French Army. These Coureurs de Bois were important in setting up fur trade in Canada. Francis Parkman: Francis Parkman was one of the prominent historians of his time (1823-1893). Most of his work concerned the conflict that arose between France and Britain for land in Colonial America. Later on in his career he went west and traveled with tribes, such as the Sioux, which ended with the book, The Oregon Trail. Albany Plan of Union, Benjamin Franklin: Colonial confederation based on the ideas of Franklin calling for each town to have independence in a large whole, known as a Grand Council. It was used for military defense and Indian policies and set a precedent for later American unity. Edward Braddock: Braddock was the General of all the British Troops (French and Indian War), he led an attack against Fort Duquesne, never reaching his destination for they were attacked by the Monongahela River where 900 of his 1200 men were wounded or killed. Braddock was wounded at this battle and died soon afterwards. William Pitt: Prime minister for Britain, who helped Britain bounce back after the Revolutionary War and who lead the war effort against France. Pitt had two terms, 1783 to 1801 and 1804 to 1806. He was considered a moderate, with the backing of the king and the parliament. Pitt’s time in office became a foundation for future prime ministers. Fort Duquesne: This was the fort that General Braddock tried to take during the French and Indian War but him and his troops were slaughtered in an ambush at the Monongahela, where 900 of the 1200 troops were wounded or killed. Later General Amherst captured the fort. Wolfe, Montecalm, Quebec- the Plains of Abraham: The battle of the French and Indian War, between General Wolfe and General Montecalm in which both were killed . It ended with the capturing of Quebec and was one of the final steps that lead Montreal to surrender, thus making Canada no longer a threat. Land squabbles in North America, where, why and what over: Any of the imperial wars that were fought in North America, for if when Britain won they would usually gain territory they had wanted before. Also various battles with Indians over pieces of land because colonists pushed their way onto Indian land, not caring if it belonged to them.

Treaty of Paris (1763): Treaty that ended the French and Indian War was ended by the Treaty of Paris. This treaty ended French reign in Canada. The treaty also called for Spain to give Florida to Britain, and for France to give all lands east of the Mississippi River to Britain. It also was a precursor, for colonial politics would follow Britain. Proclamation of 1763: This proclamation stated that no white settlers could go past the crest of the Appalachians. While this upset many colonists who had claims that far west, Britain explained it was only temporary, for it was meant to calm the Indians, sure enough five years later the boundary was moved further west. Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763: After France had to give up the territory they had near and around the Appalachian Mountains the Indians were afraid that the British would come in and start to settle down permanently, to make sure this didn’t happen Chief Pontiac launched an offensive at Bushy Run and Pontiac’s forces won for the time being. Proclamation of 1763: The British issued this in 1763 in hopes of conciliating the Indians and to lessen white expansion. It banned colonists from settling west if the Appalachian mountains. Though it was supposedly a temporary measure, colonists were angered and the line was moved further west five years later for speculators.

New British Policy and Colonial Resistance
In order to tighten control over the colonies, Great Britain instated many acts and taxes which enraged colonists who argued that it was unfair to tax them when they had no direct representation in Parliament. This resistance was the beginning of America’s revolt against its mother country. writs of assistance: The royal governor of Massachusetts allowed British revenue officers to use this in 1760 in order to capture goods imported illegally in: It was a search warrant allowing officials to enter buildings in which smuggled goods may be. It required no cause for suspicion and homes were often ransacked. It also contributed to the Revolution. James Otis: He was a colonial leader who was also advocate general of the Boston Vice Admiralty Court in 1756. His opposition to the writs of assistance and Townshend Acts led him to declare that Parliament did not have the right to violate natural rights of colonists. He thus published The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proven. Pontiac’s Rebellion: Ottawa chief Pontiac attacked and besieged ten British forts in May, 1763, in order to keep British out of the Appalachians. An uneasy truce was negotiated by 1764, and as a result, the Proclamation of 1763 was put forth in order for Britain to maintain 10,000 soldiers in the U.S. to occupy French ceded territories.

Paxton Boys: This group of Rangers from Pennsylvania Paxton in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, killed some Sasquehannock Indians in 1764. The conflict arose as a result of the desire to expand westward. Governor John Penn in 1764 attempted to punish them, but the people of the area were so upset that a revolt ensued; Benjamin Franklin solved it. Grenville’s Program: British Prime Minister George Grenville was the principal architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament, even though Americans didn’t elect members. •SUGAR ACT, 1764: George Grenville introduced this act which amended the Molasses Act that had taxed all foreign molasses entering the U.S. at sixpence a gallon in 1764. The new act ended the previous British policy of keeping Americans out of all revenueraising measures. It stated that colonists exported certain items to foreign countries only if they passed through Britain first. Parliament hoped that Americans would buy more British items and it increased British sale of European wine. Currency Act, 1764: extended currency Act, 1751: A Parliamentary act, which was originally applicable only in Massachusetts in 1751, but in 1764, it was applied to all the colonies as a means of raising revenue. It increased colonial resentment toward Britain because it disallowed the issuance of colonial money. vice-admiralty courts: Parliament was responsible for this new form of juryless court in Nova Scotia. From 1763 to 1765, when Americans were caught smuggling in violation of the Acts of Trade, they were tried by corrupt judges who received a percentage of the confiscated goods if they found the defendants guilty. A Democracy or not?: Colonial America was a place with more liberal voting qualification, no aristocracy and rise of the assembly. But the ruling class was still the wealthy, they had the power, also voters turn out wasn’t large. One had a better chance in becoming part of the "system" but it wasn’t democratic. Deism: most of the religious thinkers during the Enlightenment were deist. The deists believed that God was a clockmaker who created the world but now just watches it work. They believed that we lived in a perfect universe and that we are laws that we created were natural. Non-consumption: The Sons of Liberty began the idea of non-consumption in 1774 with their vow of non-importation of British goods. When the Boston Port Bill was passed, colonists once again agreed to ban all British goods in order to boycott the British until demands were met. Because of this, state or individual opposition was despised. virtual, actual representation: Parliament felt colonists had virtual representation because every member of Parliament considered the rights of all subjects; the House of

states wanted different types of representation. to force the distributors to resign before taxes were due. contracts. openly criticized Parliament’s practice of taxation without proper colonial representation. Compact theory: First expressed by Jefferson and Madison in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves of 1798. Opposition to the Stamp Act led to formation of the Stamp Act Congress. They met in New York City and presented the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. 1765: This was an assembly of delegates from nine of the original thirteen colonies in 1765 which was intended to protest the Stamp Act. and newspapers must carry a stamp that is taxed. the states could decide when the compact was broken. through violence. He is famous for his comment "Give me liberty or give me death. and was passed by Parliament. Because the British elected members. it declared that each state comprised the national government through a compact whose provisions were established in the Constitution. Depending on size. stamp distributors: These were the men who had the job of accepting money from the special water-marked paper put into circulation with the passage of the Stamp Act in 1765. but colonists had none. eight other colonies to also denounce taxation and declare rights. Federalists were those who advocated a strong central government. They adopted several resolutions which refuted the power of Parliament to tax the colonies. no taxation without representation: John Adams. pamphlets. due mostly to regional and bipartisan differences. colonial view of the constitution: Colonial views toward the Constitution varied greatly in 1781. licenses.Commons was responsible for protecting the rights of all British and colonists. . It further led to the doctrine of States Rights. at state’s expense. It stated that all legal documents. Hence. They were a target for such associations as the Loyal Nine and Sons of Liberty who attempted. In 1763 he became a member of the House of Burgesses where he introduced seven resolutions against the Stamp Act. It was said that no tax that was issued in order to produce revenue for Great Britain was constitutional because American representatives had not voted to allow the tax. in 1768. the Stamp Act was introduced in 1765 as a means of raising revenue in the colonies. Henry’s fiery orations caused. in his Circular Letter. It infuriated colonists because it was an internal tax that few could escape. •STAMP ACT: British prime minister George Grenville’s most detested act. by the end of the year." Virginia Resolves: American leader Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to state their opposition to taxation in 1765. It was intended to raise money for keeping up defense in colonies. Antifederalists demanded more state power. but the group’s demand for no taxation without representation was refused by the House of Commons. they enjoyed actual representation. Stamp Act Congress. Patrick Henry: He was an orator and statesman who played a key role in igniting patriotism and leading the colonists toward the American Revolution.

paper. an agreement to not import any British goods until the Townshend acts were repealed. however.Non-importation: There existed. paint. lead. all of the colonists were drastically affected by this tax." He claims that any person has the right to revolt if the government does not fulfill its duties. An example of an external tax is the Sugar Act passed in 1764 which raised costs only for a select group of people. In colonial opinion. internal/external taxes: Introduced by the British Parliament in 1765. Declaratory Act. Revenue Act: Parliament passed the Revenue taxes in 1767. Because the Stamp Act was so opposed by the colonists as well as the British business community. •SONS OF LIBERTY: Members included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere. When nonimportation collapsed. They formed a Committee of Correspondence to defend themselves against British actions. The day was named for the anniversary of the day Catholic Guy Fawkes attempted to blow up Parliament and King James I. When the tea tax was kept. written in 1690. it is stated that "It is a state of perfect freedom [for man] to do as they wish and dispose of themselves and their possessions. Daughters of Liberty: Upper class female patriots who formed a union in 1765 in order to give aid to the cause of defeating the reviled Stamp Act. it was just like the Stamp Act in that. though it was said to be an external tax. it was still put into effect solely to raise revenue for the British treasury. public opposition to the tax was minute. The Loyal Nine: A group of middle class workers joined this association in the summer of 1765 in order to resist the Stamp Act. In celebration of his failure. mobs gathered in the streets of Boston to protest and to set fire to figures of the Pope. the Stamp Act was an internal tax which few colonists could escape. Right of revolution: In John Lock’s Two Treatises of Government. Guy Fawkes Day: Thousands of ardent Bostonians gathered to celebrate this day on November 5. One of the actions they took was to adopt a policy of non-importation in which merchants refused to import goods sent from Great Britain. It further angered colonial resentment to Charles Townshend. it was a secret society of patriots which was organized in 1765 in the colonies. 1765. they were unsure whether or not to keep the boycott going. and tea. The Act taxed glass. the Sons of Liberty agreed not to consume British tea in protest. They also participated in terrorizing the stamp distributors through house-wrecking and tar-and-feathering in order to achieve respect. His ideas led to the Declaration of Independence. 1766: This was a Parliamentary act which was issued in 1766 in order to confirm the British government’s right to pass acts which were legally binding to the colonists. it was repealed. between many of the colonial merchants. . paint. they could bully them into resigning before the act could be put into effect. but only with the passage of this confirmation. They proved their value to the cause both by attending political rallies and protests and also by refusing association with men who were Loyalists. making it impracticable. They realized that if they could intimidate stamp distributors with house-wrecking and tar-and-feathers. they ultimately played a small role.

They refused and were dismissed. serving to create an American Board of Customs Commissioners whose sole job would be to enforce the Navigation Acts . The first called for suspension of the New York Assembly because it would not abide by the Quartering Act. All resistance was repressed by this blatant attempt to force troops in. Basically. Moreover. The Association: The First Continental Congress agreed to this "association. export." which was a simple sort of agreement in 1774. Massachusetts Circular Letter: The Massachusetts legislature sent the other 12 colonies a letter in 1767 in response to the Townshend Acts and asked for a united response from the colonies. repeal of the Townshend Acts exept tax on tea: Lord North. He sought appeasement of the British. The corrupt members of the . Formulating a declaration of rights at the Stamp Act Congress. The Revenue Act called for customs duties on imports of glass. Starting a movement for an uprising against the Boston Massacre. As a result of unrest over these acts. It was formed in response to anger over the recently passed Tea Act. It effectively served to further punish the colonists. in a Parliamentary act in 1770. he led several other angry colonists in the Boston Tea Party of 1773. However. Adams contributed to the movement for revolution. paper. Due to his literary agitation. •TOWNSHEND ACTS. The British threatened to dissolve the Massachusetts court unless it was withdrawn. and tea. Members pledged not to import.Quartering Act (called the Mutiny Act by the British): Passed by Congress. the Massachusetts legislature was dissolved. it allowed for much-hated British officers to be permitted to requisition empty. this was one of the Intolerable Acts in 1774. or consume products of Britain unless their demands were met. he still recommended they maintain the tea tax. "Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania": He was a lawyer in Philadelphia and a leader in the movement against taxation on the colonies in the 1760s. This led to increased hostility toward the colonists. paint. he argued against the duties of the Townshend acts in this publication. wanted to eliminate the Townshend duties due to increased hostility against the British and to keep the boycott from gaining momentum. REACTION: Under the control of British Prime Minister Charles Townshend. •AMERICAN BOARD OF CUSTOMS COMMISSIONERS: Townshend introduced legislation in 1767. Colonial reaction was that of further discontent toward their motherland. John Dickinson. •SAM ADAMS: He was an outspoken advocate of the Sugar Act. Parliament passed these measures in 1767. private buildings. lead. because it was profitable for the Royal Treasury in Great Britain. The other assemblies defiantly signed. he was a main proponent of opposition to the Townshend Acts and a key figure in the formation of the Sons of Liberty. They were created because Townshend wanted to crack down on colonial smuggling. and served on the General Court of Massachusetts in 1765.

Though he was the first man to be shot.Board practiced customs racketeering. In 1888 a monument of him was erected in his honor in Boston. he was only one of five colonists. on June 9. but still supported Britain’s right to impose taxes. RI. the suspects would have faced trial without jury. 1768. The Regulator uprising fell apart and colonies found it harder to resist British. Many were acquitted and anti-British feelings rose. they failed. opened fire upon the innocent. 1772. John Adams: He was the lawyer for the soldiers who were tried for murder in the Boston Massacre in 1770. The South Carolina Regulators. In 1773. opposed corrupt government and cleared their homeland of outlaw bands of terrorists.S. five men were killed. Battle of the Alamance: The North Carolina Regulators found their movement peak in this battle on May 16. which was a legalized form of piracy. while John Hancock unloaded without paying the duty. Carolina Regulators: This name applies to several groups of insurgents who. With an army of 2500. it was burned down by local inhabitants. committees of correspondence: They were colonial groups in 1772 which were organized to form resistance to British tyranny. and was a member of both Continental Congresses. their attorney was John Adams. The Boston town meeting made up a 21 . 1770: British troops. analyzed the demands facing the colonists. When the Stamp Act controversy was in effect. This upset Americans because it was one of the last of the customs racketeering ships. his home was ransacked in 1765. trade. When told that a customs official had been locked up. these Regulators fought a band of eastern militia started up by the governor of North Carolina. John Hancock’s Liberty: Customs commissioners in Boston requested an armed force for protection and the government dispatched the Romney to Boston in June. Gaspee Incident: A customs schooner was beached in Providence. in 1764. Boston Massacre. in 1767. Crispus Attucks: He was the leader of a group of colonists who were killed in the 1770 Boston Massacre. Eight soldiers were tried for murder. When investigators were sent to find the initiators. He successfully defended his clients in defense that they were trying to protect their own lives. The North Carolina Regulators threatened to rebel and not pay taxes. wanted to protect the rights of their community. 1771. This led to a major movement between colonists of anger and violence toward the Board members. the Liberty was seized. He was either African-American or Native American and he may have been a runaway slave. when hit by hecklers within the crowd.: A colonial governor. he refused to allow British ships to be returned without unloading and the Boston Tea party resulted. and 300 casualties were inflicted. Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Mass. Stuck in the mud. he opposed taxes that harmed U. He additionally denounced the Stamp Act. This led to further discontent towards Britain. (which were resumed in the city in 1770 in order to discourage opposition to the Townshend Acts).

and . The four measures passed were to serve as warnings to the rest of the colonies." This committee became a major political force responsible for the Boston Tea Party. Tea Act: The Parliamentary Tea Act eliminated import duties entering England. •FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS. and the Administration of Justice Act. which would lead to economic difficulties. the Massachusetts Government Act. the port would be subject to permanent closure. several laws were composed in 1774 in response to colonial rebellion. •BOSTON TEA PARTY: A group of Boston citizens organized a protest on December 16. making Protestants angry. 1774. in turn. The Boston Tea Party was the last straw leading to the passage of these harsh acts as measures against the colony of Massachusetts. he realized the war was a lost cause. Colonial smuggling was very harmful to the East India Company which had held a monopoly on tea. navy to close Boston Harbor. given no legislature. but was in turn. Massachusetts Government Act: Parliament passed this act in 1774 as the second of the Townshend Acts which revoked the Massachusetts charter and restructured the government. the Quartering Act. 1774. The law also extended Quebec’s 1774 land claims. Canada’s government was awarded an abundance of powers. Led by Samuel Adams and members of the Sons of Liberty. The act provided savings for Britain.S. 1774: The First Continental Congress convened in Philidelphia in September. further angering colonists. •COERCIVE ACTS: Passed by the British Parliament. They issued the Declaration of Rights and Grievances to George III. also allowing selling directly to consumers. The American government later refused to pay for the tea and was punished through closure of the port. Lord North: He was a British member of the House of Commons during the 1770s. which was against the British tax on tea imported to the colonies The citizens were angry and disallowed three British ships to unload their cargo in Boston. Boston Port Act: Parliament passed this act on April 1. They imposed a deliberately short deadline to ensure that the harbor would close. By 1779. Also. as one of the Intolerable Acts. Quebec Act: Parliament passed this greatly detested law which established RomanCatholicism as the official religion in Quebec. though he found it morally wrong to do so.member committee "To state the Rights of Colonists and of this Province in Particular. The Governor gained control over naming sheriffs. 1773. Under the orders of King George III. Americans united in sympathy for Massachusetts. gained control over jurymen. They included the Boston Port Act. Unless they paid for the ruined tea. he demanded an early peace with the Americans hoping to put an end to the Revolutionary War. hurting middlemen. disguised as Indians boarded the ships and dumped all the tea into Boston Harbor in protest. who. to consider the situation resulting from the Intolerable Acts. lowering the selling price to consumers. By 1776. he taxed Americans. it ordered the U. The number of Massachusetts town meetings were also reduced. the group.

•LEXINGTON AND CONCORD. designed to pressure Britain’s economy. the colonies moved away from reconciliation towards war. The passage of these resolves marked the willingness of the colonies to defend their rights militarily. and agreement to boycott trade with Britain. Revolt to Revolution With such events as Lexington and Concord as well as the actions of the Second Continental Congress and America’s faith held in the Declaration of Independence and Thomas Paine’s "Common Sense. Before it was adjourned.called for the Continental Association. However. 1775 if the situation still hadn’t been resolved. They called for non-importation and preparation of local soldiers in the event that the British should have restorted to military force. but it was refected by Congress by a narrow margin. Afterwards. William Dawes: Seven hundred British troops. 1775: American Captain John Parker and seventy Minutemen waited for the British at Lexington. A British officer ordered the Minutemen to lay down their arms. on April 19. the British continued on the Concord only to find that almost all of the weapons and supplies had been moved. Any colony that did not follow those provisions was to be boycotted. were sent to find and destroy a cache of colonial weapons and supplies at Concord. since matters had already gone too far. Continental Association: Issued by the First Continental Congress. It warned against the natural tendency of all governments to enfringe on the natural rights to liberty for all its people. Paul Revere. and news was dispatched throughout the countryside by Paul Revere and William Dawes." America’s revolt against Great Britain became a revolution. they were fired on by Minutemen from local cities. committees of Safety were in charge of enforcing the Continental Association. Suffolk Resolves: The first Continental Congress passed this in 1774 in response to the Intolerable Acts. on the night of April 18. 1775. By taking these drastic measures. it was an agreement to boycott trade with Britain. . Most delegates felt that such a mild measure would not help. APRIL 19. The British then opened fire and charged. they were detected by Americans. Galloway Plan: Joseph Galloway called for a union of the colonies and a rearrangement of relations with Parliament. but a shot from an unknown source was fired. While retreating to Boston. This honest wisdom further led to the Quid’s mind set during the time of Jeffersonian Democracy. or non-importation. "country ideology": The plain farmer had this mind set in the 1770s due to the corruption of rulers and "court" hangers-on. the delegates agreed to meet in May.

which declared all colonies in a state of rebellion no longer under his protection. he draw upon some of the ideas of natural rights. After he ignored it. and adopted a Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking up Arms. Thus. . They drew up the Olive Branch Petition. He emphasized the equality of all people and their natural right to justice. and self-fulfillment. The Second Continental Congress later evolved into the revolutionary government. which begged George III to restore peace. pleading with him to intercede with Parliament to restore peace. he issued a Prohibitory act. In December Parliament declared all colonies in a state of rebellion. Second Treatise of Government: John Locke stressed that governments were legitimate only if they rested on the consent of the governed and protected basic rights of their people. Americans prepared for an all out war with Britain. As a result. proclaimed New England in a state of rebellion. Congress was divided into two main factions: the delegates that were ready to go to war and declare independence. then they were not legitimate. Thomas Paine.•SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS: The Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia on May 10. George III: After the Battle of Bunker Hill. and made their ships liable to seizure. the Committee on Independence was formed to further accommodate his proposal. Common Sense: Thomas Paine published this in January 1776. 1776. •"FIRST AMERICAN REVOLUTION" (POSSITER THESIS): This thesis is the idea that the real American Revolution could not have been made possible had not a First American Revolution paved the way. on August 23. Olive Branch Petition: The Second Continental Congress issued this petition to King George III on July 5. due to the protection colonists enjoyed. the people of Britain wanted retaliation.S. there had been a great deal of affection between the U. These resolutions called for independence and a national government. it convinced many Americans that the British had every intention to carry out a full scale war. with colonial governments. Combined with the Prohibitory Act. 1775. In the writing of the Declaration of Independence. colonists were enjoying democracy. and had to be dissolved and replaced with legitimate government or just laws. However. liberty. Although its arguments were extreme. Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution: Colonial leader Richard Henry Lee presented several formal resolutions to Congress on June 7. Previously. and King George III. it had much influence in favor of independence. natural rights philosophy: Thomas Jefferson was influenced by the natural rights philosophy. The First Revolution consists of the first sparks of discontent. John Locke. leading to opposition against taxation. which called for immediate independence. If the government and laws lacked the consent. and those that weren’t ready to go that far. and its mother country.

1776 AND THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: Written by the Committee on Independence. a negro. Jennison defended himself on the grounds that Walker was his slave. and the second passage was an attack on the slave trade. the Preamble to the Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal. Its purpose was to draft a statement of reasons for independence which led to the Declaration of Independence. Quock Walker case. he Declaration of Independence contained a list of grievances placing the blame on George III. America entered a war for independence with Great Britain: the Revolutionary War. They had a strong navy to land troops. transport troops. slavery clause in the Declaration of Independence: Two passages in Jefferson’s original draft were rejected by the Second Continental Congress in 1775. liberty. John Adams. Moreover. 1776. The English Revolution of 1688 and Enlightenment writers inspired some of the ideas in the Declaration of independence. it asserted certain natural rights: "Life. and the pursuit of happiness" and the "Consent of the governed" to revolt against tyrannical governments. it’s not a fact revealing truth. and well disciplined. and Roger Sherman. guard . Although slavery wasn’t forbidden by the constitution of Massachusetts. Stewart." and are furthermore allotted unalienable rights by God. The first passage was an exorbitant reference to the English people. The decision reached was regarded as the end of slavery in England. Advantages/Disadvantages for Britain: The British were well equipped. Robert Livingston. Somerset Case (in Great Britain): Despite the Enlightenment’s condemnation of black slavery. the Committee on Independence was formed. the Superior Court rejected his defense because it was unconstitutional in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. well trained.Mass: Nathaniel Jennison was accused of assaulting Quock Walker. Throughout the war.Committee on Independence: After Richard Henry Lee’s resolution on June 7. Members included Thomas Jefferson. it is believed that this is a statement of faith displays wisdom. War for Independence With the Declaration of Independence as its fuel. America developed its first real feelings of nationalism and ended up being victorious in its fight for freedom. Preamble of the Declaration of Independence: Written by the Committee on Independence in 1776. Granville Sharp defended several blacks in the case Somerset v. Additionally. sugar produced by black slaves was considered of utmost importance. •JULY 4. Benjamin Franklin.

He earned a good reputation from the French and Indian War in 1763. he along . later became the subject of debate. she challenged the assumption that women were naturally dependent on men. their naval power was less than that of Britain. as a prime minister to Britain. they had a large sum of money which could be used to hire foreign mercenaries. however. government officials. The majority of ethnic and religious minorities. he served on the Committee on Independence. Also. However. Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents.S. However. and maintained a respect for the monarchy. and some wealthy merchants comprised the Loyalists. In Congress and in diplomatic missions abroad.communication and supply lines. Also. "On American Taxation" and "Conciliation with America". Edmund Burke: In 1766 he was elected to Parliament. TORIES: They were Anglican clergymen. He urged justice and conciliation towards the American colonies in a pamphlet. and they were fighting in their own territory. he served on the Committee for Independence in 1776. •LOYALISTS. Washington was a highly respected. Abigail Adams: Even though she had a scarce formal education. she was among the most influential women of her day. he served the patriot cause. Benjamin Franklin and the Revolution: From. Eighty thousand Loyalists left. she challenged the lack of equality for women and was a strong advocate of the Revolutionary War.: Many colonists knew how to use firearms. Advantages/Disadvantages for U. Moreover. In doing so. and mother of John Quincy Adams. •GEORGE WASHINGTON AND THE REVOLUTION: George Washington created the Continental Army that had fought against the British. John Adams: He was one of the first men to propose American independence when the Revolution began. experienced commander-in-chief. which was taken for granted. They had a superior rifle range and accuracy over the smoothbore British muskets. particularly as a leader of fashion and social mediator. Pennsylvania. About one-fifth to one-third of the population remained loyal to Britain. were supporters of the revolution. leaving their positions for others. He was a strong influence in persuading the states to partake in the Constitutional Convention.S. they were outnumbered by the U. The subordination of women. and also helped persuade the Second Continental Congress to adopt the Declaration of Independence. Mercy Otis Warren: Before the imperial crisis. She was the wife of John Adams. Almost immediately Burke sought repeal of the Stamp Act. and he used his prestige to help gain ratification of the Constitution. ethnic and religious minorities. but soon began writing political satires in the early 1770s. They felt that war was unnecessary to preserve the rights of the colonists. Moreover. His early military experience taught him the dangers of overconfidence and the necessity of determination when faced with defeat. she was known for her nonpolitical poetry. and in two speeches.

Out of the potential 250. Black Americans in the Revolutionary War: About 5. He was a surveyor and a frontiersmen who also led successful military operations against Indians allied to the British on the western frontier.000 blacks served in the army and navy. the Serapis. Congress turned to him.with John Adams and John Jay. he engineered the Newburgh conspiracy along with Alexander Hamilton. who raised an army for the same purpose. under the Articles of Confederation. the Continental Army was quite diminutive at the dawn of the war. and England. the Iroquois in New York were neutral until 1777. leaving all but the Tuscaroras and most Oneidas on the side of the British. With 400 men. Bonhomme Richard. he later turned into a traitor. The War at Sea: American captains such as John Paul Jones fought in this War at Sea during the War for Independence against Britain. but without command. and fought in every major battle of the war.S. signed a peace treaty between the U. mostly New England freemen. in which the war was brought to England’s shores.000 men living in the colonies. the Continental Army consisted of less than 10. against Britain’s ship. Hoping to panic the country into creating a regular source of national revenue. on September 23. Jones engaged the British frigate. which concerned new American borders. he attacked Fort Ticonderoga in April of 1775. . in the North Sea. In the East. on November 30. boosting American morale and credibility. Native Americans in the Revolutionary War: The colonists’ expansion into the Ohio Valley drove the western Indians into allying with the British. Led by George Washington. He also led the famous ship. Lafayette returned to France to further the granting of financial and military aid to the Americans. 1782. the Serapis. George Rogers Clark: George Rogers Clark led 175 militia and French volunteers down the Ohio River and took several British forts along the northwestern Ohio Valley in the spring of 1778. along with Ethan Allen. After France and the United States entered into an alliance against Great Britain. Benedict Arnold: He led one of the Continental Armies into Canada but was defeated. Robert Morris: When the United States. John Paul Jones: United States Captain John Paul Jones attacked the British territory. was unable to prevent national bankruptcy.S. Despite Britain’s naval advantage. Lafayette: The Marquis de Lafayette’s close connections with the French court in 1778 indicated that Louis XVI might recognize U. This was the most famous naval battle in the war. 1779. this army fought in various battles such as Valley Forge. A fervent patriot. when the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy split. Continental Army: Composed of colonial men. which raised American morale and prestige.000 men prepared for duty at one time. independence and declare war on Britain.

the colonists ran out of ammunition. Because sermons were such a . General Richard Montgomery forced the British to evacuate Montreal in 1775 and invade Canada. Conway later resigned after subsequent public revelations. the Continental army emerged from Valley Forge. After two failed British attacks on Breed’s Hill. A second force led by Benedict Arnold invaded the land by combining an attack on Quebec. in the North Sea. Invasion of Canada: U. and surrendered on October 17. 1777. Governor Dunmore offered freedom to slaves who joined the British army.S. Valley Forge: American survivors from the Battle at Brandywine Creek marched through Valley Forge in early December. 1779. On September 23. 1777. This forced the British to consider whether or not to continue the war. to be effective if war broke out between Britain and France.S.S. The colonists now had two choices: to commit to a full-scale revolution. in February. This was the most famous naval battle in the American Revolution. The second treaty was the French Alliance of 1778. After the arrival of Baron Friedrich von Steuben. the Serapis. REASONS FOR IT: France entered into two treaties with America. it was a failure in that Montgomery was killed. •FRENCH ALLIANCE OF 1778. Hessians: They were German mercenaries who were comprised of approximately 30.S. victory at the Battle of Saratoga convinced the French that the U. Saratoga: British General John Burgoyne felt overwhelmed by a force three times larger than his own. which aimed at the removal of Washington as the leader of the Continental Army. The Continental Army marched through Valley Forge while the British army rested miles away in Philadelphia. and was replaced by Friedrich von Steuben. and one-third of the colonial troops were killed or captured.000 other Britons and loyalists but were outnumbered by the 220. Benedict was shot. and the British succeeded.000 troops of the Continental Army.However. he engaged the British frigate. which inhibited use of blacks in the South. or to accept the rule of the British. Conway Cabal: United States Major General Thomas Conway wrote a letter to General Horatio Gates that revealed a military side of the Conway Cabal.000 soldiers in the British army during the Revolutionary War. Bonhomme Richard. the "black" regiment: They were a group of dignified clergymen who preached against British tyranny and resistance to British authority in 1765.S. 1778. "Bonhomme Richard" and the "Serapis": John Paul Jones took command of a rebuilt French merchant ship and renamed it the U. Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill): Three British generals arrived in Boston in May. and granted most favored nation status to one another. 1775 to assist General Gage. deserved diplomatic recognition. however. They fought among 162. The U. The first was a treaty of goodwill and commerce. the South feared possible slave revolts.

creating a paradox between the slavery and the freedom. even to ports of belligerents. Catherine II. which led to further dispute between them and the colonists. Treaty of Paris. slavery virtually ended in the North during the Revolutionary era.S. they still acted independently in various areas. and ended when Cornwallis realized that he lost three key points around Yorktown and surrendered. Great Britain recognized the former 13 colonies as the free and self-governing United States of America. the idea of the separation of church and state grew stronger. and trade with foreign nations increased. . During his career as commander in chief. industry was stimulated. The French wanted to further continue their residence in Virginia.S. along with Admiral de Grasse’s French fleet. could not join because it was fighting in the Revolutionary war. The U. She also secured the freedom of the navigation of neutral nations. League of Armed Neutrality: The empress of Russia. inflation became widespread. British Generals: Henry Clinton. nearly every colonist saw public fasting and communication and were infected with the idea that it was a sin not to reject Britain. General Thomas Gage: He was the commander in chief of Britain’s military forces in America from 1763 to 1775. Lord Cornwallis: Washington. John Burgoyne: General Howe planned to set up headquarters in New York in 1776 but was delayed by Washington’s escape to Long Island. In April 1775. toleration of religious minorities became more prevalent. General Burgoyne was trapped at Saratoga in 1777 and was forced to surrender. General Clinton succeeded Howe as commander in chief in 1778. made a declaration in 1780. On the other hand. on September 3. trapped British General Cornwallis on the Yorktown peninsula. boundaries (in Treaty of Paris): France and Britain shared much interest in American territory following the War for Independence. social impact of the war: Women did not receive the status implied by the American Revolution’s ideals. The Siege of Yorktown began in September of 1781. However. French and British intrigue over U. Some state constitutions were identical to the English charters that had governed them. slavery still existed. William Howe. •HOW REVOLUTIONARY? : Even though the former colonies were joined under a central government provided by the Articles of Confederation. 1783: Great Britain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris.common form of communication. he was appointed as the new governor of Massachussetts. which brought an end to the American Revolution. restricting the category of contrabands to munitions and essential instruments of war. Though the Revolution was fought in the name of liberty. Yorktown. he issued the order for British troops to march on to concord and seize American weapons stored up there.

Most state constitutions included a bill of rights. The federal government lacked the power to tax and form a militia without the approval of all the states. The Articles protected against an oppressive central government. whose pay was overdue. Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom: Thomas Jefferson worked on the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom after independence was declared. each state was its own powerful entity and had its own tariffs and currencies. in which each state held only one vote. such as a monarchy or oligarchy. was a confederation. Amending the Articles was a difficult and tedious process. . in hopes of implicitly making it superior to the legislatures. However. Separation of church and state became more popular. and provided Congress no power to tax or regulate commerce. Through the Newburgh Conspiracy. the Articles of Confederation established a singlechamber national Congress elected by state legislatures. because the amendment would have to be accepted by each state in order to be passed. cession of western land claims: Maryland waited to agree to the new government until lands north of the Ohio River were turned over to the United States in 1779.Disestablishment. threatened to force the states into surrendering more power to the national government. which was engineered by Alexander Hamilton and Robert Morris. and was the model for the clause in the First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of religion. although the constitutions ranged from extremely democratic models to unicameral legislatures. instead equalizing the power of the states and opening the union up for expansion. Massachusetts voters insisted that a constitution were made by a convention rather than the legislature. the army. VA) to grow and dominate the new nation. Newburgh conspiracy: The new nation under the Articles of Confederation was in a financial crisis. •STRENGTHS OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION: The thirteen states established a permanent government in 1781 in the form of a confederation which included a congress that represented the states and had the power to conduct Indian and foreign affairs. Maryland. Maryland did not want big states (NY. by placing power within the fragmented states. These Articles notably left out both and executive and judicial branch. •NEW STATE CONSTITUTIONS: It was necessary for the former colonies to assemble new state governments after the fall of British authority in 1775. It became a law in 1786. •WEAKNESSES OF THE ARTCILES OF CONFEDERATION: The government established in 1781. making it harder for interstate commerce to occur. Articles of Confederation Drafted in 1796 by John Dickinson. uniting all the colonies during the war. and establish a standard for weights and measures. the Articles established states’ rights and also provided for American independence. mediate disputes between states.

This showed Britain’s unwillingness to give up and the weakness of the American government. the U. The existence of slavery could be determined by popular sovereignty in these territories. and a short growing season that kept crop yields low. It applied to the lands north of the Ohio River which had been established as the Northwest Territory. Because there was little representation. which housed Congress and the state government. Annapolis Convention. The causes included high taxes imposed to finance the war debt. 1786: A group of delegates from five states met in Annapolis. 1783. in an effort to solve the problems of interstate commerce. The result was an increase in tension between the North and South. Shays’ Rebellion: A group of Massachusetts farmers led by Daniel Shays protested after taxes were raised to pay for Revolutionary debts in 1786. Protesting in front of Independence Hall. the British did not leave their posts in an effort to preserve both the flourishing fur trade and the improving relations with the Native Americans.S. the tightening of credit. It established that the settlement of a town would be six square miles and would contain land set aside for schools. thus fueling the North-South conflict. Proposed Jay-Gardoqui Treaty. the rebels were successful in moving the government away from Philadelphia. In exchange. 1787: Congress passed this law to define the steps for the formation and admission of states into the Union in 1787. 1785: John Jay tried to negotiate with Spain for trading rights in New Orleans in 1785. the delegates decided that a convention of all states should be held the year after in order to amend the Articles of Confederation. problems which culminated in the War of 1812. Shays’ rebellion occurred ultimately because of this depression The Constitution . combined with the depression that hit after British markets were lost. The high taxes.Pennsylvania militia routs Congress. setting a precedent for the public education system in the United States. Northwest Ordinance. Land Ordinance of 1785: Congress enacted this law to set a uniform procedure for surveying land in 1785. forced the farmers to revolt. Northwest Posts: After the Revolutionary war. Maryland in 1786. gave up Mississippi trading rights. but returned with a treaty that renounced Spanish claims to southwestern lands and opened Spanish markets to eastern merchants. 1780’s depression: The first major depression of the American states occurred after the Revolutionary War in New England. 1783: Eighty soldiers marched from Lancaster to Philadelphia to obtain justice from the state government and Congress on June 17.

in which various compromises were made to pacify sectional differences. Hamilton. and contained both the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan. resulting in the Philadelphia Convention. His book "The Spirit of the Laws. •GREAT COMPROMISE: Also called the Connecticut compromise. Montesquieu. this compromise was introduced by the Connecticut delegation in 1788. introduced by William Patterson. which included Madison. His philosophies represented a reaction against the chaotic Reformation of the seventeenth century. Delegates: Alexander Hamilton. VA Plan. as a commentary on his doctrine of sovereignty. George Washington presided over the convention while he and Franklin helped in mediating heated debates. in defense of the Constitution. Benjamin Franklin: At the Philadelphia Convention in 1788. However. James Madison. Hamilton wrote the "Federalist Papers. The convention ultimately scrapped the Articles and came up with the much more effective Constitution. •PHILADELPHIA CONVENTION: A congressional convention met in Philadelphia to amend the Articles of Confederation in 1788. whose purpose was to rewrite the Articles. "Father of the Constitution": Madison drafted the Virginia Plan of national government that became the basis for its bicameral structure in 1788. and a House of Representatives with representation according to population. The New Jersey Plan. NJ Plan: The Virginia Plan called for an executive branch with two houses of Congress which were both based on population. a senate with states represented with two senators each. resulting in the drafting of a new frame of government outlined in the Constitution. and Franklin. the delegates decided to begin again. . The plan resolved the dilemma of using only one of the two self serving documents in the Constitution. called for a legislature with equal representation and increased powers for the national government. These ideas generally stated that all men should submit to absolute supremacy. instead of submitting the Articles for revision. The delegates. a document that compromised conflicting interests." written in 1748. George Washington." along with John Jay. influencing the idea of sovereignty in the United States. the problems with the Articles of Confederation became increasingly obvious. He believed in separate and balanced branches of government. The Spirit of Laws: Montesquieu was a French writer whose writings helped bring about the French Revolution. examines types of government and how each evolves through factors such as location and climate. It provided for a presidency. unifying all the states under a powerful federal government. believed that there should be checks and balances in the government to give each branch equal amounts of power. Hobbes: Thomas Hobbes wrote Leviathan in 1651.After the Revolutionary War. He also assisted in the writing of the "Federalist Papers" in order to persuade delegates who were fearful of centralized power.

Fugitive Slave law: Although the word "slavery" was not used in the Constitution. his critics: Beard criticized the Constitution in his "Economic Interpretation of the Constitution" in 1913. and Madison. three-fourths have to approve the bill. Beard argues that it was written to give them economic advantages that would stem from the stability of the economy. the Fugitive Slave Law. three-fifths clause. which lessened the power of the voting south by making the votes of three slaves equal that of five white votes. This system helps to keep all three branches of the government in check and maintain equal amounts of power. wrote The Critical Period of American History. Both aided in easing the problems that arose because of the imbalance of power between states in the Articles of Confederation. North-South Compromises: There are two main North-South compromises in the Constitution. supporters of the Constitution: The supporters of the Constitution. Fiske. These men became important in the ratification process of the Constitution. One dealt with the structure of Congress. Unlike his opponents. the idea surfaces in three places in the Constitution: the three-fifths clause. who believed in the Constitution’s democratic purpose. the Federalist Papers.Checks and balances—examples: Examples of checks and balances in the Constitution are the congressional power to impeach the president and the presidential power to appoint his cabinet. For the amendment to be ratified. the opponents thought that the new government would ultimately ruin the states. In order to protect the United States and its citizens. they opposed it because it failed to balance power between the national and state governments. the other dealt with slavery and the three-fifths clause. Antifederalists: Antifederalists were opponents of the Constitution who thought that it failed to balance power between the national and state governments. Jay. opponents of the Constitution: The opponents of the Constitution were called the Antifederalists. including Hamilton. procedures for amendments: To amend the Constitution. The Critical Period of American History: John Fiske. Believing that a balance was impossible to reach. In the book. they persuaded many of its opponents to ratify it through their speeches. . and lastly Congress’ option to ban the slave trade in Washington D. which captured and returned runaway slaves who fled into free territories. after 1808. who called themselves the Federalists. C. 1783-1789 in 1788. and other propaganda. the Great Compromise. Beard thesis. a bill must first be proposed by either two-thirds of both houses or each state conventions. this process made it difficult to alter the Constitution without valid reason. •Slavery and the constitution: slave trade. an American historian and philosopher. They thought that a balance would be impossible to reach and that the new government would ultimately ruin the states. Fiske argues that the Constitution had saved the nation from imminent interstate conflict.

or mob rule. or that powers implied within the Constitution should be included in the new government to fit changes over time. Hamilton. The Federalist. The founding fathers did not believe in total democracy. All powers not stated specifically in the Constitution were reserved to the states as stated in the Tenth Amendment. rejected the Antifederalist argument that establishing a republic in United States would lead to a struggle for power. Flexibility in the Constitution: The flexibility in the Constitution enabled it to adapt over time. such as Sam Adams. Congress was granted the right to make all laws which they deemed necessary and proper thus expanding their power. necessary and proper clause: An implied power is one not granted in a job description. loose. where Hamilton won the fight using the "Federalist Papers. Bill of Rights: Mason was a delegate at the Constitutional Convention and helped draft the Constitution. Hamilton believed in a loose interpretation. respectively. Jay. Undemocratic Elements in the Constitution: According to Charles Beard. and Madison in 1788. number 10: Madison. borrow money. when a bill of rights was added to the Constitution. strict interpretation of the Constitution: The strict interpretation of the constitution meant that it was to be followed exactly to the word. were successfully won over by the Federalists in Massachusetts. Hamilton. in the Federalist number ten. implied powers. •RESERVED AND DELEGATED POWERS: Delegated powers were specifically enumerated rights granted to Congress and the President.George Mason. during the Philadelphia Convention as a response to Antifederalist objections to the Constitution. The eighty-five newspaper essays offered a glimpse of the framers’ intentions in designing the Constitution. Our founding fathers . there have only been sixteen amendments since 1791. and affected the decision in New York. The elastic clause was included into the Constitution to allow flexibility. These reserved powers were the result of flexibility in the Constitution to adapt over time. Troubled by its power and its failure to limit slavery or contain a bill of rights. elastic clause. and shaped the American philosophy of the government." •The Federalist Papers. The delegated powers of Congress included the ability to tax. defeating Mason and Henry. yet is meant to be taken. Madison: The Federalist papers were written by Jay. Some states refused to ratify the Constitution until 1791. They explained that the Constitution would protect the minority’s rights but would not make them too powerful. The ratification fights: Critics. declare war and sustain an army. a philosophy adopted by Jefferson. He also argued that the Constitution would prevent the formation of national factions and parties. and so used state legislatures and the electoral college to elect senators and the president. The fight in Virginia ended after the addition of the Bill of Rights. he would not sign it. issue currency. the Constitution was written to the advantage of the elite in the United States.

the south had recovered from the war. Manufacturing and merchant marine industries were also. overpopulation. and. the age requirement was higher. •President George Washington: George Washington was elected president in 1788 and again in 1792. suggesting few laws to Congress. Washington and Hamilton As the first president of the newly formed United States. attempting to reassure the public he was above favoritism and sectional interests. and so Supreme Court interpretations of the Constitution changed over time. Upper and Lower House: The senate was seen as the upper house because there were less delegates. the framers of the Constitution added the electoral college as a safeguard against the majority opinion. masses of people had moved into the trans-Appalachian frontier to escape post-revolutionary depression. land owning class. He tended to shy away from the affairs of Congress and also formed the first Presidential cabinet. despite the risk of violence presented by Indians and the British in their Northwest posts. His farewell address cautioned the American people to stay out of international affairs. Post Revolutionary America—West: In the late eighteenth century. It had diversified its crops and exported them at prewar levels. attempted to restore American credit by advocating a perpetual debt. Congress aided the expansion with the Land and Northwest Ordinances Post Revolutionary America—South: Many of the southern citizens had bought land in the west and watched the price of land eagerly. As a result. appointing two of the ablest men into high positions of responsibility into his cabinet. the British imposed new embargoes and tariffs on the United States. and the term limits were six years as opposed to two for the House of Representatives. remain isolationist. Washington’s two terms set the precedent for being President of the United States. As a result the Senate was seen as more of an elitist institution while the House was viewed as reflective of the common people. the North’s efforts at postwar recovery was impeded by the depression of the 1780s.used vague language. . took advantage of Washington’s reluctance to be involved with domestic issues. and to beware of impending bipartisanship. negatively affected by independence. on the other hand. the Elastic clause and the reserved powers are examples of this ambiguity. George Washington played a largely passive role. and rebellion. Alexander Hamilton. Post Revolutionary America—North: Plagued by high taxes. Electoral College: In order to protect the interests of the elite. as secretary of the treasury. Aside from the unstable land speculation. electors could elect a presidential candidate without considering the popular vote and elections could be won without a majority in the popular vote.

Washington stayed out of Congress’ way and supported the United States’ isolationist stance in world affairs. 1789: The Congress passed the Judiciary Act in 1789. in 1783. Secretary of Treasury Hamilton: Hamilton was appointed in 1789. was in command of the West Point fortress in New York. along with his other plans to try to manipulate the European countries. when the nation’s economy was in shambles. Prior to his term as Vice President.S. and others working in the port cities. Secretary of War Knox: Henry Knox was the Secretary of War from 1789-1794. in an effort to create a federal-court system and replace the old system. Attorney General Randolph: Edmund Jennings Randolph was the Attorney General under the Washington Administration from 1789-1794. speculators. New Jersey. He humbly served two terms and appointed the first cabinet. Judiciary Act. They were burdened with filling in the holes of the judiciary system left by the Constitution. He resigned after the Citizen Genet scandal. he fought in major Revolutionary battles. and also believed that the U.Washington’s Definition of the Presidency: George Washington set the precedent for being the President of the United States. Vice President John Adams: Because he ran second to George Washington in the elections of 1788 and 1792. the first one under the United States Constitution. should immediately repay its foreign debt. reasons for it: Alexander Hamilton wrote to Congress a Report on Public Credit which proposed a way in which the national and foreign debts could be funded and how the federal government would take charge of the debts left by states from the resolution in 1790. The government’s takeover of state debts freed those of New England. he submitted to Congress a Report of the Public Credit that provided for the payments of all debts assumed during the war. he was a diplomat to European nations such as France. and was the Secretary of War under the Articles of Confederation. The plans attempted to end wartime debt problems. Hamilton believed that constant deficit was necessary to stimulate the nation’s economy. . This plan. before which he was the head of the Virginia delegation at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and submitted the Virginia Plan. and the Dutch Republic. Secretary of State Jefferson: As Secretary of State for Washington’s first term. died in Congress. Britain. Hamilton’s Legacy: Hamilton’s devices for restoring the credit of the nation led to great monetary gains for merchants. Thomas Jefferson wanted to establish reciprocal trade agreements with European nations and deny it to the British. and South Carolina from harsh taxes. He wanted a national bank and encouraged manufacturing through financial government protection. Prior to this. •Hamilton’s program: ideas. he became the nation’s first Vice President. in which the courts varied from state to state. proposals. limiting himself to presiding over the senate. In 1790.

The area was to be named the District of Columbia. An increasing amount of hatred towards the "redskins" further encouraged the violence towards Indians. hoping to seize it as an opportunity to rebuild the country’s credit base. it encouraged the people of the U. Anger towards this excise tax led directly to the Whiskey Rebellion. The first excise tax placed upon the United States in 1791. With a duty of 8. the report suggested that protective tariffs on imports from foreign lands would lead Americans to produce more in their homelands.Tariff of 1789: A revenue raising tariff enacted by Congress. glass. in his Report on Public Credit. excise taxes: A fixed charge on items of consumption. location of the capital: logrolling. after Christopher Columbus. for economic and political reasons. tree lined streets. the bank was established in Philadelphia in 1791. the tariff succeeded in raising much needed funds for Congress Bank of the U. Report on Public Credit: Hamilton submitted his report to Congress in 1790.S. The states were also in debt after borrowing heavily from the government.C.. and other products in their home in order to avoid importation. and the rest to Americans. The bank successfully established a national currency. state debt. Originally planned by Charles L’Enfant. Residence Act: Determined that a ten mile square area for the capital of the United States would be chosen along the Potomac River along the Virginia-Maryland boarder. by Alexander Hamilton. the city consisted of beautiful walkways. to manufacture earthenware. foreign debt: National debt accumulated by the US during the Revolutionary war continued to plague Americans. and was permitted by the government to issue legal tender bank notes that could be exchanged for gold. and was selected by George Washington. and masterfully architecture buildings. Indian Decline: The frontier warfare during the post-revolutionary era combined with the continuing penetration of western ways into Indian culture caused severe reductions in Indian population and territory. national debt.: The nation’s capital was originally located in New York. by Parliament was one which taxed all domestic distilled spirits.S. usually used for revenue raising. Report on Manufacturers: Presented to Congress in 1791.: Chartered by the newly formed federal government. thus building national wealth and attracting foreigners. but the charter ended in 1811. wanted to pay off foreign debt immediately and then through tariffs repay the national debt. He reported that the US was 54 million dollars in debt: 12 million to foreigners. .5%. but later was transferred to Washington D. he estimated that the states held debts of over 25 million dollars. Hamilton. On top of that.C. D.

. to confiscate any foreign ships trading with French Caribbean islands. French Alliance of 1778: Alliance made between France and the United Sates during America’s civil war in 1778. in 1791. Z. and the American Revolution. by President Washington to assist L’Enfant in surveying the land where the capital city was to be built. and mobs burned homes of excise inspectors. would only negotiate for a lend of $10 million to the French government.Major L’Enfant. and therefore to bear arms or participate in the war. riots were conducted. Whiskey Rebellion: An organized resistance in 1794. . Benjamin Banneker: Pierre Charles L’Enfant was the French architect who. on which the city is now based. Benjamin Banneker was appointed in 1791. Citizen Genet: Sent to the United States by the French in 1793 to find soldiers to attack British ships and conquer the territories held by the Spanish. The alliance was used to convince French citizens living in United States territory to become citizens of American. Neutrality Proclamation: Issued by President George Washington on April 22. they seized over 250 American ships which were conducting trade with the islands. to the excise tax on whiskey in which federal revenue officials were tarred and feathered. but most were released. the Neutrality Proclamation stated that the United States would remain a neutral faction in the war with France against Britain and Spain despite heavy French pressures to join their forces. Y. the taxation of the poor.S. undeclared naval war with France: Otherwise known as the Quasi-War. In this decision. Caused by the inability of the ruling class and clergy to solve the states problems. XYZ Affair. the hunger of the workers. The federal militia captured many of the protesters. three officials who did not take the process seriously. Edmund Genet founded the American Foreign Legion despite Washington’s April 22 proclamation of American neutrality. 1793. the undeclared conflict between the two nations lasted from 1798 to 1800.C. the United States managed to capture ninety-three French ships while France captured just one U. British seizure of American ships: The Privy Council issued a secret order on November 6. drew the plans for the nations capital in Washington D. they were told by the French foreign minister Talleyrand that the agents X. Talleyrand: When a commission was sent to France in 1797 in order to negotiate problems between the two countries. it led to the establishment of the First Republic and the end of the monarchy. ship. 1793. In the conflict. French Revolution: The revolution was a period consisting of social and political upheaval from 1789-1799. Many Americans felt the war to be a violation of their neutrality.

He participated in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown and distinguished himself in the Battle of Monmouth. James Wilkinson: An American soldier who participated in the American Revolution and the War of 1812. opened the Northwest Territory to settlement by white United States citizens. the Royal Navy began to inspect American ships in 1793 for suspected defects of the British Navy. Pinckney’s Treaty. Spain promised to recognize the thirty-first parallel. so therefore the treaty between the two races was an important one.S. Washington’s attempts at a failed alliance with the Creek Indians to expand into their lands only led to further conflicts between America and Spain. Anthony Wayne defeated a coalition of Native American tribes as the major general and commander in chief of the troops. to end U. right of deposit at New Orleans: Ratified in 1796. and to discourage Indian attacks on western settlers. in many cases. It did not resolve the British West Indies trade dispute. British prize courts. Jay’s Treaty: Negotiated between the United States and France in 1794. Wayne was a General during the American Revolution. and named a commission to determine how much the British should pay for illegally seizing American ships. The territory had formerly only been inhabited by Indians. "Mad" Anthony Wayne: Known as Mad Anthony due to his quick temper and his bravery. "Rule of 1756": The French opened colonial trade to the Dutch. further strengthened hostilities between the two countries. These bold actions commonly referred to as impressment. who they then forcibly placed back into their own navy. stated that neutrals could not engage in wartime trade with a country if they were not permitted to trade with that country at times of peace.-French boundary. Wilkinson was the man who reported Burr’s conspiracy to access Louisiana to President Jefferson. hoping to further expand their territory into the vast land. The treaty served to end white-Indian hostilities for sixteen years.Royal Navy: They navy of the British empire. Battle of Fallen Timbers: At the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Spanish intrigue in the Southwest: Spain attempted. the treaty evacuated British posts in the West. who were a neutral party. to detach the West from the United States. in 1794. He began his service with the Pennsylvania militia. camps. . 1795: This treaty. in response. appointed a committee to set up the U. the treaty gave westerners the right to access the world markets duty-free through the Mississippi River. He served as Secretary to the Board of War and was a brigadier general under Anthony Wayne. Treaty of Greenville.S. The battle took place around present day Toledo and led to the Treaty of Greenville which opened up the Northwest to American settlers. which was drafted in 1795.

S. as they had not been before. It urged for a stronger national government to take shape after 1781. the Federalists solved the problem of revolutionary debt. Their admission was spurred by the hope that they would then become completely loyal to the Union. whose ideology claimed that the Federalists had become a party geared toward enriching the wealthy at the expense of the poor. Adams was victorious in the election. Vice-president Jefferson: Jefferson was supported by the Republicans. and Tennessee were all admitted into the United States between 1791 and 1796 by the federal government. the demand for payment was ended and the U. The United States therefore formed treaties with Morocco. as a constitutional law stated that the candidate with the second highest number of electoral votes got that position. and George Washington rose to power between 1789-1801. election of 1796: President Adams. new states: Vt.S. Its leaders included Alexander Hamilton. the DemocraticRepublican party was created by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in opposition to . James Madison. The Tripolitans had seized U. paid $60. while Adams was supported by the Federalists. the war was a battle between the North African state Tripoli and the United States. Tripoli.Barbary Pirates: Following the American Revolution. The split in the Federalist party became official with Jefferson’s resignation from Washington’s cabinet in 1793. refusal to pay in increase in the tribute paid to the pasha of Tripoli. •Federalists: The Federalist party was the starting point of the movement to draft and later ratify the new Constitution. Under Hamilton. the United States political system had become bipartisan. upon which he formed the Republicans. Kentucky.000 to free Americans caught captive.S. and Tunis. that gave them immunity from these attacks. Washington’s farewell address asked the citizens of the United States to avoid involvement in political problems between foreign nations. Federalists and Republicans By the election of 1796. created Jay’s Treaty and also the Alien and Sedition Acts. Tenn: Vermont. the Barbary pirates began to raid the ships of the United States. •Democratic-Republicans: The first political party in the United States. John Jay. Washington’s Farewell Address: In his realization of the important role that he had take in developing the role of the president of the United States. Jefferson was made Vice-president. Tripolitan War: From 1801-1805. Ky. In the end. as European nations already had. largely a result of the disagreements over Hamilton’s programs and foreign policies. ships in the U.

" or open air revivals which lasted for weeks at a time where revivalists spoke of the second coming of . •Second Great Awakening: Occurring mainly in the frontier states. as the party was undecided as to who their presidential candidate should be. This action infuriated the farmers because the money was needed to fund the expansion of the nation’s army. while the "High Federalists. the Neutralization Act said residence must remain in the United States for five years before becoming naturalized while the Alien Act allowed the exportation of any alien believed to be a threat to national security. rebelled against the government after it released debtors and citizens who did not pay taxes. the Doctrine of Nullification stated that any federal laws considered by the people to be "objectionable" may be nullified by the states. and the Kentucky Resolution stated that federal government could not extend powers outside of constitutionally granted powers. •Alien and Sedition Acts: In 1798. Democratic Societies: An organization in which the wealthy are on a level of equality with the poor.the views of Alexander Hamilton. denounced his candidacy. in which Republicans were united by wealth rather then by status. as well as believed that those with talent and ambition should not forget their dreams. These acts were criticized because they oppressed the people’s First Amendment rights. in 1799. It arose to power in the 1790s and opposed the Federalist party. the Second Great Awakening began in the 1790s and was characterized by "camp meetings. while advocating states rights and an agricultural society. Fries Rebellion: Pennsylvanian German farmers. doctrine of nullification: A group of Kentucky Resolutions adopted in 1799. the Virginia Resolution stated that states possessed the right to intervene in unconstitutional acts in government. The party expressed sympathy towards the French Revolution but opposed close ties with the British. This rebellion alerted those in power to the general disgruntlement of much of the nation. Convention of 1800: The Federalist party split into two factions during the Convention of 1800." led by Alexander Hamilton. as it gave membership to descendants. The passage of these resolutions proved the probability of upcoming violent disagreements of how the law should be interpreted. the Society of the Cincinnati was feared by many because its charter had the possibility of becoming a hereditary aristocracy. Society of the Cincinnati: A post-war organization of veteran officers from the Continental Army. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: Written by Jefferson and Madison in protest to the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Federalists wanted to nominate Adams. The Alien Enemies Act allowed the President to export aliens during times of war and the Sedition Act made it a criminal offense to plot against government. This is best exemplified by the Philadelphia Democratic Society.

when states dropped restrictions on freedom of movement.Jesus. Thirty five slaves were executed by a swift state militia. the Logan Act allowed city councils the power to establish. the law required judges to give a slave back to its owner or his representative if caught after running away. In 1786. Peale began a museum of parts of nature in Independence Hall. This act led to the establishment of school systems throughout the U. but also the gospel of free will. and the "Athenaeum" head have often been mimicked. and allowed them to enroll in the state militia. an especially prominent preacher of the time. Gabriel’s Rebellion: Led by Gabriel Prosser in August 1800. a system consisting schools for the general public. Alexander McGillivray: The leader of the Creek Indians.000 slaves marched to the capital. the "Lansdowne" full-length. as well as to support and to regulate. His three styles of portrait painting: the "Vaughan" half-length. all but three states allowed blacks voting rights. Gilbert Stuart: An American painter who is particularly well known for his many portraits of wartime hero and President George Washington. but whites still feared what many occur in the future with slave uprisings. By 1796. Logan Act: Enacted in 1795 by the legislative assembly. Charles Wilson Peale: As a portrait painter of the Federalist period. He received a large bribe for signing the treaty.S. The rebellion increased tensions between the North and the South. which lead to a greater democratic power commonly seen in the ideals of Jacksonian democracy. Legal equality for free blacks: These measures first appeared in the 1780s and 1790s. the rebellion broke out near Richmond. A milder agrarian aristocracy replaced a commercial aristocracy. thereby setting an example of democratic simplicity. Jeffersonian Democracy Jefersonian Democracy refers to the term of office of Thomas Jefferson which marks the end of Federalist control of American politics. who in 1790 signed a peace treaty with the United States that allowed whites to occupy lands in the Georgia piedmont. This law indicated tightening racial tensions. but spared the rest of the Creek lands from white settlement. protected the property of blacks. Charles Finney. as well as stripped slaves of the right to trial by jury or presentation of evidence of freedom. preached not only the second coming of Jesus. Virginia when 1. . Peale is best known for his fourteen portraits of George Washington. Fugitive Slave Law: Enacted by congress in 1793. Philadelphia of portraits and helped to found the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1805.

Tripolitan War: (1802-5) War between the United States and the North African state of Tripoli. to which the US had been paying tribute. Threat of French expansion was the result of Jefferson’s goal to obtain the territory. received an equal number of electoral votes. Most importantly. •Election of 1800: Jefferson and fellow Republican Aaron Burr. (The Constitution was amended to require separate votes for each position. and was later acquitted by the Senate. though purchasing the territory . Jefferson obtained the territory for $15 million. for shipping access. Jefferson’s goal to purchase the territory was the great port of New Orleans. since 1784.Jeffersonian placed more emphasis in the common man and brought moreidealism into the government. and was ratified as a treaty by the Senate.) Revolution of 1800: Described by Jefferson in the his election of 1800. but with the election of 1800. of the Constitution. The US refused to pay in 1801. and the navy. Chase was defended strongly. in which he sought to restore the country to the liberty and tranquillity it had known before Alexander Hamilton’s economic program and John Adams’s Alien and Sedition Acts. in which Spain ceded the Louisiana territory to France. in agreement to Article II. Midnight judges: Federalists dominated the government. but the US captured the town of Derna. he was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1791 by Washington. to end the war. •LOUISIANA PURCHASE: When France obtained the territory from Spain. with Burr as Vice-president. but the opportunities of trade by New Orleans as a sea port. by using the Judiciary Act of 1801. The national debt. Stephen Decatur in 1805. With Hamilton’s coercion. Section 2. 1800. where some of the problems needed to be fixed. and was impeached for his criticism of President Jefferson. Gallatin was the genius behind the public debt cut and creating a large surplus of funds. On this date he appointed last-minute judges to keep the judiciary in the Federalists hands. as well as the threat of French invasion. •JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY: Jefferson’s administration severely cut naval and military operations. which resulted in US ships being captured. seeing it as detrimental to the national economy. though a Constitutional violation. resulting in Adams’s last day in office (December 12. Jefferson was elected as president. Jefferson drove them out. land West of the Mississippi. thus creating a tie and throwing the presidential election into the House of Representatives. who ran for Vicepresidency in the same year. led by Lieut. Justice Samuel Chase: Associate justice of the Supreme Court and signer of the Declaration of Independence. not for expansionism. 1800). most internal taxes. He opposed war. which was becoming a foremost military power. 70 percent of the national revenue was applied to reducing the national debt as well. Treaty of San Ildefonso: Treaty on October 1. Jefferson purchased the Louisiana territory from the French.

was subject to seizure by France. had turned to the House of Representatives for the decision of the next president Burr’s election in 1804.was Constitutionally illegal and going beyond his presidential rights. a Republican. Used by British to regain deserters from the Royal Navy to American . The Decree was answered with another Orders in Council. Virginia. Jefferson. known as the Orders in Council. 1802. after a six-month trial in Richmond. where Hamilton opposed him. Orders in Council: In May 1806. and becoming president for life of the country. Dueled Hamilton on July 11. •LOUISIANA PURCHASE: Most Federalists opposed the Louisiana Purchase on the grounds that it would decrease the relative importance of their strongholds on the eastern seaboard. and accused of conspiracy. The decree proclaimed that any vessel that submitted to British regulations or allowed itself to be searched by the Royal Navy. for the governor of NY State. They cataloged plants and animals. and intended to invade the Spanish territory and establish a separate republic in the Southwest. again. Toussaint L’Ouverture: Haitian general on the island of Santo-Domingo. which established a blockade of part of the continent of Europe and prohibited trade with France. Hamilton-Burr duel: Election of 1800 Between Jefferson and Burr. and established relations with Indian inhabitants. who succeeded in liberating the island from France in 1801. where he was imprisoned and died in France. They reached the Rockies. 1807: Napoleon replied to the continuous British opposition. 1. Milan Decree. unless American vessels went to British ports for licenses for trade. which was to tighten his so-called Continental System. over the Continental Divide. the British followed the Essex decision with the first of several trade regulations. where Hamilton was killed. From this territory became 14 new state governments. and reached the Pacific in November 1805. impressment: Arbitrary seizure of goods or individuals by a government or its agents for public services. with the Milan Decree. Lewis and Clark: They explored the vast territory west of the Mississippi River by the US. Berlin Decree. in which all ships must come to England for licenses of trade. He was arrested and indicted for treason. 1806: Was created in response to the Orders in Council by the British. and was acquitted on Sept. and any ship attempting to enter or leave a British port would be seized by France. and Toussaint was defeated. Napoleon sent troops to crush the Haitians. when they where commissioned by Jefferson. Burr treason trial: Burr purchased land in the newly acquired Louisiana territory. or seize land in Spanish America. 1804. 1807. in which the French proclaimed a blockade of the British isles. saw no reason to hand the Federalists an issue by dallying over ratification of the treaty made to obtain the territory.

This group in the House of Representatives. To pressure the nations to respect the neutral rights of the US and to demonstrate the value of trade with the US. the US would halt all commerce with the other nation. Macon’s Bill No. 1809. in May 1810. The Embargo Act was in response to the restrictive measure imposed on American neutrality by France and Britain. and tried with his brother. especially liquor. Non-Intercourse Act: The Non-Intercourse Act of March 1." War against Great Britain: For the most part. who fought against the United States expansion into the Midwest. who wanted more aggressive policies toward the hostile British and French. when British vessels boarded and obtained their crew from the high paying American ships. Chesapeake-Leopard affair: In 1807 the US Chesapeake was stopped in the midAtlantic by the British Leopard. resulting in British attack. who would cease violating neutral rights. 2: Nathaniel Macon created the Macon’s Bill No. who where at war with each other. This was one of the reasons for the War of 1812. by bribing either the England or France in repealing their restrictions on neutral shipping. The US also agreed to resume trade with the first nation of the two. which was designed to discourage the British and the French from interfering with US commerce. and prohibited United States vessels from trading with European nations during the Napoleonic War. The British demanded the return and surrender of four deserters from the royal navy. the Napoleon Wars were played out in Europe. Thus creating a war spirit by several young congressman elected in 1810. He opposed any surrender of Native American land to whites. Barron relented and the men were seized. refused. •EMBARGO OF 1807: This law was passed in December 1807 over Federalist opposition." in uniting the tribes from American customs.vessels during 1790 to 1812. Tecumseh: A Shawnee leader. He was defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. who ever obliged. Jefferson imposed the embargo instead of open warfare. 2. and reactivated American commerce with all countries except the warring French and the British. and the French accepted the United States merchant marine neutrality by the . pressuring the needs for American goods. in which the Chesapeake’s commanding officer. James Barron. Tenskwatawa the "Prophet. The young congressman known as War Hawks pushed Madison into a struggle for which the country was not prepared and which ended without victory. repealed the Embargo Act. led by Henry Clay preferred war to the "ignominious peace. War of 1812 The war of 1812 was one which the Americans were not prepared to fight. War Hawks: A group of militants in Madison’s Democratic-Republican party.

was their opposition to Jefferson and Madison’s trade programs of neutrality and trade. the British wanted neutral Indian buffer states in the American Northwest and wanted to revise both the AmericanCanadian boundary. Fort McHenry. which prompted the famous "Star-spangled Banner. Rising Indian opposition to American expansion in the Northwest and Southwest was broken." by Francis Scott Key when he saw the flag still standing. captured New Orleans with a small army against the British army. and several of the Lowell family of merchants and industrialists in New England. for example the Non-intercourse act. Even more so.Berlin and Milan Decrees. . The recommendation of the convention was to have an amendment to the Constitution that would grant taxation and representation in each state. continuing British blockade. with the constant violations of neutrality on the seas and in the Great Lakes. The convention on December 14. However. Jackson’s victory at New Orleans: Jackson. The Treaty of Ghent secured US maritime rights and peace around Europe and the Americas. The frigate Constitution defeated the Guerriere in August 1812. •HARTFORD CONVENTION: The Hartford Convention of 1814 damaged the Federalists with its resolutions to the idea o secession. as well as Clay. This victory on January 8. and in the same year. 1814 was to oppose the war. encounters were with single-ship battles. •Results of the War of 1812: After the treaty of Ghent. Senator George Cabot. for their lack of support for commercial and diplomatic policies of Jefferson and Madison. and treaty negotiations: Adams drafted the Monroe Doctrine and arranged for the Treaty of Ghent that ended the War of 1812. Theophilus Parsons. 1815 occurred after the peace treaty that ended the war. the Chesapeake lost to the Shannon. It opposed the Embargo act and the War of 1812. during the War of 1812. Naval Battles in the War of 1812: The beginning of the War of 1812. which was hurting American industries and commerce. led by Timothy Pickering. with hope of ending the war of 1812. and prohibit congress from the embargo. which was composed mainly of veterans. •FEDERALIST OPPOSITION TO THE WAR OF 1812: The Federalist party were deeply opposed to the war. Henry Clay. Gallatin. the Untied States seized the British frigate Macedonian. and there was an increased sense of national purpose and awareness. Francis Scott Key: During the War of 1812 on September 13-14. leaving an idea of disloyalty to use against them. Gallatin also was a part in the negotiations of the Treaty of Ghent. Essex Junto: The Essex Junto was a name given to the extreme nationalist wing. Hatred of the British persisted. Fort McHenry withstood a 25-hour bombardment by the British Vice-Admiral Alexander Cochane and his fleet.

Robert Fulton. Hunt: In the case of Commonwealth v. Steamships created an efficient means of transporting goods upstream. Hunt. and clipper ships emerged as new forms of transportation. between England and America. Erie Canal: The Erie Canal. the first major canal project America. and urbanization. 1814. It was a symbol of progress when it was opened in 1825. National Road( Cumberland Road ): The National Road was a highway across America. the Rainbow. clipper ships: Clipper ships were sailing ships built for great speed. This treaty ended the War of 1812. Commonwealth v. it was longest canal in western world at the time. it did not bring significant changes in the rights of laborers because many Massachusetts judges still considered unions illegal. improve transportation and communication. steamships: Fulton was an artist turned inventor. This period was distinguished by the establishment of factories and the creation of many new inventions to save time. the road progressed west during early 1800s. and increase productivity. advancing father west with each year. but this was . Great controversy occurred over fishing rights and the Northwest Boundary. in Belgium. The first true clipper ship. introduced a steamship. Griffiths. roads. canals.Treaty of Ghent: This was an agreement between the United States and Great Britain. This allowed Americans to travel across the country and transport goods into new markets that weren’t previously available. Stretching 363 miles from Albany to Buffalo. he and his partner. and it later sparked artistic interest in the Hudson River when its use peaked in the 1880s. the Clermont. on the Hudson River and obtained a monopoly on ferry service there until 1824. was built by New York beginning 1817. on December 24. the Massachusetts Supreme Court in 1842 ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies in restraint of trade. and provided that all territory captured would be returned to the rightful owner. Economic Growth Industrialization and the transportation revolution were a considerable force in American history. Robert Livingston. transportation revolution: The transportation revolution was the period in which steam power. Its crushed-stone surface helped and encouraged many settlers to travel into the frontier west. was designed by John W. Construction began in 1811. changing the character of life in America by facilitation westward expansion. launched in 1845. beginning in the 1830s. In 1807. Although this decision made strikes legal. railroads. and this led to an increase in the building of canals. bridges.

. It was a cotton textile mill that produced finished clothing. he made a fortune on his invention. they hired young. He patented his reaper in 1834 and built a factory to mass produce it in 1847. they found poor working conditions and strict discipline. clipper ships were a popular means to travel to California quickly. In doing this. contributing to the transition from handmade garments to inexpensive. usually between 15 and 30 years old. mass-produced clothing. This was the beginning of mass production. separating these girls from their families. factory girls (Lowell factory): "Factory girls" were young. After a difficult battle defending his patent. Samuel Slater: Slater was the supervisor of machinery in a textile factory in England. In the factories. Eli Whitney. from 1849 to 1857. the Lowell factory hired mainly young girls. Most of these girls left their families’ farms in order to gain independence or to help their families financially. working in textile factories such as the Lowell factory. interchangeable parts: Whitney was an inventor who introduced the concept of interchangeable parts in 1798. eliminating the need for cottage industries. During the Gold Rush. Slater founded the cotton textile industry in America. Also. Also. where. The tools and machines he invented allowed unskilled workers to build absolutely uniform parts for guns. so that the whole gun no longer had to be replaced if a single part malfunctioned or broke. unmarried women. Capitalizing on new technology. rather than entire families. Boston Associates: The Boston Associates were a group of merchants in Boston who created Boston Manufacturing Company in 1813. mechanical reaper: McCormick was an inventor who improved upon previous designs for the mechanical reaper. in 1793. This invention lessened the work of western farmers by mechanizing the process of harvesting wheat. unmarried women. ten-hour movement: The ten-hour movement was the attempt by workers to obtain restrictions on the number of hours they worked per day. challenging cottage industries. Cyrus McCormick. The movement was supported by Lowell Female Reform Association and other reform associations. Elias Howe: Howe invented the sewing machine in 1845 and patented it in 1846. The sewing machine allowed clothing to be stitched in factories very quickly.modeled after earlier ships developed on the Chesapeake Bay. from the 12 or 14 hour days that were not uncommon. they built textile factories in the towns of Waltham and Lowell which produced finished products. They wanted to limit the day to 10 hours. He left England illegally in 1790 to come to Rhode Island. Lowell factory: The Lowell factory was a factory established in 1813 by the Boston Manufacturing Company on the Merrimack River in Massachusetts. he founded the first permanent mill in America for spinning cotton into yarn.

Tariff of 1816 (protective): This was a protective tariff that was principally intended to hold the production of textiles and goods. The decision was that there would be a disarmament of the US-Canadian frontier. by Richard Rush. Field founded a company. Cyrus Field: Field was a financier who promoted the first transatlantic telegraph cable. Cyrus W. Jackson created pet banks and destabilized the national currency and aid. This was an economic blow that had repercussions. Rush-Bagot Treaty: Rush-Bagot was an agreement between the US and Great Britain concerning the Canadian border in 1817. Economic Independence after War of 1812: The War of 1812 was in part responsible for creating a great sense of national purpose and awareness. and foreign domination. the development of America was creating a need for a well made transportation facilities to link the outlying agricultural regions with the trade eaters in the Eastern sea ports. evident to merchants when the Embargo of 1807 and the War of 1812 suspended trade to Europe. Albert Gallatin. Convention of 1818: Signed at London. After four failed attempts. as well as great victory for labor. and the government took considerable actions to piece it together. The telegraph allowed rapid communication across great distances. Field laid a cable between Irealand and Newfoundland in 1866. usually transmitting political and commercial messages. This cable was 2. There was a large dependency on trade. Morse. Second Bank of the US: Andrew Jackson vetoed the recharter bill of the Second Bank of the United States on July 10. Great Britain’s Prime minister. This treaty fixed the 49th .B. This invention was enthusiastically accepted by the American people. and the French prime minister. Field and Co. This was Madison’s last act. Instead. a ship. telegraph companies were formed and lines erected quickly.Samuel F. This tariff was made in order to defend the industries that were established during the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. In 1841. which he vetoed the bill on constitutional ground. and that there would be a precedent for the amicable settlement of peace between the US and Canada. The economy of the nation was a large force in the merging of the nation. which was a blow against monopoly. 1832. Bonus Bill Veto: In 1817. promoting new industries.000 miles long and laid from the Great Eastern. A revision was made in 1824 to clear problems that aroused. Nationalism The nationalistic movement was one which brought the nation together. telegraph: Morse invented the telegraph in 1844. aristocratic parasites. This allowed for rapid transatlantic communication.

Tennessee. Before George Fitzhugh in 1854. •"KING COTTON": In the 1800s. and Texas. It was so profitable that the vast majority of southern farms and plantations grew cotton.parallel to divide the US and Canadian boundary. and the "Cotton Kingdom" spread west into Alabama. The British textile industry created a huge demand for cotton. This was the first description of slavery as a "positive the farmer groups good. He argued that slavery benefited the slave by providing him with food and shelter. and also established fishing privileges for the United States off the coast of Labrador and Newfoundland. slavery was becoming an increasingly sectional issue. Most Northerners were suspicious of the influence of southern slaveholders in Congress. the entire Southern economy became dependent on the success of cotton as a crop. that caused distress throughout the country. "necessary evil": In the South. whether for moral or economic reasons. sectionalism: Sectionalism is loyalty or support of a particular region or section of the nation. Even more so. and that free laborers in the North were not treated any better than slaves. triggering a depression. Slave Power: The term Slave Power refers to the belief that pro-slavery southerners were united an attempt to spread slavery throughout the United States. Essentially. and the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. Arkansas. Sociology for the South. slavery was considered necessary in order to maintain the agricultural economy of the entire region. Fitzhugh wrote Sociology for the South. the Kansas-Nebraska Act. cotton became the principal cash crop in the South. Sectionalism and Slavery In the early 1800s. Slavery was particularly sectional issue. Northerners were becoming more opposed to slavery. especially western farmers. Louisiana. or the Failure of Free Society: In 1854. especially because of the Fugitive Slave Act. Mississippi. causing a great depression for farmers. they merely protested that it could not be eliminated without destroying the South. defending slavery. George Fitzhugh. Panic of 1819 : Occurred when the Second Bank of the United States tightened its loan policy. and Southerners were becoming more united in their defense of slavery as an institution. rather than the United States as a whole. and the invention of the cotton gin made it practical to grow cotton throughout the South. dividing the country into North and South to the extent that it led to the Civil War. meaning that it was increasingly dividing the nation along regional lines. British exports unloaded textiles. for the most part." . southerners did not assert that slavery was a boon to society. southerners supported slavery and northerners opposed it.

2. captured the fort at Baton Rouge.positive good: In the South. and becoming another reason for Indian hatred of the white man. mountain whites in the South." It was believed that slavery benefited slaves by providing them with food.S. The Impending Crisis of the South: In 1857. and it regulated European politics after the fall of Napoleon. 1810: Annexed when southern expansionists went into the Spanish Dominion. It provided for the cession of Florida to the United States in return for American settlement of claims of her citzens against Spain. using the poor whites of the pine-barrens as an illustration of how the institution of slavery degrades non-slaveowning southerners. Purchase of Florida: Spain surrendered Florida to the United States in 1819 by the Adams-Onis Treaty. Russia. Helper wrote The Impending Crisis of the South in an attempt to persuade non-slaveholders that slavery harmed the Southern economy. Fitzhugh argued that free laborers in northern factories were not treated any better than slaves. policy was to abstain from European wars unless U. •MONROE DOCTRINE: origins. European powers could not colonize the American continents and shouldn’t attempt to colonize newly independent Spanish . 1823. He proposed that the US and Britain issue a joint statement opposing European interference in South America and guaranteed that neither would annex Spain’s old empire. it consisted of 3 principles: U. provisions. and were often cited by northerners as proof that slavery degraded nonslaveholding whites. where they survived by grazing hogs and cattle on land that the usually didn’t own. starting the Seminole War (1835-42). and Prussia. West Florida. and proclaimed on September 26. and often Christian religion. he supported nationalist movements throughout Latin America and dissuaded foreign intervention in American affairs. the independent State of republic of West Florida. Hinton Helper. George Fizhugh established the philosophy that slavery was "positive good. the Quadruple Alliance consisted of England. This however began a rebellion by the Indians. Also. George Canning: The British foreign minister. Austria. They were considered lazy and shiftless. Quadruple Alliance: Formed in 1815. interests were involved. with a sum of five million dollars. The Holy Alliance was an organization of European states that advanced the principles of the Christian faith. shelter. It was adopted as a resolution on January 15. pine barrens: The poorest class of whites in the Lower South tended to cluster in the mountains and pine-barrens.S. Adams-Onis Treaty: It was the treaty in 1819 that purchased eastern Florida to establish the boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana territory. impact: President Monroe’s message to Congress on Dec. 1811 and authorized as an extenuation of US rule over East Florida.

In the debate over the renewal of the charter of the US Bank. drafted in 1819. Adams forced Spain to cede Florida and make an agreeable settlement of the Louisiana boundary.American republics. In the federal land law passed in 1804. Era of good feelings: This phrase exemplifies both of Monroe’s presidencies. 1824. Daniel Webster: Supporting the tariff of 1828. The War of 1812 eliminated some divisive issues. Congress had a right to prohibit slavery in some territories. Tallmadge Amendment: The Tallmadge Amendment (1819) restricted further importation of slaves into Missouri and freed slave descendants born after Missouri’s admission as a state. Dartmouth College into a state university. Clay’s American System: In his tariff speech to Congress on March 30. Spain consented to a southern border of the US that ran from the Miss. internal improvements such as federal aid to local road and canal projects. Henry Clay proposed the second Missouri Compromise in 1821. In 1904. Ridiculed in Europe. the southern boundary of Missouri. Chief Justice John Marshall: decisions: Dartmouth College v. the minimum purchase was decreased to 160 acres.25. it was reduced to $1. he was a protector of northern industrial interests. •MISSOURI COMPROMISE: Congress admitted Maine as a free state in 1820 so that Missouri would become a slave state and prohibited slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase territory north of 36 30. but soon sectionalism divided the nation. John Quincy Adams as Secretary of State: Fla: With Monroe’s support. and distribution of the profits of federal land sales to the states. the Roosevelt Corollary was introduced. federal land policy: The federal land law passed in 1796 established a minimum purchase of 640 acres at a minimum price of $2 an acre and a year for full payment. Woodward (1819) The question was whether New Hampshire could change a private corporation. It passed in the House but not the Senate due to sectionalism. and Republicans embraced the Federalist’s issues. River to the Rocky Mountains. Webster advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. In 1820. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Clay proposed a protective tariff in support of home manufactures. at age 25. It was unconstitutional to change it. After a state charters a college or business. which forbade discrimination against citizens from other states in Missouri but did not resolve whether free blacks were citizens. from 1816-1824. in the Transcontinental (Adams-Onis) Treaty. In 1820. expansion by presidents John Tyler and James Polk. it can no longer alter the charter nor regulate the beneficiary.31. Monroe made an effort to avoid political controversies. the minimum purchase was reduced to 80 acres.S. it was used to justify U. a strong national bank. .

within their borders. with a political base in the South. flax. strict Jeffersonians claimed it to be unconstitutional. which gained independence through a slave revolution. felt that federal support meant a possibly corrupt giveaway program for the North. Crawford. Jackson. Tariff of Abominations: Named by southerners. the law. Distinct changes in laws. Southerners worried that U. electoral vote. New England manufacturing interests were favored because it raised the tariff on imported textiles. Panama Conference: President Adams angered southerners by proposing to send American delegates to a conference of newly independent Latin American nations in Panama in 1826. Adversely affected states had the right to nullify. "corrupt bargain": After Adams won the presidency. Although there is no evidence to link Clay’s support to his appointment of the secretary of state. Jackson won more popular and electoral votes than the other candidates but didn’t manage to gain the majority needed Because Clay supported Adams. He acknowledged that he wrote the SC Exposition and Protest in 1831. Jackson’s supporters called the action a "corrupt bargain" because they thought that Jackson was cheated of the presidency. Jacksonian Revolution of 1828: Jackson won more than twice the electoral vote of John Quincy Adams. 1825. nullification: He anonymously wrote the widely read South Carolina Exposition and Protest. and liquor in 1828. or override. this bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp. and popular attitudes gave rise to Jacksonian Democracy and were in turn accelerated by the new equilitarian spirit.•ELECTION OF 1824: popular vote. House vote: Jackson.S. However the popular vote was much closer. showing that the Republican party was splintering. Adams. In 1832. the allegation was widely believed. Clay: All five candidates. The South had few plans to build canals and roads. he appointed Clay as secretary of state. including Calhoun were Republicans. wool. He stood for the right of the common people to have a greater voice in government. Calhoun withdrew and ran for the vice presidency. Adams had strong support in . these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods. in which he made his argument that the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional. internal improvements: President Adams proposed a program of federal support for internal improvements in Dec. In the South. he convinced the South Carolina legislature to nullify the federal tariff acts of 1828 and 1832. participation would insinuate recognition of Haiti. Jacksonian Democracy Jackson personified the desireable and undesireable qualities of Westerners. fur. due to rival sectional components. •VICE-PRESIDENT CALHOUN: South Carolina Exposition and Protest. Adams became president. practices.

election of 1832: Jackson. Jackson repeatedly relied on an informal group of partisan supporters for advice while ignoring his appointed cabinet officers. the popular vote was close. Eaton belonged to this group. kitchen cabinets: During his first term. His supporters described his simple and true morals and fierce and resolute will. 16. He believed that internal improvements violated the principle that Congress could appropriate money for objectives only shared by all Americans. 1831: Marshall ruled that the Cherokees were a "domestic dependent nation" entitled to federal protection from mistreatment by Georgia. Martin Van Buren and John H. Supposedly. committed to Clay’s American System and believed in active intervention by the government to change society. Between 1835 and 1838. National Republicans: They became the Whig party during Jackson’s second term. Cherokee Nation v. Most Cherokees condemned the treaty. They were united by their opposition of Jackson’s policies.000 Cherokees died. Worcester v." the removal of officeholders of the rival party on democratic grounds.000 Cherokees migrated west to the Mississippi along the Trail of Tears. during the election of 1828. a strong defender of states’ rights and Unionism won the presidency. He wanted to give as many individuals as possible a chance to work for the government and to prevent the development of an elite bureaucracy. He was depicted as being uncorrupt. an illiterate backwoodsman. They became a national party with appeal by 1836. but were also members of the official cabinet. along with numerous former Federalists who believed that the national government should advocate economic development. 1832: Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokees were not a state nor a foreign nation and therefore lacked standing to bring suit. they met in the White House kitchen. spoils system: Jackson defended the principle of "rotation in office.New England while Jackson swept the South and Southwest.000 to 4. Maysville Road veto: President Jackson vetoed a bill to grant federal aid for a road in Kentucky between Maysville and Lexington in 1830.6 million. John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay guided this party in the 1830s. Georgia. Trail of Tears: A pro-removal chief signed the Treaty of New Echota in 1835 which ceded all Cherokee land to the United States for $5. Jackson was portrayed by the opposition as a common man. natural. 2. Georgia. Whigs: The National Republican party altered its name to the Whig party during Jackson’s second term. They were the Jeffersonian Republicans. and plain. It increased Jackson’s popularity in the South. The National Republicans ran Henry Clay whose platform consisted of his . In the middle states and the Northwest. age of the common man: All white males had access to the polls.

accompanied by other southern states. A financial recession resulted. A final resolution of the question of nullification was postponed until 1861. •NULLIFICATION CRISIS: Calhoun introduced the idea in his SC Exposition and Protest. seceded from the Union and started the Civil War. Roger B. Clay Compromise: He devised the Compromise Tariff which provided for a gradual lowering of duties between 1833-1842. which never occurred. They took a leading role in national and NY . Without the compromise. their activities were centered in Albany. They were socially disregarded by Calhoun’s wife and Calhoun’s friends in the cabinet. Martin Van Buren: The accepted name for a group of Democratic party politicians. The Anti-Masonic Party ran William Wirt who received 7 electoral votes. Jackson proclaimed that nullification was unconstitutional and that the Constitution established "a single nation. Jackson believed that the Eaton affair was Calhoun’s plot to discredit him and advance Calhoun’s presidential ambitions. married Peggy Eaton in 1829. Critics called the state-bank depositories pet banks because they were chosen for their loyalty to the Democratic party." not a league of states. States that suffered from the tariff of 1828 had the right to nullify or override the law within their borders. John H. Calhoun resigns: When Jackson favored the higher rates for the Tariff of 1832. •BANK WAR: Nicholas Biddle operated the Bank of the United States since 1823. Eaton." Biddle tightened up on credit and called in loans. Secretary of treasury Roger B. NY. Taney: Jackson’s policy was to remove federal deposits form the Bank of US and put them in state banks. The Force Bill authorized the president to use arms to collect customs duties in South Carolina. He went back to South Carolina and composed an Ordinance of Nullification which was approved by a special convention. when South Carolina. Some disputed its constitutionality. He used Calhoun’s anti-tariff arguments to support his position and referred to the plausibility of nullification. Peggy Eaton affair: Jackson’s secretary of war. and the customs officials were ordered to stop collecting the duties at Charleston. hoping for a retraction by Jackson. Jackson tried to destroy the Bank by vetoing a bill to recharter the Bank. Webster contended that the Union was indissoluble and sovereign over the individual states. Many opposed the Bank because it was big and powerful.American System. Webster-Hayne Debate: Senator Robert Hayne of South Carolina made a speech in favor of cheap land in 1830. he believed that the Force Bill would produce a civil war. Calhoun resigned in the same year. Taney implemented the policy. He removed the federal government’s deposits from the Bank and put them into various state and local banks or "pet banks.

This satisfied northern manufacturers. Taney: The Charles River Bridge Company sued to prevent Mass. and was given the most successful campaign slogans in history. The protesters sought to do away with the state constitution which restricted suffrage to freeholders led the reform to grant suffrage to non-property owners. The origins of the depression included Jackson’s Specie Circular. Van Buren persuaded Congress to establish an Independent Treasury in which the federal government would keep the revenue itself and thereby withhold public money from the grasp of business cooperation. His opponent. due to the need of revenue to run the government. prominent members included Van Buren. but abandoned distribution to the states. rise of the second party system: Because of the gradual hardening of the line between the two parties. competent political machines in the US. Independent Treasury Plan: Instead of depositing its revenue in state banks. from permitting the construction of a new bridge across the Charles River. Also. Chief Justice Roger B. One of the earliest. but by abandoning distribution. Tyler signed a bill which maintained some tariffs above 20%. it infuriated many southerners and westerners Reform: Social & Intellectual European Romanticism branched into American mainstream society. election of 1840: Van Buren was nominated but no vice president was put up. Tariff of 1842: In August of 1842. "Tippecanoe and Tyler too" Harrison won 80% of the electoral vote but died a moth later. The Bank of the United States also failed. and simple choices began to appeal to the ordinary people.State politics between 1820 and 1850. Dorr’s Rebellion: As a popular movement emerged in Rhode Island to abolish the limitations set forth by the charter granted by Charles II in 1663. panic of 1837: Prices began to fall in May 1837 and bank after bank refused specie payments. interests in politic erupted among the people. New things such as rousing campaign techniques. strong contrasts. The basic goals emphasised were to transced the bounds of intellect and to strive for emotional . Taney ruled that no charter given to a private corporation forever vested rights that might hurt the public interest. so did much violence and serious disturbances. Britain controlled the flow of specie from its shores to the US in an attempt to hinder the outflow of British investments in 1836. William Henry Harrison was ridiculed as "Old Granny" by the Democrats.

Herman Melville. The Pioneers: He wrote historical novels under Sir Walter Scott’s influence. Edgar Allen Poe: Poe. poets lecturers and essayists. he was a popular essayist and lecturer. It agreed on the scaredness. Melville wrote with much pessimism. critic. and journalist. and Walt Whitman. along with Poe and Hawthorne. Transcendentalists-Transcendalists included many brilliant philosophers. He. were concerned with analyzing the mental states of their characters. Orestes Brownson. along with Poe and Melville. and a ten-hour workday. wrote with concern for the human mind because of their pessimism about the human condition. James Fenimore Cooper. The topics of his essays were broad and general. she was offered a job and wrote significant literature as a critic of the Tribune from 1844 to 1846. she edited The Dial. Nathanial Hawthorne. After writing Summer on the Lakes. These Locos-Focos called for free public education. To fiction. the abolition of imprisonment for debt. and the authority of the individual apprehension experience. he introduced characters like frontiersmen. He wrote on subjects such as "Beauty. He was particularly active with the founding of the Workingman’s and Loco-Focos parties in New York.A member of the Transcendentalist movement. Brownson was a flexible theologian and writer. Moby Dick: Drawing ideas and theme from his own experiences in life. The Spy. with Melville and Hawthorne saw man as a group of conflicting forces that might not ever be balanced. The Last of the Mohicans.understranding. and that truth was inborn and universal." He wrote OCD to defend the right to disobey unjust laws. philosopher. and developed a distinctly American theme with conflict of between the customs of primitive life on the frontier and the advance of civilization." "Nature. The Dial: A feminist. Ralph Waldo Emerson: Serving briefly as a Unitarian minister. These included such intellectuals as Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau. uniqueness. The Scarlet Letter.Hawthorne turned to his Puritan past in order to examine the psychological and moral effects of the adultery. Henry David Thoreau. On Civil Disobedience: He was considered to be a "doer. He." and "Power. writers. Margaret Fuller. which contains much pessimism. His book. which was a Transcendalist journal with Ralph Waldo Emerson and George Ripley." He was a Transcendalist who believed that knowledge reflected the voice of God. He was also a Transcendalist who believed that one could satisfy their material purposes with only a few weeks work each year and have more time to ponder life’s purpose. They believed in emphasis of the spontaneous and vivid expression of personal feeling over learned analysis. focuses on the human mind instead of the social relationships. He changed literature by freeing it from its .

Flourishing between the 1829s and 1870s. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Coming from New England. DiA was a result of his observations. they began to paint the awesomeness of nature in America. which contained "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Walt Whitman: By writing Leaves of Grass.determination to preach a moral and established the idea that literature should be judged by the positive effect they had on the reader. These movements were generally more active in the Northern states. Not only did he write in free verse. Antebellum Reform Americans after 1815 embraced many religios and social movements in pursuit of solutions for the problems." and "Rip Van Winkle. being energetic and candid at a time when humility were accepted in the literary world. After the failure of his prophecies. William Miller claimed the Second coming of Christ would occur in 1843. the area from which literature was most prominent. he traveled to this country in the early 1930s to study the prison system. He wrote Sketch Book. It reflected the broad interest in the entire spectrum of the American democratic process and the society which it had developed. Democracy in America: A French Civil servant. wrote Evalgeline which was widely read by schoolchildren in America. Whitman broke the conventions of rhyme and meter to bring new vitality to poetry. evils." which continued to give the him the support of Americans who were proud of their best known writer. Washington Irving: Residing in New York and serving in the war of 1812. His poems of Evalgeline and Hiawatha preached of the value of tradition and the impact of the past on the present. Longfellow. his disciples divided into smaller Adventist groups of which the two largest are the Advent Christian Church and the Seventh-Day Adventists . Realizing this. Alexis de Tocqueville. but his poems took on a different style. he left the US and lived in Europe until 1832. millenialism: In the 1830s. Hudson River school of art-Americans painters also sought to achieve a sense of nationality in art. and misfortunes of mankind. Following him were the Millerites. a poet. the painter realized that the American landscape lacked the "poetry of decay" of Europe.

Lectures were held on such topics as astronomy. Mt. known as Utopian communities. Amana Community: Attempting to improve man’s life during industrialism. They were then led to the Great Salt Lake by Brigham young after Smith was killed. college devoted to women’s education. then to Nauvoo. National Trade Union: Organized in 1834. Oberlin. led the fight for asylums and more humane treatment for the insane. Oberlin College was converted into the center of western abolition by Theodore Dwight Weld. biology. Holyoke. Dorothea Dix: In 1843. Finney: Known as the "father of modern revivalism. criminal conspiracy laws: Initially. Illinois. The early unions strove for higher wages. this association was created after the New York Trades Union called a convention of delegates from numerous city centrals. 1833. the institution of private property. . New Harmony. Although this was a milestone." he was a pioneer of cooperation among Protestant denominations. who was elected to Congress on the Tammany ticket. Headed by Ely Moore.S. Howe. along with help from Horace Mann and Samuel G. these cooperative communities. Onieda. 1836.. These communities often condemned social isolation. Brigham Young: Joseph Smith organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints after receiving "Sacred writings" in New York Unpopular because of their polygamy. She. physiology. trade unions were persecuted for their strikes because they were construed as illegal conspiracies under the common law. Founded by Mary Lyon in 1836. conversation. lyceum movement: Began by Josiah Holbrok in the 1820. and that people’s destinies were in their own hands.After it was established in 1833. presented a memorial to the state legislature which described the abhor conditions in which the insane were kept. union control of apprenticeship and a closed shop. marriage. lyceums were local organizations that sponsored public lectures. after discovering the maltreatment of the insane in 1841. Mt Holyoke College in Massachusetts is the oldest U. Hunt: This decision deemed that the trade union and their strike techniques were legal. Commonwealth vs. Most judges still believed unions were illegal. contradicting the traditional idea of unions being illegal under the conspiracy laws of the English common law.Charles G. geology. it in fact did not open a new era for labor unions. this union disintegrated along with a number of other national conventions with the Panic of 1837. Brook Farm. shorter hours. religion. were formed. they moved to Missouri. Mormons. He believed that conversions were human creations instead of the divine works of God. The spread of these lecture revealed the widespread hunger for knowledge and refinement. His "Social Gospel" offered salvation to all.

they followed Lyman Beecher in demanding total abstinence from alcohol. She led the fight for educational equality among sexes. Created in 1826. American Temperance Union. grade the schools. They denounced the evil of drinking and promoted the expulsion of drinkers from church. New York. and compel attendance.Extremely anti-Catholic. She was also active in the fight for abolition and temperance. Willard established the Middlebury Female Seminary where she devised new innovations in female education. This encouraged the development of educational institutions for women. Nativism: The Irish immigration surge during the second quarter of the nineteenth century revived anti-Catholic fever . standardize textbooks. They were also discriminated in the areas of education and employment. Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a women’s rights convention at Seneca Falls. Mann wanted to put the burden of cost on the state. She also established the Troy Female Seminary in 1821.The most influential of reformers. . 1848: Under the eye of Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. proclaiming a Declaration of Sentiments Months earlier. but was devoted to women’s rights.1845-1854: In this single decade. this convention adopted resolutions for women’s rights. the largest immigration proportionate to the American population occurred. For the next ten years. Irish.public education. Seneca Falls. Lucretia Mott: 1848. it was created by evangelical Protestants. She provided instruction in math and philosophy in which women could not take earlier. Women’s rights : Women could not vote and if married. Among those adopted were a demand for women’s suffrage and a diminution of sexual discrimination in education and employment. Elizabeth Cady Stanton: She along with Lucretia Mott planned a women’s right convention at the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Seneca Falls which sparked the women’s movement. This spurred new sentiment for nativism and a new anti-Catholic fervor. in 1835 Morse warned that the governments of Europe were filling the US with Catholic immigrants as part of a conspiracy to undermine and destroy republican institutions. Mann promoted a wholistic change in public education. Emma Willard: In 1814. Horace Mann.The first national temperance organization. they successfully worked for the passage of the New York Married Women’s Property Act which recognized women’s right to her separate property. German immigration. along with Stanton. The Irish was the largest source of immigration with the German immigrants ranking second in number. Man became the secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education. they had no right to own property or retain their own earnings. not receiving the opportunities that men possessed.

uncompensated emancipation of all slaves. immediate. American Antislavery Society: The American Antislavery Society was an organization in opposition to slavery founded in 1833. its division did not greatly damage abolitionism. American Peace Society: In a social reform movement. Because it sanctioned numerous activities in reform such as temperance and education. This was generally considered radical. The Pennsylvania system made each prisoner spend of his/her time in a single cell with no outside contact. . and role of abolitionists as a political party led to the division of the organization into the American Antislavery Society and Foreign Antislavery Society. there were only a few abolitionists and these were generally considered radicals. William Lloyd Garrison: William Lloyd Garrison was a radical who founded The Liberator. issues such as the role of women in the abolitionist movement. creating sectional tension because most abolitionists were from the North. He was joined in the peace movement by Elihu Burritt who founded the League of Universal Brotherhood in 1846 and promoted the 2d Universal Peace Conference held in Brussels in 1848 prison reform: Prison were meant to rehabilitate as well as punish. Abolitionism Abolitionism is support for a complete. such as William Lloyd Garrison were extremely vocal and helped to make slavery a national issue. William Ladd led the peace movement by establishing the American Peace Society in 1828. they became more prominent and influential. He advocated immediate. women became the main source of teachers. In 1840. often demanding immediate. she fought for a profession in which females could be appreciated. •ABOLITIONISM: Abolitionism was the movement in opposition to slavery. and as sectional tension mounted. it provided women with worthwhile pursuits beyond the family.Catherine Beecher: Lyman Beecher’s daughter and a militant opponent of female equality. With this. and there were only a few adamant abolitionists prior to the Civil War. "Cult of True Womanhood": The alternate ideal of domesticity. an abolitionist newspaper. but not social equality for blacks. However. In the North before the Civil War. The Auburn System allowed prisoners to work together but never make contact and remain confined at night in a windowless cell. this slowed the advance of feminism. Almost all abolitionists advocated legal. Many abolitionists. in Boston in 1831. and uncompensated end to slavery. she discovered the institution of education in which women could play an important part in. they were prominent and vocal. In this profession. Because the organization never had control over the many local antislavery societies.

55 whites were killed by Turner and his followers and many blacks were lynched by white mobs. These students then centered their activities at Oberlin College. Grimké sisters: Angelina and Sarah Grimké were sisters who toured New England. This made Garrison a famous and highly controversial abolitionist whose main tactic was to stir up emotions on the slavery issue. as well as its articles and speeches using arguments based on morality to advocate immediate emancipation made it one of the most persuasive periodicals in the United States at the time. theologian. Elijah Lovejoy: Lovejoy was American abolitionist and the editor of the an antislavery periodical. and his death stimulated the growth of abolitionist movement. lecturing against slavery. •NAT TURNER’S INSURRECTION: Turner was a slave who became convinced that he was chosen by God to lead his people to freedom. . The Murder of Lovejoy speech protested the murder of Elijah Lovejoy and gained him recognition from the public. The Observer. He also spoke publicly in favor of women’s rights. Theodore Parker: Parker was a clergyman. where he established the Alton Observer. The Liberator: The Liberator was an anti-slavery newspaper published by William Lloyd Garrison and Isaac Knapp beginning in 1831. In 1838 both sisters wrote classics of American feminism. Turner and fifteen of his companions were hanged. and participated in John Brown’s raid in 1859. in 1837. Before the uprising was brought to a halt by white militiamen. In Virginia in 1831. and reformer. Violent opposition from slaveholders in 1836 forced him to move his presses from Missouri to Illinois. Sarah wrote Letters on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes and Angelina wrote Letters to Catherine E. Its bitter attacks on slavery and slaveowners. His most famous speech. and the author of A Letter to the People and A Discourse of Matters Pertaining to Religion. abolition and elimination of capital punishment. They became controversial by lecturing to both men and women. He was also an active opponent of slavery who aided in the escape of slaves and the rescue of Anthony Burns. in 1834.uncompensated emancipation and even civil equality for blacks. He was dismissed when. Beecher. abolitionist. temperance. Lovejoy was killed by an mob in 1837. He led an antislavery demonstration on campus and a mass withdrawal of students from the school. Wendell Phillips: Phillips was an American orator. supported New England Emigrant Society. Theodore Weld: Weld was an abolitionist student at the Lane Theological Seminary. Turner led about 70 blacks into a revolt against their masters. the trustees of the seminary tried to suppress abolitionism.. The rebellion convinced white southerners that a successful slave insurrection was an constant threat.

the plan was betrayed by other slaves. They killed the captain. Tubman was known as "Moses" among blacks. the Creole. advocating a black rebellion to crush slavery.Gabriel Prosser: Prosser a Virginia slave who planned a slave uprising in 1800 with the intent of creating a free black state. They intended to sieze the federal arsenal at Richmond. The system had no formal organization. Incidents such as this contributed to the intensification of sectional conflict in the United States. Harriet Tubman: Tubman was a black woman who. resulting in the hanging of Vessy and his followers. who became a powerful aboltionist orator. Creole affair: The Creole Affair was an uprising by a group of slaves who were in the process of being transported in the ship. She was the most famous leader of the underground railroad. Douglass’ influential speeches encouraged slaves to escape as he did and motivated northerners to oppose slavery. Denmark Vesey: Vessy was a slave from South Carolina who bought his freedom with $1.500 that he won in a lottery. In 1822. after escaping from slavery in 1849. He also published a newspaper. he planned to lead a group of slaves in an attacking Charleston and stealing the city’s arms. but the plan was betrayed by other slaves. in the early 1830s. He captured his audiences with descriptions of his life as a slave. Frederick Douglass: Douglass was an escaped slave. the North Star. Expansion to 1840 . In spite of her illiteracy. where they became free under British. and slavery which attracted large audiences. Walker’s Appeal: David Walker was a free black from Boston who published his Appeal in 1829. making eloquent speeches against sex discrimination. Because of her efforts to lead her people to freedom. underground railroad: The underground railroad was a secret network of antislavery northerners who illegally helped fugitive slaves escape to free states or Canada during the period before the American Civil War. took control of ship and sailed for Bahamas. However. Sojourner Truth: Sojourner Truth was a runaway slave who became an influential figure in both women’s societies and the abolitionist movement. made 19 journeys back into the South to help as many as 300 other slaves escape. David Walker. Godlessness. Prosser and his comrades were captured by the state militia and executed. The purpose of Walker’s Appeal was to remind his people that they were Americans and should be treated fairly. she traveled widely through New England and the Midwest. but it helped thousands of slaves escape and contributed to the hostility between the North and South.

All of the Texans were killed in their attempt to fight the Mexican army. the Texans killed half of Santa Anna’s men in 15 minutes and Houstan captured Santa Anna and forced him to sign a treaty recognizing Texan independence. When Santa Anna and his men attacked. Sam Houston. but could no longer afford to fight. William Barrett Travis: Travis was a lawyer before he moved to Texas in 1831. 1840. but got captured at the battle of San Jacinto in 1836. The battle lasted less than 20 minutes. Stephen Austin: Austin was a prominant leader of Americans in Texas. a great majority of Americans lived east of the Appalachian Mountains. San Jacinto: The battle of San Jacinto was the last battle of Texan war for independence. He was killed while defending the Alamo in 1836. Alamo: The Alamo was a mission in San Antonio. In he 1835 went to Texas and joined the revolution against Mexico. in 1834. Texas was a popular destination for American settlers. After Mexican president Santa Anna invaded Texas in1835. the leader to the Texans. especially southern planters with slaves. he was a highly successful empresario. he overthrew government and named himself dictator. •TEXAN WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE: In 1836. Davy Crockett: Davy Crockett was a politician. In 1836. so when the Mexican government tried to restrict the rights of these settlers. After this defeat. that became the setting for and important episode in Texan war for independence from Mexico. Travis became a war hero when he was ordered to defend San Antonio and the Alamo. Mexican president Santa Anna invaded Texas and brutally crushed the rebels at the battle of the Alamo. so Texas became the Lone Star Republic. At San Jacinto. Before. The Mexican government never recognized this treaty. In 1836.1n 1790. However. retaliated at the battle of San Jacinto. greatly outnumbering Travis’ 200 troops. became colonel in Texas Revolution. Austin became one of the leaders of the Texas Revolution. Texas. Santa Anna: Santa Anna was elected president of Mexico in 1833. and a soldier. Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged San Antonio and the city’s 200 Texan defenders retreated into the abandoned mission. He invaded Texas in 1835. he was forced into . who had contracted 300 American families to move to Texas by 1825. Exaggerated stories written after his death made Crockett an American folk hero. during which after Santa Anna was captured and forced to signed a treaty granting Texans their independence. Texan General Sam Houston and 800 of his men ambushed Santa Anna and the Mexican army. the Texas War for Independence resulted. In the 1820s. but many began moving west intermittently. However. a frontiersman. they mainly settled the areas east of the Mississippi River and avoided the arid Great Plains region. From 1827 to 1835 Crockett represented Tennessee in Congress. Travis and all of his men died in battle. In 1835.

including the Mexican War. They drafted a constitution modeled after the United States Constitution and chose Sam Houston as their president. He was editor of the New Yorker and a Whig associated with Governor Seward of New York. Houston was chosen as president of the Texan rebels. This area. Sam Houston: Houston was a military commander and an American statesman who served in House of Representatives from 1823 to 1827. are considered imperialistic conquests. the present -day Midwest. In order to accomplish this destiny. Horace Greeley: Greeley was a journalist and political leader. to expand westward across the North American continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Americans did not flinch at atrocities such as provoking war with Mexico or slaughtering Indians. he founded the New York Tribune. where he captured Santa Anna and achieved Texan independence. but he was not an abolitionist. •"MANIFEST DESTINY": "Manifest Destiny" was the term used. . The concept justified westward expansion in all its forms and ramifications. he was the Liberal Republican nominee for president. a flat topography. or even the duty. lands gained by force. In 1836. In 1841. This would spread the glorious institutions of civilization and democracy to the barbaric Native Americans. and lack of trees. was characterized by its arid climate. and other such ethnocentric acts. to describe Americans’ belief that they were destined by God to spread their beliefs across the continent. Great American Desert: The "Great American Desert" was a nickname for the Great Plains. He was overthrown in 1845. throughout the 1840s. Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny is the belief that Americans had the right. In 1872. He led them in the battle of San Jacinto. He opposed slavery. The term itself was coined by John O’Sullivan in an 1845 magazine article. Was it Imperialism?: American annexation of territories such as Oregon are generally not considered imperialistic because these lands were obtained by negotiation between two equal powers and the people there were not opposed to joining the Union. Texas was an autonomous nation from the time Santa Anna recognized Texan independence at the battle of San Jacinto until it was annexed by the United States in 1845. it was considered inhospitable and early settlers chose to cross it on the way to the Willamette Valley of Oregon rather than settling there. Because of these features. Republic of Texas: Texan rebels declared their independence from Mexico in 1836. the persecution of the Indians. However. such as the Mexican cession.retirement until 1838. but called back in 1846 to fight in the Mexican War. This sense of duty created a sense of unity among the nation and stimulated westward expansion.

nominated James G. in 1846 Polk agreed to negotiate. however. Disputed Territory: A dispute over the southern boundary of Texas contributed to the Mexican War. 54° 40’ or Fight!: In the election of 1844. Mexico claimed that the Nueces River was boundary of Texas. Congress passed a joint resolution to annex Texas because of the growing popularity of annexation. Birney. Also. implying that the he would declare war if Britain did not give the United States all the Oregon territory up to its northern boundary. The Liberty party.Annexation of Texas. and in 1844 he succeeded in sending a treaty to Congress for the annexation. Nueces River. the Whigs nominated Henry Clay. and Oregon. he was a "dark horse" candidate for president. In 1844. Polk. America and Great Britain had jointly occupied the Oregon Country. Tyler started a campaign to annex Texas. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. in early 1845. instead advocating lower tariff. Polk believed that the land was part of the Louisiana Purchase. However. the line 54° 40’ N. and the two countries divided Oregon at the 49th parallel. A deadlock at the Democratic national convention resulted in the nomination of dark-horse candidate James K. and he won by a small margin. a treaty was signed in 1846 giving the United States all of Oregon south of the 49th parallel. In response. Polk began to demand that America obtain the entire territory. large numbers of Irish immigrants turned out to vote for Polk. and he won the election. consisting of a small group of northern antislavery Whigs who were alienated by Clay’s indecisiveness. Joint Resolution under President Tyler: In 1843. especially advocating the annexation of Texas. latitude. The Democrats. were divided between Martin Van Buren and Lewis Cass. separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. •ELECTION OF 1844: In the election of 1844. Polk sent troops to occupy Texas and the disputed territory south of the Nueces River. However. However. he was not received by the Mexican government because the threat of military revolt left the Mexican president to weak to negotiate. in 1844. . Reoccupation of Texas: After Congress voted to annex Texas. but Polk insisted that the Rio Grande River was the boundary line. Slidell Mission to Mexico: Slidell was a negotiator sent to Mexico by James Polk with orders to gain Mexico’s recognition of the independence of Texas and to purchase California and New Mexico. Polk used "54° 40’ or Fight!" as a campaign slogan. In compromise. the Mexican governmen began war preparations when Texans accepted annexation. but later. •JAMES K. and therefore it belonged to the United States. He opposed Clay’s American System. This treaty was defeated in the Senate. POLK: Polk was a slaveowning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. California. Polk favored American expansion. Reannexation of Oregon: Prior to 1846. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny. Rio Grande.

He represented Missouri in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. and gave $15 million to Mexico in compensation." In 1856. and led those troops victory at Vera Cruz. and politician known as "the Great Pathfinder.The land between these two rivers was uninhabited. Fremont. he led an army to Santa Fe and took the New Mexico territory without firing a shot. Taylor was put in control of all of northern Mexico. As a result of this battle. He ran for president of United States in 1852. General Winfield Scott: General Scott commanded American troops during the Mexican War. seizing the city of Sonoma." In 1846. especially Texas and California. Stephen Kearney: Kearney was an American colonel in the Mexican War. Cerro Gordo. but it was a significant slice of Mexican territory. gave California and New Mexico to the United States. Senator Thomas Hart Benton: Senator Benton was an American statesman. Monterrey. The main cause of the war was American desire for territory. Battle of Buena Vista: The battle of Buena Vista was a battle during Mexican War. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. General Zachary Taylor: Taylor was an American major general who became a war hero during the Mexican War. and managed to send a detachment of his army south into Mexico in time to join Taylor in the Battle of Buena Vista. This American victory also hastened end of the War. and Chapultepec. John C. Kearny then suppressed a rebellion of both Indians and Mexicans. He was sent to Mexico by Polk to negotiate with Mexican president Herrera. and his resulting popularity helped him win the presidential election in 1848. made the southern boundary of Texas the Rio Grande. Partially because of disorganization and instability in the Mexican government. The war took place mainly on Mexican soil. Nicholas Trist: Trist was the chief clerk of state department and a peace officer. Fremont became the first presidential candidate for the Republican party. Five thousand American troops commanded by General Taylor defeated three times as many Mexican troops under Santa Anna. soldier. he assisted in the annexation of California by capturing insurgents. and declaring the independence of the "Bear Flag Republic. ending the war. He also led the final defeat of Santa Anna when he captured Mexico City in 1847. and Benton used his influence to have records of Fremont’s explorations published as government documents. Jessie Benton. the war resulted in and American victory. Fremont: Fremont was an explorer. •MEXICAN WAR: The Mexican war lasted from 1846 to 1848. His troops won important victories in northern Mexico at Matamoros. His daughter. They wanted Trist to convince Herrera to lower the price he was asking for California and to give . In 1846. and Buena Vista. married adventurer John C.

The addition of so much land to the United States exacerbated conflict over the expansion of slavery because some Northerners feared that the extension of slavery into California and New Mexico would deter free laborers from settling there.000 miles from Independence. Oregon Trail: The Oregon Trail was an overland route to the Oregon territory. Webster-Ashburton Treaty: The Webster-Ashburton Treaty was a treaty negotiated by Lord Ashburton of Great Britain and Daniel Webster of the United States in 1842. •OREGON FEVER: During the 1830s and 1840s. the first major fur trading post in Oregon. Full-scale war was avoided through an agreement in 1839. Arizona. However. This was an important part of westward expansion. Caroline Affair: The American steamboat. In 1842 Daniel Webster asked for an apology from British government.Americans the right of movement over the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. was being used by Canadian rebels when it was attacked by the government of Canada in late 1837 in American waters. the Caroline. The event heightened tensions between the United States and Britain. Aroostook War: The Aroostook War was a boundary dispute between settlers in Maine and New Brunswick from 1838 to 1839. Missouri to the Willamette Valley." Many settlers traveled to Oregon overland by way of the Oregon Trail or around Cape Horn in the newly invented clipper ships. because they believed that to have control of all of Mexico would give the United States more power. and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Herrera rejected the offer. Nevada. and the issue was settled by Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842. John Jacob Astor: Astor was a wealthy New York merchant who invested in real estate. many Americans traveled to the Oregon Territory in order to start a new life. this movement failed because the acquisition of California and her ports satisfied Polk. He became involved in the fur business and organized a fur trading empire from the Great Lakes to the Pacific Ocean and to China and Japan. Utah. New Mexico. This territory included California. All Mexico Movement: Many Senators in Congress wanted the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to include all of Mexico. In 1846. enthusiastic reports from missionaries and pioneers. •MEXICAN CESSION: The Mexican Cession was the land that Mexico ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo in 1848. convincing them that Oregon was a "pioneer’s paradise. Texas. The pioneers . It settled a dispute over the boundary between Maine and New Brunswick. stretching almost 2. The fertile farmland available in the Willamette Valley attracted many farmers. He created the American Fur Company and established Astoria. but this tension was soon eased. People in the East heard exaggerated. The treaty was very popular in the North because the United States got more than half of the disputed territory.

It is estimated that about 11. Election of 1848: Cass. he and his followers set up a model city and temple in Nauvoo. and his platform was based solely on personal popularity because he was a war hero. Brigham Young: Brigham Young was the patriarch of the Mormon church who took control of the church after Joseph Smith was killed. Originally they had jointly occupied the entire territory. After being charged with treason and jailed. the Oregon Territory had been jointly occupied by Great Britain and the United States with its northern boundary the line 54°40’. Prior to 1846. 49th Parallel: The 49th parallel was the line of latitude dividing the United States’ and Great Britain’s portions of the Oregon Territory after 1846. the two countries split the territory. John Sutter: John Sutter was granted 49. Illinois. He translated the Book of Mormon in 1827. Joseph Smith: Joseph Smith was the founder of the Mormon church. In 1848. Young has been criticized for both his support of polygamy and his intolerance towards opposition. Willamette Valley: The Willamette Valley was an area of fertile farmland in the Oregon Territory which attracted large numbers of farmers in the 1830s and 1840s.500 emigrants used overland trails like the Oregon Trail to reach Oregon between 1840 and1848. Sutter’s holdings were found invalid by the Supreme Court. . but a compromise was forged in 1846 because president Polk demanded title to this territory and neither side wanted to go to war over it. subsequently. Taylor: Zachary Taylor was the Whig candidate in the election of 1848. Land squatters disputed over Sutter’s land claims and. Smith saw himself as a prophet. increasing the negative sentiment towards Mormonism. especially those from the Mississippi River Valley. which were antebellum in the time the religion was born. Their church is based in Utah and they believe that the Book of Mormon is the supplement for the Bible. dividing it at the 49th parallel. The Mormons are characterized by their preference to be set apart from the rest of the community.who traveled this trail in wagon trains faced many dangers. In a 1846 treaty. Taylor won election on his popularity. Oregon Territory: Congress made the Oregon Territory an official territory of the United States in 1848. This discovery led to the onset of the California Gold Rush.. he discovered gold. after which. Both parties avoided making the issue of slavery a campaign issue. Lewis Cass was the Democratic candidate. Mormons: The Mormon religion was founded in 1827 by Joseph Smith. apparent in their views.000 acres of land by the Mexican government in 1834 and established a sawmill on the land in 1846. where they prospered. Young led them to Utah in 1846. Reports of the abundance of this land sparked the movement of many pioneers to the West Coast. he was killed by a mob in 1844. After the Mormons were forced out of Illinois.

The bill slashed all duties to the minimum necessary for revenue. The South’s less industrial economy suffered less than the North. he brought back the Independent Treasury System. They believed slavery should not be extended into the newly acquired U. along with immigrants from Europe. It was taken out of the War Appropriations bill in order for Senate to pass the actual bill. It never passed the Senate. Walker Tariff. Expansion and Slavery The expansion of slavery into new territories and onto the western frontier became a major issue after the Mexican-American War. The proviso was given to Congress in August 1846. Independent Treasury System. Polk’s secretary of the treasury. in 1846. 100. Competition led to violence and greed." •TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO: This was the peace treaty between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican War. who viewed this as a proof of superiority in both Southern economy and slavery. They left in 1848 to form the Free Soil Party but rejoined after the election of 1848. Barnburners: The Barnburners were a part of the Democratic party in New York. Free Labor. As a result of inadequate shelter and food and the lack of medical supplies.000 Americans. 10. a Congressman from Pennsylvania. Wilmot Proviso: David Wilmot. Free Speech. false banking practices. The tariff was signed July 30. Van Buren: The system was introduced by Martin Van Buren in 1837 and it passed through Congress in 1840. 1846: The Walker tariff was created by Robert J. The bill had the federal government keep their revenue. Mexico gave . when Polk was elected in 1844. proposed that slavery be banned in land acquired from the Mexican War. Through the treaty. Free Men. This intensified the divisions between the Whigs and Democrats. 1846. and a break in the flow of European capital to American investments as a result of the Crimean War. Southerners fought to assert their rights while many Northerners wished to prevent the expansion of slave labor into new states.000 died the first year and few even benefited from the expedition. and by doing this. Independent Treasury System. the Independent Treasury System was repealed. Asia and South America rushed to California in search of easy riches.S. It also reversed the trend of replacing certain specifics for ad value duties and dropped the minimum valuation principle. panic of 1857: The causes of the panic were overspeculation in railroads and lands. This also kept the government’s money out of state banks. Their party slogan was "Free Trade. kept public money from private business corporations. Polk: After Van Buren was defeated in the election of 1840 by William Henry Harrison. but passed the House. territory and were pro-Wilmot Proviso.forty-niners: In 1849. Walker. However.

Omnibus bill: The omnibus bill is a term used to describe a bill that has many unrelated and separate topics within it. though. for president six times and devised the "American System" that favored a protective tariff and federal support of internal improvements. Webster argued that years of tension built up from the North’s growing power would be relieved by the compromise and that the North would make the South its equal. Slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia. territory to include parts of Arizona. while slavery itself was not abolished and sectional peace returned to the northern and southern states for a few years. Although they were unable to carry any state. They nominated Martin Van Buren on a platform of opposition to any kind of slavery. Free Soil Party: The Free Soil Party created by the Barnburners. California was admitted as a free state. The bill most commonly known for being omnibus is the Compromise of 1850. but it was later pushed through Congress as separate measures. There was controversy on the issue of it being a free or slave state. Webster’s 7th of March speech: Webster’s speech was an eloquent one presented in favor of the Compromise of 1850. Henry Clay: Henry Clay was an influential American politician who earned the title of "The Great Pacificator" with his development of three compromises. In the end. while a stricter Fugitive Slave Law was enforced. thus saving the Union. but through the Compromise of 1850.S. Conscience Whigs. assumed all claims of the American people against the Mexican government and also paid Mexico 15 million dollars. John C. they had enough influence in North to convey their point. the treaty worked to expand the U. and the former Liberty party members in the election of 1844. California . As part of the compromise. Utah.S. the speech made few converts. Colorado. Wyoming. Today. The issue of slavery eventually did lead to future conflicts. unsuccessfully. He ran. and New Mexico to the United States. Henry Clay introduced the bill as a whole. Calhoun: Calhoun is most known for the "nullification crisis" in 1828 between he and president Jackson over the tariff of 1828 (tariff of abominations). . California applies for admission as a state: Because the population grew during the gold rush and they were in need of a better government. He supported the Compromise of 1850 on the basis of the theory of nullification. Despite his efforts. 1848. The treaty was signed on February 2. most states do nor allow omnibus bills.Texas with Rio Grande boundary. California was admitted a free state. Calhoun was also a war hawk. California decided to petition to become a state in September of 1849. and Nevada. The U. He was a senator during the debates over the compromise. •COMPROMISE OF 1850: The Compromise of 1850 was an eight part compromise devised by Henry Clay in order to settle the land disputes between the North and South.

S. In turn. President Pierce. •PERSONAL LIBERTY LAWS: Discontent with the injustice of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. permitted American ships to buy coal in Japan. . Perry and Japan: Commodore Perry opened relations with Japan. President Pierce sent him back to his master. section 2 of the Constitution deems the return of fugitive slaves a federal power. Because article IV. a challenge to the fugitive slave law of 1793. commerce. a country closed to the rest of the world for 2 centuries. the state law was declared unconstitutional. Southern states objected to the laws because they violated sectional equity and reciprocal trust. Ableman v. He was arrested on charges of theft and violation of the Fugitive Slave Law. a mob of Boston abolitionists stormed into the courthouse to attempt. Prigg v. opened Japanese ports of to U. even force. unsuccessfully. The anger of the slaves led to riots and other acts of violence. rejected the manifesto. Gadsden Purchase: The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. 1842: This case resulted when Pennsylvania attempted to ban the capture and return of runaway slaves within its territory. and Spain met in Ostend. Northern resistance demonstrated that the slavery issue could not be ignored. and include the island in the Union. France. but habeas corpus was not valid as a result of Chief Justice Taney’s decision that a court or judge has certain limits of power. the 1850 slave law was more strictly enforced. Pa. the battle for federal supremacy commenced. Belgium in 1854 to issue an unofficial document that gave the United States permission to attain Cuba by any necessary means. The results of the law were that the North became a hunting ground for slaves and slaves were denied a trial by jury and other protections they were entitled to. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad. to rescue Burns. The laws included the prohibition of the use of state jails to confine alleged fugitives. The treaty he forged protected the rights of sailors shipwrecked in Japanese territory from inhumane treatment. Booth: Booth was arrested for aiding the escape of a fugitive slave in 1859. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement. and ended Japan’s isolation. northern states passed "personal liberty laws" in order to strengthen the use of the habeas corpus writs and prohibit state officials from accepting jurisdiction under federal law. The Wisconsin Supreme Court issued a writ of habeas corpus to release him.. in 1853. but Burns was resold to friends who freed him. During the trial. however. Ostend Manifesto: American ambassadors to Great Britain.Fugitive Slave Law: Unlike the previous 1793 slave law. Anthony Burns: Burns was an American slave who escaped in 1834.

New England Emigrant Aid Company: Aiming to prevent the expansion of slavery into Kansas. The act enforced popular sovereignty upon the new territories but was opposed by Northern Democrats and Whigs. blocking slavery and territory north of that line. Pottawatomie Massacre: John Brown led a small group of abolitionists into a proslavery settlement in 1856 to kill unarmed men and boys at Pottawatomie Creek in retaliation to the border ruffians’ invasion and sacking of the abolitionists’ town of Lawrence. The retaliation was preceded by a pro-slavery posse’s armed raid through Kansas. thus armed themselves and commenced guerilla warfare. who aroused the question of slavery in territories with the development of the KansasNebraska Act in 1854. also led a retaliation two days later . but supported it so that Kansas could be admitted as a state.Stephen Douglas a strong advocator. •KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT. It was proposed by Stephen A.Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and repealed the Missouri Compromise. Lecompton Constitution: This constitution was devised by the anti-slavery delegates of Congress in 1857 to protect the rights of the slaveholders in Kansas and advocate popular sovereignty. Missouri "border ruffians. 1854: The Kansas-Nebraska Act ended the peace established between the North and South by the Compromise of 1850. because President Pierce supported it. It was passed. The purpose of the bill was to facilitate the building of the transcontinental railroad on a central route. "Beecher’s Bibles": Because the abolitionist government in Kansas was organized in 1856. popular sovereignty: this compromise solution was first proposed during the time of the Wilmot Proviso: the residents of each territory had the option of determining whether it would be a free or slave state. He was also a strong supporter of the Compromise of 1850. "Bleeding Kansas" and Lawrence: Topeka and Lecompton were the two rival governments of Kansas. a part of the Compromise of 1850 and Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The Wilmot Proviso sought to extend the boundary line westward. they dubbed their guns "Beecher’s Bibles. an abolitionist. In 1856. Ridiculing the free staters. but their attempt . Northerners sent antislavery settlers into this area in 1854. Polk supported the idea of expansion to end the discussion of whether the new territory acquired was slave or free." those who supported slavery. a pro-slavery posse armed with guns mobbed through the town. Douglas: American politician known for his debates with Abraham Lincoln prior to the election of 1860. sacked the town of Lawrence." following the advice of an antislavery minister that rifles would do no more than Bibles to enforce morality in Kansas. Buchanan disapproved of it. however. Each claimed to be the lawful one. 36° 30’ line: The 36° 30’ line was established by the Missouri Compromise and drew on parts of California and New Mexico. John Brown. Douglas was an advocate of the annexation of Mexico.

Lincoln’s "house divided" speech: The "house divided" speech was a speech presented before the Republican party’s state convention in 1858 in Springfield. while suspicion of their secession rose amongst the northerners. and Southern slaveowners felt that their rights and interests were no longer being fairly represented. Northerners began to increasingly support free soil and even abolition. southerners rejected the doctrine because it did not insure the rights of slaves. Douglas’ "Freeport Doctrine" stated that exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. sectional issues such as slavery became very divisive." referring to the slavery issue. Settlers from New England arrived slowly. They were labeled "fire-eaters" due to their recklessness and by making their presence strongly felt by all those around. wrote this novel to illustrate the evils of slavery. Lincoln condemned Douglas for not taking a moral stand against slavery. where Douglas argued on the basis of his opposition to the Lecompton Constitution and depicted Lincoln as a radical abolitionist. a Northern abolitionist outraged by the Fugitive Slave Law.000 copies were sold in the U. Nashville Convention: Delegates of the northern and southern states assembled in the summer of 1850 to decide on the issue of the Compromise of 1850. so tensions between the two-sided mounted until Southerners became convinced that nothing short of secession could protect them Northern persecution. and others were translated into 20 languages.S. contributing to the Civil War. Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 during Illinois senatorial campaign: The LincolnDouglas debates were a series of seven. Fire-eaters discussed southern rights. . raided a mass of Irish canal workers. Lincoln predicted in his speech that there would mean eventual freedom for the slaves. fire-eaters: The fire-eaters were extreme advocates of southern rights. The issue of slaver polarized people. a reaction that hurt him in the election. The meeting itself led to the ultimate decision on the compromise. Illinois. It warned the people that a "house divided against itself cannot stand. The 1850s: The Road to Secession During the 1850s. Though the South denounced the novel. and whipped and lynched slaves in the 1860s. In 1858. The novel stimulated Northern action against slavery.was unsuccessful. though the majority of settlers originated from Missouri and the Midwest. 500. Freeport Doctrine: Stephen A. Settlers were mixed in their views on slavery. They walked out on the Nashville convention in 1850. Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Harriet Stowe.

yet rich in pathos and dramatic incident. Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act split the Whig Party." denouncing slavery. election of 1852: The election of 1852 was the end of the Whig Party. and was conducted by an abolitionist to raid the federal arsenal and start a slave uprising. except those states where slavery already existed. which did not allow Congress or territorial governments to exclude slavery from any area. and James Buchanan of Democratic Party. a senator from Massachusetts. All opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act and believed that slavery should be banned from all territories of the nation. A Tale of Great Dismal Swamp (1856) and The Minister’s Wooing (1859). also. made a speech titled. and the nomination of General Winfield Scott exacerbated the sectional split. Former Whigs and KnowNothings were party members. Under his leadership. Know-Nothing Party: This election was between John C. Chief Justice Roger B. "The Crime Against Kansas. therefore. Buchanan won the election. Preston Brooks. Fillmore’s inexperience weakened his party. Sumner-Brooks affair: Charles Sumner. southern fear of future slave uprisings increased. He is well-known for handing down the Dred Scott decision. increasing the popularity of the Republicans. he did not have the right to sue in federal court. Franklin Pierce of the Democratic party won the election with 27 of 31 states. ridiculing the South Carolina senator. At his death. The loss of votes from the South was the result of Scott’s campaign. Taney: Taney was a Southerner appointed by Jackson as the 5th justice of the Supreme Court. It was determined that temporary residence in an area did not make one free. Charles Butler. The novels are rambled in structure. Taney ruled that Scott was not a citizen because he was a slave in 1856. leading to the cruel treatment slaves.Harriet Beecher Stowe: Stowe was an abolitionist writer who wrote powerful novels attacking slavery both before and after the Civil War in such novels as Dred. election of 1856: Republican Party. Fremont of the Republican Party. at the same time. and. •DRED SCOTT DECISION: Chief Justice Roger B. making Brooks a hero in the South. It failed and Brown was convicted of treason and hanged because he had ties with the northern abolitionists. She also wrote short stories and poetry. and that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because it violated the fifth amendment. Butler’s nephew came into the Senate chamber and hit him on the head. in 1856. birth of the Republican Party: The party was formed in 1854 by northern Democrats who left the party because of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Republicans became more suspicious of Slave Power in Congress. John Brown’s raid: The raid took place at Harper’s Ferry in 1859. Millard Fillmore of the Know-Nothing Party. the federal government had increased power over foreign .

He was the leader of John Brown’s raid and the Pottawatomie massacre. This plays a major role in justifying the secession of the Southern states by stating that a state had the right to withdraw from the political entity it created. John Breckenridge: A division in the Democratic Party led to the nomination of two candidates for the 1860 election. Whigs nominated Bell in 1860. The constitutional party. federal aid for internal improvements and the distributing of 160-acre homesteads to settlers in order. John Brown: John Brown was an American abolitionist who attempted to end slavery through the use of violence. His life ended when he was hanged for murder and treason. who held a moderate view on slavery. Breckenridge. each with opposing viewpoints on the slavery issue. The democrats nominated two candidates. an economic system based on protective tariffs. They nominated Abraham Lincoln. Democratic Party conventions: The first assembly of delegates in Charleston in 1860 resulted in the split of the Democratic party as the Southern "fire-eaters" left the convention. •ELECTION OF 1860: candidates. An unsuccessful second attempt to reach a consensus in Baltimore led them to nominate two candidates. issues: A united republican party attempted to appeal more to the North in order to win the campaign and developed an economic program to amend the damages of the 1857 depression. Buchanan’s vice president. and not on the controversial slavery issue. John Bell: Opposed to both Lincoln and Douglas. He refused Southern demands to remove troops from Fort . Buchanan and the secession crisis: Buchanan declared secession of states illegal. was organized in favor of the Northerners. This increased the tension between the North and South. Compact Theory of Government: This theory involves the idea that the United States of America was founded by the union of thirteen individual states creating a federation of states.relations. They were unable to agree on a platform based on the protection of slavery. created by Whigs. an opposer of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Lecompton constitution. who had the desire to preserve the Union. Taney ruled in 1861 that Lincoln exceeded his authority in suspending habeas corpus. nominated John Bell. Lincoln’s nonchalant views towards slavery led them to victory. Republican Party of 1860: In order to lure votes from Northern states to their party. parties. yet he had no power to prevent it. was nominated by secessionists on a platform based on protection of slavery in territories. Bell created the new Constitutional Union party. which had a platform based on the preservation of the Union. He is regarded a martyr to the cause of human freedom. Douglas and Breckenridge. His nomination completed the split of the Democratic party.

with advantages such as greater organization and prosperity.000 Americans died and thousands of fields. secession: Slavery fueling the states’ rights issue along with the loss of Congress and Northern opposition to the new Fugitive Slave Law made the election of 1860 the straw that broke up the union. Alabama. Tredegar Iron Works: guided by Joseph Reid to success during a time when the economy in the North and South began to plunge because of their increased divergence. Georgia. It also repealed personal liberty laws. Southerners came from a rural rather than urban environments and therefore had more men experienced in the use of firearms and horses. This allowed the Confederacy to produce a more able corps of officers. such as Robert E. By March 1861. The Civil War The Civil War was a terrible. Lee. and to guarantee protection of slavery below this line. Florida. mineral resources. The Union. Lincoln’s innauguration South Carolina. •North’s advantages in the Civil War: The Union clearly had more military potential with its larger population of 22 million. . factories for manufacturing war goods. Mississippi. but it also had advantages buried deep within its much stronger military tradition. homes. Louisiana. It became the nation’s fourth largest producer of iron products. he left the office disappointed and discredited. In addition to that. bloody war fought mainly over the issue of slavery. Crittenden Compromise proposal: The compromise was proposed by John Crittenden in an attempt to preserve the Union. to restore the Missouri Compromise. •South’s advantages in the Civil War: The Confederate States of America had a strong advantage in the fact that they were fighting a defensive war in familiar territory. and an established railroad system to transport these material resources. The North in comparison with the South in these areas makes the North seem more advantageous. food production. and entire towns were destroyed. eventually won. During the Civil War the company contributed to the Confederacy cause. It divided the nation and resulted in the death of more Americans than all other wars combined. but not before 620. Because his efforts to supply the fort failed and due to failure of a constitutional plan. the Union had more advantages in terms of material goods such as money and credit. The amendments were to bar the federal government from intervening in southern states’ decision of slavery. and Texas had seceded.Sumter.

After capturing Savannah.Fort Sumter: Fort Sumter is a fort in Charleston harbor. 1862 was the date of first naval battle between ironclad ships.000. . At Chancellorsville Jackson again flanked the Union army but was mortally wounded by his own troops. Antietam. and received the surrender of General Johnston. General McDowell began to move on Confederate General Beauregard at Manassas Junction. with a force of 60. Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomatox Courthouse. The Confederate ironclad frigate Merrimac had sunk the Cumberland and defeated the Congress in Hampton Roads but was forced to withdraw March 9 after an engagement with the Union’s ironclad Monitor. with aid from the forces of Johnston. Lee: Commanding the Army of N. he turned north through S. but he allowed the Confederates to withdraw across the Potomac and was again removed. He commanded of the Army of the Potomac from 1863. Virginia. Jackson flanked the Union army to set up the Confederate victory at the second battle of Bull Run. He burned Atlanta and set off. barely escaped defeat at the Battle of Shiloh and ended Confederate control of the Mississippi in Vicksburg. Bull Run: On July 16. Called on again in 1862. He directed the Union army in the Wilderness Campaign and he received Lee’s surrender." Serving under Lee. Carolina. Commanding in the West. He would run for president in 1864. and won the battle of Gettysburg. Grant: In 1862 he captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in Tennessee. built by John Ericsson. Monitor and the Merrimac: March 8. 1861. but he was criticized for not following up his victory. and later at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. he thoroughly defeated Bragg at Chattanooga. McClellan: He was criticized for overcaution in the unsuccessful Peninsular Campaign and removed from command. he took the offensive in the 7 Days Battle and beat the Union army at the 2nd battle of Bull Run. 12. near the bridge over Bull Run River and drove them to the Henry House Hill. Sherman: He fought in the Vicksburg and Chatanooga campaigns and ge undertook the Atlanta Campaign. McDowell attacked Beauregard’s soldiers. Lee repulsed Union advances at the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville and Grant’s assaults in the Wilderness Campaign. South Carolina and it was the site of the first conflict of the Civil War on Apr. but the fort was eventually retaken by Union forces in 1865. he checked Lee in the Antietam Campaign. but Jackson checked the advance and routed the raw Union troops. devastating the country. on his famous march to the sea. Jackson: At the 1st battle of Bull Run Jackson earned his nick name when he and his brigade stood "like a stone wall. The Confederates under Beauregard bombarded the fort and were eventually victorious. Meade: He made himself known in 1862 at Seven Days Battle and the battles of Bull Run.

He was briefly imprisoned in 1863 for maintaining in a speech that the war was being fought to free African-American and enslave whites. The term Copperheads was also used to label all Democratic opponents of Lincoln. trying to invade Maryland and Pennsylvania. The 1864 Democratic platform reflected his pro-Southern views. but Lee’s own advance was halted by McClellan. congressman from Georgia and was opposed to secession but he remained loyal to Georgia when the state seceded. Pickett’s division forward in its infamous disastrous charge against the Union center. Vallandigham: Vallandigham was the leader of the Copperheads during the Civil War. The surrender at Appomattox virtually ended the Civil War. Then the South took the Peach Orchard but were repulsed. It was a Union victory only in that Lee’s advance was stopped. but the rest of the Confederate forces did not surrender until May 26 at Shreveport. the so-called bloodiest day of the war. As president of the Confederacy. he assumed strong centralized power. While some planters heeded the government’s pleas. and after 6 weeks the Confederates surrendered. Vicksburg’s fall completed the encirclement of the Confederacy. Lee sent Jackson to capture Harpers Ferry. Robert E. He was elected vice president of the Confederacy. Copperheads: Copperheads were Northerners who sympathized with the South during the Civil War. Jefferson Davis: He left Washington after the secession of Mississippi. Alexander Stephens: He was a U. Congressman Clement L. 1865. Indiana. and he was against many of the policies of President Davis. Antietam: In September 1862. Vallandigham and was especially strong in the states of Illinois. Gettysburg: It was Lee’s second invasion of the North. the Union controlled all of the river except for the 200 miles south of Vicksburg. Lee surrendered to Union Gen. Louisiana. and Ohio.Vicksburg: It was a battle fought for control of the Mississippi River. . Meade and Lee met just west of Gettysburg. By late 1862. and weakened the states’ rights policy for which the South had seceded.S. many clung to the belief that cotton would never fail them. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9. on September 17. Grant opened siege. who attacked him at Antietam Creek.S. Maryland.. food shortages plagued the Confederacy. First. As a result. U. the Union was pushed to Cemetery Hill. On July 3 Lee ordered George E.S. cotton versus wheat: Efforts by the Confederate government during the Civil War to convince planters to grow to wheat instead of cotton received little success. He had many disputes with Confederate generals. After the war he was interned for several months. and Lee surrendered without his approval. In May of 1863 U. The group was led by Clement L. Appomattox: Confederate Gen.

Lincoln used it to intimidate border states into rejecting secession. railroad: After the South seceded. so at first the blockade was not as effective as northerners had hoped it would be and blockade-running was a common way for Southerners to obtain supplies Anaconda Plan: The Anaconda Plan was a Union strategy in the Civil War calling for the establishment of a naval blockade around the Confederacy to prevent the importation of supplies from Europe. Submarine: Four submersible vessels were built during the American Civil War by the Confederates for use against the federal fleet. One of these submarines successfully dragged a mine through the water to sink a northern ship. Homestead Laws: The Homestead laws were laws passed in Congress in 1862. homestead. Despite the many hardships that it entailed. This allowed poor farmers to obtain land in the west and increased westward expansion. This basic civil liberty was suspended by both Lincoln and Davis during the war to deal with dissent. and they were far from perfected. the north attempted to establish a blockade of all Southern ports in order to stop the flow of essential supplies to the Confederacy. military service was a source of pride for blacks because it symbolized their freedom. The Union navy was fairly weak.suspension of habeas corpus: Writs of habeas corpus are court orders requiring that the a cause of imprisonment be demonstrated before a person is jailed. Northern blockade: During the Civil War. Rifle: An improved rifle was one of the important technological advancements that transformed the Civil War. They were able to hit targets more accurately at large . This weapon contributed to the high number of casualties in the Civil War. they suffered a far higher mortality rate than white troops. Gatling Gun: The Gatling gun was one of the earliest machine guns. and when they were. but sunk itself as well. They permitted almost any American citizen to acquire a homestead of up to 160 acres of land in the West. who intended to make war so horrible that it would make peace. Black Soldiers: It was not until late in the Civil War that African American soldiers were allowed to participate in combat. but the blockade did contribute to the Northern victory. but it was the most effective of early models. on the condition that the homesteader cultivate the land for 5 years. Acts such as these had been blocked by southerners. The Gatling gun was created created a man by the name Gatling. Submarines were used only to a limited degree in the Civil War. It was slowly implemented and only partially successful. northerners in Congress enacted legislation such as the Pacific Railroad Act authorizing a transcontinental railroad and the Homestead Act granting free land in the west. tariff. Republican legislation passed in Congress after Southerners left: banking.

making open fields a hazard. the Trent. seizing ships traveling from England to the West Indies with the final destination of Confederate ports. Laird rams: The Laird rams were two double-turreted. so the British purchased them for the royal navy. This also contributed to the high number of casualties during the war. Trent Affair: In Nov. draft riots: The Federal Militia Act of 1862 and the Confederate Conscription Act of 1862 allowed for conscription. In the Trent affair. a raider built in Great Britain for the Confederacy. This was another source of diplomatic tension during the Civil War.. •Emancipation Proclamation: The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order ending slavery in the Confederacy. Lincoln was . This proclamation had the dual purpose of injuring the Confederacy and preventing Great Britain from entering the war in support of the Confederacy. It was issued by President Lincoln after the battle of Antietam. helped to keep the British from recognizing the Confederacy. It also pushed the border states toward abolishing slavery. conscription. so that trench warfare became a necessity. ironclad steamers. In order to balance Abraham Lincoln’s Union ticket with a Southern Democrat. Alabama claims: There were a series of claims for indemnity made by the United States upon Great Britain in 1862. Riots in 1863 by anti-conscription protesters and impeded the process of drafting soldiers. built by a company in England for the Confederate navy. The claims were for compensation for damages inflicted on Union property by a Confederate steamship built by the British. The Emancipation Proclamation only freed slaves residing in the territories in rebellion against the government of the United States.distances than previous guns. but contained many loopholes. 1861. as ambassador during the Civil War. President Lincoln released Mason and Slidell. he was instrumental in averting hostilities between the two nations. although he failed to stop the sailing of the Alabama. During the Civil War the Union embraced this idea. regardless of the number of stops made before arrival in the port. Charles Francis Adams: Adams was an American diplomat who. contains contraband. a number of Republicans sought to prevent Lincoln’s renomination. two Confederate emissaries who were on board and he interned them in Boston. The claims were not resolved until the Treaty of Washington in 1871. The United States threatened war if these ships were released to the South. "continuous voyage": The concept of "continuous voyage" involves the idea that a voyage intended for an enemy port. the Republicans nominated Andrew Jackson for vice president. A Union captain stopped and boarded a British vessel. election of 1864: In 1864. and removed Mason and Slidell. the Alabama. but the establishment of a draft prompted volunteering. but the issue increased tension between the Union and Britain.

" . There were many disagreements about the best way to accomplish this and many important pieces of legislation emerged as a result.able to overcome Democratic candidate George McClellan and win a second term in office. financing of the war effort by the North and the South: In order to pay for the Civil War. which she headed until 1904. she also helped the Union obtain medical supplies. both the Confederate and Union governments were forced to sell public lands and tax.. but he was shot later. pledging loyalty to the Union and accepting the end of slavery. escaped with a broken leg. he shot President Lincoln during a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theater in Washington. After the War. Reconstruction lasted from the end of the Civil War in 1865 until the Tilden-Hays Compromise in 1877 restored the Democrats to power in the South. The fear that heavy taxation would cause unrest and corrode support of their cause. Reconstruction Reconstruction was the process of bringing the southern states that had seceded during the Civil War back into the Union. a Union nurse during the Civil War. could get a full pardon and restoration of rights after taking an oath. Clara Barton: Clara Barton. was known as "the Angel of the Battlefield. The assassin. citizens could vote in elections that would create new state governments and new state constitutions. D. assassination of April 14. and organized the American Red Cross. 1865: President Lincoln wass assassinated while attending a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theater in Washington." She not only helped the war effort by nursing. •Lincoln’s ten percent plan: In it all southerners. who plotted with six fellow-conspirators to assassinate Union leaders.C. in the North. but was later shot and killed. Barton worked for the International Red Cross in the Franco-Prussian War. Ex parte Milligan: Ex parte Milligan was an 1866 Supreme Court limiting the authority of martial law and the suspension of habeas corpus in times of war. He escaped. 1865. Andrew Johnson. After that the state would once again be eligible for representation in Congress and readmitted to the Union. Lincoln was succeeded by his vice president.C. 14. greenbacks. In this case. On Apr. the court declared that "martial law can never exist where the courts are open in the proper and unobstructed exercise of their jurisdiction. the governments issued bonds and. D. except high-ranking Confederate officials. When ten percent of the 1860 voting population had taken this oath. This led to high inflation. John Wilkes Booth: Booth was a Southern sympathizer during the Civil War. John Wilkes Booth.

Military commanders in the districts were appointed to oversee constitutional conventions in the districts and the creation of state constitutions. and exploitation of African-Americans was common. •Reconstruction acts. Scalawags were considered traitors to the Southern cause and were condemned by Southern Democrats. Wade Davis Manifesto: Congress. in July 1864. veto. Among their leaders were Carl Schurz. and ratification of the 14th Amendment. was a case which involved the disposition of Civil War bonds used by Texas. The party nominated Greeley for president. White. They issued Wade-Davis Manifest. Texas v. so Grant won reelection despite the corruption within his administration and his poor leadership. calling for a stricter form of Reconstruction than that proposed by Lincoln. but unpopular with many of the leaders of his party. . When the states were readmitted into the Union. 1869: The trial of Texas v. civil rights legislation was practically overturned with open discrimination. which had left the Union. conquered territory theory: The conquered territory theory was a popular theory held by many Reconstruction policy makers after the Civil War that the southern states which seceded from the Union to form the Confederate States of America should be treated as if they were territories conquered from a foreign nation. which declared the primacy of Congress in matters of the Reconstruction. After Lincoln pocket vetoed this bill. Joint Committee on Reconstruction: The Joint Committee on Reconstruction was the Congressional committee consisting of leaders of both houses of Congress which led Congressional Reconstruction after the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 were passed. 1867: The Reconstruction Acts divided the Confederate states except Tennessee into five military districts. The term scalawag was applied both to entrepreneurs who supported Republican economic policies and Whig planters who had opposed secession. Greely was a choice acceptable to the Democrats. scalawags: A scalawag was a white Southerner who joined the Republican party during the Reconstruction period. Horace Greely. and Charles Sumner. The decision also declared secession unconstitutional. It was held that states in rebellion did not lose their existence or identity. the permanent disfranchisement of Confederate leaders. the unreconstructed South: This term refers to failure of Reconstruction to permanently reform the South. Wade-Davis bill. radicals sought to displace him. Even after Republicans withdrew. White in 1868.•Radical Republicans: The Radical Republicans were a group of Republicans unhappy with the corruption and policies of Grant’s administration. passed the Wade-Davis Bill. This military occupation would last until the states created new constitutions that included black suffrage. there was corruption in the states. This committee would exist until after Hayes was elected president.

but managed to provided needed food and medical and employment aid to many people. the maintenance of schools for illiterate former slaves. As commissioner of the Freedmen’s Bureau after the war. He proposed the Fourteenth Amendment. but the Senate failed to convict him by one vote. and Chattanooga campaigns. Charles Sumner: Sumner was the aggressive abolitionist who was physically assaulted by Preston Brooks after making a strong antislavery speech. whippings and lynchings. Essentially. Ku Klux Klan: The KKK was an organization formed by ex-Confederates and led by Nathan B. and to needy whites as well. and the distribution of lands abandoned by or confiscated from Southern proprietors. They carried their belongings in carpetbags. rituals. He wanted to subdivide confiscated land and distribute it among the freedmen. The African-American vote won them important posts in Republican state governments. guaranteeing civil rights and was a leader in the impeachment of President Johnson. and most intended to settle in the South and make money there. restrictions on blacks’ ability to own property. they condemned the newly-freed slaves to conditions not unlike slavery." He sincerely desired the betterment of the lives African-Americans. When Johnson tried to force Stanton out of office.carpetbaggers: Carpetbaggers were Northerners who went to the South during Reconstruction. It was founded in the South in 1866 in opposition to Reconstruction. "forty acres and a mule": "Forty acres and a mule" refers to the desire of Radical Republicans such as Thaddeus Stevens to carry out land redistribution in the South. Thaddeus Stevens: As a leader of the radical Republicans’ Reconstruction program after the Civil War. Chancellorsville. General Oliver O. Antietam. Forrest. It was also concerned with the regulation of wages and working conditions. Stevens saw the Southern states as "conquered provinces. Freedmen’s Bureau: The Freedmen’s Bureau furnished food and medical supplies to blacks. They imposed prohibitive taxes. harsh vagrancy laws meant to intimidate the freedmen. He was one of the leaders of the radical Republicans’ Reconstruction program and was also an active participant in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. the radical Republicans passed a resolution of impeachment against him for violation of the Tenure of Office Act. Howard: Howard was a Civil War general who took part in the Bull Run. Members used disguises. . he was unable to prevent many abuses to freedmen. Proposals such as these failed in Congress and state legislatures. Forrest disbanded the Klan in 1869. Gettysburg. black codes: The black codes were local laws intended to force African-Americans to continue working as plantation laborers. Andrew Johnson: As president he was denounced by the radical Republicans for his Reconstruction program. to terrorize AfricanAmericans and their supporters.

or articles. The term includes both the bringing of charges. Hiram R. liberty. Secretary of War Stanton: Edwin Stanton served as the secretary of war under Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. Bruce: Revels and Bruce were the first two AfricanAmerican politicians to serve a full term in the United States Senate. and it attempted to redress the issue of slavery by defining all persons born in the nation as citizens. The formal accusation of Johnson went through the House on Feb. however. Revels. This is the only instance of impeachment of an American president. or property. It also specified the rights of citizens. make contracts. states could not "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.Civil Rights Act: This act was passed in Congress with nearly unanimous Republican support in March 1866. but his dismissal by President Andrew Johnson and his subsequent refusal to leave office act precipitated the impeachment of President Johnson in 1868." Tenure of Office Act: The Tenure of Office Act was a measure passed by Congress in 1867. 1868. give evidence in court. President Andrew Johnson. the right to sue. without due process of law." This amendment guaranteed freedom for African Americans. It prohibited "slavery or involuntary servitude except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. but the Senate failed to convict him. This amendment explicitly forbid denial of the right to vote for citizens "on account of race. he presided over the impeachment trial of President Johnson. to remove him from office. Chief Justice Chase: Salmon Chase was the sixth chief justice of the Supreme Court and an abolitionist. 24. They were both . after violating the Tenure of Office Act. was as secretary of the treasury. Thirteenth Amendment: The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution was ratified in 1865. It said that no state can make or enforce any law which "deprives any person of life. hold. color. Blanche K. convey. when he created a national bank system. and the trial that may follow. Johnson’s violation of this act caused the impeachment crisis." Fifteenth Amendment: Secretary of State Hamilton Fish ratified the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution of United States on March 30. and inherit property. His greatest achievement. It prohibited the president from dismissing any cabinet member or other federal officeholder whose appointment had required the consent of the Senate unless the Senate agreed to the dismissal. by removing Secretary of War Stanton faced impeachment." Also. Fourteenth Amendment: The Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868. 1870. •IMPEACHMENT: Impeachment is the formal accusation by a legislature against a public official. As chief justice. or previous condition of servitude.

and limited the rights of tenants and sharecroppers. Such beliefs were promoted by movies such as Birth of a Nation. the white southern landowners possessed a tight hold over African American farm production during much of the Reconstruction periond. political. segregation: Segregation was the practice held in the South after legislation made explicit discrimination in law illegal. and five Supreme Court justices. Congress created a 15-member bipartisan commission. This along with the crop lien system held back African Americans economically. The social and political atmosphere of the postwar South would endure long into the 20th century. sharecropping: It was the farm tenancy system that arose from the cotton plantation system after the Civil War. A cycle of dependency and debt would be the result of these systems. the Democrats cut back expenses. and Gone With the Wind. five Republicans. Landlords provided land.representatives from Mississippi. but former slaves were still relegated to inferior and submissive positions through economic. Hayes was unanimously awarded the electoral votes from Oregon and South Carolina and the ones from Louisiana by a commission vote of 8 to 7. especially those of the many slaves who first tasted freedom during this period. The committee consisted of five Democrats. seed. The croppers contributed labor and received a share of the crop’s value. and social restrictions of their rights. Black economic rights were eroded away with this crop lien system and along with sharecropping. Solid South: After Reconstruction. •Compromise of 1877: As a result of the electoral vote from the election of 1876. the South became solidly Democratic. and were the only two African-American Senators during Reconstruction. . Reconstruction Myth: The Reconstruction Myth is the false belief that during Reconstruction. 1877. The Legacy of Reconstruction Reconstruction changed the lives of southerners. minus their debt to the landlord.. to resolve the dispute concerning the electoral votes between Tilden and Hayes. lowered taxes. on January 29. This practice of keeping the races separate would not officially broken up until the mid-twentieth century. Southern society changed in order to adjust to emancipation. These white southerners remained a major force in national politics well into the 20th century. wiped out social programs. and credit. In response to that legislation the concept of "separate but equal" dominated the policies Southern policy makers. Radical Republicans intended to exploit the South by forcing it into economic and political submission. Once they gained control. crop lien system: Through this system.

but his cabinet was riddled with corruption. A war hero. instituted reforms. Grant proved to be a passive president with little skill at politics. Grant: Grant was an American general and the 18th president of the United States. His successful imperialist ventures were overshadowed by a failed campaign in Mexico to create a French-Mexican Empire and the Franco-Prussian War. The treaty also provided for arbitration of disagreements over the Canadian-American boundary and fishing rights. Treaty of Washington. and Great Britain settled many minor disputes such as the Alabama claims. Grant was admired throughout the North and was endorsed by Union veterans.2 million purchase at 1. In it.Grantism and Postwar Politics Ulysses S.9¢ per acre. which settled disputes with Britain over the Alabama claims the and Canadian-American boundary. This purchase was denounced at the time as "Seward’s folly. he prevented American filibustering expeditions against Cuba from escalating into war with Spain. Secretary of State William Henry Seward arranged the $7.S. but it added a significant amount of territory to the United States. Civil War." but it expanded American territory at a reasonable price. Napoleon III proclaimed himself the Emperor of France. Although the French drove Juárez’s army from the capital. purchase of Alaska: Alaska was ceded to the United States by the Russian Czar Alexander II in a treaty signed on March 30. Ulysses S. which had arisen during the U. 1871: The Treaty of Washington was a treaty arranged by Hamilton Fish. Although he was a strong military leader. which resulted in his deposition. Secretary of State Hamilton Fish: Fish served as Grant’s secretary of state. the U. He was involved in the Trent Affair and his most notable act was the purchase of Alaska. Secretary of State William Seward: Seward was the American Secretary of State who handled diplomatic issues during and after the Civil War.S. and rebuilt Paris. Maximilian’s empire disintegrated when French troops withdrew. Napoleon III: After his election in 1848. Maximilian in Mexico: Maximilian was instructed by Napoleon III in 1864 to establish a French empire in Mexico. created chaos in national politics. Critics ridiculed this purchase as "Seward’s icebox. The United States invoked the Monroe Doctrine as justification for their demand for French nonintervention. Grant did manage to make some important accomplishments in the area of foreign policy. . Grant was elected president of the United States in 1868 because he was a war hero. Also. 1867. but the Mexicans were hostile to Maximilian and loyal to President Juárez. but his ability to cope with domestic controversy. He arranged the Treaty of Washington. especially the economic issues which began to arise.

Liberal Republicans: The Liberals Republicans’ revolt marked a turning point in Reconstruction history. Belknap was Grant’s secretary of war. He then used this commission as Republican campaign funds. receiving a 50% commission for all money collected. Fisk and Gould probably made a profit of about $11 million through their manipulations. .S. farm prices plummeted. However. Congress voted a 100% pay raise and a 50% increase for itself. Orville Babcock. called the Credit Mobilier. Colfax. Republicans unhappy with the reelection of President Ulysses S. leading to a Democratic victory in the next congressional election. Panic of 1873. 1869. Grant formed the Liberal Republican party and nominated as their candidate the journalist Horace Greeley. Credit Mobilier: Officials of the Union Pacific Railroad created a fake construction company. The public was shocked. Bribing of Belknap: William E. Milwaukee. September 24. Both raises were made retroactive two years back."Whiskey Ring": Grant’s private secretary. demand rose. was linked to this scandal. gold market. and Chicago were captured. Belknap resigned in 1876 when voters learned of his corruption. James Fisk and Jay Gould. was unmasked in 1875 after taking money from the "whiskey ring. Grant’s vice-president. The panic was precipitated when two financial speculators. he loyally defended his subordinates. once the depression began. Although he was also endorsed by the Democrats. steel furnaces stood idle. the Panic of 1873 triggered a five-year depression. He took a bribe to sell lucrative Indian trading posts in Oklahoma. allowing the candidate to focus on his campaign rather than fundraising. Although Grant was not personally involved. attempted to corner the U. Banks closed. Black Friday: Scandal caused a short-lived financial crisis in the United States that occurred on Friday. and one out of four railroads failed.000 in unpaid taxes. a politician named Sanborn was given a contract collect $427. The act was later repealed. but it was another example of the corruption of the postwar government. Sanborn Grab Fraud: In the Sanborn Grab Fraud. depression: Transforming the northern economy. 1875. supporting the Republican southern policy while attacking regular republicans on several key issues and denouncing Grantism and the spoils system. "Salary Grab Act": In the Salary Grab Act of 1873. Greeley was defeated. election of 1872: In 1872. 16 distillers in areas of Saint Louis. in order to cheat the government out of money allotted to the construction of the Union Pacific Railroads. They split the Republican party." a group of distillers who bribed federal agents to avoid paying millions in whiskey taxes. On May 10. This issue divided both major parties and was compounded by the repayment of federal debt. and the new party collapsed.

The tactic emphasized wartime animosities by urging northern voters to vote the way they shot. the Greenbacks faded. They resorted to a tactic known as "waving the bloody shirt. Congress enacted a civil service law introduced by Senator George Pendleton of Ohio." Debtors favored the Greenbacks because they could repay debts easier with this inflated currency. political candidates were forbidden from soliciting contributions from government workers. In exchange. Senator John Sherman of Ohio and other Republican leaders obtained passage of the Public Credit Act of 1869. There were 20 disputed votes. Gilded Age Politics As America modernized. Greenbacks. robber barrons schemed to corner the gold market. and promoted the inflation of farm prices. the era referred to the decades from the 1870s to the 1890s where Americans struggled to battle corruption in a morally deteriorating society."Waving the bloody shirt": During the election of 1876. Greenback-Labor Party: The Greenback party was formed in 1876 with James Weaver as its presidential candidate. fought to keep greenbacks in circulation. and a Congressional committee gave all of these to Hays. In 1883. • PENDLETON CIVIL SERVICE ACT: Because of the Pendleton Civil Service Act. it changed the minds of the Republican voters who also wanted to continue Greenbacks for the sake of "easy money. which promised to pay the war debt in "coin. he ended military rule of the South. Specie Resumption Act: The Sherman Specie Resumption Act promised to put the nation effectively on the gold standard in 1879. This act also set up a civil service commission to prepare competitive exams and establish standards of merit for a variety of federal jobs. Taking its name from the novel. the Republicans backed Rutherford Hayes against the Democratic candidate. As prosperity returned. known as Greenbacks. to private citizens. . Although President Arthur was a Stalwart." which was used in the last two elections. he had the courage to endorse the act which reformed the spoils system." Grant signed this act. election of 1876: The presidential election of 1876 resulted in neither Democrat Samuel Tilden nor Republican Rutherford Hayes receiving the 185 electoral votes necessary to become president. Samuel Tilden. Unfortunately. The Gilded Age. making him president. The party elected 14 members to Congress . The party adopted the debtors’ cause. Diverse groups participated in the political arena as they attempted to reform the social. political and economical problems of the newly industrial nation. With some convincing. politics played an increasingly important role in the lives of the common men. Ohio Ideas: During the Civil War the Union had borrowed money through the sale of war bonds.

The Wilson-Gorman Protective Tariff also unsuccessfully attempted to create an income tax. Half-breeds: They argued with the Stalwarts on the issues of who would control the party of machine and would distribute patronage jobs. This 21st president. The Democrats controlled the House. were lead by New York Senator Roscoe Conkling. James G. The term was first used derisively in a New York City newspaper. The Half-breeds supported civil service reform and merit appointments to government posts. High Tariffs: Republicans preferred high tariffs. They were joined together as the Republican party. who ran against Conkling. civil service legislation." supported Cleveland. senator. Blaine was considered one of the most popular Republicans of his time. "Rum. This surplus stood as a continual temptation to distribute it in the form of veterans . Blaine’s mistake allowed Cleveland to obtain New York’s electoral votes. while Grover Cleveland was the Democratic nominee. Mugwumps: This term designated dissident members of the Republican party. Treasury surplus: The high tariffs were feeding a large and growing budget surplus. but disputes over patronage split it into two: Stalwarts and Halfbreeds.Chester A. James G. in the presidential election of 1884. Romanism. gold standard. and Rebellion. Arthur: He became president after the assassination of Garfield. the Sun. Romanism. The Independent Republicans. and a presidential candidate under the Republican Half-Breeds. while the Republicans dominated the Senate.S. Blaine. a clergyman denounced the Democrats as the party of "Rum. who." Blaine failed to repudiate the remark and the Democrats widely publicized this insult to Catholics.S. refused to support the nominee of their party. The Dingley tariff of 1879 increased rates to an all-time high levels while the Currency Act of 1900 officially changed the U. drinkers and patriotic Democrats. who served from 1881 to 1885. He supported the passage of the Pendleton Act in 1883. Cleveland supported low tariffs. which cost Blaine the election. Election of 1884: James G Blaine was nominated by the Republicans. Instead. rose above the political corruption prevalent during the times and headed a reform-oriented administration that enacted the first comprehensive U. who was later elected. and was elemental in his party’s success in elections. while Democrats preferred low ones. The two differed mainly over who would control the party machinery. and Rebellion": At a rally on election eve. Stalwarts. secretary of state under Garfield. they supported the Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland. who favored the spoils system of political patronage. The battle over patronage split the Republican party into two factions: the Half-breeds and the Stalwarts. known as "Mugwumps. Blaine: Blaine was a Republican Congressman. Roscoe Conkling: The Stalwarts.

Republican focused on the tariff issue. Cleveland’s 1887 annual address: Cleveland focused his entire annual address message to Congress on the tariff issue. "Murchinson letter": Charles Murchinson wrote a letter to the British Ambassador to ask how he should vote during the election of 1888. Billion dollar congress. His tariff message upset many corporate boardrooms who thought that lowering the tariff would hurt their prosperity. McKinley Tariff: His administration enacted a higher tariff in 1897 and committed the country to the gold standard in 1900. He appointed a past GAR commander as commissioner of pension. known as pork barrel projects. This was a Populist goal articulated in the Omaha Platform. and the Republicans became identified with economic prosperity. Harrison won in the electoral college by defeating Grover Cleveland. He argued that lower tariffs would not only cut the federal surplus but also reduce prices and slow the development of trusts. The line started with first the president pro tempore. veterans formed the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) to lobby for pensions. there would be a line of succession. which was a method of voting that listed voter options. The GAR actively encouraged veterans to file claims. Benjamin Harrison. secretary of defense. The secret ballot is also known as the Australian ballot. issues: Because Blaine decided not to run. Election of 1888. Probably in part because of these policies. The Republicans falsely portrayed the Democrats as advocates of "free trade. Harrison signed the pension bill that Cleveland had earlier vetoed. and continued. bowing to GAR pressure. secretary of treasury. secretary of state.pension or expensive public-work programs. In 1890. Cleveland was convinced that surplus constituted a corrupting influence. Czar Reed: Harrison quickly rewarded his supporters. Veterans disability pensions cost the government millions dollars a year. the Republicans turned to Benjamin Harrison. candidates. It generally promoted business confidence. the economy recovered from a severe depression. The paper ballot emerged as a dominant voting method. Congress had eased the rules for securing them. . The Republicans gracefully publicized the "Murchinson Letter" as a foreign attempt to meddle in an American election. Presidential Succession Act of 1886: This act determined that if both the President of the United States and the Vice President both died or if they were both disqualified. rather than Harrison. The Republican Congress of 1890 became known as the Billion-dollar Congress. but in 1879. The ambassador fell into the trap and advised Murchinson to vote for Cleveland. Secret ballot: Between 1888 and 1896. Pension GAR: After the Civil War. 90% of all the states were convinced to adopt a new ballot like the one in Australia." which many felt would have horrible consequences.

Morgan bond transaction: During the depression of 1893 to 1897.S. 1900: This act officially put the United States on the gold standard. Morgan and August Belmont agreed to lend the government $62 million in exchange for U. Blaine advocated the creation of an International Bureau of American Republics to promote a customs . Cleveland’s conservative economic policies brought him support. this tariff became a law without the signature of approval from Cleveland. did expand its influence in other countries. Pan Americanism. Seward negotiated the purchase of Alaska in 1867. Cleveland turned to Wall Street bankers J.S. the U. The government then bought gold. it preferred market expansion to the traditional European territorial colonialsim. but the supreme court declared it unconstitutional in 1895. the U.S. the United States hoped to further its international standing by emulating European nations that were expanding their influence throughout the world. Wilson-Gorman Tariff: In order to increase the sight of the governments role in an age of towering fortunes. During the 1870s. James Blaine: In 1881 Secretary of State James G.S. "new imperialism" was directed towards finding access to resources. Subsequent to this act. markets for surplus production. Although the U. The Populists nominated James B Weaver who did not did better than expected. there was little protest against the Dingley tariff. but later proved to be an excellent addition. The Currency Act of 1900 officially changed the U. the gold reserve dwindled to $41 million. went on and off the gold standard several times and abandoned it in 1971. It was passed by William McKinley’s administration during a time when both the House of Representatives and the Senate were dominated by Republicans.2 million was paid to Russia for Alaska. Alaska: Secretary of state William H.P. It did have a modest income tax of 12% on all income over $4000. which increased rates to all-time high levels. "New Imperialism" Growing into a leading nation. and it was highly contested by Congress. bonds at a special discount. Dingley tariff: The McKinley administration furthered its conservative platform through the Dingley Tariff of 1897. Voters generally reacted against the high McKinley Tariff.S. Due to the discovery of gold in Alaska and the prosperity of farms prices.Election of 1892: The Republicans re-nominated Harrison. to the gold standard. Also known as "Seward’s Icebox" or "Seward’s folly. Gold Standard Act. while the Democrats turned to Grover Cleveland who was a Conservative. which restored confidence in the government. and opportunities for overseas investments. $7. and he won the election." it was generally thought to be useless.

the Japanese army in Manchuria moved troops into the area. The assassination of Garfield kept Blaine from his organization until 1889. Tariff autonomy to Japan: During the Meiji period following the collapse of the shogunate. ratified a treaty with Samoa in 1878 which gave America trading rights and a naval base at Pago Pago. The title of The Influence of Sea Power upon History. Facing ruin. The U.S. Emperor Meiji took it upon himself to enact tariffs. The Influence of Sea Power: . the industrial sectors of society rapidly expanded. and the captains of industry created . Hawaii was claimed as an American territory in 1898.S. . the planters deposed Queen Liliuokalani in Jan 1893. precipitating another SinoJapanese war. Japan controlled its own tariffs. Although the war was never actually declared. Industrial America During the late 19th century. Sino-Japanese War: A Chinese patrol clashed with Japanese troops on the Marco Polo Bridge near Beijing on July 7.S.union of trade and political stability for the Western Hemisphere. A Union naval officer during the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865. Although many opposed the large businesses when they hurt individuals. proclaimed the independent Republic of Hawaii. annexation. and requested U. 1937. taking on imperialistic quailites. Americans generally favored industrialization. He was promoted to the rank of captain in 1885. Mahan served in the navy for nearly 40 years. navy sought access to the Port of Pago Pago as a refueling station. from its traditionally isolationist feudal society into a world power.major industrial empires that drastically changed the face of American business. The United States also worked to bring an end to the War of the Pacific which was fought between Chile and the alliance of Peru and Bolivia. US mediation of border disputes: The United States offered its aid to promote the peaceful resolution of border conflict between a number of states. Corporations emerged. Japan transformed. received international recognition as a comprehensive of naval strategy. Hawaiian Revolution: Hawaii’s wholesale sugar prices plummeted as a result of the elimination of the duty-free status enjoyed by Hawaiian sugar. Even the common man shared in the American desire to gain wealth through the new industrial economy. and thus. The U. Captain Mahan. Port of Pago Pago: Restless stirrings in America were felt in the far-off Samoan Island in the South Pacific. Using the incident as a pretext to begin hostilities.

and he arranged with the railroads to obtain substantial rebates on shipments by members of the association. the Standard Oil Trust had consolidated crude oil by buying throughout its member firms. He had a desire for cost cutting and efficiency." He endorsed a laissez-faire approach to economics and was the first to define the system of capitalism. he said. Adam Smith believed that self-interest was an "invisible hand in the marketplace. John D.000. Hill. The Wealth of Nations: In The Wealth of Nations. was declared an illegal monopoly and ordered dissolved by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1892. Horizontal consolidation: Within three years. The Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads were joined together to form the first transcontinental railroad in May 1869 when railroad executives drove a golden spike into the ground at Promontory Point. and several associates. Utah in order to connect the two. Vertical consolidation: The Standard Oil Trust had consolidated crude-oil buying throughout it members firms and slashed the number of refineries in half. Rockefeller. Andrew Carnegie: Carnegie decided to build his own steel mill in 1870. Adam Smith. The doctrine favors capitalist self-interest. Rockefeller integrated the petroleum industry vertically by controlling every function from . CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD: The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 had authorized the construction of the transcontinental railroad. Rockefeller integrated the petroleum industry horizontally by merging the competing oil companies into one giant system. Standard Oil Company: The Standard Oil Company was organized in 1870 by Rockefeller. it had previously taken several months to do so. which was an association of the largest oil refiners in Cleveland. "beyond this never earn. Rockefeller: He is famous for his Standard Oil Company. these captains. competition. It allowed Americans to travel from coast to coast in a week. It had slashed the number of refineries in half. published in 1776. "Robber Barrons": Known as the great captains of industy and as robber barons who lined their pockets. the first corporate trust. In 1882 Rockefeller formed the Standard Oil Trust. but spend the surplus each year for benevolent purposes. This. his brother William. His philosophy was simple: "watch the costs and the profit will take care of themselves. Some of these Robber Barrons were Jay Gould. automatically regulating the supply of and demand for goods and services." • UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD. or villains. and natural consumer preferences as forces leading to optimal prosperity and freedom. and John D.Laissez-faire: It meant non-governmental interference in business. of industry made their money by manipulating the stock markets and company policies." At the age of 33. when he had an annual income of $50. Rockefeller helped form the South Improvement Company in early 1872. make no effort to increase fortune. It began in the late 18th century as a strong liberal reaction to trade taxation and nationalist governmental control known as mercantilism.

Since the age of 18. Leland Stanford: An American Railroad magnate and a politician. Cornelius Vanderbilt: An American industrialist and philanthropist. Edison: He epitomized the inventive impulse. This became the first business to capitalize at more than $1 billion dollars. Great Northern Railroad: He reorganized and expanded the railroad industry in the 1870s and 1880s. he started the Central Pacific Railroad Company. he became associated with the New York and Harlem Railroad in 1867. combined with cost analysis. Paul and Pacific Railroad. His other inventions includes the induction balance. With Hill. He and three other partners bought the St. He shared the same dream as Carnegie to interconnect industry system with technology. electric generating system. and motion picture projector had advanced the life of modern society. He founded the Vanderbilt University. He was exemplified as a robber baron who manipulated stock markets and company policies.S. James G. After the agreement. sound-recording device. Henry Clay Frick: Frick’s job was to manage the daily operations of Carnegie’s company. Therefore. and he served as its president from 1896 to 1904. Charles Schwab: He became president of Carnegie Steel when he bought half of the company for half a billion dollars. Steel corporation. and became president in 1886. He also founded the journal Science in 1883. he served as the Republican governor of California and the U. and improving efficiency. Bell had been working on the idea of transmitting speech. Carnegie’s steel mill profits rose every year despite labor troubles and a national depression. This new technology. he combined Carnegie’s company with Federal Steel. and the first was recording cylinder introduced in 1885. senator from California.production to local retailing. lowering cost. . audiometer. He controlled all aspects of manufacturing from mining to selling. and in 1870. Carnegie was free to pursue philanthropic activities. He was one of the cofounders of the National Geographic Society. he was most famous for his invention of the telephone. Hill. With Henry’s help. An American inventor. Morgan set up the U. Thomas A.S. Alexander Graham Bell: An American inventor and teacher of the deaf. At the same time he began to act as head of the Vanderbilt family. Bessemer process: The process consisted of a shot of air blasted through an enormous crucible of molten iron to burn off carbon and impurities. he founded the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. his development of a practical electric light bulb. The bessemer invention offered a means of driving up profits. provided a learning railroad experience for Carnegie. With Frick’s great leadership.

Indiana.S. the Northern Pacific. He also marketed U. merged to form the American Tobacco Company in 1890. Jay Cook Co. and educated at the University of Pennsylvania. In September of that year. . in 1902. Elbert H. industrialist. The city of Gary. Jay Gould and Jim Fiske: They attempted to corner the gold market in 1869 with the help of Grant’s brother-in-law. J. pork chops. Pierpont Morgan: When national depression struck a number of railroads in 1893. This was during 1890 when the stock market was at an all time high. They both won a large share of the eastern urban market for meat. Unfortunately. Gustavus Swift. and statesman.. in 1869. When gold prices tumbled. Phillip Armour: Swift. Morgan refinanced their debts and built an intersystem alliance by purchasing blocks of stock in the world of competing railroads. and Philip Armour turned pigs and cattle into bacon. originally a steel company town. but then sold the stock when prices rose. his vault was full of bonds that he could no longer sell. he started his career in the banking firm of Thomas Mellon and Sons of Pittsburgh. was shut down. Cook fail to meet obligation and his bank. Iron production began there in the late 19th century. government securities on a massive scale. investors were ruined.: He was a Philadelphia banker who had taken over the new transcontinental line.United States Steel Corporation. "Stock watering": This term referred to the act of issuing stock certificates far in excess of the actual value of the assets. The family concentrated on cigarette production in 1881. They also developed the technique of refrigerating food in order to ship food across seas. Gary was a strong foe of unions. and made a profit while ruining the business of other investors. The hills contained large deposits of iron ore. Andrew Mellon: An American financier. of the firm that developed into the Mellon National Bank. James. and steaks. The Mesabi Range is one of the chief iron-producing regions in the world. Gary: Gary was a lawyer who later became president of the Federal Steel Company in 1898. Duke: An American tobacco industrialist and philanthropist whose career originated with a small family business. a Chicago meatpacker. Within few years. Grant’s reputation was tarnished and could not be restored. but he introduced profit sharing and encouraged higher wages and better working conditions. He later became a partner and the president. Some who "stock watered" persuaded the populace to buy up stock. James lead and dominated the national market. which was the largest in the nation. Mesabi Range: Andrew Carnegie bought an ore company in the newly opened Mesabi Range in Minnesota in 1892. is named after him. along with four partners. James B. Gould and Fiske salvaged their own fortunes.

many state legislatures. and it was instead used to hinder the efforts of labor unions who acted "in restraint of trade.Pool. Trust: Competition became so vicious that railroads tried to end it by establishing pools in order to divide the traffic equally and to charge similar rates. The Sherman Antitrust act failed to define either trust or restraint of trade clearly. Long haul. while the trust was a legal device that centralized control over a number of different companies by setting up a board of trustees to run all of them. Fourteenth Amendment’s "due process clause": The fourteenth amendment declared in its first clause that all person born or naturalized in the United States were recognized as citizens of the nation and as citizens of their states and that no state could abridge their rights without due process of law or deny them equal protection of the law. and require annual reports and financial statements. • SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT. end discriminatory practices. INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION: The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 was passed to provide that a commission be established to oversee fair and just railway rates." . As a result. In the 1870s. Violators were fined up to five thousand dollars and one year in prison. short haul: It was cheaper to ship a long haul on the railroads than it was to ship a short haul. Small farmers were angered that they. were discriminated against. Rebates: A rebate is a partial monetary return of an amount paid. the Interstate Commerce Commission. Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890. The pool lacked legal status. outlawed rate discrimination as a result of protests led by the Grangers. Small farmers were angered that they were required to pay more than other interests were. which allowed the government to investigate and oversee railroad activities. between 1890 and 1904. who made many short hauls. Holding Companies: A holding company is a corporation that owns a controlling share of the stock of one or more other firms. the Panic was triggered by economic downturns in Europe and by the failure of Jay Cooke’s bank. prohibit rebates. The Interstate Commerce Act prohibited rebates for railway rates because they discriminated between different groups. the government prosecuted only eighteen antitrust suits. lawyers invoked New Jersey law that allowed permitted corporations to own property in other states by simply reorganizing the trust as an enormous holding company. Depression of 1873: Early in Grant’s second term. • INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT. Brought on by over expansive tendencies of railroad builders and businessmen during the immediate postwar boom. which outlawed trusts and other restraints of trade. This Act was passed in 1887 with the Interstate Commerce Commission. When Standard Oil faced the problem of antitrust suits in 1892. The act established a new agncy. 1890: Fearing that the trusts would stamp out all competition. the country was hit by an economic depression known as the panic of 1873.

were created in order to establish forums for workers to express discontent.S. such as the National Labor Union and the Knights of Labor. They welcomed all wage earners. workers organized themselves to protect their welfare. Sylvis called a convention in Baltimore that formed the National Labor Union (NLU). and liquor dealers. This organization was founded in Philadelphia in 1869. New South. published in 1901. an end to child and convict labor. They demanded bargaining in labor contracts with large corporations such as railroads. until his death in 1924. stressed cooperation between management and labor instead of strike actions. • KNIGHTS OF LABOR. he did much to restore friendly relations between the North and South during a period of bitter hatred and conflict. journalist and orator born in Athens. as a means of obtaining labor demands. was a noted pioneer of naturalism in literature. As editor. who was also the head of the Garment Cutters of Philadelphia. published in 1903. The Octopus. professional gambler. attack the railroad and wheat industries in the United States. He led the AFL for forty years. and safety precautions. TERRENCE POWDERLY: The Knights of labor dreamed of a national labor movement. Samuel Gompers: An American labor leader. The Octopus:The U. Georgia. URIAH STEPHENS. and manufacturing. The organization supported the eight-hour day movement. hours. . they excluded bankers. Labor Unions. National Labor Union. mining." which referred to a rejuvenated south. The Growth Of Labor Reacting to the emergence of big business.S. Henry Grady: Henry Grady was a U. and demanded equal pay for women. His novels portray the demoralizing effects of modern technology on the human fate. He often lectured on the concept of "The New South. and The Pit . he. and cooperative employer-employee ownership. In their organization. workers collectivized to gain power through their numbers. His best-known works. • AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR (AFL): Confronted by big business. They did not intend to have a violent revolution nor political radicalism. and was led by Uriah Stephens. acting on his dream of a nationwide association to represent all workers. Samuel Gompers and Adolph Strasser put together a combination of national crafts unions to represent the material interests of labor in the matter of wages. as president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). William Sylvis: In 1866. lawyers. but also embraced banking reform and an end to conviction labor. novelist Frank Norris. He bought share in Atlantic Constitution in 1879. Feeling that they were helpless against the practices of the large corporations.Frank Norris.

Great Railroad Strike.Collective bargaining: The major function of unions is collective bargaining. the National Detective Agency. workers began to strike to obtain better conditions. 1886. 100 people died in the strike. They also made employees sign yellow dog contracts. The AFL demanded collective bargaining in labor contracts with large corporations. which which made getting another job later much harder. the Pinkertons fired on the strikers. restraining. but they were controlled by the management. they were called in as strikebreakers. They often spied on the unions for the companies. Hayes sent in troops to stop the strike. when a railroad strike broke out. employers blacklisted employees that went on strike. It provides that employees in the bargaining unit shall be union members and remain in good standing in the union as a condition of employment. requiring a defendant to refrain from committing a specific act. and a protest against police violence was called. • haymarket square riot: Strikers and police had a confrontation while a strike was in progress on May 4. Injunctions are generally preventive. Closed Shop: The closed shop is an agreement between a trade union and an employer which is a collective bargain. Company Union: First adapted by the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company in 1915. Railroad roadhouse were torched. 1877: A group of railroad workers on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad rose up and began to strike due to wage cuts. John Peter Altgeld: He served as the liberal governor of Illinois from 1893 to 1897. However. In 1877. Many police and civilians were injured as well. which forced the employee to agree not to strike or join a union. at the McCormick reaper works in Chicago. It was generally used against strikers. killing many of them. This spread up and down the railroad line across the nation. In the Homestead Strike. The terms are set forth in a written agreement that the union and the employer promise to enforce. and they got them. a process by which unions and employers negotiate terms of employment. or prohibitory in nature. He was criticized for pardoning the anarchists who threw the bomb in the Haymarket Square . Yellow Dog Contracts: With the formation of labor unions. The workers wanted unions. Pinkertons: They were a group in Allan Pinkerton’s organization. A violent gun battle ensuedin which seven police were killed. It is an order or decree in the law of equity. so the company had the final word on the labor policy. Blacklist. Many of these shops were banned by the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947. The police were attempting to break up the meeting when a bomb was thrown by a protester. President Rutherford B. either in process or threatened. injurious to the plaintiff. Injunction: An injuntion is a court order. it was a company-sponsored labor union that was dominated by the management. Several protesters were shot by police the day before.

American Railway Union: Created by Eugene V. The union was involved in the 1894 Pullman Strike. which was known for its hat industry. He was arrested for these actions.S. after meeting socialist Victor Berger.S. which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894. 1904. it was a union created in a short-lived attempt to bring all of the railroad workers into one organization. which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company. It was against the Homestead Steel Works. He later became a lecturer and organizer for the Socialist movement. 1908. social and ethnic centers. He was the party’s presidential candidate five times: in 1900. Debs: As the president and the organizer of the American Railway Union. after a strike by workers in Danbury. . because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. His action was considered dangerously radical by the American public. President Grover Cleveland interfered and stopped the strike by saying that they had interfered with the right of the government to maintain the uninterrupted transport of mail. The state militia dispersed the strikers. It was said that a boycott was a "conspiracy in restraint of trade. Pullman Strike: The American Railway Union and Eugene V.Riot and for objecting to the use of federal troops in the Pullman strike. On July 6. The General Manager’s Association attempted to get an federal injunction from Olney against the strikers for refusing to move cars carrying U. Danbury Hatters Strike:. Debs. Homestead Strike: Called in 1892 by the Amalgamated Association of Iron. Amidst this chaos. that unions were prohibited from setting up boycotts in support of strikes. and Tin Workers. Richard Olney: He was the United States Attorney General from 1893 to 1897. Connecticut." Urbanization Rapid urbanization began in the 1870s as people flocked to the cities. company guards and Pinkertons opened fire on the strikers after four months of striking. history. Steel. The Supreme Court declared in 1908. it was one of the most violent strikes in U. residential. This union was a precursor of the union movement that followed in the 1930s. and many cities became impersonal metropolises that were divided into business. These urban centers quickly crowded. He also sat on the board of directors of three major networks of railroads. and 1912. killing and wounding many strikers. Eugene V. he helped bring about the shut down of western railroads with the 1894 Pullman Strike. mail. in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. He also helped organize the Social Democrat party in 1897. Debs was arrested and the strike was broken up. Debs led a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads.

he was skilled in winning numerous votes for party candidates by associating with and being kind to the people in New York.corruption thrived as political bosses ran the city for their own personal gain. whose supposed goal was to preserve democratic institutions. Streetcar Suburbs: The creation of electric streetcar systems allowed families to move farther from the city’s center. The streetcar system allowed people to live farther away from their work. and encouraged judicial corruption. to get him a promotion. or to get him to the position of a sergeant. the Tammany Society. Tenements: Built by a landlord. George Washington Plunkitt: A minor boss in Tammany Hall and a member of the New York State Assembly. He was best known for his cartoons slandering the corrupt Tammany ring of New York during the period from 1869 to 1872. he controlled New York politics. poorly built. Boss Tweed: He was an important figure in New York’s political machine. created by George Washington Plunkitt. and in addition. Smith. He held New York City and state political posts where he increased his power. He was paid by these candidates. they were inhabited mainly by new immigrants. he helped with many public works in the city. . He later worked for Harper’s Weekly. Boss George B. Streetcar companies purchased land on the city’s periphery and made tremendous profits on the sale of the real estate. Cox: Cox. It appeared as if the nation was modernizing quicker than it could deal with problems of urbanization. had a reputation for being one of the most honest bosses. • TAMMANY HALL: Founded by anti-federalist William Mooney. which bought votes. Forming the Tweed Ring. However. Tammany Hall gained a great reputation for its corrupt practices. Thomas Nast: A political cartoonist and caricaturist. tenements were small housing units that were extremely overcrowded. the boss of Cincinnati’s Republican political machine. and that contained filth. also known as the Tammany Society. There was a lack of fresh air and light in these housing units. "Honest Graft": This term. In addition. This facilitated the move away from the city’s center. Alfred E. Its leader. It began to gain power with the rise of Boss Tweed in 1868. referred to the police corruption that took place in the Tammany Hall political machine. ran for president of the United States. The worst tenements became known as slums. The practices included paying bribes to make an individual a police officer. he became an illustrator for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper in 1855. it is the name for the New York Democratic party machine. and he received generous rewards. and was opposed by reform groups. He worked his way up the ladder from being a newspaper boy to being the head of the political machine.

Armory Show: It was an art exhibition that took place in New York between February 17 and March 15. and he introduced many innovations. He began as a designer for the Adler Sullivan firm. He created the philosophy of "Organic Architecture. John A. he was influential in bringing about parks and playgrounds in overcrowded neighborhoods. which is one of the most discerning studies ever written on U. He wanted to reform tenement housing and schools. rather than on the academic and impressionist styles of the 19th century. and air conditioning. He served as the ambassador to the United States from 1907 to 1913. he formed the Workingman’s Party of California. in his construction. He was also the author of The American Commonwealth (1888). mails. of which he became secretary. A quarter of a million paid to see the show. political institutions. including double-glass windows. James Bryce: He was a British historian and statesman who became the leader of the Liberal Party. . With his support. Roebling: Roebling was one of the creators of the suspension bridges. Louis Sullivan: Sullivan was an American architect who used steel frames to design skyscrappers. In addition. popular. he produced over 100 buildings. How the Other Half Lives: Riis was a social reformer and writer who wrote one of the most influential. Led by Robert Henri. Anthony Comstock: Comstock was a reformer. the Ashcan School focused on more contemporary subjects. 1913 at the 69th Regiment Armory. known as The Eight. He was also the founder of what is now the Chicago School of Architects. He also created and manufactured steel-wire ropes which he used. He was also influential in the passage by Congress of the 1873 law concerned with obscenity in the U. His most famous pupil was Frank Lloyd Wright. Jacob Riis. which later became associated with the Grange movement. It was an international exhibition in which modern art was first shown in the United States. It became known as the Comstock Law. One of his most famous works was the Brooklyn Bridge which he completed shortly before his death. Frank Lloyd Wright: Wright was one of the greatest twentieth-century architect and is cosidered a pioneer of the modern style. who helped organize the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice in 1873. who later became a famous architect.S. Together with his partner Dankmar Adler." Ashcan School: This school contained a group of painters. metal furniture. and early social documentaries in American history. who exhibited their style together as a group in 1908.S.Denis Kearney: He was a labor leader who protested the increasing numbers of Chinese laborers when California had an economic depression in 1877. along with steel cables.

"Old Immigration": This Term applies to those migrating from Western and Eastern Europe. the new immigrants often faced prejudice from nativist Americans. and all convicts. one and a half million traveled over from Ireland. and it supported the Republican Party until it split over the question of whether or not to support William McKinley.S. it was one of three laws that attempted to solve the increasing immigration problem. and Armenians. In addition to these difficulties. All of these immigrants came over in search of jobs and of new economic opportunities. Literacy tests were imposed on all immigrants. They came from both Southern and Eastern Europe. Bowers. Next came the British. In addition. Jews. prostitutes. and Welsh immigrants. They were the largest group of immigrants that migrated to the United States. Scottish. gushed into the already overcrowded metropolises. The Theory of The Leisure Class. and the numbers continued to increase for the next three decades. which was published in 1899.S. There had also been increasing labor violence against the Chinese. Chinese Exclusion Law. From Melting Pot To Salad Bowl The earlier immigrants to American consisted mainly of Northern Europeans. In the 1890s. anarchists. 1882: Passed by Congress. which totaled 2 million. Greeks. in Clinton Iowa. It died in 1911. persons suffering from loathsome or contagious diseases. Literacy tests: Passed by Congress in 1917in order to restrict immigration. The largest group of approximately three million. arriving from Southern and Eastern Europe. immigrants had to be examined. "New Immigration": They were a new group of immigrants coming into the United States that consisted of Italians. The Theory of the Leisure Class: Thorstein Bunde Veblen was best known for his book. a flood of immigrants. polygamists. However. The panic of 1893 greatly increased its membership. their numbers first began to increase. . and persons liable to become public disturbances and problems were all excluded form the U. Many immigrants faced the dual problems of changing cultures and migrating from a rural life to an urban one. Slavs. Most of the immigrants came from peasant and poor backgrounds and boosted America’s foreign-born population by 18 million.Thorstein Veblen. By this law. Introducing the concept of "conspicuous consumption." his writing was an assault on the values and lifestyles of the Gilded Age businessmen. this was a secret antiCatholic society founded in 1887. and any immigrant who could not pass the tests was not allowed entry into the U. American Protective Association: Founded by Henry F. came from Germany in the 1840s and 1850s. and also from the Middle East. during the 1870s. the law enlarged the group of immigrants that could be excluded from the United States. They were often discriminated against.

in 1912. Addams played a large role in the formation of the National Progressive Party and the Women’s Peace Party. middle class Americans strove to enact reform measures that would aid their society. He worked with Walter Rauschenbusch as a leader of the Social Gospel movement. It was a welfare agency for needy families. which was the first settlement house in the U. Lester Frank Ward: Ward worked with the U. Groups were formed to aid the less fortunate Americans who inhabited the slums of the cities. He sought to solve social problems caused by the industrialized society by applying Christian principles. Jane Addams. By 1916 they enacted anti-saloon laws in 23 states and in 1917 they passed the 18th amendment beginning prohibition. in many cases. Washington Gladden: He was a Congregationalist minister who became known for his pragmatic social theology. In 1908 the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America adopted a social creed that called for many improvements in society. In addition. With the help of Ellen Star. it is a religious and charitable organization dedicated to spreading the Christian faith and giving assistance to those in . He argued against William Graham Sumner in his Dynamic Sociology and stated that the laws of nature could be changed by mankind through government experts regulating big business. and preventing the destruction of natural resources. Although these citizens strove to aid their fellow man.The Middle Class Reform Impulse As Americans viewed the poverty throughout their cities. Geological Survey. Salvation Army: Founded by Methodist William Booth. many people united in this league in the fight against saloons. and it also served to combat juvenile delinquency and to assist the recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. Walter Rauschenbusch: He was a clergyman who was one of the leaders of the Social Gospel movement.S. protecting society’s weaker classes.S. • SOCIAL GOSPEL: It was a Protestant liberal movement led by Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch that applied Christian principles to the numerous social problems that affected the late 19th century United States as a result of industrialization. He also helped found the Society of Jesus to publish periodicals for the working class. The movement preached and taught religion and human dignity to the working class in order to correct the effects of capitalism. Hull House: She was a social worker and a Nobel laureate. As a result. the laws regulating many aspects of saloons were either reduced or eliminated. In addition. which include Working People and their Employers. He linked theological liberalism with strong social concern. there was a prevalent feeling of condecension towards the poorer classes. he wrote 38 books. she created the Hull House in 1889 in Chicago. Anti-Saloon League: During and after the American Civil War.

control all social order and they can not be changed by man.. he stated that unchangeable laws of nature. and to stop the young workers from gambling and engaging in other disreputable. William Graham Sumner.need of both spiritual and material aid. such as survival of the fittest. Principles of Psychology. YMCA: British Sir George Williams founded this organization in response to unsanitary social conditions in large cities at the end of the Industrial Revolution. Afraid that poverty was escalating. He was also editor in chief of the religious and political periodicals Independent and The Christian Union. Those who were best fit for survival would become rich and powerful. he was an effective champion of women's rights and suffrage. Herbert Spencer: Spencer was a British philosopher. In his book Progress and Poverty. it began constructing gyms. Looking Backward.S. Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis in 1885. His works include Social Statics. He published his most famous work in 1888. This novel was a depiction of an ideal society in the year 2000. New Nation. like all other organisms compete for survival and success in life. and summer camps. Bellamy created the journal. who was also one of the earliest and best known abolitionists. In this book. libraries. He recommended a shift to what he called a single tax. This novel led to the formation of many socialistic clubs. Henry George. and then turned toward literature. 2000-1887: He was an essayist and journalist who founded the Springfield Daily News. they misinterpreted his words. What Social Classes Owe Each Other: Sumner was a sociologist and author of What Social Classes Owe Each Other. and the less fit in society would be poor and the lower classes. which was entitled Looking Backward. Many felt that this theory was expounded by Charles Darwin. he stated that land ownership is concentrated in the hands of a few. To further publicize his views. 2000-1887. Rev. in 1891. It was founded in 1865 in England as the Christian Mission. Progress and Poverty: George was an economist and social philosopher. It was believed that human progress depended highly on competition. who was regarded as one of the first sociologists. where he stated that cities were centers of anarchy and destruction. whose goal was to give aid to the London slums. Also. Henry Ward Beecher: Beecher was the pastor of the Plymouth Church of the Pilgrims in Brooklyn. In the U. • Edward Bellamy. and these people reap the benefits of the rise in value of the land. Josiah Strong: Strong was the secretary of the American Home Missionary Society and the minister of Cincinnati's Central Congregational Church. New York. He created a system of philosophy that included his own theory of evolution. • SOCIAL DARWINISM: It is a theory developed in the late 19th century by which individuals and societies believed that people. but also incorporated all existing fields of knowledge. but in reality. . and A System of Synthetic Philosophy. he wrote his book Our Country.

it was a doctrine of social reform where all taxation should be reduced to a single tax on land. In his theory. Some of his famous writings include The Ambassadors. and it found fault with capitalism for the poverty and insecurity that it left the working class in. Together with Ira Sankey. and the growth of business. and it was influenced by 17th century philosopher John Locke and British economist David Ricardo. the development of organisms came through a process called natural selection. The doctrine was described in his book Progress and Poverty. Charles Darwin: Darwin was a British Scientist who created the theory of modern evolution. In His Steps: He was a Congregational clergyman and a social reformer. He used religious virtue to justify the quest for wealth as a Christian endeavor. The Flowering Of American Culture Along with the new social currents of the day caused by rapid urbanization. It emphasized social problems which tied it into the Social Gospel Movement.The Single Tax: Developed by social philosopher and economist Henry George. causing them to strive to express their views through various forms. He wrote about the impact of European culture on Americans who traveled or lived abroad. which he gave over 6000 times. which is often called "survival of the fittest. This was the message in his "Acres of Diamonds" lecture. Scientist. It held private property as a natural right. Dwight L. and The Golden Bowl. "Acres of Diamonds": Conwell was a Baptist minister who preached about ordinary man's and capitalist's materialistic longings. Mary Baker Eddy: She was the founder of the Christian Science Association and the Church of Christ. Rerum Novarum. Moody: Moody was the creator of the Illinois Street Church which was later renamed the Moody Memorial Church. The Wings of the Dove. Russell Conwell. it was the Catholic social doctrine. Rev. Henry James: James was a writer and brother of philosopher William James. she published . Many Catholic socialism movements are derived from this. he began a series of revival meetings and opened the Northfield Seminary for Young Women and the Mount Hermon School for Boys. came a fervor of cultural display." His theories were presented in his novel The Origin of Species. After a remarkable recovery from sickness. He also founded the Bible Institute in Chicago in 1889. He was also the author of the book In His Steps . American culture diversified as Americans saw the society around them drastically changing. immigration. which is the story of people who tried to pattern their lives after the life of Jesus. Charles Sheldon. 1891: Formulated by Pope Leo XIII.

as well as strikes. Chautauqua Movement: Methodists John Heyl Vincent and Lewis Miller founded this movement. Harvard: Educated at Harvard University. Nouveau riche: It was the new class of people which was created by the wealth and prosperity generated from the industrial capitalism and the big businesses. he was an assistant professor of mathematics and chemistry there for five years. This act gave each state $15. about the fundamentals of her metaphysical system of healing. despair and bitterness. Iowa State. and courses in science and humanities. the act introduced a bill to establish state colleges of agriculture and to bring higher education within the reach of the common people. The period was characterized by industrial production. It is world renowned for its medical school and its applied physics laboratory. They were called land grant colleges and were located in the Midwest and West. and those who got rich in the postwar boom. politicians who took bribes. Proceeds from the sale of public lands were given to states to fund the establishment of these universities of agriculture and mechanics. 1887: It was an act written by Representative William Henry Hatch of Missouri. It was founded in 1876. In addition. swindlers. and Purdue profited from its provisions. The span of this era ranges from the end of the Civil War. Many universities such as Michigan. It was a supplement to the land grant colleges. Charles W. lectures. and urban growth. Former President Woodrow Wilson received his Ph. who remodeled the curriculum on a liberal basis. he was a professor of mathematical physics for 34 years. in political science here. • "gilded age": Given its name by the novel by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley. Eliot. immigration. Hatch Act. she founded the international daily newspaper Christian Science Monitor. Maryland. westward expansion. He laid the foundations of the modern understanding of electromagnetic phenomenon and thermodynamics.000 a year to help establish and maintain agricultural experiment stations. 1869. The movement was imitated numerous times in the United States.Science and Health. depressions. Johns Hopkins University: Financed by John Hopkins. He created a set of books containing 50 volumes known as Harvard Classics. The real importance of his studies and theoretical descriptions of the behavior of subatomic particles have only been recently recognized. which combined daily Bible studies with healthful recreation.D. In 1869. it is an institution of higher learning in Baltimore. he became the president of Harvard. This class . It later expanded to include concerts. to the turn of the century. it is a time period which criticized the lobbyists. 1862: Introduced to Congress by Republican Justin Morrill. Josiah Willard Gibbs: At Yale. Morrill Land Act. which the government in order to promte the teaching of agriculture. buoyancy and free-spending.

These stories included "The Luck of Roaring Camp" and "The Outcasts of Poker Flat. William Dean Howells: Howells was a novelist. E. and The Open Boats and Other Stories. The Black Riders and Other Lines. He is characterized by his humor and sharp social satire. and The Rise of Silas Lapham. who came up with the philosophy of pragmatism. Bret Harte: Harte was a writer who was also the editor of the Overland Monthly. editor of The Nation: Godkin was an editor. Pragmatism: Developed by William James and Charles Sanders Pierce. which published many of his famous works. Mark Twain and Charles Dudley: It is a novel written in a time when materialism and corruption controlled the lives of Americans. He was also a former mugwump and anti-imperialist. the effect of an idea is more important than its origin. and the purpose of thought is to guide action. he wrote his famous Principles of Psychology which established him as one of the most influential thinkers of the time. Frank Norris. whose criticism in his book The Nation and New York's Evening Post. who used Mark Twain as his pseudonym. Maggie. He was also president of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. William James: James was a philosopher and psychologist. which he edited. Mark Twain: Twain was a writer named Samuel Langhorne Clemens. The Gilded Age. a Girl of the Streets. and editor of the Atlantic. Godkin. who championed authors such as Stephen Crane. . which is summed up in his lectures entitled Pragmatism: A New Name for Old Ways of Thinking. and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. Stephen Crane: Cranes was a writer and poet who began the use of the naturalistic style of writing. In his life he wrote many works. critic. Robber barons were included in this class. and War is Kind and Other Poems are two volumes of his poems. As a psychologist. He and others codified the standards in the Victorian era in both literature and the fine arts. Most of these people were self-made and showed their importance through ostentatious displays. and Henry James. it is a philosophical doctrine stating that the test of the truth of a proposition is its practical utility. His most famous novels include The Red Badge of Courage. It was written by Twain. His many famous novels include The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn. He also wrote for Atlantic Monthly. Mark Twain. was influential in the reform movement." He published a collection of his works called The Luck of Roaring Camp and Other Short Stories. He published these stories under the titles MainTravelled Roads and Other Main-Travelled Roads.grew during the Gilded Age.L. Hamlin Garland: Garland was a short story writer who used his experiences working on farms in Iowa and South Dakota as central themes for his countless short stories that denounced American farm life. including A Fearful Responsibility. Tom Sawyer.

and his most famous Ragged Dick. James McNeill Whistler: Whistler was an etcher and painter who was a champion of modern art. and began to demand certain rights. His novels held a theme of rags to riches. By emphasizing merit rather than focusing on social status as the way to determine success. She traveled from county to county in New York and other states making speeches and organizing clubs for women's rights. including sensational yellow journalism. The White Girl and Twelve Etchings from Nature are his most famous etchings. These paintings often have great dramatic effect because of the way they show man's powerlessness in the face of the unfeeling and mysterious forces of nature. • HORATIO ALGER’S BOOKS FOR YOUTH: Alger was a writer of juvenile fiction. Tattered Tom. Joseph Pulitzer: Joseph Pulitzer was a large newspaper publisher. publisher Joseph Pulitzer was one of the leading combatants. His chief opponent was William Randolph Hearst. they crusaded for pressing reforms. As millions of women began to work outside the home. Many women asserted their independence by participating in social reform movements. William Randolph Hearst's newspapers whipped up public sentiment against Spain. his more than 100 novels had a major impact on the youth of that time. they saw themselves in a new light. Many of the characters in the novel were recognized by readers of the book as figures in society. such abolition and prohibition. . Anthony: For more than half a century Susan B. Hearst was quite willing to take credit for this. He is also well known for his portraits. He also incorporated Japanese styles of art and made many technical innovations in art. to encourage people to buy their papers. Winslow Homer is best known for his watercolors and oil paintings of the sea. Along with their male counterparts. where poor youth would win fame and money by having virtues of honesty. diligence. She pleaded her cause with every president from Abraham Lincoln to Theodore Roosevelt. In the newspaper circulation wars of the 1890s. William Randolph Hearst: Through dishonest and exaggerated reporting. actually helping to cause the Spanish-American War. Among his collection are Luck and Pluck.and Dudley was the coauthor. Anthony fought for women's suffrage. Susan B. The two used every tactic. Winslow Homer: One of the greatest American painters. and perseverance. as his New York City newspaper testified in an 1898 headline: "How Do You Like the Journal’s War?" The Emergence Of Modern Woman The new urban environment fostered the growth of feminism.

Anthony retired in 1900 from the NAWSA. Francis Willard: In 1874 a temperance crusade swept the United States. Carry A. It became the nation’s first mass organization of women. Alice Paul: Alice Paul was a U. She was a prominent leader in the campaign for what became the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution which guaranteed female suffrage. Frances Willard. Partly through their efforts. Women’s Christian Temperance Union: The Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was founded in 1874. for activities in woman suffrage movement. She led the Congressional Union for Women's Suffrage. she headed the search for missing soldiers. N. she organized supply depots to serve Civil War soldiers. She soon became the president of the newly formed union. recreation. she chose Carrie Chapman Catt to take her place. as well as in many other states. Bicycling emerges as a hobby for women: Constraints on women were loosened toward the end of the nineteenth century when bicycling swept the U. labor arbitration and public health. Nation would appear at a saloon. became famous for building the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). six states adopted Prohibition by 1890. Stanton helped to organize a political movement that demanded voting rights for women. She was the scourge of tavern owners and drinkers alike in Kansas. She was imprisoned three times in England and three times in the U.S. Willard stressed religion and morality in her work. Fearful of waning vitality. For four years after the war.Elizabeth Cady Stanton: A pioneer in the modern quest for women's rights. and a way to escape the restrictive Victorian attitudes towards female physical activity. In 1872 she campaigned to organize a branch of the Red Cross in the United States. . in lobbying for the right to vote during World War I. Higher education was broadened by the rise of women's colleges and the admission of women to regular colleges and universities. She succeeded in 1881. Its activities included welfare work. In 1870 an estimated one fifth of resident college students were women. By 1900 this had increased to more than one third. she remained active in NAWSA and in 1915 became its president. middle and upper-class women turned to bicycle riding as a source of exercise. Nation: A vehement foe of alcoholic beverages. Carry A. later called the National Woman's party. Carrie Chapman Catt: When Susan B. prison reform. After this.J. Though Catt was forced to resign in 1904 due to her husbands illness. joined the movement. For 23 years she directed Red Cross work in every great disaster. Catt continued to play a large role in the fight for Women's rights.S. woman suffragist who was born in Moorestown. Colleges admitting women: By the end of the 19th century the number of women students had increased greatly. berate the customers. and proceed to damage as much of the place as she could with her hatchet. Clara Barton: Single-handedly.S. A young lecturer and educator.

and were attacked despite a previous agreement made with the governor. Their perceptions of western regions were drawn from descriptions left by early travelers. When war would break out.S. It was originally started by Andrew Johnson as the first homestead bill but met strong opposition by Southern Representatives and therefore could not be passed until the secession of the Southern States during the Civil War. including that between the Sioux and the U. and shelter. clothing. Chivington Massacre: The United States Army.S.S.Divorce rate: By the turn of the twentieth century divorce rate in the United States had started to steadily grow. or a treaty would be made in which they lost part of their lands. the geography of the U. Indian Appropriations Act. As Americans continued to move the frontier farther and farther west. the Cheyenne were being led by Chief Black Kettle. were still to be considered valid. This lead to many conflicts. 1862: This act cut up Western public lands into many small holdings for the free farmers. An increased number of people living in the cities also contributed to the fact that cities had higher divorce rates than rural areas. Colorado in 1864. Joseph Glidden: Barbed wire was invented and patented by Joseph Glidden in 1874 and had a major impact on the cattle industry of the Western U. At the time. Great American Desert: For years. They had been angered by settlers who drove away the buffalo herds they depended on for food. 1871: By this act Congress decided that Indian tribes were no longer recognized as sovereign powers with whom treaties must be made. Federal government policies intended to facilitate the move westward. Chivington. The Frontier West As America expanded. though. Existing treaties. Maps published prior to the Civil War often called the Great Plains area the "Great American Desert. led by Colonel John M. America expanded across the continent. Accustomed to allowing their cattle to roam the open range. This was due to more opportunities for women which made them less economically dependent on their husbands. Others used it to fence in land or cattle that did not belong to them. the Indians would either be defeated and transported. . at Little Big Horn. but violations continued to occur. Barbed wire. but it was often at the expense of the Native Americans who already occupied the land. attacked and massacred the Cheyenne Indians that were settled along Sand Creek. was unknown to most Americans. many farmers objected to barbed wire. Plains Indians: Great Plains tribes began attacking wagon trains carrying settlers during the 1850s." It was a region deemed unfit for settlement. Homestead Act. many Americans desired to move westward and cultivate new lands.

. A Century of Dishonor: This book.Battle of Little Big Horn: The Sioux refused to sell the land to the government in 1875. Wearing the Ghost Shirts.by turning Indians into farmers. and was passed in 1887. they turned to the Ghost Dance to restore their original dominance on the Plains. She gathered information regarding American Indians and their lives while serving on a federal commission investigating the treatment of Indians.the lack of private property. It was designed to reform what well-meaning but ignorant whites perceived to be the weaknesses of Indian life-. Turner decisively rejected the then common belief that the European background had been primarily responsible for the characteristics of the United States. Dawes. on Dec. they engaged in ritual dances that they believed would protect them from harm. When the Sioux refused. Jackson also wrote Ramona concerning the same topic. Helen Hunt Jackson. but when three of his tribe killed a group of settlers. the United States Army massacred more than 200 Indians at Wounded Knee. FRONTIER THESIS: In his analysis of how the frontier. 1887: It was proposed by Henry L. shaped the American character and institutions. South Dakota. and refused to leave the area to inhabit reservations. was sent to enforce the order. The ritual allowed them to reaffirm their culture amidst the chaos. He also justified overseas economic expansion as a means to secure political power at a time when America began focusing on expanding its influence throughout the world. The main point of the law was to emphasize treating Indians as individuals as opposed to members in a tribe. Custer. the absence of a Christian based religion. 29. and the general instability in their way of life -. under Sioux leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse. by Jackson. he attempted to escape to Canada with his followers. • FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER. the nomadic traditions of the Indians. Col. wiped out General Custer's men in 1876. or severalty. Joseph led his people in an unsuccessful resistance to white settlers who were confiscating land. the army under Lieut. moving from east to west. This event ended the conquest of the American Indian. was a discourse concerning the plight of American Indians published in 1881. Ghost Dance Movement: As the Sioux population dwindled as a result of the federal government policies. the Ghost Dance movement which had been recently revived by Indians rapidly died out. Battle of Wounded Knee: Convinced that Sitting Bull was going to lead an uprising. After the incident. Joseph agreed. 1890. • DAWES SEVERALTY ACT. The tribe was ordered to move. Chief Joseph: When he became chief of the Nez Perce Indian tribe in the American Northwest in 1871.In this battle the main body of Indians.

It was founded in New York in 1873. 1892: The Populist party. The railroads appealed to the Supreme Court to declare the "Granger laws" unconstitutional. many of their reforms were later enacted. would have the West as a "safety valve" to which they could go in order to revitalize their pure Americanism. and small profits. or people's party. creameries. and consisted of the Northwest Farmers' Alliance in the north and the National Farmers' Alliance and Independent Union in the south. There was little the farmers could do concerning prices. To counteract unjust business practices. Comstock Lode: One of the richest silver mines in the United States was discovered in 1859 at the Comstock Lode in Nevada. Reform Populism In The 1890s Populism emerged in the 19th century in order to reform the system from within. the Court ruled against the railroad’s objections in Munn v. An influx of settlers came to Nevada. It called for government regulation of the economy in order to redress their greivanes. Instead. debts.S. Some of their goals included creating postal savings banks.Safety Valve Thesis: This assertion stated that as immigrants came to the eastern United States during the late nineteenth century and "polluted" American culture. OMAHA PLATFORM. Nevada was built. and Nevada granted statehood in 1864. Although they did not succeed in electing their candidate to the presidency. the farmers made their grievances known through the Granger Movement. was a party that represented the "common man. the Populists strove to bring their reforms into the political limelight. Creating the Populist Party with James Weaver as their presidential candidate. Illinois. setting a graduated income tax and limiting the presidency to a single six-year term. Granger Laws: The Grangers in various states lobbied state legislatures in 1874 to pass maximum rate laws for freight shipment. Farmers’ Alliance: This alliance was a political organization created to help fight railroad abuses and to lower interest rates. citizens of the U. Membership peaked in the mid-1870s. • GRANGER MOVEMENT: During the decade of the 1870s. . enacting immigration restriction. • POPULIST PARTY PLATFORM. farmers were beset with problems of high costs. The Omaha platform of 1892 nominated James Weaver of Iowa for president. however. and stores. Only in 1877 did the Supreme Court rule that states could regulate businesses of a public nature. This discovery contributed to the speed by which Virginia City. They failed to unite. The Populist platform represented views of farmers in the West.S. U." It was created towards the end of the nineteenth century. and in 1892 gave way to the Populist party. the farmers were urged to start cooperatives such as grain elevators.

"Crime of 1873": This is the term given to a federal law of 1873, which adopted the gold standard over the silver standard. This dropped silver coinage in favor of gold coinage, by advocating free silver. This "Crime of 1873" was one of the motivating forces behind the beginning of the Free Silver movement. Bland-Allison Act: This act was passed over the presidential veto in 1878 and required the secretary of the treasury to buy at least 2 million dollars of silver each month and coin it into dollars. Because of its weight and bulk and the fact that it had not been coined since 1806, most of the silver did not circulate; rather, remained in the treasury. Sherman Silver Purchase Act: This act forced the treasury to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver each month.. However, the price of silver did not rise and precious gold was being drained away from the treasury while cheap silver piled up. This act, therefore, helped to precipitate the panic of 1893, and it caused a decrease in foreign investments in the U.S. economy. Bimetallism: Bimetallism is the use of both silver and gold as the basis of an economy as opposed to the use of one or the other or none. During the gold and free silver campaigns of the early 1900s, the Republicans believed in a money system based on the single gold standard, while the democrats believed in bimetallism. "Coin" Harvey: The silverites’ most influential piece of propaganda was William H. Harvey's Coin’s Financial School, published in 1894. It explained the monetary issue in simplified partisan terms, denounced "the conspiracy of the Goldbugs," and insisted that the free coinage of silver would eliminate the debt. Free silver: This was a chiefly unsuccessful campaign in the late 19th-century U.S. for the unlimited coinage of silver. Major supporters of this movement were owners of silver mines, farmers, and debtors, for whom silver production would be economically favorable. William Jennings Bryan led the democratic party to support free silver during the 1890s. 16 to 1: During the Panic of 1873 the world market ratio of silver to gold fell below the ratio of 16:1 for the first time in world history. This coincided with the opening of rich silver mines in the Western united States and also with post-Civil War deflation. It resulted in the movement in favor of free silver and bimetallism of the populists Depression of 1893: This panic swept the country two months after the second inauguration of President Grover Cleveland. Banks closed their doors, railroads went bankrupt, and farm mortgages were foreclosed. People hoarded gold, and the treasury’s gold reserve was depleting. A notable cause was the struggle between the free silver and gold advocates. Coxey's Army, 1894: This was actually a band of unemployed people who marched to Washington DC during the depression of 1894 under the leadership of Jacob S. Coxey, a

quarry operator. They urged the enactment of laws which would provide money without interest for public improvements, which would create work for the unemployed. Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, 1893: In 1893 President Grover Cleveland, who stood for the gold standard, succeeded in having the Sherman Silver Purchase Act repealed over the strong objections of William Jennings Bryan. However, little gold was in the treasury; thus, the panic of 1893 could not be avoided and the crisis remained until 1896. Ocala Demands, 1890: These demands were essentially a platform of the Democratic/ Populist party for the 1892 election created at a gathering in Ocala, Florida in 1890. Northern leaders generally favored a third party candidate, while Southerners feared that it would weaken the southern Democratic Party. Tom Watson: An U.S. journalist, legislator, and a southern alliance leader from Georgia, he urged southern farmers to recognize their common plight and act together. He was also the Populist party’s presidential candidate in 1904 and 1908, served as a senator from 1921 to 1922, and edited The Weekly Jeffersonian, a populist magazine. James B. Weaver: An United States legislator and prominent figure during the Populist movement, he served as a congressman from 1879 to 1781 and 1885 to 1889. He was the presidential candidate of the Greenback and People’s parties in 1892. Weaver was also a former civil war general. "Pitchfork" Ben Tillman: An U.S. Populist party leader born in South Carolina, he was elected governor of South Carolina in 1890 and 1892, and he served on the U.S. Senate from 1894 to 1912. Very progressively minded, Tillman promoted many reform programs in South Carolina, including better public education. Mary Ellen Lease: She was a fiery lawyer from Wichita, Kansas who was very active in the movements for agrarian and labor reform. She burst out on to the scene in the 1890's as a spellbinding Southern alliance orator vehemently crying that the farmers needed to "raise less corn and more hell." "Sockless" Jerry Simpson: He was an intelligent rancher from Kansas who lost his stock in the hard winter of 1886 to 1887, and he became a major Southern Alliance leader. When he mentioned the expensive silk stockings of a conservative politician and remarked that he could afford no such fineries a hostile newspaper editor named him "Sockless Jerry." Ignatius Donnelly: A noted United States writer and a champion of the Populist Party, Donnelly served as an U.S. Congressman from Minnesota from 1863 to 1869. He also wrote Great Cryptogram in an attempt to prove that Francis Bacon wrote William Shakespeare's works.

• WILLIAM

JENNINGS BRYAN: Despite the fact that he was defeated three times for the presidency of the United States, William Jennings Bryan, the principal figure of the Populist party, molded public opinion as few leaders have done. A surprise to the public, he polled many votes during the 1896 election, which may have been a direct result of his "Cross of Gold Speech." For many years he was the leader of the Democratic party, and it was his influence that won the Democratic presidential nomination for Wilson in 1912. "Cross of Gold Speech": William Jennings Bryan won the national Democratic convention's nomination for the presidency in 1896 through a vigorous appeal for free coinage of silver known as the "Cross of Gold" speech. Turning to those who wanted only gold as the monetary standard, he exclaimed: "You shall not crucify mankind upon this cross of gold." As a Populist, he did not support the gold standard since it would deflate the currency, which would make it more difficult for citizens to repay debts.
• ELECTION

OF 1896, CANDIDATES, ISSUES: The presidential candidates were the Republican William McKinley from Pennsylvania, and the Democrat William J. Bryan. The Populists also supported Bryan for the presidency, but chose Tom Watson for the vice presidency. The Republicans believed in the gold standard, while the Democrats believed in bimetallism and the unlimited coinage of silver. McKinley won the election. The Populism collapsed after 1896, but Progressivism emerged in its wake. Marcus Hanna: He was an industrialist who became convinced that the welfare of industry, and therefore the nation, was bound by the fortunes of the Republican party. To further his goals he waged the most expensive political campaign the nation had ever seen to get William McKinley elected president in 1896. He also served in the Senate.

Imperialism
As the 19th century came to a close, many voices cried for American expansionism to match the imperialistic ambitions of Europe and Japan. The dream for global destiny was justified by such logic as the expansion of overseas markets, desire for a stronger navy, and the spreading of Christianity to uncivilized peoples around the globe. Eventually, this expansionism translated into conflict, climaxing in 1898 with the Spanish-American War. James G. Blaine, Pan-Americanism: As Secretary of State, Blaine fostered closer U.S.Latin American relations and brought about the first Pan-American Congress in order to forge commercial, social, economic, military, and political cooperation among the 21 republics of North, Central, and South America. Venezuelan boundary dispute: Venezuela had a dispute over its boundary with the British Colony of Guiana. In 1895, while the British refused to resolve the issue, United States Secretary of State Richard Olney sent a message to London declaring that the US would be "practically sovereign on this content."

Bering Sea seal controversy: When the US purchased Alaska in 1867, it included some small Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea. Congress leased the island to a US company which killed seals with the understanding that they would not kill more than 10,000 male seals per year. This led to the regulation of pelagic sealing in 1893. "Yellow journalism": Two rival newspapers in New York City, William Randolph Hearst’s Journal, and Joseph Pulitzer’s World, sensationalized editorializing on the issues to increase circulation. One of Hearst’s gimmicks was "The Yellow Kid," which gave the name of Yellow Journalism to this tactic. Josiah Strong, Our Country: Reverend Josiah Strong wrote the book Our Country: Its Possible Future and Present Crisis expressing his fears of the inability of relief organizations to cope with the explosive growth of the urban poor in the 1870’s and 1880’s.

•Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890)
helped create and develop the expansionist movement. Mahan, former head of the Navy War College at Newport, Rhode Island wanted to expand United States Navy to build an isthmusian canal, and to establish strategic colonies as cooling stations, and to protect US political and economic interests. Samoa, Pago Pago: America’s Navy wanted to establish a port in the Samoan Islands, so their ships could refuel in the island of Pago Pago. This was an example of the United States Navy’s expansion efforts in the pacific. Their goal was to obtain more ports so they could have more ships out on the ocean to control the seas. Virginius: In 1873 a Spanish gunboat captured the Virginius, a ship fraudulently flying the American flag, in Cuba. Secretary of State Fish and the Spanish minister came together in Washington and signed a protocol bringing the end to the Virginius affairs. Spain paid the US $80,000. de Lôme letter: On February 8, 1898, Hearst’s Journal published a private letter written by Spanish minister to the United States Depuy de Lôme regarding his reservations for Cuban independence and disparaging President McKinley. Many Americans would have agreed, but they resented hearing it from a Spanish diplomat. Maine explodes: When an explosion rocked the Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898, killing 266 American crewmen, irritation turned to outrage. A review of the evidence later concluded that a ship-board ammunition explosion caused the blast. Still, a navy inquiry blamed the blast on a "Spanish mine."

•Teller Amendment: The U.S. had been motivated o war in part by the desire to aid the
Cubans in their attempt to liberate themselves from the colonial rule of Spain. To this end the Teller Ammendment was added to the Declaration of War. It speciffically prohibited the annexation of Cuba, as a cause of the war.

when George Dewey’s fleet steamed into Manila Bay in the Philippines and seized or destroyed all ten Spanish ships anchored there. Rough Riders. captured the hill. Spain agreed to abandon Cuba and exchange Puerto Rico. American Anti-Imperialist League: The critics of imperialism were many and influential. once their queen was overthrown. The war ended after Spanish Admiral Pascual Cervera attempted to break through American forces losing 474 men. San Juan Hill: The battle of San Juan Hill was fought on July 1. 1898. A division including the Rough Riders. Roosevelt resigned to become second in command of the Rough Riders. Queen Liluokalani: Liluokalani was the Queen of Hawaii who did not like Americans since they built their port in Pearl Harbor.1898. This fleet destroyed and captured all ten Spanish ships that were assigned in Manila Bay. Hawaiians were uncertain if they wanted annexation at all.S. domestic sugar growers ended the duty-free status of Hawaiian sugar. The Filipinos celebrated their freedom from four hundred years of Spanish rule on July 4. Queen Liluokalani was overthrown when Hawaii’s sugar prices dropped 40% and planters wanted the independent Republic of Hawaii. Action started on May 1. Commodore Dewey. One American and 381 Spanish men died in the attempt. Treaty of Paris. Annexation of Hawaii: In 1890 under the McKinley Tariff. The treaty gave the United States a new imperialistic reputation. the Hawaiians decided to request United States annexation. 1898 during the American advance on Santiago during the Spanish-American War. However.• SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR: The Spanish-American War lasted just three months with only a few days of actual combat. placing the American army on high ground overlooking Santiago. they believed that every country captured by the U. President Grover Cleveland was troubled with the crisis in Hawaii since Hawaiians claimed to want annexation. . In 1898. acting largely on his own. Cleveland and Hawaii: In 1887 the United States gained the right to establish a naval port in Pearl Harbor. Guam and the Philippines to America for $20 million. After Hawaii’s sugar prices dropped 40% and Queen Liluokalani was overthrown. Manila Bay: The first action of the Spanish-American War came in 1898 when Commodore George Dewey’s fleet steamed into Manila Bay in the Philippines. In the treaty. had the same rights under the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. Roosevelt was an impatient disciple in the Spanish-American War. Assistant Secretary of Navy Theodore Roosevelt: Theodore Roosevelt was appointed as Assistant Secretary of the Navy by President William McKinley in 1897. 1898: The Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American War and developed an American empire overseas. under the command of General Kent. Forming the Anti-Imperialist League.

Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico: By the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain recognized Cuba’s independence and ceded the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific Island of Guam to the United States in exchange for $20 million. As 1899 dawned Americans possessed an island empire from the Caribbean to the Pacific. Walter Reed: In 1900 Walter Reed was appointed to the Yellow Fever Commission as a result of his investigation of the disease. After being sent to Cuba to find out more about Yellow Fever, he discovered that the disease was carried by a mosquito. He later became a curator at Army Medical Museum and a professor at Army Medical College. Insular Cases: The decisions regarding whether the Constitution applies to Puerto Rico and the Philippines are known as the Insular Cases. They ruled that the residents are inhabitants but not citizens of the United States. Because of this ruling, these countries were not honored by the Constitution and were treated as colonies.
• Platt

Amendment: Senator Orville Platt, at the request of the War department, made a revised bill to remove some of the restrictions stated in the Teller Amendment. The Platt Amendment stated that the United States would withdraw from Cuba if they did not sign a treaty with any other foreign power. It also gave the United States the right to interfere with Cuba if they believed that it was not a fit enough country to take care of itself. Also, they established the right to hold a naval base in Cuba. Protectorate: When a more powerful state controls the economy, foreign affairs, or police power of another state, it is considered a protectorate. In the case of the United States, Cuba was a protectorate as a result of the Platt Amendment. Other examples might include Nicuaragua, the Dominican Republic, Hawaii, and other Pacific islands.
• Aguinaldo,

Philippine insurrection: In 1896 Emilio Aguinaldo started a Filipino movement for independence to get out of Spain’s control. When Spain surrendered, Aguinaldo drew up a constitution and proclaimed the Philippines’s independence. When the Treaty of Paris gave the United States power over the Philippines, Aguinaldo became angry and tried to fight. He soon realized that he would lose and gave up. Secretary of State John Hay, Open Door Notes: John Hay’s Open Door Notes was a policy that explained the importance of American commercial influence on foreign policies. The Open Door Notes stated that the pre-thought "informal empire" was correct as opposed to overseas colonies being favored by imperial power. Boxer Rebellion: The Boxers, a secret group of Chinese men known as I Ho Ch’uan, opposed Christianity in their country. Numbering 140,000, the Boxers killed thousands of foreigners as well as Chinese suspected of being Christian. British, American, Russian, Japanese and French soldiers were sent to China to end the "Boxer Rebellion." Extraterritoriality: Extraterritoriality is a principle in international law that allows certain visiting foreign citizens or their property to be exempt from the laws of a host nation. Foreign heads of states traveling abroad and diplomats representing their home countries are examples of people benefiting from extraterritoriality.

Most favored nation clause: The most favored nation clause is a commercial treaty that regulates special low tariffs on goods imported to the United States. All countries awarded the Special Nation Status must be treated equally. Duties for the same group of goods should be the same low regardless from which country signatory of the status they are imported.

Roosevelt & Progressivism
Many intellectuals increasingly challenged the foundations of the social order. Voices of reform thundered over the nation calling for democratic government, better cities, and the curbing of corporate power. This movement, labeled progressivism, found its first national leader in Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt actively pursued many of his goals: labor mediation, consumer protection, conservation, business virtue, and activism abroad. His successor, Taft, continued in Roosevelt’s aims but lacked his political genius. Election of 1900: candidates and issues: William McKinley, the Republican candidate, beat William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic candidate, for President. The Republican campaign theme of prosperity, summed up in the slogan "A Full Dinner Pail," easily won him a second term. McKinley had 284 electoral votes where as Bryan had 115.
• Roosevelt’s

Big Stick diplomacy: One of Roosevelt’s most famous statements was "speak softly and carry a big stick." An example of his meaning in this statement was when Canada wanted the Alaskan land that America owned. They were fighting over the boundaries because of gold found in the area. Roosevelt simply stated that if the boundaries would change, there would be serious consequences. Because of his problem solving method, Roosevelt was known to use "Big Stick" diplomacy. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty: The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 stated that both the United States and Britain promised not to claim control over any canal built between the oceans that separated their countries. This included the Panama Canal which America later took over anyway. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty: In 1901, the United States planned to construct the Panama Canal. This meant they would be in need of a new treaty. Secretary of State John Hay and British Ambassador Sir Julian Pauncefote agreed on a new treaty that would drop England’s claim on the canal. Panama Revolution: Financed by Philippe Bunau-Varilla, chief agent of the New Panama Canal Company, the Panama Revolution was a planned revolt by Panamanians against Colombian occupation of the Isthmus of Panama. The United States did not encourage the revolution, but it did make clear that it would not allow it to fail.
• The Panama

Canal: When a French company supposed to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama went bankrupt, it offered to sell its assets to the United States. The Hay-Herrán agreement, which would have granted the US a ninety-nine-year lease on a

strip of land for canal construction, was rejected by the Colombian senate. Determined to have a canal, Roosevelt found a collaborator in Philippe Bunau-Varilla, who organized a "revolution." After Panama was recognized, the canal building commenced. Virgin Islands purchased: Denmark, in 1917, sold to the United States its West Indian territories for $25 million, including the Virgin Islands. These islands, located at the perimeters of the Caribbean, were of great military importance during the Second World War. They mainly served to protect the US mainland as well as the Panama Canal. Goethals and Gorgas: George Goethel was a civil engineer who directed a completion of the Panama Canal. William Gorgas helped to make it possible to construct Panama Canal by killing mosquitoes carrying yellow fever and malaria. Theodore Roosevelt later appointed these men important positions in The Panama Canal Zone. Venezuela Crisis, 1902: In 1902 the country's debts became so large that European creditor nations blockaded Venezuela; the United States intervened to obtain arbitration of the dispute. Castro's departure for Europe in 1908 opened the way for his deputy, Juan Vicente Gomez, to seize power. Drago Doctrine: Luis Maria Drago was an Argentine diplomat who formulated a supplement to the Monroe Doctrine known as the Drago Doctrine. In 1902, Great Britain, Germany, and Italy imposed a joint naval blockade on Venezuela in order to coerce that country into paying its debts.
• Roosevelt

Corollary: In 1904, Roosevelt created the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. This doctrine justified U.S. intervention in the affairs of Latin American nations if their weakness or wrongdoing warranted such action. An example of this interference was the American intervention in Haiti when it was not wanted. The document was primarily a pass for the US to interfere with other countries’ business when it was not wanted nor needed. U.S. intervention in Haiti: In 1915, President Woodrow Wilson sent the United States Marines into Haiti. The purpose was to calm the anarchy that the US claimed existed in the country. In 1916, Congress ratified a treaty that would allow the US ten years of control over Haiti to maintain order and give political and economic assistance. Dominican Republic: In 1915, after bloody upheavals in Haiti and the Dominican Republic, Wilson ordered the marines. A Haitian constitution favorable to U.S. commercial interests was ratified in 1918. The marines remained in the Dominican Republic until 1924, and in Haiti until 1934. Revolution in Nicaragua: In 1911 a US-supported revolution in Nicaragua brought to power Adolfo Díaz, an officer of the American-owned Nicaraguan mining property. American bankers loaned the Díaz government $15 million in exchange for control of most of Nicaragua. When a revolt broke out, Roosevelt ordered in the marines.

Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth: The Russo-Japanese war (1904-05) was the first conflict in which an Asian power defeated a European country. Fighting began when the Japanese attacked the Russian fleet at Port Arthur after Russia, which had occupied Manchuria during the Boxer Uprising in China, refused to withdraw its troops. San Francisco School Board Incident: American relations with Japan suffered when the San Francisco school board, in 1906, ordered all Asian children to attend segregated schools. Summoning the school-board members to Washington, Roosevelt persuaded them to reverse this discriminatory policy. Elihu Root: As secretary of war in the cabinets of William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, Root reorganized the army and established the Army War College. As Roosevelt's secretary of state from 1905 to 1909, he reformed the consular service, improving US relations with Latin America, and sponsoring a series of arbitration treaties. Taft-Katsura Memo: By the Taft-Katsura Memo of 1905, the United States and Japan pledged to maintain the Open Door principles in China. Japan recognized American control over the Philippines and the United States granted a Japanese protectorate over Korea.
• Gentleman’s

Agreement: In the 1890’s, workers feared their jobs would be taken by the Japanese immigrants and they wanted a law preventing any more immigrants to move to the United States. In 1907 Japan proposed the Gentlemen’s Agreement which promised that they would halt the unrestricted immigration if President Roosevelt promised to discourage any laws being made that would restrict Japanese immigration to the US. Great White Fleet: This was a naval fleet that went on a voyage around the world. After 15 months, when the fleet returned, President Roosevelt met all the crew members personally. The two objects of this voyage were being friendly with the nation’s allies but also to show other nations the naval power of the United States. Lodge Corollary: When a Japanese syndicate moved to purchase a large tract of land in Mexico’s Lower California, Senator Lodge introduced a resolution to block the Japanese investment. The Corollary went further to exclude non-European powers from the Western Hemisphere under the Monroe Doctrine. Root-Takahira Agreement: In 1908, Japan and the United States signed the RootTakahira Agreement. Through this document the two nations promised not to seek territorial gain in the Pacific. These two nations also promised to honor an open door policy in China. Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917: Robert Lansing, Secretary of State under President Wilson, negotiated the Lansing-Ishii agreement on November 2, 1917 with Japan,

led by Francisco Madero in 1911. Allied forces later became antiBolshevik and seized the port. With the U. Díaz. Mexican Revolution. efficiency. United States involvement in this campaign compromised American neutrality. When president Carranza rejected the proposal for a new Mexican government. In effect. However. Mexican migration to the U. By 1914 more than 100. "watchful waiting": "Watchful waiting" refers to Wilson’s policy towards the events unfolding in Europe. Eventually. General Pershing: During the political turmoil of Mexico in 1916. Pancho Villa. Congress passed the Jones Act which provided for a government for the Philippines and committed the United States to granting Filipino independence. Jones Act. Huerta. Pershing was sent with 12. a bill was finally passed to actually grant the Filipinos their independence. They filled partly the US need for labor during war. this led to Mexican-American hostilities. . General John J. In 1934. the US still felt they had a right to China.000 troops to catch Villa with no avail. Carranza: Rebels. These new immigrants found mainly in railroad industries and agriculture where jobs were vacated by the war. The US refused to recognize Huerta’s government because it had come to power violently. Russia to defend Allied military stockpiles from German attack. In 1913. outraged. Its establishment encouraged parallel pricing for all carriers. and Chile. The government created was based on the Constitutional model. the conference came to an end. Allied forces landed in the port of Archangel. bandit Pancho Villa murdered 16 Americans. overthrew Porfirio Díaz.: In the period from 1877 to 1910 economic conditions were worsening in Mexico. then burned down Columbus in New Mexico.S. In 1914. This policy was taken although it was clear that the United States had obvious ties to Britain and would likely favor it. Madero was overthrown by a military regime led by Victoriano Huerta. Allies favored the Whites during the period of Russia’s civil war. it was America’s policy of neutrality throughout most of the First World War.S.000 Mexicans had migrated to the United States. the ABC powers called a conference to prevent a war between the United States and Mexico caused by the Veracruz Incident.whereby the United States recognized Japan's special interests in China. ABC Powers: The ABC powers consisted of Argentina. 1916 (Philippines): In 1916. pragmatism: Democracy is a form of government in which a substantial proportion of the citizenry directly or indirectly participates in ruling the state. 1917 (Puerto Rico): The Jones Act of 1917 was passed by the United States to regulate trade in Puerto Rico. It established the Sea Land service to prevent carriers and shippers from using unfair pricing practices. Archangel expedition: In 1918. Jones Act. Brazil. Massive US response angered some Mexicans and led to hostilities. Democracy.

and books focused on the squalid living conditions of the city's poor and spurred legislation to improve those conditions. Veblen’s book is a classic of social theory that introduced the concept of "conspicuous consumption. marking the beginning of the individual progressive spirit." Veblen continued to write other books dealing with the same general theories. Tarbell became famous as a muckraker through her well-documented articles on political and corporate corruption in McClure's Magazine and American Magazine. They were highly honored internationally and a monument to them was built at Kitty Hawk. He wrote a series of articles that documented corruption in American cities. His novels portray the demoralizing effects of modern technology on human fate. Wealth Against Commonwealth: A leading opponent of business monopolies." Henry Demarest Lloyd. Henry Demarest Lloyd was one of the pioneer muckrakers of the late 19th century. Kitty Hawk: Wilbur and Orville Wright created the modern field of aeronautics. Joseph Lincoln Steffens. The Shame of the Cities: An eminent American reformer and journalist. Thorstein Veblen. "Muckrakers": Those American writers who early in the 20th century wrote both fiction and nonfiction to expose corruption in business and politics were called the muckrakers. After over 200 calculations and tests at Kitty Hawk they built the first practical airplane. articles. photographer.Pragmatism is a philosophical movement. asserting that some cities were run by political bosses who remained in power with the help of powerful businessmen. developed in the United States. His photographs. Ida Tarbell.S. Muckraker was a term first used by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906. He developed his antimonopoly theme as financial writer and editor at the Chicago Tribune. and reformer. novelist Frank Norris was a noted pioneer of naturalism in literature. was a leader of the muckrakers. which holds that both the meaning and the truth of any idea is a function of its practical outcome. How the Other Half Lives: A journalist. David Graham Phillips. Frank Norris. Jacob Riis. attacked the railroad and wheat industries in the United States. His "Treason of . Lincoln Steffens. They were given this name because of their tendency to "spread the muck around. and biographer. The Treason of the Senate: Author of many popular problem novels of the early 20th century. The Octopus (1901) and The Pit (1903). editor. The Theory of the Leisure Class: Thorstein Veblen is best known for his book The Theory of The Leisure Class (1899). His best-known works. Wright Brothers. Phillips was also a prominent journalist. Jacob August Riis publicized the plight of immigrants in New York City slum tenements. History of the Standard Oil Company: As a Pennsylvania journalist. The Octopus: The U.

Edward Ross: Ross wrote one of the first books dealing with social psychology." They focused on teaching children of their proper patriotic role in society and working to broaden the horizons of their members though a number of varied activities. Initiative allowed voters to enact laws directly. was an economics research professor at Northwestern University. Through recall voters were able to directly remove public officials from office. Girl Scouts: The Boy and Girl Scouts. a feminist classic she wrote. a progressive economist. It attacked the commonly accepted idea that women should be economically dependent on men while suggesting alternatives such as cooperative kitchens and day-care programs. not the leadership. of each party nominate the party’s nominees for public office.the Senate" series of articles (1906) in Cosmopolitan magazine were an important contribution to the muckraking movement in American journalism. Supreme Court: Holmes was a professor of law at Harvard who resigned to become a member of the Supreme Court. Jr. "progressive education. It provided that the members. Charlotte Perkins Gilman. greatly affected educational techniques. formed to educate the youth of America. Australian ballot (secret ballot): Many electoral reforms gave voters greater control over the government. John Dewey. Boy Scouts. As a jurist he interpreted the Constitution in a very liberal manner. earning him the name "the Great Dissenter" among his colleagues. recall: These were three types of progressive electoral reforms passed by some western states. Oliver Wendell Holmes. The School and Society. It originated in Wisconsin (1903) and rapidly spread throughout the rest of the United States. Richard Ely: Ely." "learn by doing": Dewey’s ideas of progressive education. The referendum allowed voters to express their opinions of specific issues. Initiative. especially at the ballot boxes where voters could be easily swayed. . He founded the Laboratory School. another psychologist who believed that the process of evolution created instinctive sociological behavior.. His ideas conflicted with McDougall’s. a school in which students learned of life by actively doing things rather than following a strict curriculum. Direct primary: The direct primary was another progressive municipal reform. Woman and Economics: Gilman was a leading American feminist writer known for Woman and Economics (1898). heavily embody Dewey’s concept of "learn by doing. He founded the American Economic Association in 1899 and was the first economist to suggest that government interference in regulation of the national economic was not harmful but even sometimes helpful. referendum. He analyzed the transmission of social behavior through society by its transmission from one person to another. described in The School and Society.

fire: An accidental fire at the Traingle Shirtwaist Company killed 141 workers. 1902: Roosevelt drafted the Newlands Reclamation Act when he noticed that decades of rapid industrial growth had destroyed much of the limited natural resources of the land. begun in Australia. Through this act Roosevelt also enlarged Pinchot’s forest staff from 123 to 1. 1908: As Roosevelt’s conservative trend began to permeate through the public mind. George F. and union recognition.500 people. As a result. International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU): This union of American needle-trade workers launched drives to improve working conditions. called for a "square deal. It insured that all natural resources would be managed by experts. These concerns raised new questions of human and immigrant rights and of existing labor laws.By 1910 all states had replaced the corrupt system of preprinted ballots with a new secret ballot. Triangle Shirtwaist Co. safety conditions. By 1916 they enacted anti-saloon laws in 23 states and in 1917 they passed the 18th amendment beginning prohibition. Anthracite coal strike. Square Deal: Roosevelt. Conservation conference. Roosevelt instead mediated a series of negotiations between the strikers and the owners over issues of wages. many people united in this league in their fight against saloons. 1891: The Forest Reserve Act. strongly supported by Roosevelt and Pinchot. and raise working rates. he began to create several groups to raise public awareness of nature and the necessity of conservation. It prodded the concerns of many progressive reformers since the workers. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good. which were protected from the short-sighted greed Roosevelt saw in many large companies. end the practice of workers paying for their own equipment. Anti-Saloon League: During and after the American Civil War the laws regulating many aspects of saloons were either reduced or eliminated. created a system of national forests. Newlands Reclamation Act. Funding came from public-land sales and was used to build irrigation projects. Forest Reserve Act. Baer: The Anthracite coal strike was the first strike in which the government became involved but did not side with the management. consisting of approximately 200 million acres. 1902. followed by the National Conservation Commission. It is remembered for the militancy of its early organizational drives and its fight against sweatshops." This progressive concept denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trustbusting attitude. on a speaking tour against the Northern Securities Company. The first meeting was of the White House Conservation Conference. were killed by brutal working conditions. . which was much more difficult to rig. locked in the factory and unable to escape.

He earned the "trustbuster" name when he filed suit against the Northern Securities Company. rebates: The Interstate Commerce Commission was initially created to regulate the economy for the federal government. It allowed the ICC to set freight rates and. was a leader of the civil rights movement in the United States.E. in an attempt to reduce the corruption in the railroad industry. DuBois. The company was dissolved.. 1910: The Mann-Elkins Act further extended the regulatory ability of the ICC. He left many of the larger companies serving the public good alone. followed by 43 other cases. many officials used this immunity plea to avoid testifying in any way concerning their actions. The ICC was also given greater rate-setting power as well as the ability to begin court proceedings against companies disputing the new rates. to require a uniform system of accounting by regulated transportation companies. Members of the Niagara group joined with concerned liberal and radical whites to organize the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. Meat Inspection Act: The Meat Inspection Act was passed by Roosevelt as a strong response to Sinclair's book describing the conditions of food as well as wartime scandals in 1898 concerning spoiled canned meats. Northern Securities Co.B. however. did not want to destroy the big corporations that he saw necessary to American life. DuBois and other black leaders who shared his views founded the Niagara Movement. Previously. historian.B.E. granted the Interstate Commerce Commission enough power to regulate the economy. It was a large holding company formed by railroad and banking interests. W. Immunity of Witness Act: The Immunity of Witness Act. began a quality rating system. passed in 1906.E. Mann-Elkins Act. prevented corporate officials from pleading immunity in cases concerning their own corporation’s illegal activities. . Niagara movement: At a meeting in Niagara Falls. monopolistic companies in the interests of American welfare and economy. 1903. DuBois: For more than 50 years W. It allowed them to regulate cable and wireless companies dealing with telephone and telegraph lines. a black editor. deeply conservative at heart. 1906: The Hepburn Act. but he broke up many other large. In 1902 Roosevelt "trustbusted" them by claiming they violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in holding money against the public good. It created strict sanitary requirements for meat. Ont. in 1905. He did. W. He helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and was its outstanding spokesman in the first decades of its existence. It was not originally given enough power to regulate the monopolized railroad system. and sociologist. • "trustbuster": Teddy Roosevelt.B. The Elkins Act strengthened the ICC by stiffening penalties against secret railroad rebates to favored shippers.Elkins Act. Hepburn Act. in conjunction with the Elkins Act. case: This was the first company Roosevelt filed suit against in his trustbusting stage. and provisioned for a federal department to inspect meat. believe that they must be held to strict moral standards.

Panic of 1907: Roosevelt’s constant trustbusting of large corporations caused questionable bank speculations. It lobbied for legislation. eventually leading to an investigation of both working conditions and the conditions of food. Mark Hanna: Hanna was a successful American politician and businessman. Taft easily won. and mass public segregation. enacted through the efforts of Harvey Wiley and Sinclair in 1906. issues: The Republican platform consisted of Taft and Sherman. The large anti-black riot in Springfield in 1908 was representative of the peak of a period of harsh discrimination. This panic brought the need for banking reform to the forefront of political activity. This unfair and illegal action was later reversed by Congress once all involved parties had died. human. It eventually led to the enactment of the Pure Food Act. W. William Jennings Bryan ran for the Democratic Party on a similar anti-trust platform. and political rights of black Americans. gave consumers protection from dangerous and impure foods. It generally reflected the views of the blacks and whites who headed the NAACP. 1908: The period of Booker T.E. Upton Sinclair. This act solved problems concerning fraudulently labeled items. white resentment of black advances. eventually leading to the Panic of 1907.B. conservation. The Socialist Party was represented by Eugene Debs. and increased international trade. This book exposed the unsanitary working conditions in the stockyards of Chicago. He helped manage several campaigns including the Republican presidential nomination of . and strict credit policies.Springfield Ill riot. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP): The NAACP was an organization founded in 1909 by blacks and whites under such leaders as W. All products must be clearly labeled and must explain a product which cannot be seen or judged by a consumer. finally culminating in the Federal Reserve Act. They ran for continued anti-trust enforcement. Election of 1908: candidates. legal. In 1906 he discharged an entire regiment of blacks accused of rioting in Brownsville. a conservative gold standard. did not have a perfect record. sponsored educational programs. Pure Food and Drug Act: The Pure Food and Drug Act. Washington represented a period of increasing anti-black violence. The Jungle: Sinclair was an American writer and reformer who wrote The Jungle.B. DuBois to safeguard civil. DuBois was editor of The Crisis from 1910 to 1934. and engaged in protest actions. The Crisis: The Crisis was the magazine of the NAACP. He often wrote that Blacks should develop industry and business separate from the white economy in order prove their non-dependence on white society Brownsville Incident: Roosevelt. economic. though not as racist a president as those before him.E.

Regulatory commissions: As the Progressive Era advanced. increased corporate taxes. using time and motion studies to find what each worker should for the highest efficiency. Wisconsin.McKinley. • Robert M. these problems were solved. Scientific management. He adopted a direct primary system. an organization he used to collect a large war chest to assist in McKinley’s election. In 1889 she created Hull House in Chicago. Businessmen pushed for citywide elections and for the city-manager system of government. Jane Addams. In an effort to end the abuses of the rich capitalists regulatory commissions were created to divide the concentrated wealth. In 1899 she was selected general secretary of the National Consumers’ League. initially a Republican in Congress. Under this form of government the city was run by a committee of three elected commissioners. consumerism: Kelley was largely responsible for the regulation of child labor. even the political bosses assisted. regulatory commissions became more prevalent and numerable. La Follette: La Follette. previously only found at the municipal level. The new state level of regulation had some inherit problems. and passed other progressive reform legislation. He also created a legislative reference library for lawyers. In reforms concerning the commoners. Nearly all elements of the urban population participated in these reform efforts. home rule for cities: Home rule was a new form of city government other than the mayor-council form that emerged in the Progressive Era. Addams also played an important role in the National Progressive party. They locally ran the county rather than allowing the state to handle affairs. Taylor: Taylor was an engineer who first integrated scientific management with business. "laboratory of democracy": La Follette enacted sweeping changes during his governorship of Wisconsin in 1900. but as the progressive movement entered the national government. This municipal level reform soon moved to the state level. The excesses of the monopolistic railroad companies became known to all. He took the reform movement. • Municipal Reform: The beginning of the Progressive Era is marked by a great increase in municipal reform. It also tried to teach immigrants English customs. He became foreman of the Midvale Steel Company in 1878 and used mathematics to determine maximum industrial productivity. the state. a settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. . Hanna was later selected chairman of the Republican National Committee. She saw its evils as a resident in Hull House for several years. The populace agreed with this opinion by electing him governor as an independent. Hull House: Addams was a prominent social reformer in the US and Europe. Frederick W. to new heights. began to regulate the railroads in his state. which used organized consumer boycotts and strikes to force improved factory conditions. The middle class began the movement and was the core of urban beautification. broke from this party in 1924 when he realized big business was dangerously out of control. Florence Kelley.

built the first steel-frame buildings that later developed into modern skyscrapers. Burnham was the designer of the famous Chicago Plan. William Howard Taft: As president. Since Taft have given him support. Bureau of Corporations also in 1903): This department was created in 1913 with the intention of assisting the welfare and working conditions of the general worker. He was unable to reunite the two parties and. Uncle Joe Cannon (Old Guard): Cannon was a Republican who served as Speaker of the House from 1903 to 1911. This group. Hazen Pingree: These were all progressives who reformed the political process. 1909: This tariff was initially intended to lower several other tariffs. Daniel Hudson Burnham. including La Follette and Norris. commission plan: This form of government replaced the traditional mayor/council version in several cities. replacing them with five elected commissioners. Pingree reformed taxes. which is what they were elected to do. Johnson reformed public ownership of utilities in Chicago. Taft lost standing with the progressive Republicans. Department of Labor (from 1903 Department of Commerce and Labor. Payne-Aldrich Tariff. the honesty in government. as a result. in conjunction with John Root. but after numerous compromises in the Senate it became a protective measure. They were experts in rebuilding the ruined city. San Jones reformed profit sharing and education in Toledo. Taft also strongly supported a national budgetary system. It began in Texas when progressives removed the corrupt mayor and council. a plan in which many beautiful pre-skyscraper buildings were designed in Chicago. Ohio. . the Democratic party swept the 1912 elections. Ballinger-Pinchot controversy: Pinchot charged that Ballinger was giving the nation's natural resources to private corporate interests. The separation between progressive and conservative republicans was caused by this group. City manager plan. Progressives and Democrats joined to remove much of his power in 1910. 1909 Chicago Plan: Burnham. Under investigation it was found that Ballinger did nothing illegal though he did bend the government's environmental policies. Brand Whitlock. and beautified his city. Taft focused primarily on a continuation of trustbusting and reuniting the old conservatives and young progressives of the Republican Party. allowing the Republican-Democratic coalition to run the Senate. Sam (Golden Rule) Jones.Tom Johnson. Many Progressive reformers considered this a sign that the companies and various special interests were preventing consumer prices from reaching reasonable levels. turned against Taft after his passage of the 1909 tariff and completely separated after he supported the Payne-Aldrich Tariff. He strongly opposed many progressive reforms and was thus not very popular in the house. Insurgents: Insurgents was a nickname for a small group of reformist Republicans. It was empowered to investigate and report illegal corporative activities.

Manchurian railroad scheme: In an attempt to force Japan and Russia to sell their land in Manchuria for railroad investment. Taft-Roosevelt split: In 1912 the Democrats finally regained control of the presidency due to the Taft-Roosevelt split. American Tobacco case: In 1911 a progressive interpretation of the Sherman Act was enacted by the Supreme Court. • "dollar diplomacy": In an effort to avoid Roosevelt’s "big stick" economic policy. Roosevelt unveiled a plan in which he called for a protection of welfare over property. opposing Taft’s support of numerous tariffs as well as the Old Guard in Congress. Secretary of State Knox: Knox was responsible for the creation of the Latin American Division of the State Department. Bull Moose Party: This party. Rule of reason: Standard Oil case. President Taft sought to avoid military confrontation by using money to increase foreign interest in the US. but the US kept a portion of the military in the Dominican Republic. It was created in his anger of Taft being nominated in the Republican Party. This interpretation emerged when the court broke these two companies into smaller firms. Taft’s inability to associate with the progressive elements of his party convinced Roosevelt to return. Roosevelt’s Osawatomie. Through a change in House rules he ended the rule of the Speaker of the House Joseph Cannon. He also created the Tennessee Valley Authority. and prohibition of child labor. woman suffrage. This was planned to quiet revolutionary thoughts and to prevent foreign financial problems. a dam building company. Kansas speech: The differences between Taft and Roosevelt were revealed in Roosevelt’s 1910 Osawatomie "New Nationalism" speech. only "unreasonable" combinations restraining trade were illegal. According to this "rule of reason" principle. They outpolled the Republicans but lost to the Democrats. formally known as the Progressive Party. was created by Theodore Roosevelt after his split with Taft. and political stability in Latin America rather than sending the military to force stability. As he ignored the limitations of party politics he slowly lost support.Senator George Norris: Norris was a reformist senator who favored federal regulation of public utilities. China refused to approve Taft’s plan and Japan and Russia began to grow suspicious of the US’s motives. He planned to donate large sums of money to generate economic. social. President Taft moved to construct his own competing rail system. His efforts were largely a failure as most of the money never reached the actual people of Latin America. Progressivism to Wilson . Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party and thus siphoned enough votes to cause the Republicans to lose the election. He planned to promote better relation. Most of the money was stolen by corrupt government officials. They advocated primary elections.

• Theodore Roosevelt. In 1897 he created the Social Democratic Party of America. All of the platforms dealt primarily with economic reform. support trustbusting in the same way that Roosevelt did. Though they won several strikes. This platform was essentially identical with many of the progressive reforms later passed under Wilson. nicknamed the "Wobblies. Debs. The Promise of American Life: Croly best captured the nature of progressivism in this book. Wilson’s "New Freedom" campaign was concerned with progressive programs similar to both parties. Debs was an American Socialist leader and five time presidential candidate. Specifically. Herbert Croly. democracy. To him. running under a compromise platform. National Monetary Commission: The National Monetary Commission examined monetary data collected by the Pujo Committee and recommended a new form of . Debs continued to run on the Socialist platform. Roosevelt copied many of his ideas for his New Nationalism platform. Wilson ran with the Democratic Party. Roosevelt tried to run with the Republican Party. Roosevelt. the divided Republicans were no match for the united Democrats." This platform followed the previous trustbusting and regulation trend as well as alleviating many common progressive concerns such as child labor. Daniel DeLeon. He left and created the Progressive Party. Woodrow Wilson easily glided to victory as the Democrats also took both houses of Congress. Wobblies. he suggested a redefinition of government. He dreamed of an activist government which would serve all citizens. they were more rhetoric than action. They were never large. Wilson’s agenda included tariff reform. corporate regulation.In 1912. Debs even received 900. Debs . To overcome this stumbling block the Democrats united with the Progressives. Taft." was a radical labor group formed by "Big Bill" Haywood. woman’s suffrage. "Big Bill" Haywood: The Industrial Workers of the World. His Socialist party was quite popular until it splintered apart along internal divisions. however. but Taft was chosen. New Freedom: The Democratic Party. but they captured many people’s imaginations as they preached revolution. Except on the issue of race. A Federal Trade Commission was also planned to regulate the economy. • Woodrow Wilson. had a past history of 45 ballots without a nomination. and minimum wages. indicating the change that Americans wanted. the election identified the party firmly with reform for the rest of the century. He received nearly one million votes for president while he was imprisoned in jail. • Election of 1912: Wilson. to which Wilson belonged. Eugene V.issues: The election of 1912 was very interesting for most Americans since there were 4 active political parties. and individualism. all big business was morally evil and should be broken up. New Nationalism: In the election of 1912 Roosevelt was nominated under a platform nicknamed "The New Nationalism. Socialist Party: Eugene V. banking and currency reform. and labor legislation. Four amendments to the Constitution within the span of eight years demonstrated the efficiency of the progressive impulse.000 votes. IWW. He did not.

Mary Ritter Beard. Edgar Lee Masters. dramatic. It also began a trend towards hour-long. These scenes were later unified to form a coherent narrative ending in a scene of suspense. Madison Grant. became extremely popular in the Progressive Era due to the freedom they offered children from parents. Griffith. The right to do so was upheld in the court case Buck v. This story demonstrated the power of film propaganda and the racist effects it had on people. and a forced eugenics movement by crime and by race type. He believed that ragtime should evolve into an indigenous black American opera style. political. His work’s realism and irony contrast with the romantic and sentimental trends in progressive literature. this book calls for absolute racial segregation. immigrant restriction. Edwin Porter. The Great Train Robbery: The Great Train Robbery. Historical revisionism: Mary and Charles were two historians that pioneered a new perspective on history. used to adjust the value of money to keep the economy stable. Griffith revolutionized the field of motion pictures after his production of The Birth of a Nation in 1915. D. Eugenics movement: The Eugenics movement is one of the best examples of progressive ideas contradicting science. Bell. later became the Federal Reserve System. Beard. demonstrating the revolt against conventional social standards that was beginning. Ragtime: Scott Joplin was a pianist and one of the most important developers of ragtime music. and social threads of present time must be followed back to generate a clearer picture. published in 1916. Nickelodeons: Nickelodeons.banking. movies costing a nickel each. well-acted films. Some Americans believed that the society could be improved by controlled breeding. Charles A. is a preview to the ideas later espoused by Adolf Hitler. many progressives moved to create censorship boards for these films. They each believed that history must be reexamined from a modern perspective and that the economic. Spoon River Anthology: Edgar Lee Master’s poems are unique in that they are presented as the voices of a town’s graveyard talking about their lives. suggesting a secure Treasury reserve and branch banks. W. The Birth of a Nation: D. They accomplished this by sterilizing many criminals and sex offenders. This advice. It used new innovations such as the intercutting of scenes shot in different settings. produced by Edwin Porter in 1903. Scott Joplin. was the first major American film. Immigrant children could easily imagine away their restrictive home conditions. His 1899 release of "Maple Leaf Rag" was the beginning of popular ragtime music. W. Written in the Progressive Era. The Passing of the Great Race: This book. . Noticing the lack of moral oversight.

Commercial banks bought stock from this bank.Billy Sunday: Billy Sunday was an American Fundamentalist preacher and professional baseball player. in which he used broadcasting to strengthen people’s bond with Christianity. ratified in 1913. This law was intended to create a more democratic. As women felt their power in politics increasing. Seventeenth Amendment: The Seventeenth Amendment. Federal Reserve Act: The Federal Reserve Act was a compromise designed to stabilize the currency in the US. The discount rate at which the federal bank lent the money determined the interest rate. and eventually gained the right for birth-control. a law which prevented the distribution of birth control. In 1916 she opened the first American birth-control facility. Charles Evans Hughes: Charles Evans Hughes was an American jurist and statesmen. It split the US into 12 regions with one Federal bank in each region. they began to demand the ability to vote from their male peers. It authorized the income tax thereby allowing the Underwood-Simmons Tariff of 1913 to lower many tariffs. This amendment resulted from intense efforts among various women’s movements. is a logical progression from the prohibition movement. Margaret Sanger: Sanger was a leader among birth-control advocates. fair society in the eyes of progressives. This committee’s findings later led to the creation of the Federal Reserve Banking system. He served as the chief justice of the Supreme Court in the depression years of the 1930s and supported many aspects of Roosevelt’s liberal New Deal. Nineteenth Amendment: The Nineteenth Amendment. granting women the vote in 1920. ratified in 1919. is an obvious indicator to the Progressive era in which it was passed. They found that the money and credit of the US is localized inside a small group of rich capitalists. Eighteenth Amendment: The Eighteenth Amendment. ratified in 1913. passing many progressive reform measures. He conducted regular ‘revivals’ throughout the nation. moved the election of senators from the state legislatures to the general populace." won an appeal. In the spirit of progressivism they were granted the vote in 1920. This amendment invalidated an earlier Supreme Court decision calling the income tax was unconstitutional. She was convicted for this "public nuisance. proving to the nation that women could effect political changes. She attacked the Comstock Law. It followed the ideas already laid down by the Australian secret ballot and the direct primary. . prohibited the non-medical sale of alcohol. The broadcasts of his revivals are considered among the most effective ever. As governor of New York he eliminated much of the corruption in government. Pujo Committee: The Pujo Committee researched and later reported on the concentration of money and credit over the general populace. Sixteenth Amendment: The Sixteenth Amendment. This amendment is the midpoint of a growing drive towards women’s rights.

Income tax: The income tax. This new power was first used in the Tariff Act of 1913 which set the tax of corporate income at 1%. The commission also regularly generated statistics of economic and business conditions to the public. Colonel House: Colonel Edward M House was part of the Wilson administration and served as an advisor to the president. to correct for this monetary loss. the United States should keep Americans off belligerent ships. Wilson. International disputes could be deferred to the Hague Tribunal as stipulated by the arbitration treaties. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan: From 1913-1915. which was briefly opposed because of anti- . Federal Trade Commission. a Jew. It included a graduated income tax. The US’s stubbornness on the issue of neutrality rights led Bryan to resign his position in 1915. It investigated economically unfair business practices and regulated these.Underwood-Simmons Tariff: The Underwood-Simmons Tariff reduced the tariffs from the Payne-Aldrich Tariff to about 29%. Louis Brandeis. An example of such a treaty is the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. promoted free and fair trade competition. Bryan served as Secretary of State to Wilson. Practices such as local price-cutting and price discrimination were made illegal. Great Britain opposed the move saying it violated the 1901 Hay-Pauncefote Treaty. Panama Tolls dispute: In 1912. "Brandeis brief": In 1916. cease and desist orders: The Federal Trade Commission. He later was part of the Roosevelt administration and was involved in New Deal legislation taking his traditional Wilsonian democracy to the New Deal era and its actions. arbitration treaties: The arbitration treaties were negotiated by Secretary of State Root with 25 other nations. noticing that it followed his principle of "New Freedom. Woodrow Wilson appointed Louis Brandeis. It also levied a 1% tax on all rich families. to the Supreme Court. and picket was also confirmed. labor’s Magna Carta (?): The Clayton Act was designed to clarify the Sherman Antitrust Act in terms of new economic issues that had arisen. He felt that instead of insisting on passenger’s rights. the United States passed a bill that would exempt the United States from payment in the use of the Panama Canal. boycott. The right of unions to strike. but unfavorable court interpretations rendered many of its pro-labor sections powerless without further legislation. was later ratified as the Sixteenth Amendment. originally declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. The treaties were undermined by disputes of individual national interests." heavily advocated it. After some dispute the United States eliminated the exemption clause and the president signed the bill in 1914. Income tax has been greatly increased as tariffs have been lowered. created by the Federal Trade Commission Act. • Clayton Antitrust Act. a differing view on neutrality. made legal by the sixteenth amendment to the Constitution. This act would have been labor’s Magna Carta had it been followed.

Smith-Lever Act: The Smith-Lever Act. from regional Farm Loan Banks. Adamson Act. This represented the Court’s adapting to the new. It was part of the governments plan to encourage a growth in American agriculture. attempted to prevent the problem of child labor. Prior to the passage of this act. This law was particularly important because it was the first attempt by Congress to regulate interstate commerce. making loans harder to obtain.Hughes Act: The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 created the Federal Board for Vocational Education to encourage agricultural growth. An example of Wilson’s sympathy to labor and was one of his important worker protection laws. Federal Warehouse Act: Wilson heavily supported the Federal Warehouse Act. Furthermore. La Follette Seaman’s Act: Passed in 1915. which allowed farmers to more easily secure long-term. It forbade interstate shipment of products whose production was due to the labor of children under fourteen or sixteen. This aided the automobile industry and allowed for the existence of more cars. Students not in college benefited because they were taught agricultural skills by county agents. Federal Highways Act. Smith. 1916: The Federal Highways Act of 1916 was pushed by Wilson and supported by the Democratic congress. farmers had to use actual money or property as security. It set an eight hour day for interstate railroad workers with a salary of one and a half for overtime work. regardless to the party responsible. In 1908 in Muller v. created a system of agricultural extension work funded by federal grants. his Brandeis brief provided evidence as to why women need limited work hours. changing industrial society. using land or crops as the loan security. 1916: The Adamson Act of 1916 was a compromise that avoided a railroad strike. enacted in 1914.Semitism. Prior to this act. Included provisions regulating work hours. The act signaled a major victory for railroad workers. . This act created scales of compensation for any injury. It stated that federal funds would match appropriations made by states funds for highway construction. the La Follette Seaman’s Act improved working and living conditions as well as making ships safer. low-interest credit. passed in 1915. The act was designed to attract Americans to ocean occupations. as well as pay and food quality. It applied to US ships as well as any ship docked in a US port. Keating-Owen Act: The Keating-Owen Act. Oregon. Workmen’s Compensation Act: The Workmen’s Compensation Act heightened the rights of employees to bring legal action against their employers for injuries. it gave the federal government greater control over education because it required that states submit proposals for education to a federal board. the employee had to prove they were not at fault and that it was not a normal risk.

issues: Wilson ran for reelection for the Democrats on the call that he had kept the United States out of the war. Bulgaria. eventually going on the offensive in 1917 by itself blockading Britain at the cost of American involvement." Ottoman Empire. Sussex pledge: In 1915. Afterwards. with its blank check provision to Austria. the newly independent nations of Romania. This system of alliances had escalated what was once a localized incident. The Arabic was sunk in the same year and Germans followed with the Arabic pledge promising to stop attacks on passenger vessels. Wilson declared war in 1917. Charles Evans Hughes was the Republican candidate who attacked the inefficiency of the Democratic Party. Germany responded with its U-boats. Great Britain owed the United States over $4. most Americans wanted no part. Triple Alliance: Central Powers: The Triple Alliance consisted of Germany. Wilson won the election. AustriaHungary. and seething over violation of neutral rights on the seas. the British Lusitania was sunk bringing protests from Wilson." From it. Germany. British blockade: In an attempt to win the war of attrition that was World War I. and Serbia were created. it led to increased reparations for Germany because of allied indebtedness. as well as Italy. Balkan States gained their independence from the Ottoman Empire. "Sick man of Europe. Britain.First World War When war burst upon Europe in August 1914. Germany declared war on the allies (Russia and France). Lusitania. Balkan Wars: The ancient Ottoman empire had lost its grip throughout the late 1800’s. had in encouraged the war declaration on Serbia.Hungary. In the Balkan Wars. so was able to continue his idealistic policies. called the "sick man of Europe. election of 1916: Hughes. Wilson immediately proclaimed American neutrality and called on the nation to be neutral "in thought and in action. Wilson. France and Russia had signed treaties with each other. This great indebtedness led to conflict later when the United States attempted to collect. Triple Entente: Allies: Beginning in the early 1900’s. loans to the Allies: In total. in turn drawing Great Britain into the war. Great Britain utilized its sizable navy to blockade all trade going in and out of Germany. Also." Yet the United States and Britain were linked by extensive economic ties and many Americans felt close emotionally with the British. the United States lent the Allies over $10 billion. In 1916.2 billion by the end of the war. . Fearing a world dominated by imperial Germany. Germans sunk the Sussex and made the Sussex pledge to promise a stoppage of attacks. Arabic pledge. Germany declared war on Russia and France. Serbia’s allies by treaties. After Austria declared war on Serbia.

and served to censor the press. the Zimmerman note was a message intercepted by British intelligence from Germany to Mexico in 1917 proposing that in the event of a German war with the United states. in which he proposed the declaration of war against Germany. This action was backed by the German belief that this would lead it to victory before the Americans could become involved in the war. Germany announced it would resume unrestricted submarine warfare. formed in 1917. was headed by journalist George Creel. was an armed coup organized by the Bolshevik party. The declaration was passed by the Senate by a vote of 82 to 6 and in the House by a vote of 373 to 50 before it was then signed by Wilson. a democratic revolution could arise. commonly called the October Revolution. Anything German was frowned upon. Russian Revolutions. and sink all ships without warning whatsoever. Wilson’s "Peace without victory": In 1916 President Wilson called for a "peace without victory. In other words. or CPI. The Creel Committee. 1917. People felt obliged to buy bonds because they were afraid of being seen as unpatriotic. • Creel Committee: The Committee on Public Information. Mexico should attack the US. bond drives: Treasury Secretary William Gibbs McAdoo organized the raising of funds. The second Revolution. "Make the world safe for democracy": "Make the world safe for democracy" was Wilson’s famous line justifying United States involvement in the World War. Americans sided with neutrality. Wilson foresaw the vengeful atmosphere that would follow a prolonged war. It was based on the belief that from this international power struggle. At the beginning of the first World War. a repudiation of the Sussex pledge. 1917. These revolutions were caused by and led to Russia pulling out of World War I. they raised over $21 billion for the war. was successful in raising widespread American support for the war effort. • Zimmerman Note: Also known as the Zimmerman Telegram. April 1917: On March 2. The CPI was a propaganda committee that built support for the war effort in Europe among Americans. ." His words were a call to the European nations to stop the conflict based on a balance of power and to form a peace in which nations together would keep the peace. It would be a Mexican opportunity to retake the Mexican Cession. March and Bolshevik: In March 1917 a revolution overthrew Russia’s tsarist regime. a new democratic world order led by the United States would follow. Eventually. war declared. or Liberty Loans.unrestricted submarine warfare: On January 31. necessary for the war with five campaigns between 1917 and 1919 with much excitement. 1917. President Wilson called a special Congressional session for April 2. This was one of a few events which led to widespread public support for the Allies and eventual United States involvement in the World War. It depicted Germans and other enemies on bad terms.

24 million registered. He was aided by a coalition of 100 businessman who advised him on fiscal policy. on May 18. It encouraged conservation with such days as "meatless Tuesdays. he served in the US Air Service as commander of the 94th Aero Pursuit Squadron. the AEF. the War Industries Board controlled raw materials." Espionage Act. 1917. and a response to the poor harvests of 1916 and 1917. it set prices for agricultural goods high to encourage the production of agricultural products. Pershing. selective service: As part of US mobilization for war. and 3 million were actually drafted. he was America’s leading pilot.S. This was part of Wilson’s effort to take stronger action in the war effort. or American Expeditionary Force. Made into a party-like atmosphere. The speech criticized American policy. involvement in the war and for warning of the dangers of war and militarism. standardizing manufactured products. He received the Distinguished Service Cross as well as the Congressional Medal of Honor. inciting rebellion. and paying high prices to businesses. AEF: From 1917-1918. prices. the Selective Service Act was passed. Sedition Act. Eugene V.War Industries Board: Created in July 1917. The Sedition Act of 1918 made illegal any criticism of the government. Most enlisted in search of action and adventure. or obstructing recruitment or the draft. sent 2 million men to France under General John J. It was poorly applied and used to trample civil liberties during the war hysteria as in the example of the imprisonment of Eugene Debs. Eddie Rickenbacker: Rickenbacker was an American Aviator during World War I. Also papers which opposed the government could be banned from the U. and labor relations. the United States military was in poor disarray and men were desperately needed. Men from 21-30 were to register for the military. . His imprisonment was an example of the reactionism and hysteria of the period. 1917. Shooting down 22 planes. The United States insisted the AEF be independent of French and English armies because it was believed the U. During the war. would have a stronger bargaining voice with a separate army. It also encouraged production by allocating raw materials. production. Food Administration: The Food Administration was created in 1917 as part of the war effort.S. Herbert Hoover. instituting strict production and purchasing controls. 1918: The Espionage Act of 1917 enacted fines and imprisonment for false statements. Bernard Baruch: Bernard Baruch was a Wall Street broker before being chosen by President Wilson in 1918 to head the War Industries Board. At the time. Headed by Herbert Hoover. Debs imprisoned: Eugene Debs was questionably imprisoned and was given a 10 year prison term for giving a speech at a Socialist’s convention. postal service.

until it was taken over by the United Nations. Lloyd George for Britain. Wilson summed up United States war aims and its noble objectives. arms reduction and free trade. The US never joined because of controversy over Article X of the League Covenant that took away the United States’s freedom of determination in world affairs. November 1918 saw the war grind to a halt. Each had a different prerogative and differing interests. President Woodrow Wilson represented the United States. was dominated by conflict among the "Big Four. They dealt with the things that led to the first World War. Ultimately. • Fourteen Points: The Fourteen Points were Wilson’s proposals and beliefs for a postwar world order. Wilson failed in his most cherished objective. House. Clemenceau. The treaty found Germany liable for the war and established new nations based on self determination. Clemenceau for France." and the resulting treaty proved a disaster. In a fourteen-point speech to Congress. Blatantly missing from the delegation were any Republican leaders. the first points called for open treaties. Wilson pushed the Fourteen points and was partly successful. George. • League of Nations: The organization promoted by Wilson in his Fourteen Points was the League of Nations. it existed from 1920 to 1946. The peace conference. Wilson believed that United States involvement would translate into a new democratic world order. and Vittorio Orlando represented Italy. a peace based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points. it divided German colonies into mandates of various League members. The aims of the other allies were not as liberal as that of the US. It also made German colonies mandates under the League of Nations and included the controversial article X that kept the US out of the League. held at Versailles in 1919. These provisions set the stage for World War II. The other points dealt with self determination and finally a general association of nations. During the conference of Versailles. so the conference became not an American but a Democratic affair.Postwar Aims During the war. General Tasker Bliss. Implemented at the Versailles conference. and attorney Henry White. Orlando: The Big Four were the dominating four at the Versailles conference after World War I. US Versailles delegation: The delegation was headed by President Wilson himself. . aims of Allies and US at peace conference: The main goal of Wilson and the American delegation was to secure an international peacekeeping organization. meeting in Geneva. and included Secretary of State Robert Lansing. For example. • Versailles Conference and Treaty: The Big Four dominated the conference in 1919 that determined the postwar world order. Wilson promoted his Fourteen Points while other Allies sought vengeance. The enormous reparations settled on was representative of this atmosphere. Colonel Edward M. American membership in the League of Nations. freedom of the seas. the League of Nations. Big Four: Wilson. After WWI. Switzerland.

Even with the doctrine of self determination. Latvia. which was one of their purposes in fighting the war. boundaries for new countries still left many misrepresented and under others’ control. reservations: Senate reservationists did not fully oppose the League except for mainly one Article. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. Hungary. Germany’s colonies became mandates of the League of Nations and delegated to France. Article 10 said that all nations must protect the territorial and political integrity of other League members. self determination: The idea of new nations and self determination was behind some of the aspects of the Treaty of Versailles. all others must become involved. They did not want the United States going to war defending another League member without Congress’s permission. Germany accepted total responsibility for her and her allies for starting the First World War. Reparations payments were based on this claim. This article was a large part of why the US rejected the League. as was stipulated by Article X. so new nations were created to allow this. reparations: Reparations were implemented by European powers wanting vengeance against Germany. allowing for the rise of Hitler and World War II mandate system: As a provision of the Versailles Treaty. Japan and Britain. Czechoslovakia Poland. and Finland were new nations which filled this definition. Estonia. Wilson .• collective security: Collective security was the dogma behind Article X of the League of Nations covenant of the Versailles Treaty. those of the respective countries. Yugoslavia. Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty: By Article 231. Lithuania. It led to hatred among Germans and inadvertently contributed to conditions precipitating World War II. This huge amount led to Germany’s economic downfall. They wanted that article removed before ratification. La Follette: The irreconcileables were those in Congress who felt the United States should not be a member of the League under any circumstances. Johnson. The article meant that if one nation was engaged in war. Germany was forced to pay a huge sum. some $33 billion to the Allies for civilian and veterans costs. Senate rejection. new nations. The belief manifested inself in the international world court that was established and later in the establishment of the United Nations after the demise of the League. Austria. it was felt that this would ensure peace in the postwar world order. Self determination meant every nationality getting their own country. Hence. The colonies became in actuality. • "irreconcileables": Borah. They opposed nearly all of the provisions of the League of Nations and felt that the League obstructed the United State’s freedom of self determination. It stated that every nation would serve to protect the territorial integrity and existing governments of all other League nations. Article 10 of the Versailles Treaty: The most controversial of the League of Nations covenants.

they will have an opportunity to gain power and rights. In comparison. World War I brought prosperity to the American economy. Americans. the Republicans gained an advantage in both the House of Representatives as well as the Senate. the United States lost only 126. Among the victims was Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. The antiradical panic crested in the Red Scare of 1919-1920. Palmer led raids and arrested around 700 suspected communists and anarchists. there was a string of bombings. In a variant of Wilson’s theme of determining the postwar peace. women. About 500.000 men. In all. Thousands of American Women took vacated jobs and became involved in industrial production as well as volunteer agencies at home and abroad. The United States never joined the League of Nations. Supplied America’s labor needs. women should play a role so that after the war. military casualties alone accounted for just over 8. The wartime mood also gave a boost to moral-reform movements. Still. blacks left their traditional homes in the South and migrated North for job opportunities in the war industries. Women’s Roles in World War I: Prominent women’s leaders like Carrie Chapman Catt and Anna Howard Shaw saw war as an opportunity for women’s rights. This growing concentration of blacks led to the Harlem Renaissance. black migration to Northern cities: During the war. Some were deported under the Alien Act.7 million killed each. In November 1919. The Red Scare in the United States followed Communist revolutions in Russia. Impact of the War The war affected the lives of millions of industrial workers. the wartime spirit saw new racial violence and fresh antiradical hysteria.000 blacks migrated North during the war. over 21 million men were injured during the war. Led to racial tension and violence in the North. Harriet Stanton Blatch: A prominent women’s leader who during the war offered a view on why women should play a role in the wartime effort. Republicans no who had traditionally supported Wilson’s plans in Europe no longer supported him because of his cry to voters for a Democratic Congress. tired of idealism. farmers.attempted to overcome them and get ratification for the League but was unsuccessful in his campaign. . wartime manpower losses: During World War I. and blacks in important ways. For all its horrors. revealed their feelings in the election of 1920 leaving Republican Warren Harding in the office. Congressional elections of 1918: In 1918. Palmer raids: In 1919. Russia and Germany by far lost the most men at 1. Red Scare.5 million deaths on both sides.

issues: Senator Warren G. this act allowed the government to take over the railroads from Dec 26. thus turning to the leadership of Warren G. James Cox. 1920 and attempted to insure the operation of the railroads. Sheppard-Towner Act: Lobbying for child-labor laws as well as worker protection for women and support for education by the Women’s Joint Congressional Committee resulted in the Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921. Harding. and Franklin D. Esch-Cummins Transportation Act: Also known as the Transportation Act of 1920. Prices fell and unemployment was over 12% at its height. The result was the Act of Feb 28. Normalcy: Coined by Warren G. The rise in prices was regulated by the WIB which set prices. inflation. This act provided $1. inflation during the First World War: As Americans were sent to Europe to fight in World War I. With the shortage came higher wages which led to more purchases and in turn. fueling the Red Scare. Harding of Ohio and Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts. The most famous strike was in a Seattle shipyard. Lewis struck as well. With the recent end of World War I. Harding sensed popular longing for calm and won in a landslide victory. They advocated a "return to normalcy" from the war environment. brief depression. coal. Twenties Domestic Affairs America of the 1920s was a period of prosperity as well as industrial and technological growth. a labor shortage was created. They were forced to carry heavy traffic while ignoring maintenance. 1920. It was followed by the improved economy of the 1920’s until the Great Depression struck.1920 in Boston. It was due to decreased European purchases from American industries after the war. 1920-1921: A brief depression occurred from mid-1920 to the end of 1921. .strikes: 1919. to powerful businessmen. They ran on a platform endorsing the League with reservations. Harding was the Republican dark horse with running mate Calvin Coolidge. steel. Harding in an address before the Home Market Club on May 14. Roosevelt for his running mate. this term came to symbolize.2 million for prenatal and baby-care centers in rural areas. This meant a return to high protective tariffs and a reduction in taxes. The United Mine Workers of America under John L. the immediate abandonment of the foreign and domestic policies of Wilson. police: Post-war strikes occurred because of an increase in prices. The government responded with troops to break up the strike. Americans yearned for a return to "normalcy" and political leaders that could provide it. election of 1920: candidates. vice-presidential candidates: The democrats nominated James M. Election of 1920: candidates. Roosevelt were the Democratic nominees. Chicago police struck and were all fired. 1917 until Mar 1. Cox and Franklin D. Republicans chose Senator Warren G. issues.

his ordinary. was exposed and convicted of stealing funds from it for personal economic growth. from their respective country since 1890 and completely rejected the immigration of Asians. As president. Bureau of the Budget: Created by the Budget and Accounting Act on June 10. 1922 (CPPA): A committee designed to revive the practices of the progressive era. Harding.: Although Harding lacked the qualifications for presidency. appointed attorney general. This also restricted immigration to 2% of the total number of people who lived in the U. Chief Justice William Howard: Taft was appointed by President Harding in 1921. was forced from office in 1924 after receiving payments from violators of prohibition. Nathan Bedford Forrest served as the first Grand Wizard for this organization. Daugherty. Sceretary of Interior Fall. The intent of these provisions was to reduce the immigration of foreign people in the United States.000 people annually. Fall leased government oil reserves in 1921 to Sinclair. They were formally disbanded in 1869. where his silences became legendary. Under his jurisdiction. and government ownership of railroads and utilities such as telephones and electricity.S. Tennessee in 1866. this act provided for the Bureau to be located in the treasury department with the director appointed by the president. Harding died in San Francisco of a heart attack. In 1924. Teapot Dome. his administration was full of scandals and on Aug 2. KKK revival: A KKK was an organization founded in Pulaski. profarmer. Coolidge. Unfortunately. Harry Daugherty. the CPPA adopted policies of pro-labor. but then it was revived in 1915. It helped defeat the conservative Republican candidates in 1924. Warren G. 1923. led by William J. director of the Veteran’s Bureau. in 1924. president of the Mammoth Oil Company. All suspects evaded prosecution. 1921. they limited the number to 164.S. believed the government had no obligation in protecting citizens against natural disasters. 1924. and warned of "the tyranny of bureaucratic regulation and control. . Conference for Progressive Political Action.000 people annually. Calvin: Harding’s death brought vice president Coolidge to the presidency. They aimed to destroy radical political power and establish white supremacy in the U. The Bureau provided for a more efficient management of the budget within the treasury department." Taft. the Supreme Court overturned many progressive reform measures that were opposed by popular business interests. An example of this was the 1919 federal law imposing taxes on the products of child labor that he overturned.•Immigration Acts 1921. friendly manner and advocacy of a return to "normalcy" resulted in a landslide vicotry in the election of 1920. quota system: In 1921 Congress limited annual immigration to about 350. Harry Sinclair: Forbes. he held an antipathy to progressivism. Simmons. •Harding scandals: Charles Forbes.

who won with 54% of the vote. The Democratic Party nominated John W. Norris. However. Congress lowered the income tax rates for the wealthy. closet manufacturing of alcoholic beverages and a rise in criminal activities within the cities due to illegal importation of alcohol led to its repeal with the 21st amendment in 1933. personalities. Congress submitted the 18th amendment prohibiting the manufacture. Progressive Party: CPPA delegates revived the Progressive Party at the meeting in Cleveland in July of 1924 and nominated Robert La Follette for president. Capone was a mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. Progressives saw it as a way to deal with the social problems associated with alcoholism. Muscle Shoals: Norris successfully prevented President Coolidge from selling a federal hydroelectric facility at Muscle Shoals. Massachusetts. Election of 1928: candidates. Robert La Follette." He denounced the bill as an unconstitutional scheme because it would benefit American agriculture at the expense of the general public’s welfare. Davis. He secured the passage of legislation that established the Board to Promote Cooperative Commodity Marketing. and Hoover. backgrounds: Candidates Al Smith and Herbert Hoover represented the social and cultural differences of the 1920s.Mellon. Al Capone: The Volstead Act of 1919 established the Prohibition Bureau within the Treasury Department. 1920 two robbers killed a clerk and stole money from a shoe factory in South Briantree. Smith was the Democratic candidate with the experience of being the governor of NY. election of 1924: candidates. sale. yet he won. He also helped reject further tax cuts for the rich. Volstead Act. his illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties. also. or transportation of alcoholic liquors in 1917. vetoes: The veto of the McNary-Haugen Bill by Coolidge reflected a fear of "the tyranny of bureaucratic regulation. Mellon also succeeded in balancing the budget every year from 1921 to 1928. but it lacked financial stability and was ineffective. Senator George. a compromise candidate. Nicola Sacco and Bartholomeo . Secretary of Treasury tax cuts: Mellon was the secretary of the treasury under Harding. By doing so he was permitted to raise farm prices while still preserving the voluntarist principle. Under his administration. Hoover was an inexperienced candidate that had never sought a public office before. •Prohibition: Prohibition was first an issue before World War I. the Socialist party and AFL supported this nomination. Federal Farm Board: This action was a result of Hoover’s response towards the problems faced by agriculture. Alabama to automaker Henry Ford for only a portion of the value of the land. Coolidge. The Republicans nominated Coolidge. Sacco and Vanzetti Case: On Apr 15. McNary-Haugen Bill.

While the movie industry produced new celebrities and jazz music became popular. •Prosperity: This is a term that refers to the economic stability and opportunity experienced during the 1920s. Americans responded to criminal cases also. This radio station also influenced the establishment of the Federal Radio Commission. Fundamentalist legislatures even introduced bills to prohibit the teaching of evolution in schools. and jitterbugs. •fundamentalists. The American Civil Liberties Union volunteered to defend any teacher willing to challenge this law. An evangelist. were angered by the theory of evolution. This can be seen as an example of the progressive spirit that still survived in the legislative branch and its effect on society. This boom also was started with the invention of the affordable automobile. It began the radio era when KDKA.S. Protestants who insisted on the divinity of the Bible. the Tennessee legislature outlawed the teaching of evolution in public schools. The economy during this time was stimulated by the new and booming electrical industry. KDKA. "If you turn hell upside down you will find ‘Made in Germany’ stamped on the bottom. A growth oriented business climate of the time was expansionist regarding American capitalism. based in Pittsburgh. Aimee Semple McPherson: During the twenties. The inventions of new consumer goods and home electrical products contributed to this prosperity. Roaring Twenties American culture and society in the 1920s were marked by a wave of new lifestyles and ideas. Scopes Trial. William Jennings Bryan: In 1925. Amidst the speakeasies. Billy Sunday’s most famous quote reads. broadcast the news of President Harding’s election." Evangelist McPherson used drama and theatrical talent in her sermons. William Jennings Bryan agreed to assist prosecution. literature flourished and flappers defined a social trend. Both men died in the electric chair on Aug 23. winning many followers.Vanzetti were arrested and both were charged with the robbery and the murder. . jazz. 1927: The FRC was created by Congress and extended the principle of governmental regulation of business activity to the new radio industry. Clarence Darrow. Darrow was the head of ACLU’s lawyers. The jury found them both guilty. This case has been referred to for its moral lesson on human nature. 1927. Leopold and Loeb Case: The case in 1924 involved the murder of a young boy by two rich and intelligent college students. 1920. Billy Sunday. Americans began to stray from traditional values as the culture changed. It also shows that not only famous cases have been products of social developments. to start broadcasting on Nov 2. Federal Radio Commission. Pittsburgh: This was the first successful radio station in the U.

Ford completed the construction of his first automobile and in 1903 he founded the Ford Motor Company. the Model T.: He was an American motion picture director and producer who in 1913 joined with Jesse Lasky and Samuel Goldwyn to form the Jesse L. In 1913 Ford began using standardized interchangeable parts and assembly-lines in his plants. feminist Alice Paul’s National Women’s Party lobbied for an equal-rights amendment to the Constitution. In the 1920s he was a prominent figure during the Harlem Renaissance and was the Poet Laureate of Harlem. Rudolph. His first silent film was The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921) but his peak was with The Sheik (1921). Universal Negro Improvement Association: Garvey was a black nationalist leader who created the "Back to Africa" movement in the U. De Mille produced and directed the first feature film made in Hollywood called The Squaw Man in 1914. Anti-Saloon League: Another organization formed during the progressive era. the AntiSaloon league was spurred by the Women’s Christian Temperance Movement in 1893.Women’s Christian Temperance Movement: Formed in 1874. James Weldon: American author. Henry. Other feminists.S. Charlie Chaplin was a silent film actor who appeared in 1914 with the Keystone Film Company. the proposed amendment never succeeded through the party. National Women’s Party. Chaplin. Alice Paul: During the twenties. Langston Hughes: Hughes was an American writer known for the use of jazz and black folk rhythms in his poetry. Ford. Lasky Feature Play Company. Charlie: Valentino was an actor who was idolized by female fans of the 1920s. Marcus. Valentino. However. Sloan. In 1920 he became the NAACP’s first black executive secretary. Johnson. Alfred P. In 1908 he started production of the Model-T. the Women’s Christian Temperance movement grew in momentum during the progressive era. . The Harlem Renaissance refers to the black cultural development during the 1920s. This occurred because the war with Germany fermented wider support for the movement.: In 1893. James Weldon Johnson served as field secretary of the NAACP from 1916-1920. By 1917 it successfully established prohibition in 19 states. and diplomat who reflected his deep consideration of black life in the United States. He used musical rhythms and the traditions of African American culture in his poetry. •Harlem Renaissance. Cecil B. the movement depended on the patronage of white people. The result of the efforts of the ASL was the 18th amendment passed in 1918. Progressives encouraged the legal abolition of alcohol. Garvey. In 1907. Unfortunately. he led a printers’ strike for higher wages at a printing company in Kingston. radicals. and labor activists condemned Paul’s stance on this issue. In 1914 he founded the UNIA and in 1916. de Mille. he started a weekly newspaper called the Negro World. lawyer.

these writers were seen to be ex-patriots. Dempsey. Babe. F. Jack Dempsey was an American professional boxer who became world heavyweight champion in 1919 but lost the title in 1926. Bruce. Charles. The writers include: Ernest Hemingway. •"the Lost Generation": This term refers to a group of American writers who lived primarily in Paris during the 1920s and 1930s. Louis: Lindbergh was an American aviator. editor of the magazine. those were the "good times.L. His lectures in 1909 at Clark University advanced psychoanalysis in the United States. and William Carlos Williams. comments on how people conform blindly to the standards of their environment. Fred Astaire was involved with the choreography in the movie along with other famous dancers such as Berkeley. when jazz music became popular and in style. H. Lewis. emotional frustration. engineer . Main Street. However. The Jazz Singer: The Jazz Singer was a movie. Jack: Babe Ruth was the most popular player in the history of baseball. written in 1922. he flew from New York City to Paris. Balanchine. Flying in his single engine plane. Sinclair. Bitter about their World War I experiences and disillusioned with different aspects of American society. Spirit of St. but individually they were all influential writers. Mencken remained the editor until 1933. Mencken. The American Mercury: Mencken founded the magazine The American Mercury in 1924. his ideas became popular during the 1920s. Babbitt. Louis. This name also refers to the general prosperity and liberation of the people during the time. Scott Fitzgerald. Sigmund theories: Freud was a Viennese physician whose studies of human sexuality and human psychology first appeared in the 1890s. and De Mille. 1927. . Lindbergh. They never formed a formal literary movement. He began in 1914 on the Baltimore team of the International League. and Pulitzer Prize winner. Babbitt: Main Street was written in 1920 and is where Lewis first developed the theme of the monotony.Ruth. Spirit of St. and lack of values in American middle-class life." Freud’s. he was the first person to make a nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic. that started a demand for dancers who could fulfill the expectations of the 1920s. made in 1927. He targeted his work at the shortcomings of democracy and the middle-class American culture. The Man Nobody Knows 1925: Barton was an advertising executive that described Jesus Christ as a managerial genius who "picked up twelve men from the bottom ranks of business and forged them into an organization that conquered the world.. Barton. the Jazz Age: The Jazz Age is the general label of what the twenties represented. On May 20. Such a title reflects the revolution in music during the time." By this he referred to the public’s admiration of leaders like President Harding.

The Waste Land expresses Eliot’s conception of the contrast between modern society and societies of the past. the flapper was the stereotype of a woman in the 1920s. The isolationist disposition of the U. Women of the twenties were noticed more for their sex appeal and presented as thus in the advertising industry. Dreiser. and her ever shortening skirt length. while women themselves turned to a more liberated attitude. heavy make-up.S. dangling cigarette. An American Tragedy had great success.. as reflected through its foreign policy during the twenties.Eliot. Ernest. contributed to this isolationist period of America. The Great Gatsby: Fitzgerald wrote this book in five months and completed it in 1925. for Americans sought to secure their nation after the effects of World War I and maintain prosperity. the flapper was usually characterized by her "bobbed" hair. Fitzgerald was bitter because of the effects of the war. Theodore. Foreign Policy in the 1920s In relation to the rest of the world. . Focus during this era was upon domestic affairs more so than foreign affairs. Independent and representing the rebellious youth of the age. such as the League of Nations and the World Court. Written in 1922. F. 1937. The Waste Land: Eliot won the Nobel Prize for literature for his poem The Waste Land.S. Being one of the writers of the Lost Generation. •Collective Security: The term "collective security" was first mentioned in the inaugural speech made by president Franklin D. Roosevelt on Oct 5. An American Tragedy: In 1925. Scott. he usually depicted the lives of two types of people: men and women deprived of faith in their values by World War I. This poem that is one of the most widely discussed literary works. thus saying that nations need to stick together in order to combat evil. Flappers: Called a flapper because they would leave their boot flaps open. This was Hemingway’s second most important novel next to The Sun Also Rises (1926). the United States drew into isolation. The plot was a sensitive and satiric story of the pursuit of success and the collapse of the American dream. A Farewell to Arms: In Hemingway’s novels. Hemingway. called for collective security. New woman: During the 1920s changes in postwar behavior had a liberating effect on women. In that speech Roosevelt refereed to the need to quarantine aggressor nations by acting upon them in a collective measure. He also portrays his characters as victims of social and economic forces. Fitzgerald. The burden of domestic chores were alleviated with new technology. Dreiser believed in representing life honestly in his fiction and accomplished this through accurate detail and descriptions of the urban settings of his stories. and men of simple character and primitive emotions. New restrictions on immigration and a lack of membership in international organizations. T.

the World Court has the option of choosing cases. It also helped to reinstate the Open Door Policy. this treaty was a series of notes between U. Signed by Frank Kellogg of the US and Aristicie Briand from France on Aug 27. the World Court was established in 1946 exceeding from a charter that was established by the UN. 1. 3-Japan. Four Power Treaty. At the conference which was called by the United States the issue of the arms race and the idea of keeping peace on the Pacific ocean were discussed. 1929 was for the final installment of the reparation payments and reduced the amount due by Germany significantly.. Lansing-Ishii Treaty: Signed on Nov 2.. it sought to bring about a change in the way countries dealt with foreign policy. Five Power Treaty. The numbers are the allowed amount of tonnage for each nations’ supply of battleships. at the end of WWI. and the desired amount of battleships that each nation should have. Fr. 1. Pertaining to this treaty was the reconciliation of the two countries on the issue of foreign policy in the Far East. Aug 1924. This act prompted the formulating of the Twenty-One demands written by China.75 Italy. regarded reparations payments and consisted of an annual allotment of 2. During the First and Second World Wars.75-France. GB. . USSR. not all cases submitted would be tried. Nine Power Treaty: The 4 Power treaty (US. Dawes Plan. The money is usually given to a nation that has been damaged by the destructiveness of war due to the acts from the other county. Kellogg-Briand Treaty: This treaty of 1928 denounced war between countries when it was used for the purpose of handling relations between countries. 1928. reparations: Reparations is a term applied to the issuing of money from one nation to another.S. These demands recognized Japan’s rights in Shandong. Young Plan: The Dawes Plan. 5-GB. Secretary of State Robert Lansing and the Japanese military informer Kikujiro Ishii. invaded the city of Shandong and forced China to hand over the right of Japanese imperialism in the former German regions plus the city of Shandong. 1917. The ideal tonnage ratio for the countries were 5-US. and Japan) discussed respect towards Pacific nations. Twenty-One Demands: Japan in 1915. From this conference came the ideal of setting a standard on the desired tonnage that each nation should have.5 billion gold pieces to the US from Germany. The 5 power treaty (US. and Italy) halted battleship construction for 10 years and developed the ideal tonnage ratio. Fr. reparations were a major concern. 5-5-3-1.75-1. GB. The principle is to hear cases that extended from the different participants in the court. 1920 at the Washington Arms Conference. The Young Plan signed on Jun 7. The 9 Power Treaty restated the Open Door Policy. •Washington Disarmament Conference: Also called the Washington Naval Conference it convened during 1921-1922.World Court: Also named the International Court of Justice.75 ratio: These ratios were conceived on Dec 14.

However. Americans viewed him as a man who would further boost the nation’s growing prosperity. relations. by 1933 Hoover expelled the troops for they were no longer needed. American Individualism. who could handle the pressures given by a damaged society. Their message went unheard. the unregulated trade within the process of buying stocks. The crash was caused by a number of ailments: the decline of agriculture. and the panic which led to bank foreclosures all over the United States. Voluntarism: Hoover believed that a socially responsible economic order could only be brought about by the voluntary action of capitalist leaders and not through governmental persuasion. Black Thursday: Black Thursday refers to Oct 29. Federal Reserve Board: The Federal Reserve Board tried to establish an easy credit policy. the U. . During his term of office. The Fordney-McCumber Tariff. and who would rise above them in order to succeed. 1929 when the great stock market crash occurred. 1927-1928: The United States refused to recognize the government established in Nicaragua under the regime of Emiliano Chamorro. Hoover Administration When Herbert Hoover was elected to the presidency in 1928.Sending troops into Nicaragua.S. 1922: This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. the president at the time felt it necessary to send troops to Nicaragua. 1922: The ideal quality which every American should possess. it also warned member banks not to loan money for the purpose of buying stocks. To accomplish this they increased the rate on federal reserve notes to decrease speculation. his ideologies and legislation were not as effective in restoring prosperity to the nation. came the onset of the Great Depression. "Rugged Individualism". and the ensuing struggle of the government to relieve Americans and recover the economy. He believed that economic development demanded corporate cooperation in the areas of workers wages and production regulations. however. "rugged individualism" meant people who were self made individuals. The goal of this tariff was to push foreign competition out of the way of American markets and after an isolationist principle was introduced. would become self sufficient. These ideas were encompassed in Hoover’s book. Hoover also believed that cutthroat capitalism was unnecessary. Unfortunately for Hoover. and the stock market crash of 1929 resulted. Hoover saw this as a way to accelerate the decade’s trend towards corporate consolidation and cooperation. Calvin Coolidge. Welfare capitalism: Hoover welcomed this idea and urged further movement in this direction.

the HawleySmoot Tariff also rose protective tariffs on the United States. the uncontrolled policies of the stock market. the loss of enthusiasm directed at the consumer products that were being produced and a loss of mirth in the economy created a no buying situation. National Credit Corporation: Created in 1931. The areas hardest hit was England for it depended greatly on U. Emergency Committee for Employment: The Emergency Committee for Employment was created in 1930 under the presidency of Herbert Hoover. the National Credit Corporation under the persuasion of Herbert Hoover got the largest banks in the country.S. The goal for the committee was to coordinate efforts between other agencies in order to provide relief for the massive unemployed during the years of the Great Depression. Federal Home Loan Act: Under the presidential term of Hoover in 1931 the Federal Home Loan Act was created. Depression as an International Event: Due to the devastating effects that the Depression had on the American way of life a spiral of depressions sprung up all over Europe. railroads. On the contrary there were many other factors involved. electricity. the Trickle Down theory was an economic ideal which held the belief that the government should get involved in the economy by pumping money into it. . America could not keep up with international trading thus further deepening the problem. The isolationist principle also reflect the isolationist move the US was moving towards in the 1920s. Reconstruction Finance Corp. Hoover Dam provides flood control. it stands 726 feet high and 1244 feet wide. the RFC was designed to give out loans to banks.. (RFC): Created under the presidency of Herbert Hoover. exports. Trickle Down Theory: Applied by Herbert Hoover. to provide lending agencies that would be able to give banks. money that could be used for loans. and thus creating a surplus supply of money that would "trickle" down onto the rest of society.. on the brink of foreclosure. 1930: Like the Fordney-McCumber Tariff. and monopolistic companies in order to pump money back into the economy during the years of the Depression. Hoover Dam: Originally called Boulder Dam.•Causes of the Great Depression: The Great Depression was not solely caused by the stock market crash in Oct of 1929. As part of the New Deal it was constructed between 1931 to 1935 and began operations in 1936. Within the act a five man Home Loan Board was created and the creation of banks to handle home mortgages provided money to homeowners that needed loans. The inflation in agriculture. the overproduction of goods by industries. Located on the Colorado River in Arizona. the Hawley-Smoot Tariff. and irrigation for farms. It pushed rates on imported goods to the highest point they’ve ever been. at that time.

France. unfriendly disposition that Hoover took on the policy of helping out the poor. Hoover believed that giving economic aid to the poor would stifle the economy.Morgan and Company. Ambassador Morrow: Turned into an ambassador for Mexico. in 1932 the deadline for the veterans was pushed back by the government to a latter date thus causing the group to march onto Washington to demand their money. from England and the United States. it was contradictory to the ideals of the Roosevelt Corollary. •Bonus Army: The Bonus Army was a group of WWI veterans who were supposed to be given economic relief from the government due to their involvement in the war.Farmers’ Holiday Association: In 1931 farmers from the Midwest got together to discuss the methods they would use in order to stop the policies that devastated the agricultural economy.Reuben Clark in Dec of 1928. The conditions were that Mexico had to give fair compensation to the countries. Though the issue was never reconciled due to the fact that Britain and other European Countries went off the gold standard before the plan could be implemented.S. the HooverStimson doctrine was a collection of letters from the U. The main issue that he focused on was the methods he could use to reconcile differences between the Mexican government and the Church. However. London Naval Conference: US. "Hooverville": "Hooverville" was a name given to any shanty town that manifested itself during the period when Herbert Hoover was president. Clark Memorandum: The memorandum was called by the U. Hoover’s popularity plummeted because of it. Mexico’s naturalization of oil: . Stimson Doctrine: Based on the principles of the Kellogg-Briand pact. to China and Japan. and because they were veterans and heroes of this country. The name was termed due to the cold. GB. . did not formally recognize any change in territory if it was brought about by armed forces.S. Cardenas nationalized many oil companies. Out of the meeting came the decision to withhold grain and livestock from the economy. The purpose of the meeting was to reinstate the principles of the Monroe Doctrine to the events that were happening in Latin America.P. Dwight D.The president of Mexico in 1938 was a man named Lazaro Cardenas. concluded that the U. Hoover Moratorium: The Hoover Moratorium was held in 1931 to discuss the payment of the allied war debts sustained during WWI. and Italy convened in 1930 to come to a mutual agreement pertaining to the number of battleships that were in existence. not in a war like situation.S. The number of battleships was a great concern to these nations for they wanted to live in peace with one another. 1932. valued then at 450 million dollars. Excessive force was used to disband these protesters. Morrow also named Ambassador Morrow was a worker for J. Japan. Representative J. These letters written on Jan 7.

Roosevelt. While not all were entirely successful. Hoover’s platform was to increase the government’s role in the economy. Brain Trust: The term brain trust refers to the individual people outside the Franklin Roosevelt appointed presidential cabinet that helped in the decision making process of the president. Secretary of Labor: Being the first woman to be appointed to a Cabinet position (1933-1945). . 1932: The Norris-La Guardia Act forbade the issuing of injunctions to maintain anti-union contracts of employment. recovery of the economy. The men most known are: Raymond Moley. She mostly fought for women and minority groups. reform other systems and institutions. Roosevelt’s message was "Pay attention to the forgotten man at the bottom of the economy period. and Fair Labor Standards Act (1938). Moley was conservative while Tugwell and Berle were interested in reform. Fireside Chats: During the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office Roosevelt held informal radio conversations every so often that were dubbed "fireside chats. the Social Security Act. Election of 1932: candidates. and the restraining of an act committed by either a group or of an individual striker. pushed for a limit on employment age. musical programs." The topic discussed was the economy that had been plagued by the depression. Age of the Radio: Radio reached its climax in the 1930s when millions of Americans listened to network news commentators. Perkins was also a social reformer. Roosevelt. sell products. the president and business companies utilized this resource to attract people. and Adolph A. Perkins. and recover the prosperity before the Depression. the prevention to perform work.Norris-La Guardia (anti-junction) Act. issues: The Republican candidate was Hoover and the Democratic one was Franklin D.S. Roosevelt’s extensive program to restore the economy made up the New Deal. or to promote a political issue. Berle. Many of her books include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and This Is My Story and On My Own. Roosevelt and the New Deal Declining appeal of Hoover to the public led to the election of Franklin D. Overall. humanitarian and displayed her politics and social issues as a wife of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Also. and the means that were going to be taken in order to revive it. these legislative measures dealt with assisting people financially. the various programs all contributed to the eventual." Roosevelt won. Frances. though gradual. and comedy shows. and developed the CCC. During her term. The issue was ending the Great Depression. Eleanor: Eleanor Roosevelt is portrayed as a U. Roosevelt in 1932. Perkins strengthened the Department of Labor. Rexford Tugwell.

"Bank Holiday": Franklin Roosevelt in 1932 called for a "bank holiday" which permitted banks that were hurt from the depression to close down for a few days in order to regain stability. Hundred Days: Measures taken during Roosevelt’s first days in office.e. This is done to stimulate the economy through the rise in government costs or due to the decrease of taxation. New Deal: In light of the Great Depression. Emergency Banking Relief Act. Import duties are still possible. Further help to relieve the problem of the foreclosing of banks was the Emergency Banking Act which was passed during the holiday to help open more banks. FDR intended to revive the lost prosperity of the economy by reforming other institutions and programs. from Mar 9 to Jun 16. Now that the poor have jobs they have the necessary income to buy products and this cycle occurs again. enabled FDR to pass acts critical to stabilizing the economy. 1933: Implemented during the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt’s first term the Emergency Banking Relief Act allowed the reopening . this theory pumped governmental money to the poor so they could buy products. are the categories into which the New Deal was split. and reform. Pump-priming: Supported by Roosevelt. He theorized that the relationship between supply and demand was critical: when the demand doesn’t meet expectations there is unemployment and depression while if demand surpasses production inflation occurs. FDR proposed a series of relief and emergency measures known collectively as the New Deal. The Hundred Days symbolized the beginning stages of the New Deal because the measures taken focused on relief. Reform was a category in which the government tried to recreate areas that seemed faulty (i. deficit spending is also seen as inefficiency of government spending. recovery. fiscal policy: The policy gave government control of the money supply and created a high economic rate to stabilized prices and wages. by relieving the plight of the people.e. The Relief category was defined by the acts implemented in the area of aid to the unemployment. •Relief. On the other hand. agriculture and industry). Recovery. Deficit spending: The manner in which the government spends more than it receives is refereed to as deficit spending. Monetary policy.•Keynesian economics: Keynes looked at the economy in a wider sense: macroeconomics. and Reform: These three areas. but fiscal policy makes an exception because its purpose is to raise revenue. This demand in turn will produce jobs for the poor. This would increase sales and cause a demand for that product. recovery and reform: key phrases from the New Deal itself. The Recovery category put forth measures that would help aid in the speedy recovery of areas hit hardest by the depression (i. and thus recover the nation’s wealth. Through these measures. Fiscal policy is regulation of trade between domestic or foreign goods. The solution is to have the government spend while maintaining low taxes and when there is demand that a tight budget should be created. relief. banking system).

It tried to help mend the ailing problems that had plagued agriculture since the ending of the First World War. and disallowed price cutting and unfair competitive practices. The act provided healthy banks with a Treasury Department license and handled the affairs of the failed banks. Wagner of New York. the NIRA focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. •Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA). both which stifled the economy. the government. This program created jobs that would try to conserve the nation’s natural resources. "The Blue Eagle" was the symbol of the NRA. under the AAA. The Federal Deposit Insurance Committee allowed all bank deposits up to 5. granted subsidies to farms who did not continually use the same plot of soil. The NIRA pumped money into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition. the National Industrial recovery Administration was designed to administer the codes of "fair competition" brought forth by the NIRA. In addition. Section 7a of the NRA: Developed by Senator Robert F. In order to stop the problem of "dust bowls" created by the overuse of soil. The main focus of the NRA was to break wage cuts and strikes. section 7a allowed the workers to organize and enabled them to bargain collectively. The CCC would take these men out of the workforce and place them on jobs that would reforest certain areas.of healthy banks. Hugh: Hugh Johnson was the head of the National Recovery Administration who quickly created the organization and rallied support for the NRA by throwing parades in all of the main cities across the United States. set wages and working conditions. "The Blue Eagle. National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA): Placed under the PWA. •Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): Created under Franklin Roosevelt. Glass-Steagall Act. second AAA 1938: The first AAA was rendered unconstitutional years after the Act of 1938. (FDIC): This measure as the second of the banking acts enacted during Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office." Johnson. it separated deposit banking from investment banking. Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. Wagner helped organized labor by not allowing employers from discriminating against union members. Such codes established production limits. •National Industrial Recovery Administration (NRA): Promoting recovery.000 dollars. 1933: In February of 1933 the Glass-Steagal Act was signed. passed in Jun of 1933. the CCC aimed at men particularly in the age group from 18-25. The act itself made 750 million dollars that had once been kept in the governments gold reserves now able to be used in the creation of loans to private businesses and other major corporations. The government also tried to restrict the production of certain commodities. teach fire . Jun 1933.

Harry Hopkins. he set up the National Youth Administration to provide part time work for high school and college students. National Youth Administration (NYA): As part of President Roosevelt’s New Deal plan. each man would work for one year. The CWA provided temporary public works that allocated a billion dollars for short-term projects for the jobless during the winter but was demolished when the spring arrived. Public Works Administration (PWA): Harold Ickes: Headed by Harold Ickes. established in 1934. protected investors. Roosevelt created the FERA in May 1933 and as a part of the New Deal. the TVA was eventually curtailed in 1980 when nuclear plants were introduced. This valiant effort allowed one-fifth of all U. It was designed to help rural Americans refinance their farmland. Between 1933-1942 3 million men were put to work under the CCC. the PWA was a governmental agency which spent $4 billion on 34. administered this program directed at local causes. Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC): As part of the Hundred Days that understood the nation’s tragedy of foreclosed mortgages. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA): Senator Norris: Pushed for by Senator George Norris. Created in 1933. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA): One of the most powerful social workers. the Secretary of Interior.S. Federal Housing Authority (FHA): This agency forced small down payments and lowinterest loans on home sales and thus stimulated the economy. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): The SEC. Franklin D. Roosevelt to create the CWA. the HOLC refinanced American home mortgages. bridges. the construction of hydroelectric dams. This stimulation allowed a . The SEC required the registration of all companies and securities and required disclosure of company information and registration of all company securities exchanged. Civil Works Administration (CWA): In Nov 1933 relief administrator Harry Hopkins convinced Franklin D. it was named the Farm Credit Administration.000 public works project which constructed dams. and help to stop soil erosion. issued licenses and penalized fraud.prevention and soil conservation. and public buildings. mortgages to become refinanced which would prevent another Great Depression Farm Credit Administration: During Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office. the TVA was a governmental agency which ruled several federal programs of building dams. who was cautious and suspicious. it also helped to restore the livelihood that was missing in agriculture. This agency served more than two million people and was set up because students were the most rebellious due to their exposure to new ideas. this measure allocated $500 million to relieve cities and states. and controlling floods. an important federal agency was established. listened to complaints.

000 bridges. Wagner Act. 1935: Supported by R. As an expression of the class spirit of the Second New Deal. 1935: The Gold Clause Act stated that private contracts dealing with certain railroad bonds were unable to interfere in the coining of money. Revenue Act. it satisfied the requirements of the governmental concern of sharecroppers. Hopkins. hospitals. and post offices were built. there were many loopholes. The Federal Arts Project created positions for artists by making positions for art teachers and decorated posts for offices and courthouses with murals. this act supported old-age advantages by utilizing a pay roll tax on employers and employees. and 125. it catalyzed the force of unionization. Even though the Resettlement Administration lasted two years. •Works Progress Administration (WPA). the Wagner Act of 1935 established defined unjust labor practices. this agency created loans for small farmers and sharecroppers to buy their own farms. The regulation in the value of money for those areas defined were specifically the areas given to Congress when the Constitution was written.000 miles of roads. Gold Clause Act. This program was so successful that by 1941 40% of these farms had received electrical power. and adjusted with the inflation. Wagner. Federal Arts Project: Directed by Harry Hopkins in 1935. the NLRB controlled the secret ballot elections during collective bargaining and managed the complaints of unfairness by the employers or unions. Harry.S. the disabled.new market for private homes that accelerated the construction-industry through the utilization of technology to mass-produce homes. As an independent agency.000 schools. Social Security Act: Created by the U. (Also known as the National Labor Relation Act) National Labor Relations Board (NLRB): This agency was assembled by Congress in 1935 and oversaw the National Labor Relation Act (1935). Soon the program was expanded to include dependents. 1935: This act allowed the government to raise a spectrum of tariffs ranging from personal taxes at higher income levels to rises in corporate taxes to having heavier levies on gifts and estates. arts. secured workers the right to bargain collectively.1935. This originated from the Townsend clubs which pushed for a $200 pension. 124. F. . Congress on August 14. As an integral part of the New Deal. Rural Electrification Administration (REA): The REA was an agency that provided low-interest loans to utility companies and farmers’ cooperatives to reach the 90% of rural farmers who lacked electrical power. and established the National Labor Relations Board. the eight year program employed 8 million people and provided $11 billion dollars to the economy in which 650. Resettlement Administration: As part of the New Deal and led by Rexford Tugwell.

Fair Labors Standards Act: maximum hours and minimum wage: This act was created by the Roosevelt administration of northerners to undermine the South’s competitive edge. The amendment also permitted states to levy a tax on alcoholic substances. This agency created low-interest loans allowing farmers and sharecroppers to buy their own land. part of which he used to set up the Works Progress Administration. By 1941. helped to stem the overproduction in agriculture thus stabilizing farm prices.Emergency Relief Appropriation Act: As part of the Second New Deal in relation to the high unemployment rate in April 1935. Results of the New Deal: Several accomplishments of the New Deal contributed to the nation’s economy.S. . The legislative measures brought reform and reinstated confidence in the people. Ultimately this resulted in support from Latin America during World War II. Wikersham Convention: Officially named the National Committee on Law Observation and Enforcement. vastly increasing the power of the president. It established a minimum wage for most workers while it concurrently created a forty-four hour work week and banned child labor. This policy was used on various occasions of armed troops being sent to Latin America to maintain political stability. The act. Good Neighbor Policy: Stated in 1933 by Roosevelt in his inaugural address. Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act. would respect the rights of other nations. Twentieth Amendment: Also known as the Lame-Duck Amendment the Twentieth Amendment in 1933 called for the ending of the "lame-duck" sessions of Congress from Dec of the even numbered years until the following Mar. the Twenty-First Amendment on Dec 5. The amendment also set the date of the President’s inauguration back to Jan 20. Twenty-First Amendment: Ratified within the span of 10 months. by providing benefit payments to farmers who practiced soil conservation methods. For the first time. Congress was forced into passing the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act in which Roosevelt was granted five billion dollars. the cost of law enforcement. Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenancy Act: The act created the Farm Security Administration and replaced the Resettlement Administration. 1936: The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act was formulated to replace the Agricultural Adjustment Act. the ideology was that the U. they had loaned 1 billion dollars assisting thousands of farmers. 1933 repealed the eighteenth amendment which dealt with the passing of prohibition. and other similar problems that faced society during that era. the treatment of juvenile delinquents. the federal government assumed responsibility in reviving economic prosperity. the Wikersham Convention in May of 1929 discussed the probing problems of prohibition.

Indian Reorganization Act. and political stands. Coalition of the Democratic Party: blacks. American Federation of Labor. Lewis of the United Mine Workers and Sidney Hillman of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers established the CIO in the November of 1935. By 1935. intellectuals. UMW: This union was created by militant leader John L. at the treaty of Versailles.S. South: Franklin D. sit down strikes: These strikes were characterized by employees occupying the work place yet doing nothing. SWOC: Led by Philip Murray. Roosevelt. Roosevelt relied on state and local Democratic leaders who pushed beyond the traditional Democratic base. government. 1934: Authorized by the U. big city machines.S. Wilson and the other Allies agreed to weaken Russia. This 2 million-member group welcomed all autoworkers. Congress. steelworkers. Because of this action. An example of this is that the Emergency Banking Act passed through Congress in one day. U. based on his stands on increases in pay. safer working conditions. John L. By March 1937. Lewis.S. Lewis in 1890. a constitution.000 members out of which Lewis co-founded the CIO. Only until Roosevelt’s presidency did the U. Enacted on Jun 18. and Southerners favored these relief programs. it allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U. 1934. recognize Russia. unions.Recognition of the USSR. Because blacks. and accepted a 40-hour week. The size of the union grew as production in the 1900’s grew. it provided the Indians direct ownership of their land. Steel recognized the union. This type of passive resistance allowed the employees to halt production. intellectuals. "conservative coalition" in Congress: Because of the combination of a majority in Congress and the agreeableness of President Franklin D. Steel Workers Organization Committee. This tactic was utilized in the strike by the United Automobile Workers against General Motors in 1937. SWOC gained recognition by striking against U. reflect Lewis’ military style. big cities machines. .S. thus paralyzing the business.S. Also. the Congress was viewed as conservative. they merged with the Democratic Party. gave the workers a wage increase.: John L. and electrical workers. Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). AFL: The AFL was led by Samuel Gompers and was composed of craft unions that excluded unskilled and semiskilled workers. many other companies began to do the same. the dissidents formed the Committee for Industrial Organization. 1933: The United States didn’t recognize Russia because of the betrayal when Russia withdrew from WWI due to the Russian Revolution in March of 1917. United Mine Workers. Steel. credit. In 1935 it had about 250. its methods. and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs.

New Members of the Supreme Court: Black. Hugo." Smith decried blacks. Catholics. Felix.Liberty League: This group was made of conservative Democrats who were against the economic and fiscal policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt. they supported the Republican candidate. He asserted reactionary views and revolved around anti-New Deal and ant-Semitic views. Jones & Laughlin Steel. Stanley F.. Townsend. Alfred M. he created the magazine Social Justice which attacked Communism. United States: This case took place in May 1935 when a New York company was charged with a violation of an NRA poultry code. Townsend’s ideals were an early foundation of the Social Security Act. Communists. Coughlin. It lasted for four years and was composed of famous members like Alfred E. he upheld the Wagner Act in which workers had the right of collective bargaining in the National Labor Relations Board v. Schechter v. Father Charles: Coughlin used his status as a U. Share the Wealth. Smith. Hughes. Although Congress rejected it. Roosevelt’s New Deal.: Both radical agitators. Ending in 1940. Davis. Roosevelt between 1937 to 1939 to guarantee a foundation for a liberal majority and thus extending Roosevelt’s New Deal policies after leaving office. Congress and the American people disapproved of the action as well. and Jews. issues: The candidates included Franklin D. Alf Landon. Chief Justice Charles Evans: Hughes guided the Supreme Court in the attack against President Roosevelt in his plan to "pack" the Supreme Court in 1937. Reed. •"court packing" proposal: This proposal was announced by Franklin D. Roosevelt allowing the president to appoint new Supreme Court members for each one over 70 years of age. Huey. Election of 1936: candidates.: These four men were appointed by Franklin D. Long was known for his Share the Wealth program that painted a picture in which "every man [was] a king. Gerald L. and labor unions in the Union Party (1936). totaling six in all. Dr. and William . Also. these charges resulted in the Supreme Court declaring the NRA unconstitutional by stating that the NRA was regulating interstate commerce a violation of federal regulation. Landon from the Republican party. Roman Catholic "radio priest" to announce his political and economic views. This resulted in some New Dealers leaving the president’s side and humiliated President Franklin D. William O.K. Long.S. America First Party (1944). Frankfurter. Douglass. and the Christian National Crusade (1947). After Chief Justice Evan Hughes’ leadership in expressing their disapproval in this plan. Smith and John W. Roosevelt from the Democratic Party. In addition. It called for a pension for citizens over 60 years of age to receive $200 provided by the federal government. Francis: Townsend developed the Townsend Plan in 1933 which embraced 5 million supporters. Wall Street.

the Hatch Act tried to exterminate corruption during elections. Roosevelt wanted to levy heavier taxes on the rich. FDR won in a landslide victory. •Second New Deal: Created by President Franklin D. Literacy Digest Poll: The poll was initiated by Franklin D. and limited donations from individuals which were to be given to political campaigns. There. it eliminated unfair business practices and destroyed monopolies. 1936. it once again fell back in mid 1937. 1937: The purpose of this act was to amend the Sherman Anti-Trust Act by exempting any contract or agreement ("horizontal agreements") in which a product would be set at a significantly lower price. Roosevelt during his presidency and involved in a court case: Literacy Digest poll v. On Jun 19.Lemke from the Union Party." once fertile land. became waste areas and unusable. In the end. and to incorporate social-welfare benefits. create harder regulations on businesses. when industrial production and steel output declined. "Roosevelt recession": Although the economy improved in 1936 and early 1937. 1939. and merchants large or small. GATHERING STORM . Miller-Tydings Act. The Grapes of Wrath: "Okies" were poor farmers who moved west to California and Arizona during the 1930s or moved to the crowded cities. Robinson-Patman Act. restricted federal employees from political campaigning. Okies. also known as "dust bowls. and social welfare. 1939: Supported by Senator Carl Hatch of New Mexico and passed by Congress on Aug 2. to help the unemployed receive jobs. Hatch Act. Gallop Poll. The principal issue was how to exploit the New Deal’s popularity. A violation of this would be an unfair method as stated in the Federal Trade Commission Act. Some of the major factors of this recession were federal policies that greatly reduced consumer income. the Second New Deal focused on and enlarged the federal program to incorporate the jobless. •dust bowl. this act was passed and applied to all buyers or sellers. The Grapes of Wrath written by Steinbeck in 1939 illustrates the plight of a dust bowl family. 1936: Originated from a Federal Trade Commission chain store investigation. It disallowed bribery of votes. and unemployment statistics increased. John Steinbeck. they debated on the validity of each poll in relation to Franklin D. This occurred because after two generations of a melange of drought and poor farming techniques these areas. organized labor. this act was an amendment to the Clayton Act. Roosevelt and expressed in his State of the Union Address in January 1935. Roosevelt’s New Deal policies. to give assistance to the rural poor.

and also restated the sovereignty of the American states. Rio de Janeiro Conference. 1938: Another conference before WWII. It was unanimously approved by the Pan American Nations. members would meet and decide necessary actions to be taken Buenos Aires Conference. in which the American treaty of reciprocal Assistance was signed. delegation to the conference endorsed a document that declared "no state has the right to intervene in the internal affairs of another. 1936: It was opened by Roosevelt when he stated in a speech that any non-American state seeking "to commit acts of aggression against us will face a Hemisphere wholly prepared to consult together for our mutual safety and our mutual good. sixteen resolutions were passed to deal with the outbreak of war in Europe. determination to resist "all foreign intervention or activities that may threaten them. Philippines: The act eliminated certain objectionable provisions of a previous act known as the Hawes-Cutting Act. XIV entitled "Declaration of Panama." Also a pact was adopted promising consultation if war was imminent Lima Conference. Tydings-McDuffie Act. 1939: Adopted at Panama city by the foreign ministers of the American Republics.S. Montevideo Conference: This conference was held in 1933. Depression and out of control inflation totally destabilized Germany’s government and allowed the rise to power of the Nazis. which provided for the . It stated that the American Republics would take over and administer any European possession in the New World endangered by aggression. it expressed the U. Descendants of Spanish subjects in 1899 were designated citizens. 1916: This act provided for the government of the Philippines and committed the U." Declaration of Panama. Secretary of State furthered the interests of Latin American States when he asked for a reduction of trade barriers. Resolution no.The two decades prior to the outbreak of hostilities in World War II were a period of increasing unrest both politically and socially in many areas of the world. and Supreme Court justices were to be appointed by the president. the Philippine Congress was made elective. A U. 1934. 1940: The act was created to prevent the transfer to European colonies to Germany in the western hemisphere. to the future independence of the Philippines.S. Some of the issues were related to unresolved conflicts left over from World War I. Additionally. Jones Act. 1933: Meeting of 19 American republics.S. Act of Havana. who were able to capitalize on a German sense of injustice and nationalistic frustration. the Lima Conference adopted the Declaration of Lima." stated that American waters should be free of hostilities from non-belligerent nations. committing each republic to assist another in times of any attack or if an American republic were threatened by a situation not involving an armed attack. Voting rights were given to all literate male citizens over 21.

Japan declared war against China. China’s leader. landowners. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia which did not have a way of stopping him from invading because Ethiopia was such a weak nation without a strong army and a supply of ammunition. was powerless to stop it.S. It also warned U. Nye Committee: Instituted due to public concern over the issue that the U. The Committee held hearings between 1934 and 1936 and compiled evidence of involvement of U.S. "merchants of death": This term refers to the business corporations and banks who were blamed for dragging the U. and 1937. Mussolini: Mussolini founded the Fasci de Combitimmento after being kicked out of the Socialist party in 1919. called for a collaboration of Communist Socialist to fight fascism. banks and corporations financing WWI and supplying arms and loans to the Allied nations. Russia’s Commissar of Foreign Affairs MaksimM. monarchists. He came into power in the 1920s. In 1937. these laws placed an embargo on exports of war materials to belligerents. Litvinov asked for action against fascist governments. Japan attacked the Chinese province of Manchuria and installed a puppet government.S. Ethiopia: Mussolini was intent on building an African empire comparable to those of the European nations.independence of the Philippine Islands after 12 years. He also pursued an aggressive policy which won him support in every sector of the population.S. In July of 1936. All these allegations were investigated by the Nye committee. this committee was headed by Senator Gerald Nye. had to purchase the goods they wanted as well as provide their own vessels in which they could be shipped out to their country. was dragged into WW I. and by 1926. and instituted the cash and carry policy which meant that nations that were seeking to trade with the U. fascist Franco led the Spanish army units to overthrow the elected government in Spain. . and Roman Catholic hierarchy. industrialists. This united or popular front formed in 1938. effective 10 years after the inauguration of an authorized government. Japan Attacks China. Popular Front: In order to gain the support of the Allies. In 1935. into the war because they were desperate to protect the millions of dollars invested in loans and weapon sales to Britain and France. Russia sought a formation of united-front governments in foreign countries. It also provided for trade relations with the U. Franco: This war lasted from 1936-1939. citizens not to travel on belligerent vessels. Chiang Kai-shek.S. prohibited loans to belligerent nations. Chiang Kai-shek: Japan was taken over by a militaristic government that had expansionist dreams. In 1931. Mussolini had transformed Italy into a single-party totalitarian regime. 1936. The revolution was supported by Spanish conservatives. •neutrality legislation: A series of Neutrality Acts were passed in 1935.S. Spanish Civil War.

However. the United States was fenced in and forced to choose a side. His racist views targeted all non-white Christians who expressed anti-German ideas. This was a severe blow to the Popular Front. signed a pact with Nazi Germany on August 24. Hitler’s actions here furthered his plans to expand German borders and his rule. •Munich Conference. Japan accepted responsibilities of bombing the ships. the United States. nonaggression pact between Germany and USSR: Stalin. Many people in Britain were very disappointed in Chamberlain and how easily he had appeased to the demands of Hitler.S. Gathering Storm 1940-1941 As World War Two began in Europe. Austria Annexed: Hitler annexed Austria in 1938 and expanded the German borders. He pursued a militaristic and expansionist foreign policy. was considered a legitimate target by the Axis. He proclaimed an Anschluss between Austria and Germany and German troops rolled into the capital city Vienna. as hostilities escalated in both the East and West. Finally. "Quarantine speech. made a formal apology and promised indemnities later set at $2 million. though not officially in the war. gunboat Panay and three Standard Oil ships. Nothing was spared. Hitler. he suggested the possibility of a "quarantine" of aggressor nations. Kristallnacht: Meaning "The Night of Broken Glass. 1939 agreeing not to make war on each other and divided up Poland between the two nations: the USSR and Germany. After France fell to Germany.Panay Incident." 1937: Roosevelt recognized the power of the antiwar feelings demonstrated at home. who advocated a popular front against fascism. Jewish businesses and schools were wrecked and looted. the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor pulled the United States into the global conflict. Nazism: Adolf Hitler’s Nazi party came into power in 1933 and clamped a dictatorship on Germany. Chamberlain was very much blamed for the oncoming of WWII due to his actions toward Hitler. 1937: Japanese bombers engaged in war with China bombed and sank the marked U. gave in to Hitler’s demands on territory that Germany had lost after the end of WWI. pressure increased on the United States. Nazi sympathizers in Austria welcomed Hitler’s annexation of Austria. evident in his plan to raise a half million man army and expand German borders to Russia." this rampage was carried out by Nazis all over Germany and Austria to destroy Jewish homes and structures. representing England. Thousands of homes were vandalized and synagogues were burned to the ground. In a 1937 speech. . appeasement. He was replaced soon after by Winston Churchill. he assured a visiting Australian leader in 1935 that America would never enter a war. Supporting the Allied forces. not one to push ahead of public opinion. the United States attempted to maintain a distance. Neville Chamberlain: This conference was held in 1938 between England and Germany. which were evacuating American officials from China. Chamberlain.

Lindbergh. Originated in the RomeBerlin Axis with the 1936 Hitler-Mussolini Accord and their alliance in 1939. Blitzkrieg: When Poland refused to restore the German city of Danzig lost after WWI. and on Jun. and imprisoned individuals not because of any acts of violence or espionage. appointed Prime Minister. advocated total war. Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies: Instituted by Roosevelt to oversee loans and other such financial activities occurring while Germany attacked Britain. Charles Lindbergh was a big supporter of this policy. 1940. In Sept. 22 France capitulated. The committee was compromised of many pro-isolationist who thought that the allied powers could do nothing to stop the war. to make sure they stayed isolationist. The Axis powers were Japan. Tojo: Japanese leader during WWII. Resigned 1944. Nations who wanted to trade had to purchase the materials from the U. April 1940. Mussolini attacked from the South at the same time. oversaw lend lease policy implemented by Roosevelt for purposes of protecting America and also to help stop Germany in Europe. as most citizens did not want to be involved in many international affairs. This meant that the allied countries had to only pay for the goods and the United States would ship them. but rather for their rhetoric and their views on the American government.S. it was extended when Japan was incorporated into the Axis by the signing of the Tripartite pact. America First Committee: When FDR expressed a desire for American intervention in WWII. fall of France: Hitler’s launched his blitzkrieg on France in 1938.Invasion of Poland. It was largely used in the later years of communist hysteria. An extreme militarist. Charles: Isolationism was the foreign policy practiced by America after WWI. Isolationism. England evacuated 338. and carry them on their own vessels. and controlled government and military operations during WWII. Hitler’s troops attacked Poland on Sept. "cash and carry": A precautionary move by the U.000 men from the English channel. Belgium and Luxembourg. and even joined the America First Committee to demonstrate his antiwar sentiment. Became Army Chief of Staff in 1937. .S. The Committee. Italy and Germany. and in 1940 made Minister of War. In 1941. Hitler unleashed his Blitzkrieg. Led the Japanese army against Manchuria. The British were already being driven back when Hitler attacked Netherlands." and quickly occupied many western European nations. Smith Act: The Smith Act was created in 1940 and outlawed any conspiracy to overthrow the government. or "lightening war.. he was faced with stiff resistance by the America First Committee in 1940. 1939.1. Axis Powers: Group of countries opposed to the Allied powers.

Japan signed this alliance in September." March 1941: Program set up to loan the Allied nations arms and other materials to wage war against the Axis powers. and 3 destroyers were sunk or crippled. election of 1940: candidates. The United States government established many wartime organizations to monitor supplies and food as well control propaganda. Families were encouraged to help fathers and brothers by not buying tin or rationing sugar or buying war bonds. The Lend-lease bill was approved by Congress in 1941. In less that 3 hours. Atlantic Charter. the amount totaled $48 billion. Tripartite Pact: The Tripartite Pact was a 10 year military and economic alliance also known as the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis. USSR. and China received loans from the lend lease. of which the United States received $6 billion in repayment by these nations. soil. The major issues were WWII and military spending. over 300 aircraft were destroyed or damaged. Everyone on the homefront was expected to do his or her part in the war as well. Worst loss of U.destroyers-for-bases deal: In exchange for fifty old WWI American destroyers which had in been recommissioned in 1939 and 1940 and were serving on neutrality patrol. with the previously allied Italy and Germany. •Pearl Harbor. scores of Japanese dive-bombers and torpedo planes flew across Oahu to bomb the ships that were anchored in Peal Harbor. Homefront Though World War Two was not fought on U. 1941: On the morning of December 7. August 1941: FDR met Churchill to discuss joint military strategy. •Japanese Relocation: Japanese-born Americans and immigrants from Japan were sent to concentration camps in the early 1940’s because of a fear that they would leak out . Their public statement expressed their ideas of a postwar world. By August 1945. 3 light cruisers. and the Republicans nominated Wendell L. and 8 battleships.S. Roosevelt endorsed the nation’s 1st peacetime draft and advocated a military spending increase. Willkie. issues: Roosevelt was nominated by the Democrats for a third term. and endorsed the principles of collective security and disarmament. December 7. Each of the signatories pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the U. Thirty-five other nations besides Great Britain. France. and to strafe the planes parked side by side at nearby air bases. the entire country pitched in to help the war effort. and frowned upon aggression. 1940. which originally authorized $7 billion. Britain gave the United States 99 year leases to establish military bases on British possessions in the Western hemisphere. affirmed national self-determination. S. Housewives grew Liberty Gardens and went to work in place of the drafted men. •"Lend Lease. arms in history.S.

and FDR apologized to them. butter. Most of these people were suspected of being spies for the Japanese. and sought to prevent strikes and out of control wage increases. 1 million still died. Office of War Information: Roosevelt wanted public opinion to be positive during the war. and nearly twice the amount in higher denomination. in order to maintain the positive public opinion in America. Although it saved 200. the War Labor Board was instituted to mediate disputes between management and labor. Revenue Act of 1942: Because of the expenditure on the war. although it was late in inception. though there was no solid evidence to support such accusations. War Refugee Board (WRB): FDR established the War Refugee Board in 1943 to help rescue and assist the many people who were condemned to death camps. in 1942. The War Labor Board acted as the mediator to prevent massive strikes and wage increases that occurred with the demand for workers. It examined all written documents. and in 1941. Roosevelt wanted to pay for as much as possible through taxes. limited or stopped the production of civil goods. and the war industry. meat. including works of publishers and broadcasters. and also to study how profit can be gained through the production of weapons and supplies.000 non-Jews. to Japan. coffee and shoes.S. bond drives were held. FDR established the War Production Board. sugar. bond drives: In order to finance the war and give people a sense of involvement in the war effort. War Manpower Commission (WMC): FDR established the War Manpower Commission in 1942 to help supervise the mobilization of males and females in the military. It relocated many refugees in need. oil. this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation. as well as all letters going overseas. he established the Office of Censorship. and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers. the Revenue Act raised the top income-tax rate from 60% to 90% and added middle class and lower income groups to the tax bracket as well. War Labor Board: Established in 1942.information about the U. The captured Japanese were released in 1942. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas.000 Jews and 20. Although Congress refused to grant him a progressive tax. hoarding and price administration. Office of Censorship. The treasury department sold about $40 billion "E" bonds to investors. Office of Price Administration (OPA): Instituted in 1942. It allocated scarce materials. profiteering. War Production Board: In 1942. In order to get the necessary amount of raw materials. FDR announced a plan for massive war production. The bonds raised half the money for WWII. Office of Strategic Services: FDR and the Joint Chief of Staffs formed the Office of Strategic Services which served as an intelligence agency during WWII and was a .

and the development of DDT and other pesticides. MacArthur.S. the troops landed in Morocco and . and as such played an important role in aiding the postwar economic recovery of Europe with the Marshall Plan. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD): Formed in 1941 to contract out the development of new medicines and ordinances. and to analyze the enemy. •African-Americans in World War II: Many civil rights groups used the need of the government for the cooperation of all its citizens in the war effort to push a new militancy in redressing discrimination. advanced jets. radar devices. including heavy industry. Discontinued by Truman in 1945. George Catlett: An American military commander who was Army Chief of Staff during World War II. The U. and the Second World War The United States was involved in two major areas of conflict. and was highly respected by his peers in the armed forces. Led by General Eisenhower. General: Eisenhower led the D-Day invasion with great success.1942 to conduct espionage. which provided assistance to war-torn Western Europe. it employed an allied army of more than 100. Blacks moved into service in all areas of the military. It began on June 13. Island hopping proved to be the only way the United States could retake the Pacific from the Japanese. the struggle in Europe and the battle in the Pacific Theater. both as civilian support personnel and in the uniformed services in the Woman’s Army Corps (WAC) and Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service in the Navy (WAVES). tanks.predecessor of the CIA. It spent $1 billion dollars to produce sonar. the Allies would concentrate on the Japanese threat. Operation Torch: Undertaken in November 1942. freeing men for combat pilot positions. Women moved into the civilian workforce.000 troops. Eisenhower. replacing those men who had entered the military. A large migration of blacks from the South to Northern industrial areas made civil rights a national rather than regional concern and broadened the political effects of black votes. rockets. Opting to first prevent the complete takeover of Europe. From bases in England and Africa. General MacArthur was credited for the great successes that the Americans had in the Pacific wars. Marshall. •Women in World War II: Women served in significant numbers during World War II. General. the Allied forces hammered at the Italian and German lines. He was the strategist behind the Pacific Wars. although most in segregated units until 1948. the United States hoped that after Germany was defeated. gather intelligence information required for planning. Women pilots ferried planes from station to station. He became Secretary of State for President Truman.

Roosevelt was convinced by Churchill to delay the second front from 1942 to a later date. Thousands of soldiers died at the hands of German and Russian armies during the battle of Stalingrad. D-Day. Italian military leaders surrendered to the allied forces on September 8 1943. Casablanca Conference. 1943: In the middle of the North African campaign. In roughly a month. Cairo Conference. 1944: In the first 24 hours. 150. member of the Big Three. the head of the Chinese government. when the allies were better equipped to fight. But. Genocide. FDR and him and were the major parties involved in allied conferences. Churchill. By the end.000 allied troops landed on the beach of Normandy. The Russians were victorious at the battle. and have forces in Africa to protect English colonies since Germany was attacking Africa. "Final solution": Hitler persecuted Jews in Germany and sought to rid Germany of them. the Germans surrendered in May 1943.. They also vowed to pursue the war until the unconditional surrender of the Axis power. and tried to reduce Soviet mistrust of the west. he asked for assistance from the U. Winston: British Prime Minister during WWII. he set up many concentration camps. By summer’s end British secured Belgium and the Americans recovered France and Luxembourg. 1943: FDR met with Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek. FDR promised Chiang that Manchuria and Taiwan would be . allied forces seized control of Sicily. where Jews were methodically executed by means of poisonous gas or other forms. Invasion of Sicily: Stalin pleaded for a second front in Russia. Japanese codes were decoded and Admiral Nimitz knew the exact plans and location of the Japanese ships. Battle of Midway: In 1942. The Big Three was compromised of Stalin. and thus were able to launch a counter-offensive against Germany and drive the Nazis from Russia. he ordered dive-bombers to destroy the ships. arriving in Paris by August.S. the Japanese were determined to wipe out any remaining ships of the decimated American fleet when they sailed toward Midway. In a clever move. June 6. An additional million waded ashore in the following weeks. second front: The plan that was going to be used to aid the Soviet Union in fighting the Germans. When Germany first began attacking Britain. Surrounded. During WWII. 6 million perished. but Churchill objected and Roosevelt agreed for a plan to invade Sicily in the summer on 1943. in the form of equipment and arms. Roosevelt and Churchill met at Casablanca and resolved to attack Italy before invading France. and allies reached inland in July. Stalingrad: The site of one of the bloodiest battles during WWII.Algeria and pressed eastward to entrap the German forces being pushed by British forces in Libya.

J. Hitler threw the last of his reserves to fight against the allied troops in December of 1944. in 1941 FDR launched a secret program to produce an A-bomb before the Germans. •Atomic bomb: The atomic bomb was successfully built in 1944 and was employed in bombing the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Afterward. U. 25. killing hundreds of thousands of people through the incinerating heat and radiation poisoning. Teheran Conference. Oppenheimer. Robert: The scientific director of the Manhattan project. Japan surrendered. They agreed to divide Germany into occupation zones. but with the explosion of the Abomb. and Stalin promised to fight Japan after Hitler’s defeat. The bomb unleashed terrible fury on the two cities. On Dec. V-E day: As Russia pushed the Germans back into Germany and reached the suburbs of Berlin. turned its full attention to the War in the Pacific Manhattan Project: Because Nazi scientists were seeking to use atomic physics in a harmful manner. . After the A-bomb fell on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. Americans celebrated this Victory in Europe day with ticker tape parades and dancing in the streets. Okinawa: The island of Okinawa was secured by the Americans after the battle of Iwo Jima. "unconditional surrender": Term used by the allied powers to describe what kind of surrender they wanted from Japan-one without negotiations. In 1943 and 1944. Okinawa was 350 miles from Japan and a key area for staging the invasion of Japan by the American troops. the new German government surrendered unconditionally on May 8. the Manhattan Engineering district worked to stockpile U-235 and in 1945 attempted to use it in a bomb.returned to China and that Korea would be free with the hope that Chiang would fight until Japan surrendered unconditionally. The assault forces suffered nearly fifty thousand casualties in the battle before being able to subdue Japanese resistance. the Cold War Era had just begun. which the U.S. to coincide with the Russian offensive from the east.S. the allies stopped the last German counter-attack and within a month. There was also debate on whether such a potent and powerful weapon should have been unleashed before proper tests were conducted on the long-term effects. Battle of the Bulge: As the allies prepared for an attack on Germany after penetrating up to Germany’s border. Oppenheimer was later employed by Harry Truman to work on building a more destructive weapon known as the Hydrogen bomb. 1943. had undertaken to build the atomic bomb before Germany. 1943: FDR met with Stalin and Churchill and set the date for the invasion of France for May or June 1944. to impose reparations on the Reich. drove the Nazis back to Rhine. and did was by relying on Nazi scientists.

and to make provisions for the trials of war criminals. Russian. 2 to decide on postwar arrangements begun at Yalta. Churchill and FDR promise for Soviet concessions in Manchurian and return of lost territories. A Council of Foreign Ministers was established to draft treaties concerning conquered European nations. The iron curtain was the satellites and territories held by the communist Soviet Union. The spread of communism into Asian and South American countries exacerbated anticommunist feelings in the United States and contributed to the pressure for increased buildup of defensive forces. The next day a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki killing.1945 with leaders FDR. Stalin also had considerable influence in the Yalta agreement as well as . Vietnam and Korea were divided into zones to be held by US. Winston. agreed to drop demands for reparations from Germany. approved plans for a UN Conference and promised free elections in Poland. French and US zones. partitioning of Korea. which obliterated the city. In 1935 Stalin endorsed a "Popular Front" to oppose fascism. de Gaulle. Origins of the Cold War Although relations with the Soviet Union were already strained. Stalin and Churchill met in Potsdam Germany from July 16-Aug. Germany: As decided by the Potsdam by the Council of Foreign minister. Vietnam. Great Britain and US in Feb. •YALTA CONFERENCE: Conference of Russia.S. •POTSDAM CONFERENCE: Truman.000 people died immediately and 1000s more died of radiation poisoning in later years. Germany. Nagasaki: The 1st A-bomb was dropped on Hiroshima by the U. Britain and the Soviet Union and then reorganized through selfdetermination. Stalin: Ruler of Russia from 1929-1953. The result was statement of Soviet intent on entering the Pacific War two to three months after the end of the European war. Charles: The French President during WWII. Russia’s traditional paranoia led to the establishment of a communist satellite buffer zone around the USSR. France. Some 80. Roosevelt’s death and the beginning of Truman’s presidency brought new tensions to the relationship. The Soviet Union agreed to drop demands for reparations and Germany was decentralized into British. Stalin recognized Chiang as China's ruler. Stalin and Churchill in Crimea. An early theory for Soviet containment. he was also active in several treaty conferences. in 1945 after Japan refused unconditional surrender. "Iron Curtain" speech: Asked for Anglo-American cooperation to combat an "Iron Curtain" that cut across Europe from the Baltic to Adriatic.Hiroshima. Churchill.

39 delegates from US. Great Britain and Russia gathered. These superpowers consisting of the United States. UN: Security Council. Atomic Energy Commission: To oversee the control and development of nuclear weapons. and Great Britain began proceedings such as the Yalta and Potsdam. and the Secretariat. to discuss plans for an international organization to be named the United Nations.being a leader of one of the world's superpowers. These "satellites" were nations conquered by the Soviet Union during the counteroffensive attack of the Russians against the Germans during WWII. After WWII. General Assembly. the International Court of Justice. The conference established committees. the Soviet Union. foreign currencies would be valued in relation to the dollar and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Economic and Social Council. 1945. superpowers: The world powers after WWII created a new balance of power. Nuremberg trials: Thirteen trials held accusing leaders of Nazi Germany of crimes against international law from 1945-1949. satellites: The countries surrounding the Soviet Union created a buffer zone between Russia and the rest of Europe. General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and World Bank were created. . Bretton Woods Conference: Meeting of Allied governments in 1944. Fear and hatred against communism and Socialism continued throughout the Cold War. Lie of Norway as Secretary General. General Assembly. 1946 was the first UN General Assembly. The UN represented a worldwide attempt for a peaceful world after the hidden treaties and chaos caused by WWII. was to curb Stalin's and communist influence. The "Barouch Plan" set up the International Atomic Development whose goal was for use of peaceful potentials for atomic energy and to provide nations with security against surprise attacks. San Francisco Conference.C. Trusteeship Council. and UN Charter: A meeting of world nations to establish a international organization for collective security. the primary focus of Amer. communism: Two forms of governing. socialism. From the Bretton Woods Agreement. enslavement. electing Trygve H. Secretary-General: January 10. Conferences represented the superpowers and their importance in postwar reconstruction. Accusations included murder. Dumbarton Oaks Conference: An international conference held August-October 1944 at Dumbarton Oaks Washington D. socialism and communism became fearful subjects after WWII as fears of war led to hatred against socialist and communist American troops. looting and atrocities against soldiers and citizens of occupied countries.

•MARSHALL PLAN: Truman's secretary of state George C.: An advocate for tough foreign policy against the Soviets. Kennan. The Truman Doctrine became a major portion of Cold War ideology. 1947. Yugoslavia. The Marshall Plan was expanded to mass economic aid to the nations of Europe for recovery from WWII. Point Four: A post-WWII foreign aid treaty devised from the fourth point of President Truman's inaugural address in 1950. Korea and Egypt.S. a communist coup led by Klement Gottwald took control of the Czechoslovakian government after the October 5 announcement of Moscow's plan to block the Marshall Plan in Europe. a title proved by US actions in the UN. Plan would make provisions to supply US investment capital and personnel to agricultural and industrial development as well as development in other national interests. Vietnam. Reforming the Departments of War and Navy they became the Departments of Army.. Voice of America. Through his rule he kept Yugoslavia independent of Soviet control and was recognized as the only lawful authority in Yugoslavia. Aid was rejected by communist nations. Czechoslovakian coup: On February 25. •TRUMAN DOCTRINE: From Truman’s address to Congress on March 12. Navy and the new Department of the Air Force. a feeling of personal responsibility for the containment of communism.Department of Defense created: The Department of Defense was created in 1947 by the National Security Act. •CONTAINMENT. 1947 after the British told the US they could not afford to continue assistance to the governments of Greece and Turkey against Soviet pressure for access to the Mediterranean. Tito. Voice of America was a US government radio station sent to Eastern Europe nations.outside pressure. CARE: A part of the US Information Agency. the president announced that the United States would assist free people resisting "armed minorities or. Result of need for a consolidated department. X who wrote "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" in the magazine Foreign Affairs advising a policy of restricting Soviet expansion to protect western institutions. . Tito was the communist dictator of Yugoslavia until proclaiming himself president in January 1953. The Marshall Plan also hope to minimize suffering to be exploited by communist nations. Marshall: Marshall Tito is the name used by Josip Bronz since 1934. The theory of containment was accepted by the U. 1948. He was also the anonymous Mr.. George F. 27. Czechoslovakia became a communist satellite of the Soviet Union. Marshall proposed massive economic aid to Greece and Turkey on Feb. government and seen through the domino theory and US actions in Vietnam and Korea." Meant as a offer for aid against communism the Truman Doctrine established the United States as a global policeman. Kennan was the American charge d'affaires in Moscow through WWII.

the communists controlled major cities and to avoid a full scale war with China. New Zealand US (ANZUS): All these treaties were formed post WWII as mutual defense pledges in an attempt to halt the spread of communism through Europe and Asia. Admitted in U.S. "lost China": Mao Tse-tung. The NSC-68 became of major importance throughout the Cold War as it spoke of the need to remain a step ahead of the Soviet Union to protect its own security. Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) and the Australia. Tse-tung. The airlift provided food and supplies to the blockaded people and intensified antagonism against Stalin. fall of China. on October 1948. and Romania after the signing of the NATO treaty in 1949. The organization considered an attack against one member of the alliance. Communist China dedicated support but did not sign the treaty. In 1949. •NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO): Following the Vanderberg Resolutions on April 4. After 321 days in 1949 Russia agreed to end blockade if the Council of Foreign Ministers would agree to discuss Berlin. Warsaw Pact: Treaty unifying communist nations of Europe signed May 1955 by: Russia. and the U. Israel created. During 1924 led another civil disobedience movement for India's freedom in exchange for India's help against Japan Assassinated. •NSC-68: In the 1950's President Truman called for a top secret investigation from the CIA to review national defense policy. complied with Communist demands. head of the Chinese Communists demanded US halt military aid and for US forces to leave China in January 1945. and France to gain access to Berlin. •BERLIN BLOCKADE: On March 20.N in 1949. Italy. East Germany. The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington on April 4. June 24. Norway. and Portland joined the Canadian-US negotiations for mutual defense and mutual aid. Czechoslovakia. On May 14. Denmark. Poland. Mao. the Palestine partition of Arab and Jewish states. Southeast Asia Treaty organization (SEATO). Albania. British. 1948 the Soviet withdrew representation from the Allied Control Council and refused to allow US. The NSA-68 called for a massive military buildup and increase in defense spending through raising of taxes in fear of Soviet aggressive intentions and military strength. . the Western Powers began Berlin Airlift to supply residents of Berlin. an attack on all. 1948: From the UN General Assembly on April 28. 1947. Bulgaria. 1920 led nonviolent disobedience movement for independence for India.Gandhi: Spiritual and political leader of India. 1949 creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 1948 Israel proclaimed independence and US recognized the new state but the Arabs rejected the proclamation and declared war against Israel. Hungary.

At the beginning of the Korean War.I. A cease fire was installed on July 26. Truman and Domestic Issues With the return of large amounts of soldiers from the Second World War. Chiang Kaishek was opposed by the communist leader Mao Tse-tung who opposed US involvement in the war. limited war: After Japan's defeat in 1945. supplies. Quemoy. Needed to facilitate cooperation in the war effort between the . Matsu: On September 3.State Department "White Paper. the Communist army attacked the Nationalist held islands of Quemoy and Matsu. Korea was divided at the 38th parallel between Soviet troops to the north and the People's Democratic Republic and US troops to the south. new factories and equipment. At this point in time. and US interference would lead to outbreak of war. Formosa: Chiang Kai-shek was the Nationalist leader in China whom the United States supported during the Chinese civil wars. He was recalled from duty after expressing unpopular opinions about the US policy in Korea. US gained UN approval to stop the considered communist domino. Bill of Rights. The "limited" war was to hold the 38th parallel without beginning WWIII. •KOREAN WAR." 1949: The United States Relations With China. and loans for homes and businesses. Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion: A 1943 organization that controlled all aspects of the economy. 1953. medical treatment. MacArthur was general in the Pacific Wars. provoking war. June 24. With Special Reference to the Period 1944-1946 warned that the Nationalists were on the verge of collapse because of political. After losing major cities. This exodus of working women promoted the idea that the proper place for the women was in the home. It was accepted June. Also. These attacks led to the Formosa Revolution which Eisenhower issued. 1950 North Korean troops attacked the Republic of Korea. 1944: Congress enacted the bill to provide living allowances. and economic deficiencies. military. giving the president power to defend Formosa without committing to defense of islands. women were forced to return to their homes as former soldiers reclaimed the workplace. all the citizens in the United States wanted was a return to normalcy. he became the United Nations Commander in Korea. G. but laid the seeds for the later women’s movement. Truman-MacArthur controversy: During WWII. the Nationalist government moved their headquarters to the city of Formosa. tuition fees. Chiang Kai-shek. 1944 and helped to stimulate economic growth and the accumulation of wartime profits. the population in the United States increased rapidly with the baby boom.

Taft. Congress cut the goal of full employment. Taft-Hartley Act: Congress modified the Wagner Act in 1947 to outlaw the practices of delaying a strike. transformed through technology. extension of the OPA vetoed: Congress instituted a ration program to conserve materials and battle inflation. and brought green lawn and suburbs. Truman vetoed Congress’ 1946 bill that would have extended O. Truman vetoed the measure. Dixiecrats. and permitting the president to call an eighty-day cooling period. baby boom: The number of babies being born between 1950-1963 rose substantially and the mortality rate dramatically dropped allowing for a 19% increase in the population. Strom Thurmond: They helped Truman win by showing how the communists in the Wallace campaign forced liberals back into the mainstream Democratic Party. Sen. Robert A. low taxes and energy costs. representing states rights. postwar inflation: Two years after the war.A. a republican devoted to National unity and Strom Thurmond. consumer prices rose only 8% while the total cost of living rose 28% between 1940-1945.: Representing a small group of Republican senators.W.P.M. issues: Truman ran against Dewey.government and representatives of industry and the military. Wary of federal deficit spending and increased presidential powers. Because it proved detrimental to certain unions. and purchasing power.’s life. although Congress overrode it. Truman wins with 24 million votes and the platform of the some of the New Deal and bipartisan foreign policy. who represented the Dixiecrats. plants moving their corporate headquarters here. and thus ended price controls. Because of opposition from food producers. He supported that tax measures favorable to the wealthy and no minimum wage increase. Strom Thurmond was able to collect 1. candidates. production. 1948 election.2 million votes and ran under the Democratic party symbol. "right to work" laws: An area across TX and southern CA called the Sunbelt outlawed unionized shops which were to prevent non-unionized workers to benefit. closed shop. . manufacturers. Employment Act of 1946: Truman promised economic growth and established the Council of Economic Advisors to assist the president in maximizing employment. J. and retailers. This generation was able to fuel the economy and widen the realm of education. The National War Labor Board tried to contain restriction by limiting wage increases and Congress gave the president the power in 1942 to freeze wages to help combat inflation. increased war production 33% in May 1943. the O. he warned that entering into NATO would provoke an arms race with Russia and force the United States to provide military aid to Europe.

federal aid to education. This laid the foundation for the investigations of the House Un-American Activities Committee.S. Considered the true New Deal liberal. agricultural subsidies. domestic paranoia concerning communist infiltration increased.Progressive Party. . reclamation. health insurance. supported social-welfare programs and justice and equality for minorities. •HOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE (HUAC) : FDR established this organization to serve as a platform to the denunciation of the New Deal and communism growth in the U. soil conservation. National Securities Act of 1947. It enlarged the New Deal by adding housing. 1949: The CIA was enacted to pursue and conduct espionage and analyze information and facts concerning the actions of foreign countries. slum clearance. Wallace’s’ campaign forced liberals back into the Democratic party. Americans for Democratic Action (ADA): Founded in 1947 to initiate the development and promotion of a national liberal agenda of public policy. this bill proclaims that "No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice. economic security. increased the minimum wage. flood control. expanded social securities. It also became involved in undercover operations to destroy operations made to be hostile toward the U. •FAIR DEAL: Truman proposed a social and economic program during his State of the Union message in 1949. few said anything. building of low income housing units. expanded public power. Twenty-second Amendment: adopted in 1951. Taking advantage of this "Red Scare" was Senator Joseph McCarthy who utilized the fear and panic of United States citizens to advance his own interests." It resulted from the agitation following FDR’s running for and being elected to a third or fourth term of office of president.S. McCarthyism As a result of the recent escalation of the Cold War and the spread of communism throughout the world. Henry Wallace: He was nominated for President after being fired by Truman for questioning action taken towards Russia. Used to investigate and expose communist influence in America and blurred the line between dissent and disloyalty. Though many Americans believed the investigations were wrong. It also brought about hysteria and caused blacklisting to occur so that people considered to be "communists" never found work. conservation. Citizen participation was essential through direct democracy which was equal in only one way : all can exercise the right to vote.

•MCCARTHYISM, McCarthy, Senator Joseph: He started the hysteria that occurred after the second Red Scare and accused U.S. citizens of being communists. These accusations appealed to Midwestern Americans who found that anti-communism was to fight against liberals and internationalists. It took over the U.S. as a means of fighting communism without realizing that the U.S. was in danger of losing what it was fighting for, Freedom and the Constitution. McCarthy, Senator Joseph: Republicans support and political power was given to senator McCarthy to instill fear within the Democratic Party. He was supported by the GOP party and many resented that he accused many people of being Communists without having proof of their disloyalty. By accusing many of communism, McCarthyism arose. Hiss, Alger: Identified as a member of the communist party by and initially denied claims. Proof was given that Hiss was involved in espionage in the 1930s with the transmitting of information to the Soviet Union through microfilm. Indicted for perjury and sentenced to five years in prison, 1950 McCarran Internal Security Act, 1950: Required all organizations that were believed to be communist by the attorney general to submit a roster of the members and financial statements to the Department of Justice. It also excluded communists from working in defense plants, passports to communists and deported aliens suspected of subversion. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg:. In March of 1951, based primarily on the testimony of their alleged accomplices, Henry Greengrass and Harry Gold, the Rosenbergs were found guilty of conspiring to commit espionage. Their electrocution in 1953 represented the anti-Communist fever that gripped the U.S. Hollywood 10: The 10 people from the entertainment industry called before the House Un-American Activities Committee as "unfriendly" witnesses in October 1947 became known as the Hollywood Ten. All refused to state whether they were communists, served prison sentences, and were blacklisted in the film industry. Fuchs, Klaus: He was a German physicist who was a British citizen from 1942-1950 and an atomic scientist in the United Kingdom and the United States from 1942 on. He was sentenced to prison in England in 1950 for having given atomic secrets to the USSR. After he was freed in 1959, he went to East Germany. "Pink Lady" - Douglas, Helen Gahagan: When Richard Nixon ran against the liberal Democratic Jerry Voorhis for a California congressional seat in 1946, he won easily by suggesting that Voorhis had left-wing tendencies. When Nixon ran for the Senate in 1950, he used similar charges to defeat the Democratic candidate, Congresswoman Douglas. •ANTI-COMMUNIST VOCABULARY: Red, pink or pinko, left-wing, and commie were some of the slurs thrown around during the McCarthy years to brand people with a communist "taint." These campaigns were known as witch-hunts by those who opposed

HUAC tactics, and like the Salem witch-hunts, accusations alone, without any proof of wrong-doing, could be enough to ruin someone and get them "blacklisted" and unable to find employment.

Eisenhower and the 1950s
Hailing Eisenhower as someone whom one might have as a regular neighbor, the country overwhelmingly elected the former and celebrated World War Two Allied forces commander. Although a former military leader, Eisenhower strongly believed in the ascendancy of civilian control over the military and condemned what he termed the "military-industrial complex." During Eisenhower’s administration, the USSR made several advances in the space race pushing the United States to catch up. 1952 election: candidates, issues: Truman would not seek reelection. The Democrats drafted Adlai Stevenson, who was unsuccessful. The Republicans decided to back the war hero Dwight D. Eisenhower who chose Nixon as his running mate. The GOP controlled both houses. •IKE AND MODERN REPUBLICANISM: He provided Americans with the stability they craved, and labeled his credo "Modern Republicanism." In general, he was conservative on monetary issues and liberal "when it came to human beings." During his term as president, he backed the most extensive public-works program in U.S. history: the Interstate Highway Act and also extended social security benefits and raised the minimum wage. "fiscal management": Large scale labor organizations and social welfare were used to deal with powerful pressure groups. It rejected an extreme step to the right side of politics and a return to the pre-New Deal policies. Also, it abandoned the goal of a balanced budget in favor of increased spending to restore prosperity. Niebuhr, Reinhold, Rand, Ayn, The Fountainhead: Niebuhr was a theologian who expressed neo-Orthodox Protestant views and liberal social thoughts. Ayn Rand was a U.S. novelist who became a citizen in 1931 and wrote about the struggles of poverty. Her work was important in expressing life’s hardships and was published in 1928. McCarran-Walter Immigration Act, 1952: Passed over the presidents’ veto, it validated the quota system firmly based on the idea that national origin restrained immigration from southern and Eastern Europe. This act also empowered the attorney general to exclude and deport aliens suspected of being communists. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW): Eisenhower transformed the Federal Securities Agency into the H.E.W. and gave it cabinet rank in 1953. This agency allowed for the reorganization of government in order to achieve greater efficiency and a better economy.

Interstate Highway Act: Passed by Eisenhower, this was the largest and most expensive public-works system in American history that allowed for the building of 41,000 miles of expressways in 1956. Allowed for suburban growth, the decay of central cities, and increased America’s reliance on cars. St. Lawrence Seaway: Approved by Eisenhower, this seaway linked the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean in 1954. It was built to accelerate suburban growth, expand trade to promote economic prosperity, and allowed boats greater access to transport goods. It connected Montreal and Lake Ontario promoting good relations with Canada. Landrum-Griffin Act: Passed in 1959 to regulate the government of unions, guarantee members’ rights, provisions for anti-corruption, and fair elections. Enacted due to the concern of financial misconduct on the part of union officials and connected to gangsters and organized crime. Hoffa, Jimmy: He became president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters in 1957. Jury tampering was found after he was sentenced to thirteen years in prison for the fraudulent use of the union pension fund. After losing his appeals, he was sentenced in 1967 but only served about four years and nine months in prison. AFL-CIO merger: In 1955, this brought 85% of all union members into a single administrative unit, which promised aggressive unionism under the leadership of AFL’s George Meany as president and CIO’s Walter Reuther as vice-president. However, the movement was unable to achieve its old level of success. Alaska, Hawaii: Congress approved Alaska as the forty-ninth state of the Union in June and Eisenhower signed the Alaska statehood bill on July 7, 1958 . Congress approved of giving Hawaii statehood in March of 1959 and it was admitted to the Union on August 21, 1959. •FIRST INDOCHINA WAR: After WWII, Ho Chi Minh of the Vietminh declared himself leader of the Republic of Vietnam and began a war to drive the France imperialists out of Vietnam in Dec of 1946. After a 55 day siege, the French surrendered at the fortress of Diem Bien Phu and July 21, 1954 a truce agreement was signed with France surrendering North Vietnam and granting independence to Cambodia, Laos, and South Vietnam. Bricker Amendment: On January 7, 1954, Senator John W. Bricker proposed a constitutional amendment to limit the executive power of the president. His proposal called for a limit on the power of the president to negotiate treaties and executive agreements. Rejected February 26, 1954. Dulles, John Foster: Became Secretary of State under Eisenhower in 1953. Cold Warrior who supported "massive retaliation," brinksmanship, and preemptive strike. In 1951 he was author of Japanese peace treaty. Politically influential during WWII, from 19491959.

"massive retaliation": January, 1940s. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles signed the Strategic Air Command as the primary deterrent for Soviet attack. Great Britain, Turkey, and Italy stationed intermediate-range nuclear weapons in their countries to provide for a capacity for "massive retaliation." brinksmanship: This is another of the policies of John Foster Dulles that caused considerable controversy during the Cold War. Dulles declared that the United States must be prepared to "go to the brink" of war in order to attain its objectives. This stance was labeled brinksmanship. preemptive strike: A plan of acting first with nuclear or conventional weapons as a defensive action. A preemptive strike would solve the problem before it became an issue by acting first and swiftly. A preemptive strike is another Cold War term that generated fear for the beginning of a nuclear war. Khrushchev, 1955 Geneva Summit: The meeting of "Four Powers," US, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union. Also present was Khrushchev, the 1st Secretary of the Communist Party. Decided to reunify Germany, and on disarmament, and how to improve relations between east and west. Hungarian revolt, 1956: Antigovernment demonstrations in Budapest on Oct. 23, 1956 as revolutionaries demanded the denunciation of the Warsaw Pact and liberation from Soviet troops. On Oct. 21, U.S. announced it wouldn’t give military aid to the revolutionaries. On Nov. 4, Soviets attacked Hungary. Nasser Suez Canal crisis: Dec 17, 1955, the U.S. offered Egypt a loan to build the Aswan High Dam, withdrawing its offer after Egypt accepted Soviet Union aid and Pres. Nasser nationalized the Suez canal to use tolls to build the dam. On Oct 31, Israel invaded Egypt with French and British aircraft. •PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE: A term applied to the actions of the US under Eisenhower and USSR under Khrushchev for maintaining peace and reducing the possibility of war between the two nations. The implementation of the phrase is seen in the Geneva Summit where the "spirit of Geneva" was one of peace and collaboration to create a secure and peaceful world. March 1959 the USSR and the U.S agreed to suspend atomic testing. Eisenhower Doctrine: January 5, 1957, Eisenhower made a speech to the joint House of Congress to limit communist expansion. Authorized March 7, the Eisenhower Doctrine allowed the president to extend economic and military aid to certain nations as well as use of $200 million mutual security funds. Common Market: Established 1958 by the Treaty of Rome to set up a wide customs union in 1968 and was joined by Great Britain in 1972. The EEC developed world wide trading relations between European nations providing for a more solidified Europe, another symbol of rearrangement of power after WWII.

"military-industrial complex": The demands of national security had produced the symbiotic relationship of immense military establishment and industry. May 7. The . 1957. pilot Francis Gary Powers confessed to being a CIA spy. ICBM: Intercontinental Ballistic missiles were developed in the 1950's in America. There was widespread recognition that the integration of society had not progressed as it was supposed to and that it was time for the African-American citizens to take a stand. These intertwined interests helped lead to leverage in government and threatened subordination of the military. a Consultative Conference of Foreign Ministers. and for the development of new instructional material to ensure a higher level of national security. and a Secretariat and Commissions. The ICBM's with one or two nuclear warheads had the potential to destroy the USSR and the US. A. May 11 Eisenhower admitted to authorization of U-2 flights. May 5. the position of African-Americans in civilian society came under increasing scrutiny. the USSR announced an American U-2 plane was shot down in Soviet territory. 1960. Humiliated at being upstaged by the Russians. funds for training teachers. reshaped the educational system in efforts to produce the large numbers of scientists and engineers that Russia had. Randolph. Created by Congress. Philip: President of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters who worked to build his March-on-Washington Committee into an all-black protest movement. to better make scientific advancements. NASA was created in 1958. Landmark decisions in the Supreme Court as well as civil rights laws foreshadowed the changes and upheaval that would come in this and following decades. U-2 incident: May 3. the U. it brought a national aeronautics agency to administer nonmilitary space research and exploration. National Defense Education Act (NDEA Act) : Passed in 1958 to provide $300 million in loans to students of undergraduate and graduate status. •SPUTNIK: The Soviet Union launched this first satellite into orbit on October 4. a Council with a delegate from each state. NASA released a cover story of a lost weather research plane. Civil Rights to 1960 After the army became desegregated in 1948.S. In addition.Organization of American States (OAS): From the Charter of Bogotá regional association was established with US and Latin America states and formed a InterAmerican conference. ICBM's were one of the many factors that gave the American people the sense that war was imminent.

Charles: As an African-American physician. thousands were wounded. Gunnar wrote about anticipated changes in race relations. Dr. General Douglas MacArthur sought total victory. desegregation of the armed forces. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE): The Congress of Racial Equality was formed in 1942 to help combat discrimination through nonviolent. In the urban North. Truman ordered American troops to invade South Korea.Committee also engaged in civil disobedience to protest racial discrimination in all aspects of American life. 1966: Erupted because of constant conflict between black citizens and white cops. and over $50 million in property was destroyed. Fair Employment Practices Committee: Roosevelt issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies. Detroit race riots. It called for an end to racial discrimination and segregation.N." by President Truman. Gunnar. 1948: Truman ended segregation in the army to provide support during World War II to ensure victory. Myrdal. and companies involved in war-related work for the purpose of enforcing an Executive Order and made possible the employment of 2 million blacks. On June 27. unions. and Communists. He specifically noted that Black veterans returned with very high expectations from civilian life due to war. 1950. a great emphasis was put upon renovation and the rehabilitation of the cities opposed to clearance and reconstruction. Drew. he developed techniques for the storing and processing of blood for transfusion in 1944. Forty-three were found dead. it organized Freedom Rides that rode throughout the south to try to force desegregation of public facilities. he developed blood-transfusion programs for the British and French. resulting in the bloodiest riot in this half-century. He also conducted research on the preservation of blood and during WWII. . He was the first president to deal with the legislative civil rights since the implementation of Reconstruction and fought for many other civil rights acts but was denied. An American Dilemma: A Swedish economist. and was called "an American charter of human freedom. and in 1953 a cease fire was issued after a truce agreement was signed by the U. as well as the problems between the races in 1944. direct action. rural and Southern to urban and Northern : Eisenhower sought to give low income farmers increased training and trade as well as to improve industry and the health of citizens of the rural South . Led by James Farmer. To Secure These Rights: The 1946 Committee on Civil Rights dramatized the inequities of life in the South and under the Jim Crow laws. Korean War: Seen as a Soviet-directed aggression to test American containment policy.

•BROWN V. famous for his fight against discrimination. Neither act was able to empower federal officials to register the right to vote for African-Americans and was not effective.1957: Eisenhower passed this bill to establish a permanent commission on civil rights with investigative powers but it did not guarantee a ballot for blacks. 1960: Eisenhower passed this bill to appease strong southern resistance and only slightly strengthened the first measures provisions. Faubus sent the National Guard to bar nine black students from entering Central High School in Arkansas in 1957. Ferguson in 1954 by ruling in favor of the desegregation of schools. Previously a lawyer with such key victories as in Brown v. •LITTLE ROCK. Civil Rights Act. CRISIS: Governor Orval E. Eisenhower then enforced a new court order that forced the men to withdraw. Refusing to force the white south to accept the ruling. 1956. The Supreme Court said that it had no place in schools. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA: The Supreme Court reversed Plessy v. . and a mob of whites reacted by preventing the students from entering the school. Because of her actions she is known as the "mother" of civil rights. Rosa Parks: In December of 1955. •MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT. Board of Education. The school was then shut down in 1958-59. King Jr. ARK. Thurgood: 1st African American justice of the Supreme Court. Rev. defiance toward the law sprang up. founder of the NAACP Legal Defense. the death penalty. On April 4. Then The National Guard was sent to protect the students from the violence for the rest of the school year." Marshall. Resistance to desegregation of buses was finally overcome by the Supreme Court ruling that it was unconstitutional to segregate public transportation in November. and his support of civil liberties and free speech. it set forth an attempt to liberalize without losing control. This led to massive bus boycotts in Montgomery. His philosophy emphasized need for direct action by getting every AfricanAmerican involved in the pursuit of equality and to build a community of brotherhood in his "I have a dream" speech. Alabama. Martin Luther: An African-American leader who was the voice of his people. The court held that "separate but equal" violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and was unconstitutional. Civil Rights Act. and was therefore arrested.1968 he was assassinated. so it ordered the desegregation of schools. It was the first civil-rights bill to be enacted after Reconstruction which was supported by most non-southern whites. Parks refused to get up from her seat on the bus to give it to a white man.. Many southerners saw it as "an abuse of judiciary power. navy yards and veteran hospitals."separate but equal": Enacted because of the inferiority complex given to blacks.

poll tax: Literacy tests were given to blacks with the idea that they would be denied the right to vote since most could not read. organized a massive boycott of the buses and took the case to a lower court where it was decided that bus seating would be based on a first-come-first-serve basis. and other signs of the explosive discontent ravaged the nation. Montgomery bus boycott: After refusing to give up her seat for a white man in the front of a Montgomery bus in Dec. nonviolent protest met by vicious dogs. The poll tax prevented AfricanAmericans from voting by requiring all voters to pay a tax. King organized the SCLC in 1957. a method of protests that urges blacks to ignore all laws that they believe are unjust. Board of Education of Topeka: The Warren court decided in 1954 that the separate but equal concept that legalized segregation was unconstitutional. including King. White primaries were used to control everything even with disenfranchisement and was declared unconstitutional in 1944. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP): The NAACP was created in 1909 in New York to raise the quality of living for inner city . It was declared unconstitutional in 1915. JACKIE: He was the first African-American baseball player to play professionally in 1947. 1955. especially in the south where such actions were met by fierce resistance. Martin Luther. grandfather clause. • ROBINSON. In 1966. This organization coordinated future protests and preached the need for civil rights activists. white southerners refused to comply. blasting water hoses. Sit-ins. Destroying the public’s complacency. Angered by the court decision. which blacks could not afford. King Jr. and sneering racists shocked the nation. the president refused to enforce it and blacks continued to attend segregated schools. Southern Christian Leadership Conference: In protest to Jim Crow. freedom rides. He was able to break the color barrier and seemed to successfully overcome the racism so prevalent in his sport. Implementation of Brown v.: One of the most prominent black civil rights leaders. the poll tax was outlawed in all elections.literacy tests. King called for black assertiveness and nonviolent resistance to oppression. Civil Rights to 1965 Frustrated by black disenfranchisement in the south and the blatant racism epitomized by segregated schools. black militancy grew. Robinson was also was able to contribute to the winning of the pennant and Rookie of the Year in his first year of playing. He is famous for his "Letter from Birmingham Jail" which promotes the doctrine of civil disobedience. Black Power and the cry that "Black is Beautiful" resounded in the hearts of many African Americans. It was made up of a group of ministers that supported the Montgomery bus boycott. Rev. Rosa Park was arrested. white primaries: The grandfather clause was a provision used to exclude people who served in the war and their descendants from taking suffrage tests. Black leaders.

He also was one of the early recruiters for the NAACP and was the first field secretary for the state of Mississippi. Protestors sat in a segregated section on a bus or restaurant until they were forced to move by racists. The speech was said to be inspiring and reaffirmed the need for civil rights legislation and nonviolent protesting. Adam Clayton: Powell was a Black civil rights leader serving as a Democratic Congressman of New York and the Chairman of the House Committee on Education and Labor in 1960-1967. pushing for direct armed confrontation with the police. CORE also registered blacks to vote throughout the South. Board of Education and formed the Urban League. Stokely Carmicheal. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE): CORE was a group of black rights protesters created in 1942. The group became more militant. The march reaffirmed the need for civil rights legislation and nonviolent protest. Powell. sit-ins and freedom rides were forms of protest organized by CORE and utilized in the spring of 1961. It organized freedom rides through the south to expose the violations of the 1960 Supreme Court decision outlawing segregation on interstate buses and trains. It became a powerful legal force and argued cases in the Supreme Court which led to the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and Voting Rights Act of 1965. 1963. March on Washington: King organized this massive civil protest march in Washington in August of 1963 as a result of the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It was also the site where King made the "I have a dream" speech. Urban League: Some southern blacks were not satisfied by the Brown v. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). The speech reiterated the American ideals of democracy and equality. Rejecting the courtroom strategy utilized by the NAACP. Evers.blacks. When this happened another protestor took the place that had just been vacated. Under his direction the House Committee on Education and Labor passed the Minimum Wage Bill and Anti-Poverty Bill. They sought direct confrontation and violence with local governments. FREEDOM RIDES: Utilized in the spring of 1961. •SIT-INS. H. Medgar: Evers was an American civil rights leader who conducted campaigns to register black voters and organized boycotts of firms that practiced racial discrimination. This type of action was used to expose the violations of the court decision to outlaw segregation in public areas and transit. the League advocated more militant tactics. "I have a dream" speech: King gave this speech during the historic civil rights March on Washington on August 28. Rap Brown: SNCC was a organization of college students that utilized nonviolent forms of protest until Carmicheal and Brown rallied the members in favor of Black Power. .

Black power became the basis for black militancy in the civil rights movement. Black Muslims: Formally called the Nation of Islam. Black Panthers: The Black Panthers was a black rights political organization created in Oakland. a new office created to address the needs of those living in the inner city areas. she became the vice-presidential candidate of the Communist party in 1980. The group was known for its strict adherence to Islam. California in 1966 by Bobby G. Johnson in 1966. gave voting rights to every American citizen. Malcolm X: Malcolm X was an influential black leader who called for unity between blacks to combat oppressive forces in the United States. He served as the Secretary of Housing and Department of Urban Development. The slogan was used by a number of new civil rights activist groups such as the Black Panthers. Angela: Angela Davis was an influential black leader and activist. Marshall was famous for pursuing cases that dealt with controversial issues of civil rights and the status of racism in America. leader of the Congress of Racial Equality. Davis. His presence in Supreme Court drew more attention to the area of civil and individual rights. and was a root for black militancy in America. It sparked a huge riot . Seale and Huey P. He advocated Black Power. Newton. she went into hiding after being accused of aiding an attempted courtroom escape that killed four persons. He was a part of the Nation of Islam. •BLACK POWER: Black power was a slogan created by Malcolm X and widely used by Stokely Carmichael. Detroit race riots: A confrontation between police and blacks in Watts and Detroit took place after the voting rights bill was passed in 1965. adopted in 1964. It was originally a small community action group for defense against racism but later it began to urge black armament and direct confrontation with the police. Twenty-fourth Amendment: The 24th Amendment.Weaver. Marshall. It also prohibited the use of the poll tax or any tax that denied the vote. the Organization of AfroAmerican Unity (OAAU). the Black Muslims was a religious organization of the Islamic faith that was also called the American Muslim Mission. Thurgood: Marshall was the first black residing under the Warren Court during the 1960s. In 1970. but broke with them to form a black nationalist group. Watts. The amendment gave Congress the power to enforce it with legislation. regardless of their race or religion. Tried in 1972 and acquitted. Robert: Weaver was the first black cabinet member appointed by President Lyndon B. The slogan called for all blacks to organize together and overthrow the oppressive forces of racism in America. World Community of Al-Islam in the West.

the commission concluded that white racism caused mounting violence. public accommodations section of the act: Passed under the Johnson administration. Civil Rights Act. This violent growth of civil discontent was given the name "The Long Hot Summers. JFK vigorously called on the American people to support his programs of domestic reform and foreign policy. He hoped for "more sacrifice instead of more security" in a nation on "the frontier of unknown opportunities and perils. This act was the strongest civil rights legislation since Reconstruction and invalidated the Southern Caste System. •VOTING RIGHTS ACT. The act was a key piece of legislation which ensured blacks more equal rights.that lasted six days. The suggestion was ignored. It prohibited the use of literacy tests as a part of the voter registration process which were initially used as a method to control immigration to the United States during the 1920s. de facto. de jure segregation: De facto referred to the use of power and authority in the absence of an actual government or legal authority. The reaction slowed the civil rights movement because whites in power feared passing legislation and creating civil discontent and riots. The National Guard was called to put down both riots." . self-confident. this act outlawed segregation in public areas and granted the federal government power to fight black disfranchisement. and energetic. New Frontier Innovative. poverty. De jure segregation referred to the system of segregation that was legal in the North such as New York and Chicago. The act also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to prevent discrimination in the work place. In the 1960s. poor education and police brutality and recommended creating 2 million jobs and 6 million housing units to lower tensions. giving the power of the vote to underrepresented minorities. 1965: The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed as a Great Society program under the Johnson administration." Kerner Commission on Civil Disorders: Created to investigate reasons for the massive outbreaks of riots in 1965. The act enabled federal examiners to register anyone who qualified in the South. this meant that segregation was accepted as long as it was not outlawed. This act was a part of a series of new legislation that encouraged desegregation of blacks in America. •WHITE BACKLASH: White backlash referred to white reaction against the massive ghetto riots of thousands of young blacks across the nation. •CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964. charming. 1968: The Civil Rights Act of 1968 barred discrimination in housing sales or rentals.

a diplomat to the Soviet Union after World War II.S. Kennedy and the steel price rollback: In his attempt to lower business taxes and solve wage problems. Escobedo decision: The Miranda Decision referred to the 1966 case of Miranda v. in which the skilled artisans of the population immigrated to West Germany. It was erected by the government of East Germany in order to prevent a brain drain. Baker v. Steel raised their prices to $6 after JFK worked with the steel union for noninflationary contracts and minimal wage increases for workers. •"Impeach Earl Warren": The ultra-reactionary John Birch Society created the phrase. The treaty was the first treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union that called for a ban on atmospheric testing of nuclear devices.election of 1960: candidates. Miranda Decision. he lost the respect and admiration of the American public. Richard M. and the "middle way" Republican candidate. This ruling was a part of the effort to reform the criminal justice system and enable poor people legal council. his political friends in congress. Warren was branded a communist sympathizer by his enemies. and the government. Peacecorps. who promised a new and better future for the nation. Gideon v. The wall was dismantled in August of 1989. this decision would prevent later voting frauds. VISTA: The Peacecorps and Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) were created by the Office of Economic Opportunity to work in poverty areas. As a result. Also. . Wainwright that the state was required to provide attorneys for defendants in felony cases at the public’s expense. The ruling reaffirmed the requirement that representation in legislative bodies would be based on the people’s vote. thus closing the missile gap. The Escobedo decision labeled the Warren Court as an intrusive presence. 1963: The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963 was negotiated by Harriman Averell. Carr: In 1962. "impeach Earl Warren" in 1954 as a result of Chief Justice Earl Warren’s rulings which affirmed the rights of alleged communists and the desegregation of schools and public areas. Nixon. This was a part of President Johnson’s training programs and support services created during the 1960s. Wainwright: The Warren Court ruled in the case of Gideon v. Arizona which required police to read a suspect their constitutional right which included remaining silent and having legal council present during police questioning. "missile gap": The election of 1960 was a race between Kennedy. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The issues included which path of action to take against Russia to ensure an advantage of arms. Berlin Wall: The Berlin Wall was a concrete wire wall which divided East and West Germany after World War II. JFK was faced with a crisis when U. He threatened to file antitrust suits and the prices fell. one vote" needed to be maintained in all elections. the Warren court ruled that the principle of "one man.

S.S. He became the first elected Marxist leader in the Americas. government. a group of Cuban exiles invaded the Bay of Pigs. The Cuban exiles were captured and traded back to the U. which is located in Africa. the current government regime.S. 17. and the people. It was the most imminent threat of nuclear annihilation and thereafter. Another treaty was signed between the . Kennedy placed a blockade on the island and Russia agreed to remove the missiles rather than provoke a nuclear war. Their return embarrassed the United States and the nation acquired a reputation as a belligerent imperial country. for atomic weapons were never used. Kennedy felt that U. He initially asked for U.S. Panama Canal treaties: After gaining its independence in 1903. The Cuban soldiers were secretly trained by the CIA and supplied by the U. The program to give Latin America $20 million in aid was protested after the fall of the democratic government in Haiti. but American businesses feared the nationalization of their industries. •Cuban missile crisis: The Cuban Missile Crisis was a major confrontation between the U. •Bay of Pigs: On Apr. needed both a strong military program and atomic weapons to combat the forces of communism. In the 1950s the United Nations sent a peace keeping force to the Congo. He reasoned conventional weapons were essential. in an attempt to overthrow the Communist government and capture Fidel Castro. His socialist program led to inflation and strikes which resulted a military coup that overthrew his regime in 1973. refused to help. he turned to Soviet communism.S. 1961. The United States intervened with military forces and the Organization of American States restored peace by conducting elections where Joaquín Balaguer defeated Bosch. When the U. The U. Panama gave the rights to use the Panama Canal to the United States. for food. Alliance for Progress: This was an economic assistance program proposed by President Kennedy in 1961. Dominican Republic. Allende. removed nuclear weapons from Turkey.Castro Revolution: Fidel Castro led a nationalist uprising against the former despotic Cuban government. "flexible response": JFK’s policy of "flexible response" called for the preparation of more conventional weapons versus atomic weapons. Allende founded the Chilean Socialist party and was elected president of Chile in 1970. assistance. 1965: A civil war broke out in the Dominican Republic between the Bosch forces.S and Russia in 1962 following the discovery of nuclear missile sites in Cuba. a hot line was established between the White House and the Kremlin to prevent accidental missile launches.S. It was to settle disputes between member nations and discourage foreign intervention in their internal affairs. Salvador: In 1933. UN in the Congo: During the 1950s the United Nations was called upon to act as a peace keeping force throughout the world such as in Kuwait and the Middle East.

The SDS organized massive Vietnam Protests. Silent Spring: Rachel Carson was a marine biologist that wrote and published Silent Spring. Oswald. •Election of 1964: LBJ. the Warren Commission was created to investigate the controversial issues concerning a possible conspiracy. but the counterculture rise was stemmed as the idealism turned into thievery. Kennedy was shot and killed by Lee Havery Oswald. Warren Commission: On Nov. Great Society An idealistic call for improved environmental. future civil rights legislation and the status of the war in Vietnam. They led pilgrimages to San Francisco and New York. Reich. Charles. Goldwater: In the election of 1964 Lyndon Johnson. The Greening of America: In his critical novel of the New Deal. He stated that it was impossible to mix individual interests in large general tax bills. Oswald was later killed by Jack Ruby on his way to a court hearing. and health programs. Rachel. . 1999. the idealism would later give way to virulent conservatism and a return to traditional values. They issued the Port Huron Statement which called for support of liberalism. 22. conservation.United States and Panama stating that control over the canal was to be returned to the Panamanian government on December 31. defeated Barry Goldwater. the Great Society was inspired by JFK and prompted by LBJ’s insecure need to win over the American people. Carson. This social category consisted mainly of student protestors who envisioned a life of freedom and harmony. the elected Republican majority leader. rape. Lyndon Johnson attempted to continue his Great Society program after the election with small social legislation. John F. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS): As frustrations concerning government policies grew. Largely successful in the first two years of the Johnson administration. Reich expressed his desire for courts to expand individual rights to protect nonconformists from social standards in 1971. Main issues of the election of 1964 included serious debates over the continuation of Johnson’s Great Society plan. the elected Democratic party majority leader. Her writings coincided with many other novels which brought social issues to the surface such as Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique. this organization was created in 1962. It addressed her concerns on the environmental hazards of pesticides. educational. As a result. The SDS became a focal point for activist students. 1963 in Texas. Lee Harvey. Flower children: Flower children referred to the counterculture of the 1960s. racial. and drugs.

the American Independent and Hubert H. Robert: Kennedy was the attorney general of the U. He stressed that voting was the key to racial equality and pushed for the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Election of the 1968: Lyndon Johnson did not run for reelection in 1968 due to his dissatisfaction with the Vietnam War and public discontent. Elementary and Secondary Act: As a part of his Great Society vision.S. Richard Nixon captured the presidency for the Republican party after he defeated George C. Kennedy.S. It was used to describe Johnson’s Great Society package that created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Economic Opportunity Office. . referred to Lyndon Johnson’s statement describing his goal to create a better America. the Democratic candidate. and Project Headstart. Established by the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. led to the liberalization of immigration laws.Office of Economic Opportunity: The Office of Economic Opportunity was created as a part of President Johnson’s Great Society. Although some states refused to administer the insurance the Kerr-Mills Act of 1960 provided federal support for state medical programs. The law gave over one billion dollars to public and parochial schools for books and special education programs. Wallace. New Left: The New Left encompassed the liberalism of college students during the 1960s. These laws abolished the restrictions and the quota based system previously used by the U. and heralded the campaign against nuclear testing that created the nuclear test ban treaty of 1963. VISTA. President Lyndon Johnson rallied for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 which gave federal aid to education. which included social legislation in 1965. the Department of Housing and Urban Development passed bills allocating funds to housing development projects under the leadership of Robert Weaver. Kennedy gained the Democratic presidential nomination in 1968. in 1968 and senator from New York. this program gave health insurance for persons who were over the age of 65 or seriously disabled. War on Poverty. Kennedy. It was also the root of protest over Vietnam. War on Poverty: The term. Medicare: A program of national health insurance created by the Social Security Amendments of 1965. Humphrey. to determine the amount of immigration from a certain area. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Created in 1966 to give aid to needy families located in poor inner city areas. the office funded the Job Corps to train young people to work. which began the first funding for education. but was assassinated in California during a campaign. supported the election of John F. Abolition of immigration quotas: President Lyndon Johnson’s program of liberalism. They held idealistic views of civil rights movements.

Chicago. •MOON RACE. and technological obsolescence. Richard’s Southern strategy: In 1965. of 1968. Neil Armstrong walked on the moon’s surface. The Feminine Mystique: The Feminine Mystique elucidated to readers that they were not alone in their unhappiness. The riot destroyed Democratic unity and resulted in a loss of support. Governor: George Wallace was an American politician and three-time governor of Alabama. Wallace ran for the presidency in 1968 and 1972 and was shot and killed during a 1972 election campaign stop in Maryland. the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies invaded Czechoslovakia. About 11. Betty. reeled under the triple blow of slumping exports. Armstrong. Nixon. The Soviet Union replaced Dubcek with the staunchly pro-Soviet Communist regime. and my home" rang true to a growing number of middle class American women who found joys in motherhood. Nixon went on television to condemn the court that enforced bus desegregation. focusing on the failure of southern white efforts to destroy racial equality. Burger to counter liberalism in the Warren Court. Wallace. On July 21. aggressive foreign competition. He first came to national attention as an outspoken segregationist. Pouring vast amounts of money into the space program. Kennedy was determined not to allow Russia to win. Defining themselves as a civil-rights group for women. they filed lawsuits against gender discrimination and rallied public opinion "to bring American women to full participation. with the installation of reformers Alexander Dubcek as party leader and Ludvik Svoboda as president. the Rustbelt and Sunbelt. This amendment stated that "Equality of rights . Kennedy promised the American people to put a man on the moon before the end of the decade. 1969. Tensions rose as young SDS protestors against the Vietnam war arrived to voice their discontent. Neil: Frightened out of complacency by the Soviet launching of Sputnik. Nixon began his attack on radicalism in America.5 million American workers lost jobs as a result of plant closings or lack of work. NOW lobbied for equal opportunity. Friedan. National Organization for Women (NOW): The National Organization for Women was formed in 1966. the Chicago convention was disrupted by violence due to the party split over the nomination of the majority leader. a satellite. Friedan’s personal demand for "something more than my husband. Americans put fears of Soviet technological superiority to rest for the United States had been the first to launch a human out into space. Sunbelt verses Rustbelt: The leading work industries. forcing the repeal of most of the reforms. Democratic Party Convention riot: In August 1968." Equal Rights Amendment (ERA): By 1972 Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the Constitution.Czechoslovakia invaded: In Aug. my children. He also appointed W.

The theory was . assistance in Vietnam’s struggle for independence. Ho Chi Minh refused to give up sovereignty which resulted in the First Indochina War. Thailand. Thailand. It is the site for the famous battle that led to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Unsafe at Any Speed: Ralph Nader. he brought forth the movement of environmental concerns which would later launch major campaigns for federal regulations. the majority of the nation supported the war." National Women’s Political Caucus: The National Women’s Political Caucus (1971) endorsed candidates that promoted a feminist agenda in Washington and many other State capitals. they defeated the French garrison at the battle of Dien Bien Phu. South Vietnam. North Vietnam. a graduate of Harvard Law School. and Cambodia into one colony called Indochina.under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on the basis of sex. Hoping for U. Not until the Têt offensive did massive opposition arise. Ho later turned to the Soviet Union when the U. which committed the U. •Ho Chi Minh: Ho was the Vietnamese Communist leader and the principal force behind the Vietnamese struggle against French colonial rule.S. many states had liberalized their abortion laws and banned sex discrimination in job hiring. a group of guerrillas. into the fight against communism.S. Ralph. exposed the danger of automobiles that were "unsafe at any speed". Laos.S. •Domino theory: Eisenhower’s domino theory claimed that once one nation fell to communism. By 1972. The separate regions resented this and nationalist stirrings caused widespread discontent among the people of each nation. In 1954. and Cambodia: The French empire condensed North and South Vietnam. Nader. Laos. China and the island of Hainan border it on the west by Vietnam. Vietnam to 1968 As the French pulled out of an increasingly helpless situation.S. Though many liberal college students mounted large protests against the conflict. in Vietnam. First Indochina War: The French wanted Indochina back after losing control over the colony during the Vichy era of the Second World War. the United States became more involved to fill the power vacuum. Gulf of Tonkin: The Gulf of Tonkin is the northwestern arm of the South China Sea. He was a nationalist at heart and wanted Vietnamese independence far more than a communist government. aided the French. it drew the U. but Vietnam became more staunchly communist after the war. bordering countries would follow like falling dominoes. He led the Vietminh.

This led to the increased U. 1954. Popularity for the war vastly declined. . The delegates of the conference decided that Vietnam should be divided into North and South at the seventeenth parallel until national elections took place in 1954. the National Liberation Front was a part of this group. refused to give aid to the French for fear of condoning imperialism. forcing them to surrender. an international conference was called in Geneva in 1954 to discuss the status of the war in Vietnam. •VIET CONG. involvement in Vietnam." granting him full authority against North Vietnamese forces. •GENEVA CONFERENCE. The conference also created an area known as the demilitarized zone. The National Liberation Front was partly responsible for the fall of Dinh Bien Phu and organization of the Têt Offensive.used in context of the monolithic view of communism. the Vietminh surrounded and laid siege to the French garrison. The U. •Têt Offensive: The NLF and the North Vietnamese arm mounted a massive offensive against the South Vietnamese and American armies on January 31. Demilitarized zone: A demilitarized zone (DMZ) refers to areas in which military weapons and other installations are prohibited. After being told that the enemy was virtually defeated. the group pushed to overthrow the South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem. Fearful of Soviet expansion. which claimed that all communist countries were in a conspiracy to destroy democracy in the world. National Liberation Front: The Viet Cong was the name given to the Vietnamese communist army. Dien Bien Phu: On May 7. The National Liberation Front consisted mainly of guerilla fighters. 1954: After the fall of the French garrison at Dien Bien Phu. which was also the first day of the Vietnamese New Year known as Têt. the French decided to give up their futile attempt to fight nationalist stirrings in Vietnam.S. Johnson and his advisers drafted the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that committed the United States in Vietnam. The parallel and the DMZ were created as a result of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolutions. 1968. The elections were never held. the offensive showed that the nationalists were still capable of fighting and that the government had lied. Facing this humiliating defeat. the U.S. The nationalists successfully penetrated Saigon and took the United States embassy. It was passed by Congress and gave Johnson a "blank check.S. Eisenhower increased American involvement in Vietnam. The demilitarized zone during the Vietnam War was surrounded the seventeenth parallel. 1964: After North Vietnamese gun boats assaulted American ships that were organizing air strikes and military moves. could not let Vietnam fall after "losing" China to communism. In support of Ho Chi Minh. •GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION. Applied to Asia.

an organization of returning soldiers that renounced their war medals as a result." Bombing of Laos and Cambodia: As Nixon began to withdraw American forces in Vietnam in 1972. The papers revealed government lies to Congress and the American people. the locations of communist supply lines. but he could not allow the United States to lose face. the president proceeded to lessen American-Soviet tensions through a call for "peaceful coexistence. Hanoi. Calley: Lt. The Kent and Jackson State universities were sites of protest in which student protesters were killed. Calley was an inexperienced commander of an American army unit massacred 347 defenseless women. Vietnamization.S. Pentagon Papers: Daniel Ellsberg was a analyst for the Department of Defense. to save its reputation and satisfy an American public weary with a futile struggle. He opposed the war. an account of American involvement in Vietnam created by the department during the Johnson administration. children. It was located in the northern part of the country. Senator Fulbright also served as the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. In order to force a compromise. The horrors of the massacre were revealed to the public and the Vietnam Veterans Against the War. who in 1971 released to the press the Pentagon Papers. global dominance and give a considerable advantage the Soviet Union. It was the largest port in Southeast Asia and site of the Indochina naval base. Haiphong was located 10 miles from the Gulf of Tonkin. My Lai. Le Duc Tho. the process of replacing the American armed forces with South Vietnamese troops trained by American advisors. allowed the U. and old men in 1968. This act established the exchange program for American and foreign educators and students. Daniel Ellsberg. Kent State and Jackson State incidents: In 1972. Fulbright. he sent Henry Kissinger to negotiate with the communists’ foreign minister. Haipong: Hanoi was the capital of Vietnam before the war. the president ordered massive bombings of Cambodia and Laos. the invasion of Cambodia spread the war throughout Indochina which sparked massive American protests on college campuses.Vietnamization and Détente Skilled in foreign politics. With a major Cold War conflict over. •Vietnamization: Popular discontent forced Nixon to pull out of the Vietnam war. .S. Lt. During the war it was heavily bombed in an attempt to force the North Vietnamese to negotiate a peace treaty. who proposed the Fulbright Act of 1964. Nixon gracefully pulled the United States out of Vietnam by turning over the conflict to the South Vietnamese. Senator: Senator Fulbright was an American senator of Arkansas. Leaving Vietnam without honor would endanger U.

400 nuclear missiles which would reduce the rate of war to a mere fraction. The China visit sealed the new Chinese-American friendship. Détente: The evacuation of American troops from Vietnam helped Nixon and Kissinger reduce Chinese-American tensions and achieve détente with the communist superpowers. Thousands of special wartime agencies suddenly regulated almost every of American life. recognition of China: On February 22. This war between the Israelis and their neighboring countries spanned several years. His "shuttle diplomacy" ameliorated the hostility between the Middle Eastern countries and the United States. the Israelis stopped the assault and counterattacked. Siberia. the president was given unprecedented authority. Part of his policy of détente. Yom Kippur War: Syria and Egypt. 1973: As an act passed by Congress. backed by Russia. leaving Russia more isolated. Six Day War. It was also agreed that the future of North Vietnam would not be determined by war. This dramatic development marked a significant change in American foreign policy by developing a cordial attitude towards the communists. This agreement was to limit each side to 2. the SALT I agreement allowed Ford and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev to make enormous progress towards the new arms-control treaty. China visit. He organized a cease-fire in November of 1973. Nixon to Watergate . Nixon declared that a peace had been reached in Vietnam. led an all out attack on Israel in 1973 on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. After the war. 15 million men had been trained and equipped with armed forces ready for battle. the President’s plane landed in China. Kissinger negotiated the peace agreement with the aid of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to end the Yom Kippur war. HENRY. Nixon took advantage of the Sino-Soviet split to pit the former allies against each other by recognizing China. The Paris Accords ended the war between the North Vietnamese government and Thieu government of South Vietnam. Aided by massive U. after Lyndon Johnson died of a heart attack. • KISSINGER.Paris Accords. "shuttle diplomacy": Henry Kissinger flew from capital to capital and bargained with the Israelis and the Egyptian people. 1972. War Powers Act. 1967: Israel’s decisive triumph in the Six Day War had left the Arabs humiliated and eager to reclaim the militarily strategic Golan Heights which was taken from Syria. in 1974. 1972. SALT I Agreement: At a meeting in Vladivostok. 1973: In 1973. There were frequent bombings and raids amongst the countries for oil. shipments of highly sophisticated weaponry.S.

election of 1972: Nixon’s reelection was assured. The term Imperial Presidency referred to Nixon’s efforts to acquire absolute control over his Presidency. He relied on his diplomatic successes with China and Russia and his strategy towards the winding down of the war in Vietnam to attract moderate voters. prices. He expected his southern strategy and law-and-order posture to attract the conservative Democrats. "revenue sharing": As part of Nixon’s "New Federalism.. Agnew. Agnew left the government service with a three-year suspended sentence. Nixon declared a ninety-day freeze on wages. Nixon.5% for wages and 2. the House Judiciary Committee took in the first article of impeachment. Appointing attorney general John Mitchell as the head. 6 out of 17 Republicans voted with the 21 Democrats to charge Nixon with interruption of justice for controlling the Watergate investigation. trade deficit. "New Federalism.Basing his support on the conservative New Right coalition." according to the trial judge. Dishonored and distrusted. welfare reform. Sirica. CREEP financed many "dirty tricks" to spread dissension within Democratic ranks and paid for a special internal espionage unit to spy on the opposition. Congress passed it in 1972 in response to the failing economy caused by the inflation. refused to accept the claim of those on trial that they had behaved on their own terms. Spiro T. and rents which would be followed by federally imposed controls setting maximum annual increases of 5. Watergate: The scandal exposed the connection between the White House and the accused Watergate burglars who had raided the Democrats’ headquarters during the 1972 campaign.5% for prices and rents. The president had abused his power. The election federal judge. . Committee for the Reelection of the President (CREEP): Nixon created CREEP to ensure every vote for the election of 1972. his resignation: Vice President Agnew was charged with income-tax evasion and accepting bribes. Nixon verses Congress: On July 27th." "revenue sharing" was a five year plan to distribute $30 billion of federal revenues to the states. Yet Nixon’s insecurity as president and his abuse of executive power led to his downfall." The Imperial Presidency: Nixon’s "New Federalism" promised to bring back law and order to the United States by promoting conservatism and executive authority. and finding solutions to economic problems such as the severe inflation. Nixon actually broke from Republican tradition in environmental protection. wage and price controls: In response to the troubled American economy. and massive spending during the 1960s. He pleaded no contest which was "the full equivalent to a plea of guilty.

Twenty-fifth Amendment: Ratified in 1967. Watergate Tapes: Another Presidential rumor shocked the committee and the nation by revealing that Nixon had put in a secret taping system in the White House that recorded all the conversations between his enemies in the Oval Office. John Dean. this amendment detailed the procedure by which the vice president was to take over the presidency if the current president could not uphold his status in office. but Nixon still feared him.R. . this Republican undercover team obtained approval by Mitchell to wire telephones at the Democractic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate apartment/office complex. but Nixon refused. Ehrlichman. Both the Ervin committee and prosecutor Cox insisted to hear the tapes. Muskie’s campaign was never a threat to Nixon’s reelection. Sen. but Nixon was insecure about McGovern’s popularity. Haldeman. they lacked all the civil liberties of citizenship. Thus they could not impeach Nixon. They typically worked in the agricultural field as menial laborers and were unpaid and overcharged.. The amendment allowed the politicians to listen to the voices of younger people as voters. He was seen as inept and radical. 1992 by a security guard. George: George McGovern of South Dakota rose to fame on the energetic support of antiwar activists rushing to the Democratic primaries. It also limited the power given to the vice president from the incapacitated president. H. Assumed as inferiors. Twenty-sixth Amendment: This amendment guaranteed the rights of those who were 18 years of age or older to vote as citizens of the United States. McGovern. Edmund: The campaign of Senator Edmund Muskie of Maine collapsed when he started to cry in public while trying to respond to an accusation of prejudice against Canadian-Americans. Dean refused to cover up Nixon’s involvement in Watergate. The operation was thwarted on June 17. But the Senate still lacked concrete evidence on the president’s criminality. Nixon fired Dean and Haldeman and Erlichman who headed the White House Staff resigned. it would bring about the downfall of Nixon. Sen. All three and former Attorney General Mitchell were indicted on March 1974. John Mitchell: All were involved in the Watergate scandal. John. Chicanos: Chicanos were segregated Mexican-Americans and also included Puerto Ricans. It gave the power to Congress to enforce and protect by appropriate legislation. Impeachment proceeding: The most damaging to the President was when the hearings exposed the White House’s active involvement in the Watergate cover-up. Muskie.White House "plumbers": Led by Liddy and Hunt. the senator contributed to Nixon’s downfall.

Yet more turbulent conflicts existed in the Middle East: religious issues and territorial disputes inflamed tensions between Israel and the Palestinians. corporations could span several nations. However. Chavez worked to win rights for migrant farmers. He was an important figure in the Brown Power movement. there was great violence in the Middle East when Israel invaded Lebanon to extinguish the Palestinian Liberation Front from its headquarters. OPEC drove up oil prices which caused severe economic problems for the United States. and Wounded Knee was their trading post site. Palestinian Liberation Front. He is famous for a strike he organized with the help of grape pickers in California in 1965. Warren Burger was to replace the old and retiring Chief Justice Earl Warren.Cesar Chavez: As a Roman Catholic and a follower of King. where transportation allows rapid communication and exportation of products. Multinational Corporations: In the modern era. He was young and a new addition to the Nixon court. Yasser Arafat: In June 1982. Arab oil embargo: Furious at American intervention in the Middle Eastern conflicts. •ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC): In the 1970s. Consequently. Chavez’s leadership brought guarantees of rights for the farmers. The Middle East Crisis With a virtual monopoly on petroleum. Middle Eastern petroleum exporting countries formed a monopoly and agreed to raise the price of oil. the economy in the western world fell into inflation and unemployment. As a result. the western world which relied heavily on petroleum was forced to seek other resources of fuel and energy. Many took advantage of inexpensive labor in one country and depreciated taxes in another. Wounded Knee: Native-Americans occupied Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay in 1969. They advocated Red Power and demanded justice for past wrongs. . American Indian Movement (AIM). Burger. The reason they defiantly occupied Alcatraz Island was to protest their low status in America. 1969: Appointed in 1969. The chaos and confusion escalated in Lebanon which was already plagued by its own Civil War. a nation-wide recession resulted which forced Jimmy Carter to seek new economic programs at the end of his term in office. he could only do little to dispel the effects of the rising prices of oil. the Arab nations began to downsize the exportation of petroleum products to western nations. (PLO). Nixon appointed him to moderate the liberalism of the Warren court and its controversial decisions. William appointed.

S. and it was forced to find other methods to collect revenue. 1974. Cold War tensions mounted as the Soviet Union became increasingly annoyed with Carter’s rigorous standard of human rights. Election of 1976: Jimmy Carter was elected President of the United States in 1976. trade deficits: A U. Jimmy. Nixon Pardon: On Aug." to lower interest rates to prevent stagnation would worsen the ongoing inflation. Nixon began such programs as "revenue sharing" and wage and price controls for regulation.S.S. boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. The federal government could not repay the loan. Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev agreed and signed the SALT II treaty. General Ford granted pardon for ex-President Nixon. Balance of trade. and the U.S. This treaty was met with staunch opposition by Republicans who felt that they "stole it fair and square. •"STAGFLATION": As a combination of business stagnation and inflation. the balance of trade was thrown off and the economic experts worried that the U. both Ford and Carter dismally failed. When the government borrowed money to offset the drastic loss of tax revenue. Ford became the first vice president to inherit leadership of the nation after the president resigned. There was no simple solution to "stagflation. SALT II: In June 1979. Carter defeated Gerald Ford in the 1976 election. the Cold War thaw slowed. Amnesty: Elected to the Presidency in 1976.The Energy Crisis and Carter Trying desperately to cope with the economic predicament spawned by OPEC. The U. As a result. economic report during the 1970s revealed that the nation imported more than it exported. They excluded nations which violated Carter’s humane standards through cruel business practices. Carter. many people were angry that the government could easily forgive corruption and dishonesty. To put the nation forward. Carter had been governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975 and was little known elsewhere at the beginning of 1976." . As a result. interest rates still increased. "stagflation" severely worsened the American economy. economy would not survive. He granted amnesty to countries who followed his foreign policy. Carter was an advocate of human rights. Panama Canal Treaty: The Carter administration put together bargains on a number of treaties to transfer the Panama Canal and the Canal Zone to the Panamanians by 1999. 9. Carter presented it to the Senate and they ratified it. Gerald. Climaxing a remarkable rise to national fame.-Soviet relationship grew sour. Ford. In foreign affairs. Due to the invasion of Afghanistan by Russia.

tax credits for those who found methods on saving money and alternative-energy resources. It represented peace and harmony in the modern world. •REAGANOMICS: Also known as voodoo economics. Reagan Revolution Reagan promulgated a program to restore U. Department of Energy: Carter created the Department of Energy and created an energy bill including taxation on oil and gasoline. taxes. Anderson as the Independent candidate. Democratic nominee Jimmy Carter. prominence and honor globally. He was known for his strong liberal statements and spoke well on complex issues. WIN was to provide methods for conserving energy by creating the Department of Energy and regulating consumption of gas by automobiles. It went well and the bill for energy consumption came down in 1978.S.S. President Reagan believed that the government should leave the economy alone.Camp David Accords: Camp David was a place where the Egyptian leader Anwar elSadat and the Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin came together with Jimmy Carter. 1981: Following his promise of bettering the U. yet Reagan expanded his theory by advocating supply-side economics as a method to solve the economic hardships. The biggest issue at the time was American foreign policy. and restrictions on business. He liberalized business taxes and decreased capital gains. spending. Jimmy Carter proposed a innovative economic program. They discussed certain negotiations and tried to hammer out a framework for a peace treaty for the Middle East. Ronald Reagan became the President of the United States in 1980 with the promise of ameliorating the American economy against the forces of "stagflation. He hoped that it would run by itself. and Ronald Reagan had a greater hand in that issue. •ELECTION OF 1980: The election of 1980 included candidates such as Republican Ronald Reagan. Economy Recovery Tax Act. and fight economic problems. When he announced his candidacy. he was serving his 10th term in the U." Anderson.S. Reagan proposed a 30% tax cut allowing the money supply to circulate. economy. John: He was a Republican congressman from Illinois. . WIN: To compensate for the economic predicament caused by OPEC and the crisis of energy conservation. and his running mate was Patrick J. inheritance taxes to encourage investments in a plunging economy. He advocated a more laissez faire policy through a lessening of government activism. Lucey from Wisconsin. George Bush named this new economic strategy Reaganomics in the 1980 primary campaign. and John B. gifts. House of Representatives. It was a return to the laissez faire theory of Adam Smith.

a near catastrophe occurred at Three Mile Island when there was an accident involving a nuclear power plant. The people who had interceded with the Department of Housing and Urban Development were paid hundreds of thousands of dollars for federal subsides. O’Connor. and trucking companies. NY: In the 1970s and early 1980s. National Endowment for Humanities: The National Endowment for Humanities was created to further promote artistic and cultural development in the United States. Love Canal. Reagan lowered income taxes to stimulate the economy by expanding the money supply. EPA. Supreme Court. trucking: To reverse the flow of federal power. OHSA: It was created in 1969 by President Nixon to enforce government standards for water and the air quality for work safety. Sandra Day: She was a feminist who generally deplored Reagan’s programs. He reasoned government must take its "hands off" from the economy to encourage investments and free enterprise. Environmental Protection Agency. airlines. Niagara Falls. Many people supported Reagan’s decisions in favor of women’s rights. Watt. The president proposed a revenue sharing bill that transferred some federal revenues to the states and prominent cities. Consequently.S. Both the New York state government and the federal government provided financial aid to help move families from the Love Canal to other areas. Three Mile Island: In 1979. .Supply side economics: In contrast to Adam Smith’s belief in supply-and-demand. chemical wastes that had leaked from a former disposal site threatened the health of residents in that area. airlines. This was targeted to foreigners. Reagan assumed that if the economy provided the products and services. she was delighted when he nominated her as the first woman justice on the U. Reagan began to deregulate governmental controls over such companies as AT&T. Safety measures were taken so that a future incident would not occur. However. The plants were placed far away to reduce the hazards of near fatal accidents. 1982: New Federalism proposed to reverse the flow of power and resources from the states and communities to the state capital. The project revealed the full cultural spectrum of America. the public would purchase them. NEH.000 for making several calls to the Department of Housing and Urban Development officials. "New Federalism" proposals. James Secretary of Interior: James Watt received more than $400. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was also created to enforce the hygiene. Deregulation-AT&T.

the disease soon spread. the memorial is a black marble wall sunken below ground level in Washington D. pornography. manufacturers agreed to pay veterans injured by the chemical. and sex partners of high risk groups. It also includes a statue of three soldiers. 51% of them were working from day to day. anticommunist. who appealed to the young. and influential. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome): First diagnosed in 1981. as a higher percentage of women voted republican in 1984 than in 1980. In the 1960s. Reagan’s campaign revolved around the optimistic slogan "It’s Morning in America" and he rode the tide of prosperity to a decisive victory. She reasons no person should ignore such a significant issue while focusing on female independence and advancement in society. 97.C. 1981: In her novel The Second Stage.S. needle-sharing drug users. •"MORAL MAJORITY": The Moral Majority was Jerry Falwell’s pro-Reagan followers who embraced the new evangelical revival of the late seventies. but in 1988. Election of 1984: Former Vice President Walter Mondale got the Democratic nomination over Jesse Jackson. Agent Orange: Agent Orange was a chemical sprayed by U. 60% of women worked. 1982: Constructed in 1982. killing all aboard. Even though women had children. Defeat of the ERA: As the argument over the ERA and abortion went on more women got jobs in the working industry. but was resumed in 1988 with the flight of the Discovery. backed by minority groups. The Challenger Disaster. Originally concentrated among homosexual men. Ferraro. and school prayer. and were finished as a political force by the late 1980s. Ferraro was chosen by Walter Mondale to be his Vice-Presidential candidate in 1984. However. planes on the jungles of Vietnam during the war which caused the defoliation of trees and shrubs and made enemy positions more visible. The shuttle program was halted while investigators and officials drew up new safety regulations. The Moral Majority was politically active in targeting such issues as abortion. The explosion was caused by a faulty seal in the fuel tank. In 1984.Friedan. Geraldine: The first woman ever to be on the ticket of a major party. Betty The Second Stage. located nearby. In the 1970s it was found that Agent Orange was harmful to humans. her presence failed to win Mondale the election. The Moral Majority was started in 1979 as a secular political group. homosexuality. On it are inscribed the names of all Americans who died or were missing in action. Friedan stresses the need to add family matters to the cause of women’s rights. . They was strongly conservative. Vietnam Veterans’s Memorial. AIDS prompted a change from the "free love" attitude of the 1970s. 1986: The space shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds into flight. to a "safe sex" attitude of the 1990s. 35% of women held jobs.000 cases were reported in 1989.’s National Mall. and Gary Hart.

Reagan’s popularity was unaffected. Walesa’s negotiations with Poland’s government that year led to the government’s recognition of Solidarity. Israel moves into Southern Lebanon: President Reagan sent 2. prominent Republicans had been paid hundreds of thousands of dollars for interceding with the Department of Housing and Development on behalf of developers seeking federal subsidies. the United States picked up an anti-Soviet relationship towards everything that had to do with Russia. insure . Even with all the criticism. He was called the Teflon president by some because nothing would stick to him. Not only did Russia try to take over Afghanistan. By the end of Reagan’s administration. and planes. Afghanistan. HUD scandals: In 1989. Reagan proposed a new. 1986: In 1986. simplified tax system that lowered the taxes of individuals and corporate incomes. Reagan remained very popular and charismatic. Civil war in Lebanon. Lech. Argentine troops invaded and occupied the islands. Russia wanted to setup some sort of pro-Soviet Afghan regime. Due to severe losses the Argentine forces surrendered in June 1982. but they wanted them to change religiously. Solidarity was a organization composed of about 50 Polish trade unions. the Cold War was unofficially over.000 Marines to Lebanon in 1982 in order to gain control over the crippled PLO. 1980: When Carter and Brezhnev could not agree on the rules and regulations of the SALT II agreement. Anti-Soviet rhetoric proved to be only rhetoric and the two nations resolved many of their differences. Air. 1979-1989: The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in an effort to acquire more land for Russia’s use. Falkland Island War: In April 1982. Once again. but the stock market crash in October 1987 made higher taxes a necessity. Reagan verbally attacked the USSR as an "evil empire" yet his actions were friendly. which unfortunately included the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. Walesa. Solidarity: He became the leader of Poland’s government in 1980. revelations surfaced that during Reagan’s administration.Tax Reform Act. Olympic boycott. Heating and Cooling of the Cold War Ambiguous in his position towards the Soviet Union. ships. The "Teflon Presidency": Ronald Reagan’s popularity never seemed to change much despite the scandals and failures of his presidency. Britain also responded by sending troops. In Moscow’s attempt to take over Afghanistan. The tax reform helped reduce the deficit by 1987. sea and land battles broke out between Argentina and Britain. with the federal deficit exceeding $200 billion.

-friendly regime. In 1986. Ayatollah Khomeini: The Iranian crisis started when a Beirut newspaper reported that in 1985 the United States shipped 508 antitank missiles to the government of Iran.that they got out of Tunisia." It was proposed by Reagan in 1983 in an effort to ward off the perceived threat of a Soviet strike as U. Ortega: First. El Salvador. but was never held accountable. Duarte: Fear of Soviet expansion helped shape policy towards third world revolutions.S. In El Salvador. Many argued it would escalate the conflict. Reagan later reversed the policy thinking that the Sandinistas were procommunist. popularly dubbed "Star Wars. the U. the president of Costa Rica. Responding to pressure. but his ineffective government was voted out in 1989. The system carried a huge price tag. It was the first popular challenge to Reaganism.S. rallies.000 U. This exposure of U. backed the military rulers in suppressing insurgents (leftists backed by Cuba).-Soviet relations worsened. began talks on strategic-arms reductions with the Soviets. Arias Peace Plan in Central America: Oscar Arias Sánchez. Fighting spread throughout the gulf region and the U.S. Fear of another Vietnam-like war prompted Congress in 1982 to halt aid to the contras. the warring nations signed a peace agreement. who was replaced by Daniel Ortega. •NICARAGUA—Somoza Family. 1983: On October 23. intervention led to the American hostage situation held in Lebanon by pro-Iranian radical groups.S. The moderate Jose Napoleon Duarte was elected in 1984 with U. and overthrew the disruptive radical government. the Shah. Iran-Iraq War: The war began in 1980 over territorial disputes. nuclear freeze movement: The movement was a popular reaction to the military and nuclear buildup under Reagan. The CIA organized an army of "contras" to oppose the Sandinistas. Sandinistas. 1983. and was fiercely debated until the end of the Reagan administration. Carter backed the Sandinista revolutionaries in overthrowing dictator Anastasio Somoza in 1979. Marine soldiers. 2. Grenada. The system was never used.S. Iranian crisis.S. and put in a U. •SDI (STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE). was dragged into the conflict several times. and resolutions against nukes were passed. It proved difficult as fire broke out upon the U.S. support. either . Marine soldiers invaded the island of Grenada. and help restore order to the war damaged country.S. The new government that the United States had just installed was collaborating well with the local Grenadians. Contras.S. Protests. the U.S. Reagan secretly began sending illegal aid to the contras. was very influential in pushing for peace in Central America which was stalled because of civil wars in the region and the tensions between Nicaragua’s Sandinista government and the U. "Star Wars": SDI was a proposed system of space based lasers and other high-tech defenses against nuclear attack.

Marcos. who had been jailed for 27 years. Free elections were held in 1994 and Mandela became president. It is an example of the warming Soviet-American relations and renewed the arms control process. who sent millions of dollars from these sales to contras in Nicaragua when Congress had forbidden such aid. Gorbachev’s call for more openness in government was given the name glasnost. She was backed by the U. Libya: Colonel Muammar Qaddafi was a pro-terrorist and anti-American leader of Libya. used oppressive measures and a violent secret police force to control Haitian citizens.S. Ferdinand Marcos intensified after the 1983 assassination of opposition leader Benito Aquino. Haitians staged a revolt against Duvalier and he fled the country. Haiti: Jean-Claude Duvalier.S.being attacked or attacking hostile targets.S. In 1986. dictator of Haiti from 1971-1986. Panama. planes bombed five Libyan sites. Qaddafi. Congress voted to boycott South Africa in 1986. glasnost. realized that the U.S. Philippines. President De Klerk worked with Mandela. military planes and after an explosion at a German nightclub popular with American GI’s. South Africa. (or Irangate): Caught selling arms to the anti-American government of Iran. Gen. U. drug-trafficking indictment. apartheid. The area remained a volatile region. This was followed by years of violent political turmoil in Haiti. He ignored the actions.S. Key players included Oliver North. In 1986. and John Poindexter. Reagan admitted it and stated his aim had been to encourage "moderate elements" in Tehran and gain the release of American hostages. perestroika: Mikhail Gorbachev welded influence in transforming the Soviet Union into a less rigidly communist regime. INF Treaty. Col. 1987 (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty): The treaty was a 1987 agreement between Reagan and Gorbachev which banned INF’s but did little to end the nuclear threat as 95% of the world’s nuclear arsenal remained. Libya fired missiles at U. Duvalier. Noriega. His wife. De Klerk: When opposition to South Africa’s racist government grew in the U. His program of economic and political reform was called perestroika or restructuring. A U. Manuel Noriega. . conviction: In 1987 the U.W. as Iraq began preparing to invade Kuwait. •IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIR. Corazon Aquino: Resistance to the corrupt government of Pres. Criminal charges were filed against only North. Marines were sent in and he was caught and convicted.. Hostilities continue in the region. •GORBACHEV. The war ended in 1988. Corazon led the surge after Marco’s fraudulent 1986 reelection and took control. and the country was to face turbulent times. Many sought refuge in the United States.-supported ruler of Panama. Nelson Mandela.S. Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union continued to improve which furthered the thaw in the Cold War. who hid the affair from the president. was profiting on the flow of drugs through his country. F. grand jury indicted Noriega on various drug charges. to end apartheid.S.

having been divided into East and West Germany since World War II. tried to build a "rainbow coalition" of blacks. Rev. Bush chose Quayle as his running mate for his good looks. the Cold War which shaped U. The wall which separated the two countries fell. unified in October 1990. . Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act: Passed in 1986. • BUSH. Election of 1988--candidates. The goal of the bill was to reduce the enormous debt of the Reagan years and to have a balanced budget by the year 1991. Bush won fairly decisively on a negative campaign. The threat of nuclear annihilation subsided and the American public breathed a sigh of relief. Black Monday. He was not as successful in domestic affairs as the economy dwindled and the deficit rose. the bill required the automatic unilateral slashing of many budget items. Jackson ran several times for the presidency. These included many domestic and defense programs. On October 19. and other political outsiders to try to gain nomination and election in 1984. resisted the Russian military’s attempted coup in 1991. As president.Bush and the Post Cold War Era With the disintegration of the Soviet empire. GEORGE: Bush was Vice President under Reagan. Moscow began losing direct control over Eastern Europe. and was president from 1989 to 1993. the effects of the era of Reaganomics. Rainbow Coalition: Jackson. but was not moderate enough to gain popular approval. crime. 1987. Though it soon regained the loss and surged to new heights. Germany. and citizens were once again permitted to travel between East and West Germany. Hispanics. policy for nearly a half-century finally died. Hungary. Germany reunited: The dismantling of the Berlin Wall began in 1989. Jesse. East Germany.S. it fell 508 points in the largest single day drop in history. Bush was successful in areas of foreign relations. He eased relations with Russia. Berlin Wall falls. Non-Communist political movements soon developed in Poland. The USSR reduced its military force in its eastern satellites and allowed more freedom of expression. and Czechoslovakia. Stock Market crashes: The market had enjoyed incredible success for the past five years and had tripled in size. and personal appearance were the main issues in 1988. once an associate of King. Taxes. Bush was defeated by Bill Clinton and Al Gore in the 1992 election. and fought Saddam Hussein in the Persian gulf. issues: Bush got the Republican nomination while Michael Dukakis won the Democratic nomination over Jesse Jackson. Jackson. the volatility and uncertainty remained. 1987. holes in the "Iron Curtain": Due to Gorbachev’s more liberalized policies. displaced workers.

Commonwealth of Independent States. which set stricter regulations on many airborne pollutants. responded with outrage and cut everything but diplomatic relations. The U. His job was to coordinate federal programs against drugs. The U. Gorbachev. Saddam.. •END OF THE COLD WAR. who wished to give more power to the states. This was the direct cause of the Persian Gulf War. supports Chamorro. Hussein. 12 of the states formed the Commonwealth of Independent States and severed all ties to the old Soviet regime. was defeated in 1990 by Violeta Barrios de Chamorro in national elections. 908 billion to 2.S. Chamorro’s election signaled a more moderate turn for the Nicaraguans. was a contributing factor. The act was a cornerstone in pollution regulation legislation. . Reagan’s administration increased defense spending drastically while lowering taxes. The act was aimed at reducing the chemicals which cause acid rain. Ortega defeated in free election: President Daniel Ortega. "drug czar"--Office of National Drug Control Policy: Bennett was chosen as "drug czar" by Bush in response to national concerns about drugs. difficulties between Russia and the new republics: The new republics were wary of losing power to Russia. and his first target was the violent drug lords of Washington. the president-elect. the 15 Russian states declared independence. 1990 (also one in 1970): President Bush sponsored the bill. attempted coup in Moscow. A wave of repression and executions followed. The economy was in shambles after the lifting of economic restraints and a severe drought. or heavy spending in the corporate sector. Clean Air Act. The Commonwealth was a loose economic union. August 1991. called for Russians to resist the coup. The debt skyrocketed during his term. Boris Yeltsin: In 1991. His philosophy of supplyside economics.C. Yeltsin. Iraqi president Hussein ordered the invasion of Kuwait after oil negotiations between the two broke down. D. 1991: After the failed coup in August of 1991. Iraq invades Kuwait: On August 2. Pres. though it is still considered a single country.national debt triples from 1980 to 1989. Fearful of centralized power but mindful of the economic pitfalls of independence. William J. the leader of the Sandinista regime. smog. by far the largest and most endowed state. Nicaragua. but the political turmoil led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union into independent states. ozone damage and many airborne carcinogens. Beijing: 400-800 students were massacred by government troops during a pro-democracy demonstration in Beijing’s central square.S. The commonwealth was very weak. Tiananmen Square.9 trillion: In an effort to restimulate the economy. The coup failed. hardline communists seized power from Gorbachev. Violence erupted in some states. Iraq had complained that Kuwait was exceeding its oil production quota and flooding the world market. which hampered political unity. though the transition has met resistance. Bennett. driving prices down. 1990.

President Bush ordered a buildup of troops into Saudi Arabia called Desert Shield. Schwarzkopf. and MTV were legitimate contenders. NBC. 1991. were far behind technologically. . the resolution imposed an embargo on Iraqi trade effectively halting oil shipments from Iraq and Kuwait.000 lives and created massive refuge problems for bordering nations. households. people with handicaps. UN Security Council Resolution 678: The allied operation shifted to a potentially offensive nature with this resolution. The U. 1990.S. Desert Shield became Desert Storm on January 17 with the beginning of the allied air assault. and CBS. •GULF WAR. It was led by General Collin Powell. 1988. issued November 29. "work fare": This Act tried to reform the welfare system. 1991 Civil Rights Act: The act allowed women. The air raid utilized the most advanced missile technology such as smart bombs and cruise missiles to weaken the Iraqi defenses. leading to the rise of smaller networks. 1990.000 Iraqi soldiers died with about 300 U. Schwarzkopf: Beginning with a bombing raid on January 17.UN Security Council Resolution 661 (trade embargo on Iraq): On Aug. 6.S. The resolution was evoked early on January 17 when Allied planes began the air offensive. Patriot Missiles: SCUD’s were Soviet-made surface to surface missiles used by Iraq to bomb Israel during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Collin Powell: In August 1990. FOX. Gen. Desert Storm was directed by Gen. It authorized the use of force by the allies if Iraq did not withdraw from Kuwait by January 15. Patriots launched to destroy SCUD’s while still airborne. deaths. Gen." Cable TV became a fixture in many U. Desert Shield. revolts in Iraq--Shi’ites in South. Hussein responded by increasing his forces in Kuwait. Once was dominated by ABC. MTV specifically became an important marketing tool for music and politics. Some of its provisions required women on welfare to work if they have no children under 3 years old. The fighting claimed nearly 25. SCUD missiles. Operation Desert Storm. who became so popular as to later contemplate a 1996 presidential run. They were aimed at provoking Israelite retaliation to fracture the Allied-Arab alliance but were countered effectively by the U. now stations like CNN. Kurds in North: Postwar uprisings by Shi’ite Muslims in southern Iraq and Kurds in the North were crushed by Hussein’s army. and religious minorities to collect punitive damages for intentional on-the-job discrimination. The embargo had severe economic effects on surrounding countries who depended on Iraqi trade and oil. Iraqi forces.S. The UN created a safe zone for them. used force to protect the Kurds. though more numerous than the Allied force. An estimated 110. MTV: MTV was part of the "cable revolution. and parents without custody could have child support payments withheld from their paychecks. It contained strict work and child support guidelines. The short ground war began on February 24 and ended two days later. Family Support Act.S.

It widened the definition of discrimination and forced businesses to respect citizens rights of equality. signaling a new pattern of immigration. bombing of World Trade Center: In 1993. •ELECTION OF 1992—candidates. This "gridlock" occurred midway through Clinton’s term. Unable to resolve a dispute. only racial minorities could claim damages. The charges were dismissed in a series of highly public congressional hearings. including a great number of elderly citizens. baby-boom generation hits middle age: Once called the "Me Generation. Supreme Court. was nominated and seated in 1991. and Bush’s record of foreign diplomacy. Many bills were passed in an attempt to limit immigration. both had the power to obstruct the other. Thomas. The "yuppie" was a person preoccupied with physical fitness." Congress vs. Officials later arrested militant Muslim extremists who condemned American actions towards Israel and the U. yuppies bought run-down apartments and town houses in poorer districts and fixed them up. then returned near November with much less support. The major issues were the state of the economy. His nomination was plagued with controversy due to sexual harassment allegations by Anita Hill. issues. 1993: The 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (except Switzerland) and the 12 European Community nations signed an accord to create an enlarged free-trade zone. the second black justice on the Court. Jan. 1. many government projects and parks were closed down for several weeks. a bomb in a parking structure of the World Trade Center Building in New York killed six and injured nearly 1000 people. Some nations have loosened border and currency restrictions to make political unity easier. "gridlock. of the Independent party. and personal computers were common. Hispanic immigration: 45% of immigrants since 1960 have been from the Western Hemisphere. and 30% have come from Asia. The process often came at the expense of poorer and older residents. especially in the south west and west." people of the 1980s were interested with personal over public concerns. Anita Hill: Thomas. which had taken a turn for the worse at the end of the Bush administration. a former associate. . The issue of illegal immigration became a hot topic politically. dropped out of the running. gentrification: Reversing the trend of the middle-class exodus from urban centers. Ross Perot: The election of 1992 was primarily between the Democrat Bill Clinton and the Republican incumbent George Bush. involvement in the Persian Gulf War. the President: Because a Democratic President and a Republican Congress were elected in 1992. European Economic Area. VCRs. TV’s. did well in early polls. money.S. the EEA. Clarence. increased Asian. Ross Perot.Previously. and materialism. the state of medical insurance.

and by 1994 the U. NAFTA was approved by Congress in 1993. Whitewater: A scandal which has plagued Bill and Hillary Clinton while in the White House. protect Israelis in Palestinian areas. The effort succeeded in ending the famine. Dole became the Senate majority leader. Radical Israelis and Palestinians denounced the treaty and violence ensued. but not the violence. Macedonia. and factories has led to a rise in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. was approved by the 117 members of GATT. raising its temperature. More than 300 GOP candidates signed a "Contract with America" pledging support of several popular initiates. Gingrich authored the contract and became Speaker of the House. capitalizing on Clinton’s perceived inactivity. Arafat. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: An international plan to reduce tariffs and establish laws governing trade of services. among other major changes. Carbon dioxide traps heat near the surface of the planet. killing tens of thousands. Clinton’s health plan: Clinton’s dream of universal health care package died as the bill could not get approval by resistant Republicans. disintegration of Yugoslavia: In 1991-1992. the U. and other economic issues. Rabin: A historic treaty was signed between Yasir Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin which would allow Palestinian self-rule in parts of Israel. Somalia: A massive famine caused by warring factions of the government prompted George Bush to send troops (along with the UN) to protect relief efforts in December 1992.S. The bill would have required employers to pay 80% of their employees’ medical costs.S. It eliminated trade barriers between Canada. investments. PLO-Israel Peace Treaty (1993). Yugoslavia split into Croatia. Several compromises were attempted by Clinton. 1994 Congressional election: The Republican Party. making the flow of commerce more efficient. and Mexico. Many of Bosnia’s Muslims were victims of "ethnic cleansing." mass expulsions to promote a Serbian ethnic partition of Bosnia. Bosnia. called the World Trade Organization. the Whitewater Development Corp. The problem is made worse by tropical deforestation. was sustaining casualties. The NAFTA victory for free trade set the stage for the GATT treaty. "greenhouse effect": The large amount of fossil fuels burned by cars. Soon.. Violence erupted in Bosnia as Serbs and Croatians fought. The plan also established an agency to deal with international trade disputes.GATT. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): After a fierce political struggle. homes.S. but the issue was dead by September 1994. and has become a major environmental concern. Investigators began searching for incriminating evidence. the Whitewater affair revolves around the question if the Clinton’s benefitted improperly from their involvement in a real estate venture. and a recognition of Israel and the PLO as legitimate entities. . gained a majority in Congress. the U. Slovenia. left leaving the UN in charge. and Herzegovina.

killing 68. Farrakhan: Led by the radical Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. He acted in protest to the signing of the PLO-Israeli Peace Accord of 1993. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. Oklahoma City bombing.intervention in Haiti: The term referred to Operation Restore Democracy. The man who shot him was arrested on the scene. Farrakhan preached the need for blacks to become active family and community members. Clinton later withdrew his support.000-837. Officials Terry Nicoles and Timothy McVeigh were right wing militant extremists angry at the government. The blast destroyed the front section of the building. budget showdown between Congress and the President: Negotiations between President Clinton and Congress regarding balancing the budget wrapped up in May 1997. but Aristide did little towards turning Haiti into a democracy. The agreed upon plan is a moderate compromise. Women were discouraged from attending. . 1995: On April 19. but Clinton resisted.000 black men came. The mission was successful. the plan was designed to restore President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power. 1995 a 2½ ton bomb exploded in front of the Alfred P. Million Man March. Rabin assassinated. The future is uncertain under newly elected P. Republicans had originally wanted a constitutional amendment specifying a balanced budget. Supported by the Clinton administration. 1995: Israeli Prime Minister Yitzak Rabin was shot and killed by a Jewish settler just after speaking at a mass peace rally. Minister Netehayu. of whom 19 were children. Officials estimated 400. 1995. a major rally for African-Americans was held in Washington DC.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times