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Explorers in the late 15th, 16th, nad early 17th centuries began the European phase of American history. Their "discoveries" in the New dispelled rumors of a northwest passage and settled ancient questions of world geography. Contact between Europeans and Native Americans would have a dramatic effect on Europe, but a devastating impact on those who were wrongly called "Indians." Christopher Columbus: Spanish explorer who, with the backing of Ferdinand V and Isabella I, discovered the North American continent on October 12,1492. Though he was originally seeking a westward route to India, his fleet of ships consisting of the Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria reached the island of Hispanola, claiming it for Spain. Giovanni Verrazano: Mariner who explored the East coast of the United States and Nova Scotia under the commission of France in 1524. He was commissioned to claim new lands in the New World and find a route to China. He was the first European to enter New York Bay. His land claims were not colonized until the 17th century. Ferdinand Magellan: Portuguese explorer who was the first person to sail across the Pacific Ocean and to circumnavigate the globe. Sailing under a Spanish commission, he attempted to reach the Spice Islands. After crossing the Pacific, Magellan was killed battling natives in the Philippines but two of his ships returned to Spain. Francisco Pizarro: Spanish explorer and military leader who conquered Peru. Pizarro was part of many early explorations of the New World and was involved in the colonization of Panama. When he found the Inca empire in Peru he organized a expedition of 180 men and destroyed the empire in 1531. John Cabot: Explorer sent by Henry VII in 1497 who explored and claimed Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and the Grand Banks for England. Cabot was originally sent by Henry in violation of the treaty of Tordesillas to find a direct route to Asia. Cabot, like Columbus thought he had reached Asia, unaware he was exploring a new continent. Pedro Alvares Cabral: Portuguese navigator and explorer who explored what is now Brazil. While making a trip to India on April, 22, 1500 his fleet was forced off course by weather and he reached what is now the state of Bahia, Brazil. He claimed this land for Portugal. Vasco Nunez de Balboa: Spanish explorer who is best known for being the first to reach the Pacific Ocean in 1513. While attempting to escape debt he joined an expedition lead by Martin Fernandez de Enciso where he took control of the party and led it across the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean, which he claimed for the Spanish monarchs. Jacques Cartier: French explorer who explored the Saint Lawrence River. In 1534 Cartier lead a two ship party to find the northwest passage to Asia. He explored
Newfoundland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. While exploring, he claimed the lands for France which made up most of its claim to Canada. Juan Ponce de Leon: Spanish explorer who discovered the present day state of Florida on March 27, 1512. Following reports of a fountain of youth, he sailed from his colony in Puerto Rico to the eastern shore of Florida where, upon landing, his party was attacked by natives and where he was mortally wounded before retreating to Cuba. Hernando Cortez: Spanish conquistador who is best known for the destruction of the Aztec Empire in present day Mexico. On February 19,1519 Cortez left Cuba with a force of 600 men. Upon landing, Cortez was greeted by the Aztecs who he began to subjugate. He destroyed all resistance and destroyed the Aztec capital in present day Mexico City. encomiendas: Grants that give a person the right to take labor in the form of slaves or any type of homage form a designated group of Indians. Christopher Columbus who was sailing for Spain and who was one of the first conquistadors also began this practice in Hispanolia. Spanish Armada, 1588: Naval force launched by Phillip II of Spain to fight England. The Fleet was the largest of its time in the 16th century. The Armada was severely damaged when it was attacked off the coast of England on August 7,1588 and cut nearly in half by storms upon return to Spain, making Britain the dominant sea power. Colombian Exchange: The exchange of biological organisms between continents. The diseases brought to the American continent that helped to nearly destroy the native populations is one example of that exchange. Besides disease, many plants and animals have been brought to new environments with varying consequences.
•Order of Colonization: (colony, date, prominent figure) Virginia in 1607, John Smith;
Plymouth in 1620, William Bradford; New York in 1626, Peter Minuit; Massachusetts Bay in 1630, John Winthrop; Maryland in 1633, George Calvert; Rhode Island in 1636, Roger Williams; Connecticut in 1636, Thomas Hooker; New Hampshire in 1638; Delaware in 1638; North Carolina in 1653; South Carolina in 1663; New Jersey in 1664; Pennsylvania in 1682, William Penn; Georgia in 1732, James Oglethorpe.
One of the New England colonies and chartered by James I in 1606, Virginia was founded to give the English territorial claims to America as well as to offer a colonial market for trade. Jamestown, became a prosperous shipping and tobacco producing colony and the colony developed the House of Burgesses, a bicameral legislature in 1619.
Joint Stock Company: A business owned by investors through control of stocks. Examples operated in England and dealt with colonial markets in America. Such companies organized and supported the colonies through charters from the British government and while they worked with the government they made private profits.
•Jamestown: The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May,
1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop. starving time: The period early in any settlements development when food and supplies are scarce due to lack of preparation, unfamiliarity with the surroundings, weather, and inability to successfully grow crops. The starving time usually cost a large percentage of the settlers lives and lasted for the first few years. John Smith: Colonial leader who brought structure and stability to Jamestown during its starting years. As a member of the governing council of Virginia he was chosen to replace the previous president in 1608. Smith is credited with organizing trade with the Powhatan Confederacy and leading the colony through its roughest years. John Rolfe: English colonist and farmer who greatly aided the colony. Rolfe is credited with introducing tobacco as a crop for export, which ensured the colony of profits as well as bringing eight years of peace between Indians and colonists through his marriage to Pocahontas. purpose of Virginia: Virginia was founded primarily for the purpose of profit by the joint-stock owned Virginia Company of London. It was also important in giving England territorial claims in America to match Spanish and French expansion, and to also give England markets and resources in the New World. indentured servants: People who promised their lives as servants in order to get to the colonies. The servants, who were usually white, worked for a certain amount of time so to pay off their debt. This practice led to social tensions with such eruptions as Bacon’s Rebellion and eventually was replaced by race slavery. problems and failures of Virginia: Included trouble with Indians and a "starving time" in the winter of 1609 which the colony barely survived. Virginia also suffered from debt, a high death rate, fraudulent local officials, and more Indian trouble. The problems eventually made the Virginia Company go bankrupt. headright system: System enacted first in Virginia then in Baltimore to attract people to the sparsely populated colonies. The system worked by granting large amount of land to anyone who brought over a certain amount of colonists. In Baltimore, anyone bringing five adults at their own expense would receive two thousand acres.
House of Burgesses: A regular assembly of elected representatives that developed in the Virginia colony in the 1630’s. The House of Burgesses was split into two chambers in 1650, creating the House of Burgesses and the Governors Council. The House was a bicameral legislature that was a model for our congress. successes of Virginia: Virginia succeeded politically in terms of creating the House of Burgesses as a semi-democratic assembly and forcing governors to cooperate with the legislature. They did this through the power of the purse as governors did not control money, and therefore depended on the legislature for they salaries. Cavalier: The group of supporters of Charles I in the English Civil War which lasted from 1642-1648. The term Cavalier continued to be used to mean any supporter of the British crown, especially Americans who were British sympathizers during the American Revolution.
•Bacon’s Rebellion: Colonial rebellion against the governor of Virginia in 1676.
Nathaniel Bacon was the leader of the uprising protesting Governor Berkeley’s neglect of calls for a stronger military presence in the frontier to end problems caused by Indian hostility. The revolt succeeded in driving away the governor and it appeared it would achieve success when Bacon died shortly after the initial success before any progress was made and the rebellion dissipated.
The Puritans first came to America in 1620 on the Mayflower. The Pilgrims, as they were called, were separating from the Anglican church and escaping religious persecution in England by escaping to America. Other Puritans soon flocked to America hoping to "purify" the Anglican Church and develop a colony which would be a model to the world ("a city upon a hill") Calvinism: The teachings and doctrine of John Calvin, a leader in the Protestant reformation. Calvinism is unique in its rejection of consubstantiation, the Eucharist and in its doctrine of predestination, the belief that no actions taken during a persons life would effect their salvation. The Puritan colonies were based on Calvinist doctrine. Church of England: The established church in England that is also known as the Anglican church. The Church of England was founded in 1534 by Henry VIII after a dispute with the Roman Catholic church over the annulment of his marriage which culminated in the Act of Supremacy, declaring the King to be the head of the church. Mayflower Compact: Agreement made by the Pilgrims in 1620 when they landed at Plymouth. The compact created the Plymouth colony and made a civil government under James I based on the will of the colonists. The Compact was important in the early organization and success of the colony.
For this reason they fled the town of Scrooby. Following the restoration of James I to the throne Puritans in England . Puritans: Reform movement in the Anglican church in the 16th and 17th centuries and came to America in 1629. Under the leadership of John Winthrop. Non-Separatists sought to reform the Church from within. England. The society was to be an example to all the world of what could be achieved. Puritan Migration: The term given to the migration of Puritans to America in the early 17th century. They included the Pilgrims who migrated to America. where they originally had assembled and ended up in Plymouth with intentions of creating a community free of English control. a dangerous belief in religiously tense England. The Pilgrims sailed across the Atlantic and reached America in 1620 where they founded the Plymouth colony and organized a government based on the Mayflower compact. who wanted to end ties with the established church and nonseparatists. It was anticipated that once the world saw this great city it would follow it example. but Pilgrims were a distinct group of puritans who were not only against the Anglican church but called for total separation from the church. He was important in the organization and success of the colony and kept a history of the development of the Plymouth colony that was published in 1856. The colony was created in 1630 and it was governed through a General Court selected by church members.William Bradford: The second governor of the Plymouth colony in Massachusetts. Massachusetts Bay Colony: Colony created by the Massachusetts Bay Company. Pilgrims: The original group of puritan separatists that fled religious persecution in England and found refuge in what is now Massachusetts. •PILGRIMS VS. The agreement was based on the creation of a market for trade but instead developed a religiously based government. Separatists vs. The movement aimed at purifying the church of corruption split into separatists. the colony was created to provide the world with a model Christian society. Cambridge agreement: Plan used in 1629 to colonize America by allowing immigration of puritan settlers who would control the government and the charter of the Massachusetts Bay company. Non-Separatists: Separatists were a group of Puritans who advocated total withdrawal from the Church of England and wanted the freedom to worship independently from English authority. John Winthrop planned to create a utopian society based on Puritanism that would have no class distinction and would stress the importance of community and church. •City Upon a Hill: Name given to the Puritan society that was to be created in the New World. Seeking religious freedom was a strong motivation for colonies in America. The leader of the Puritan migration. he was elected over John Carver in 1621 and was reelected thirty times. PURITANS: Pilgrims and Puritans were extremely similar in most practices and beliefs.
The platform was the source for the Puritans of the government and organization for their colony. Covenant Theology: Christian Theology that stressed that a agreement was made by God with humans with the death of Jesus for the salvation of mankind. conversion relation: Part of the Massachusetts Puritans practice. some assert that salvation is granted to all. He played a key role in the puritan migration and intended to create a utopian society in America. Contrast Puritan Colonies with others: Because most colonies were created with financial or political gains in mind. The puritans who migrated to America were dissenters from the Church of England who .became persecuted and with the accession of Charles I to the throne the situation became worse. Congregationalism: Protestant organizational system based on the freedom of each church to control its affairs. puritan colonies had a special distinction from them. some that its is earned and others that it can be achieved by faith alone. Unlike other colonies. it was a requirement of new members. Cambridge Platform: Agreement and plan formed by Puritans before they landed in 1629. He was elected governor twelve times and pursued a conservative religious and governmental policy. The puritans came to American seeking religious freedom and had a strong work ethic enabling them to achieve a success not seen in other colonies. Puritans were guided by their religion and created a government and society tied to the church. New England Way: The Puritan dominance of New England and their desire to create a utopian society based on their doctrine created a distinct society in New England. Congregationalism was part of the strong independence of the colonies. Because of its unpleasantness. The theology differs from sect to sect. An offshoot of the separatist. and it established a government under the authority of the King of England. Under Puritan doctrine. The puritans fled England and came to America to have freedom of religion. to become a saint the person had to be a member of the congregation and have been chosen by the church council. The Relation required that any member of the congregation must go through an examination before the congregation. John Winthrop: The first governor and one of the founders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and a member of the Massachusetts Bay Company. later generations did not go accept it and the half-way covenant was adopted. dissenters: People objected to the accepted doctrine of the established church. saints: High standing members of the church who gained recognition and were put on a council that governed the congregation. it was continued by the pilgrims in America where it was adopted by the new churches as a way to maintain local independence.
antinomianism: Early New England religious leader who founded the doctrine of antinomianism. The idea was furthered in 1644 when it adopted a bicameral court with elected delegates. Roger Williams. . he established a colony at Providence in 1636 that tolerated all dissenters and was in good relations with the Natives. that replaced home education by creating a system in which small towns would have a person capable of teaching the children and every town of over one hundred homes would have a school. Town Meetings were gatherings where all the voters in the town or nearby countryside would all congregate and go over issues that most interested them. Religious outcasts from the puritan church such as Ann Hutchinson and Roger Williams were also dissenters. such as town officers. Mass. Rhode Island: Early colonial clergyman who founded the religiously tolerant colony of Rhode Island in 1636. The Church was strongly opposed to the Salem Witchcraft trials in 1692. This fear ended with the death of many innocent women. The law was a step towards creating a universal education system. Massachusetts in 1692. •SALEM WITCH TRIALS: The fear of witchcraft that came to a head in the 16911963. Anne Hutchinson. Massachusetts School Law: Law also Known as the Old Deluder Act of 1647. Voting Granted to Church Members: The New England puritans developed a more democratic system of government than in England that gave the power to elect the governor to all male saints. especially boiling over in Salem. With the later generations of Protestant settlers unwilling to undergo the conversion relation. and taxes for the following season.created a new church in the colonies. She was banished to Rhode Island in 1637 for her belief in antinomianism and her insistence on salvation by faith and not works. The Salem Witch Trials pinpointed the underlying tension that was coming to head in many colonies due to religion and social standings. a wealthy merchant and official of Harvard College organized the church against the will of Cotton Mather because of its closeness to the Church of England. Brattle Street Church: Church located in Boston. church membership was threatened and the compromise was made. the belief that the Gospel frees Christians from required obedience to laws. Half Way Covenant: A modification in the Cambridge Platform in 1662 that enabled people who had not experienced the conversion relation to become part of the congregation. Completed in 1699. Most of the women were middle aged wives or widows. Thomas Brattle. town meetings: The center of Colonial America political life especially in New England. Williams was banished from Massachusetts for his belief in religious freedom. Many implicated others for fear of their lives.
and control. and by 1700. Of all the colonies. the New Englanders prospered the least. Puritan settlers who founded their settlement at Boston first colonized the land. New Englanders turned to fishing and the merchant marine.Puritan Ethic: Term that characterizes the strong sense of purpose and discipline that Puritans had. had the most overpopulated towns. town meetings and enforcement of the Navigation Acts. Puritan society. the southern colonies. Hooker grew dissatisfied with the rigid practices and . the middle colonies. The confederation was used most effectively advising during King Phillips War. The distinct regions were New England . •NEW ENGLAND: Region of the colonies lying on the northeast Atlantic Coast. •The Dominion of New England: Centralized government imposed upon the New England colonies by England in 1686 as a result of the Restoration monarchy’s need for control and renewed colonial interest. and had the poorest soil. The consolidation was strongly opposed by the colonists because of the elimination of all colonial legislatures. and the frontier. 1643: A concord among the New England colonies of Massachusetts. Sir Edmund Andros: Political leader appointment as governor of the Dominion of New England in 1686. starting a trend of religiously independent settlements. As a clergyman in Massachusetts. Conn. certain regions of America developed distinct characteristics and each had its own unique niche. The union was for the purpose of ensuring safety and peace between the colonies. this was one of the largest industries in the colonies. but eventually became a commercialized "Yankee" society. Part of the work ethic also resulted from a belief that wealth and success were a sign of saintliness and that idleness was a sin. Plymouth. New England Confederation. Boston colonists forcefully removed Andros from office in 1689. The Dominion was governed by New York governor Sir Edmund Andros. The contrasts between the different regions were involving crops. This work ethic also helped the Puritans find success in the colonies and translated to an American colonial work ethic. religion.the Chesapeake Bay area. Connecticut and New Haven in the years from 1643-1684. Massachusetts Bay Company: Company in 1628 to govern the Massachusetts Bay Colony on granted by the Council of New England in America. and was ended by colonial insurrection. It started as a highly religious. Andros was extremely unpopular because of his suppression of colonial legislatures. To make up for the lack of farming. The Company was dissolved in 1684. Regionalism As life in the colonies progressed. Thomas Hooker: Religious leader in colonial America and founder of Hartford.
asserted that women had the right to gain knowledge. Following the puritan ideal. In 1635 he lead a group of followers to start a more liberal colony in Hartford. The main crop in the South was rice. The Southern Colonies were also the only colonies with a large population of blacks and an ethnically stratified society. The colony started with a settlement in Savanna created by Oglethorpe as a debtor’s colony. such as bans on slavery and rum. In 1767. Her poems. Phillis found her first fame while escorting one of the Wheatly’s in England. Written by Thomas Hooker and similar to the government of Massachusetts Bay. separate from Britain. •SOUTHERN COLONIES: Region consisting mainly of the Carolinas and Georgia. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: The constitution of the Connecticut colony that was established in 1639. She was born in 1612 as the daughter of the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.government of the Puritan church. The government was for the colony at Saybrook of which John Winthrop’s son was governor. The rebellion succeeded in disposing the governor and placing Culpeper in his position. Saybrook Platform: A modified version of the Cambridge platform that was used by Connecticut Congregationalists and contained a more centralized church government. at the age of 8. Poor Richard’s Almanack: Publication written by Benjamin Franklin in 1732 that gained an immense following with its home remedies and practical wisdom. which were published as The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America. Georgia: Colony founded in 1733 by a charter granted to James Oglethorpe. slowed growth as large settlement did not occur until after slavery was brought to Georgia. The high ideals of Oglethorpe. but he was removed in 1679. But although most southern cities were tiny." Ann Bradstreet: The first woman to write poems in colonial America and receive acclaim for them. Charleston became the fourth largest city in the colonies. Culpeper’s Rebellion: Rebellion against the colonial government in Carolina in 1677. Phillis Wheatly: African American poet who was brought to America by slave traders at the age of eight and was bought by the Wheatly family. leading to an absence of large cities in the south. The rebellion was lead by John Culpeper and was directed against the government’s acceptance of English trade laws. it contained a preamble and 11 orders. it put the welfare of the community above that of individuals. . It can be said that Poor Richard’s Almanack helped define the American culture by giving them traditions and wisdom’s all their own. One of her works is "To the University of Cambridge in New England. The Southern Colonies were distinct from other colonies mostly on their dependence for slave labor and for farming.
Eventually.James Oglethorpe: English soldier and founder of the colony of Georgia in 1733. The Maryland Act of Toleration was passed in 1649 so all types of Christians could have equal political rights. The enlightened and religiously skeptical spirit of the 18th century. however. was where farming took place. Chesapeake society also revolved around fertile soil near navigable water because tobacco needed such an environment to be grown profitably. Chesapeake society also had a powerful merchant class who controlled both export and import commerce. This contrast represented an East-West dichotomy to accompany the North-South one. and the Caribbean. It comprised the present-day states of Maryland and Delaware. Oglethorpe’s ideals in creating a debtors colony free of vice were a distinction from other colonies. on the other hand. Because of this. Maryland was created in 1632 when Lord Baltimore (Cecilius Calvert) was given a land grant and created a manor based state with a headright system. sugar colonies: Colonies that produced sugar for England. Lord Baltimore: Founder of Maryland who. Virginia. . the Piedmont. Huguenots: French Protestants. Protestants formed a majority and the manors evolved into plantations. in 1632. Along with this equality Lord Calvert allowed a representative assembly for the Catholics. He wrote the charter for the colony but died before he got it. Maryland: Proprietary colony originally intended to be a refuge for English Catholics. Maryland Act of Toleration: Act that resulted when the Catholics began feeling threatened by the overwhelming Protestant population. and during this time the French Protestants gradually regained many of their rights. Slow urbanization also characterized society around the Chesapeake. Sugar was produced because it could make people rich quickly because it was sold at very high prices. Maryland’s Protestant Association: Group of Protestants in Maryland during late 1600s who controlled the lower house but not the upper. because of the religious wars with French Catholics. where most of the opportunity was in shipping and fishing. like New Netherlands. Oglethorpe founded Georgia after a grant from King George II and settled with a small group on the Savanna River. Maryland. the Protestant majority barred Catholics from voting and threw out the governor and repealed the act. However. New England. Tidewater vs. most farms were located along Chesapeake Bay. •CHESAPEAKE SOCIETY: Society characterized by few neighbors and isolated families whose lives depended on tobacco. Piedmont: Two regions of contrasting economic opportunity. received a charter from King Charles I for a tract of land to the northeast of the colony of Virginia. The Huguenots slowed the colonization process for the French. after the Act of Religious Toleration was passed. which the Catholics ruled. Sugar plantation owners liked to use black slaves because they were able to work harder and longer. The Tidewater was along the coast. was opposed to religious persecution.
staple crops of the South: The major staple crop of the south was rice. and Pennsylvania. various grains. and the landgraves at the bottom. and skins. when no will was left for the land. This practice became came over with the colonists and was introduced into common law. Fundamental Constitution: Intricate constitution written by Cooper and John Locke in 1670. Primogeniture. Pennsylvania was built on the basis of being a religious haven for Quakers. All of these products were exported to Europe and the west Indies. the dues were still enforced. •Middle Colonies: The middle colonies were Pennsylvania. flour. entail: The practice of passing on land to a son. These job seekers usually ended up competing for jobs with the black slaves. Most of the colonists’ profit came from farming.Carolinas: Colonies created when Charles II rewarded eight of the noblemen who had helped him regain the throne from the Puritan rule in 1663 by giving them land. SPG. grain. New York. Restoration Colonies: Colonies created following the Stuart restoration in 1660 when England again took interest in America. Other crops were tobacco. After a visit to Maryland. John Locke. It was a place where the upper class could pass their time so they could stay away from the heat of their plantations. the caciques in the middle. The colonies enabled England to control the East Coast. These colonies had governments that made a social hierarchy geared toward a dominant wealthy class. indigo. who founded Charleston in 1670. Thomas Bray received a royal charter from King William for overseas missionary work. North Carolina originated as an extension of Virginia and South Carolina came from planters from Barbados. New Jersey. thus showing a fear of tyranny of the church and state." It formed the three orders of nobility with the proprietors at the top. which was picked by African-American planters who were imported by the Dutch in 1616. Europe and the West Indies. Charleston: City that became the fourth largest city in North America. usually the eldest. With the Restoration and the creation of Restoration Colonies. and tobacco which were exported to Britain. New York. but it did not take long for the practice to die out in the colonies. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel: An organization founded in 1701 to serve the spiritual welfare of the colonists. Carolina. and New Jersey. New York was built upon the rule of James Duke of York who sent out John Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret to be the first two proprietors of New Jersey. Many whites were lured to Charleston in hopes of reducing the black majority. wood. meant to stabilize the government of Carolina by basing the social rank on one’s "landed wealth. . quitrents: Federal payments that the freeholders had to pay the people who were getting the land from proprietors. with the money no longer going to the proprietors but instead to the king or queen as royal revenue. It was seen as a conspiracy. all of which produced iron. wood.
James became King in 1685 and appointed Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret as the first proprietors of New Jersey. East/ West Jersey: They were colonies that resulted from the sale of the Jersey territory to Quakers. and a limited lower legislative chamber. With his heresy conviction the Quaker population in Pennsylvania dropped. George Keith: Member of the Quaker church who told the Quakers that they needed a formal doctrine.Pennsylvania. George Fox: Preacher of the "inner-light" doctrine who spoke against formalized religion. so in 1692 he joined the Church of England. liberal land laws in PA: Laws that were set up by William Penn which were very liberal because that was his nature. They started with a strong government. and believed that all human actions should be directed by inner contemplation and a social conscience inspired by God. This liberal planning ensured no starving time. He objected to political and religious authority. and advocated divine communion as he practiced it. East Jersey then became dominated by Scottish Quakers whereas West Jersey became the home to many English Quakers. . Penn and his people did not experience a starving time which was very common for starting colonies." The document was revised seven times and held a strong executive. opposed war and slavery. 1701 Frame of Government: The first set of laws set up in Pennsylvania which were written by William Penn. 1664 English: Charles II gave his brother James title to all the Dutch lands in America in 1664. He objected to political and religious authority. William Penn: Pennsylvania was founded as a refuge for Quakers by William Penn in 1681. English settlers resisted the original proprietors’ authority. His ideas were not accepted among the Quaker majority. Quakers: Religious movement founded in 1600 by a religious belief that divine revelation is immediate and individual and that all persons may perceive the word of God in their soul. so in 1674 Berkeley sold his half to a union of Quakers. and the Anglican population and political power rose. For years to come there were conflicting claims to the territory and finally in 1702 it became a royal colony. They were based in Pennsylvania. In his constitutional type document Penn preached "that the will of one man may not hinder the good of the whole company. The 1701 Frame of Government stated that the proprietors had no power to do mischief. Penn himself carefully oversaw land sales in the colonies to avoid improper disputes. Holy Experiment: The main part of this theology that George Fox taught was that people had an inner light that could spiritually inspire their souls. New York: Dutch. and believed that all human actions must be directed by inner contemplation. They rejected a formal creed and regarded every participant as a potential vessel for the word of God. mainly Presbyterianism. opposed war and slavery. The Quakers believed that an "inner-light" allowed them to be on a personal level with God.
Recessions hit frequently and the job force was very unstable. collecting plants. flour. and scientist. Peter Struyvesant: Dutch governor who was attacked by Charles II in 1664 so that the British could control North America. as explained by Fredrick Turner’s Frontier Thesis. Leisler denied the passing of English troops to important forts. and tobacco which were shipped to Europe and the West Indies. Rhode Island was founded by Roger Williams in 1644 for dissenting Puritans. Similarly. Maryland was founded by George Calvert in 1632 and served as a refuge for English Catholics. Their exports were rice. The middle colonies were major exporting colonies because of their accessible sea ports. Struyvesant. iron. peacefully surrendered and gave New Netherlands to Charles II. the frontier represented a raw environment that . In 1731 he founded what was probably the first public library in America. The frontier also offered limitless land. The estates were created in order to raise revenue by collecting tenant rents. •FRONTIER: Area of land important in the development of a distinctly American culture and political life. diplomat. and making maps. observing wildlife. almost like the British landed aristocracy. Bartram traveled extensively through the colonies. Leisler’s Rebellion: Anti-Stuart rebellion in which Captain Jacob Leisler took command over New York in hopes of protecting it from Andros and other supporters of James II. the patroon owners emerged as a class of landed elite. which democratized America by elimating the significance of voting property requirements. author. Benjamin Franklin: A notable American printer. crops in the middle colonies: The middle colonies rich level lands produced lengthy growing seasons and gave good bumper crops. He first published Poor Richard’s Almanack in 1732 and played a crucial role in the American Revolution and community. Later. grain. John Bartram: Botanist who was known as the father of American Botany. wood. New York City and Philadelphia as urban centers: Both cities were the two biggest exporting cities in America thus making them rapidly growing urban centers. by about 1750. High population and bad sanitation allowed many of the people to catch viruses and diseases. his contributions epitomized the Enlightenment.patroon system: The system of feudal estates created by large New York landowners in the early 1700s. the middle colonies as a religious haven: William Penn founded Pennsylvania originally as a religious haven for Quakers who were not accepted elsewhere in 1681. forming the New York and Jersey colonies with a large remaining Dutch population. writing. philosopher. whose army was already hurt from Indian attacks. In 1691. He performed important experiments involving plant hybridization and in 1728 he founded the first botanical garden in America near Philadelphia. leading to his arrest and death when his enemies gained control of the government. Finally.
pragmatism. an aristocracy. Both tribes were scattered and soon disappeared. The colonists eventually won the alliance of rival tribes and waged a ruthless campaign. Oneida. As the Indian population in the east waned. Mohawk. and Tuscarors. King Philip lead the natives. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. and ports. White. the first of which. submission into "praying towns. Also. Seneca. was founded in 1651. the South was characterized by cash crops. Iroquois Confederacy: The joining of six sects of the Iroquoian family and of the Eastern Woodlands area. assimilation as "Praying Indians" became the only option besides retreating farther west. strength. opening the way to New England’s settlement. the growers and farmers eventually began to rely on African-Americans and Native Americans as a free source of labor. Many of the Massachusetts Indians sought protection from Winthrop by selling their land and surrendering their independence. By combining they were a stronger force against the colonists. and inventiveness. Red. Cayuga. Tuscaroras and Yamasees: Two opposing Indians tribes whose disunity lead both to destruction. fishing. Originally using AfricanAmericans only as indentured servants. Natick. North-South economic differences: The North was much more concerned with shipping. Pequot War: So-called war consisting of clumsy plundering by Massachusetts troops and raids by Pequots in 1637. The chief of the Wampanoags.helped mold American civilization by giving it coarseness. and industry whereas the South was based on an agricultural society. and the Yamasees were themselves defeated around 1715. and Black With the colonization of certain regions in America came conflicts with the Native Americans and the earliest traces of slavery in America. the North had more towns. praying towns: Towns set up by puritan missionaries for Indian converts to spread puritan Christianity. and plantations. Native American Relations in the first settlements: Relations characterized by resistance to the expansion of English settlement. The war tipped the balance of military power to the English. King Phillips War: War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. . acuteness. In contrast. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites. the tribes in the confederacy were the Onondaga. The Tuscaroran people were defeated by the colonists with the help of the Yamasees in 1713. cities. By the 1700s." and devastation through war and disease.
White owners relied on force and fear to control the growing black majority in the Carolinas. The slave trade then moved in to America as the development of a plantation system in Virginia offered a market for slavery and the first slaves arrived there in 1619. As trade and agriculture grew and a plantation system grew so did slavery. It was a significant encounter because it caused white apprehension and led to a new slave code. During this time they flourished and developed a British origin. Out of the Maryland Slave Code of 1661 came the establishing of other slave codes that set up strict legal codes. and the New Netherlands.Beaver Wars: Wars that resulted from furious trading and hunting of Beaver pelts by the Dutch. and 18th centuries under which governmental control was exercised over industry and trade in accordance with the theory that national strength is increased by a majority of exports over imports. Barbados Code: Code adopted by Carolina in 1696 to control slaves at the will of their masters. impact on the different colonies: Economic policy prevailing in Europe during the 16th. . racial status. rationale. 1661: The first actual definition by the colonies of slavery as a "lifelong. inheritable. impact on Great Britain. yet with a distinctly American flavor. so laws like this were created in order to keep control in the society." It was issued by Maryland in 1661 in order to set up a distinct place for the slaves in the society. Officials suppressed the rebellion and stopped any more chaos and damage. It was often noted as an inhumane code but the society revolved around slaves. Maryland Slave Code. It was because of this absence that the colonies became more self sufficient and eventually it led them to a feeling of individuality that they feared losing. Slavery remained small among the colonies. The Overhunting of Beavers sent prices so high in 1742 that the Dutch armed the Iroquois and what resulted was bloody battles against Pro-French tribes. in which twenty slaves robbed guns and ammunition from the Stono River Bridge along with killing civilians. The colonies adopted mercantilism as business in which the mother country could benefit. mercantilism: features. 17th. Salutary Neglect Britain’s absence in colonial America due to pressing issues in England left the colonies alone for the most part to govern themselves. however because it was not yet profitable for slavery under the conditions. the French. •SLAVERY BEGINS: Followed the exploration of the African coast and the establishment of a slave trade Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. Stono Rebellion: Slave uprising in South Carolina in 1739. thus bringing forth the Declaration of Independence after a series of events.
1764: Another Act passed by the British Parliament that affected the colonies and was meant to raise revenue for Great Britain. consignment systems: A system of drafting sailors into the British navy. Colonial trade was not very triangular because the Navigation Acts forced American merchants to trade only with Britain. It was meant to create profitable trade as a protective tariff. . Woolens Act. the Americans still managed to smuggle goods with the French Caribbean and India. Many teenagers tried to avoid the draft by giving false information about themselves. Many of the base rights in the United States Constitution are included in it. It can only be revoked in time of rebellion.triangular trade: Trade that takes place between three places is called triangular trade. 1699. 1750: Act specifying certain enumerated goods—principally tobacco. rice. and the right to a trial by your peers. the right to a fair trial. asking him to stop sending soldiers to live in private citizens homes. It was a clear example of how Salutary Neglect was coming to an end with the French and Indian War. However. The British could freely use the soldiers at their convenience by the rules of this draft. and indigo—that the colonists could export only to another English colony or to England. Habeas Corpus Act: Act saying that a person can not be held in prison without being charged and tried. It was very similar to the other previous Currency Act but this act was targeted towards the people and raising the taxes so that the Parliament could make more money. stop taxing without its consent and stop declaring martial law in a time of peace. Magna Carta. Currency Act. These were attempts to prevent manufacturing in the British colonies that might threaten the economy of England. This occurred partially because Charles was trying to pay off his war debt. The point of this attack was to raise revenue for Great Britain. but it was never meant to raise revenue. Section 9. 1215: A charter granted by King John. This idea was adopted into our Constitution in Article 1. Hat Act. that exactly established the relationship between the kings and barons and guaranteed ideas of free commerce. 1733: Legislation by the British Parliament for taxing and imposing shipment restrictions on sugar and molasses imported into the profitable colonies from the West Indies. Currency Act. 1732: Iron Act. The draft caused many problems in the life of young American men. 1628: Petition given to Charles I by parliament. They put this into effect to help stop innocent people from being thrown into jail with no specific reason why. Petition of Right. Molasses Act. 1751: Act passed by British Parliament that affected the colonies by adjusting the currency.
and introduced use of vice-admiralty courts. It also helped U.Navigation Act. It was a time when great minds awoke and started thinking. Robert Walpole: Statesman who is considered Britain’s first prime minister. a fact that the colonies viewed as being unconstitutional. it was passed to help English commercial interests in 1663 but helped the U. It allowed for methods of enforcing the acts. and indigo. causing over 250 ships were captured. 1663: This Parliamentary act disallowed colonial merchants from exporting products like sugar and tobacco anywhere except to England and from importing goods in ships not made and produced by the English. Also. the Enlightenment: A period in the 1700s when a new method of thought was employed. •BOARD OF TRADE. In 1708 he was named Secretary of War. (of the Privy Council): This board was part of the Privy Council which was one of the committees formed by the British Parliament In 1793 Britain’s Privy Council sent out orders that any foreign ships caught trading with the French Islands located in the Caribbean to be automatically captured and taken away. Navigation Act. It was only temporary and it stated that goods imported or exported by the colonies in Africa and Asia must be shipped out or imported only by English vessels and the crews must be 75% British.S. 1660: This Parliamentary act renewed the 1651 act and specified certain innumerable articles which could be exported only to the English or to another English colony in 1660. the courts awarded judges money for every conviction.S. affecting the . The Navigation Acts opened up British markets to American merchants. 1696: This was the fifth and final Parliamentary Navigation Act. Navigation Act. thus judges became more apt to find people guilty. Navigation Act. In 1739 he declared war on Spain. 1651: Parliament passed this legislation in 1651 in order to protect English trade from foreign competition. provided more penalties for evasion. Along with the 1660 act. rice. capitalism. Among these goods were tobacco. It was passed in 1696 in an effort to strengthen its effect on colonists. He entered the English Parliament in 1701 and became a well known speaker for the Whig Party. and the number of merchants increased during the 1750’s as well. American shipbuilding thus prospered and there was a stable protected market for producers. which caused division in his party (Whigs) for support for him in elections. They deliberately waited to publish these instructions so that American ships would be seized. It was felt much more harshly by the colonists and led to hostility admiralty courts: These were courts that were created to bring sailors to trial for going against the navigation acts. merchants/markets: People and places involved in the trading system of the colonies were merchants and the markets with which they traded. They were often held away from the colonies.
His ideas can be seen in the Constitution. Moderate uprising that came out of the Colonial America during this time ended with William and Mary taking apart the Dominion of New England. It also made it illegal for a monarch to postpone laws. have a standing army. Glorious Revolution: When Mary and William over run James II in England in 1688. ROYAL COLONIES: These are three ways one could come upon owning land in Colonial America. . but only if they were governed by "natural" law. colonial agents: Representatives sent by Great Britain to the colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries. or levy taxes without the okay of the British Parliament. The most significant development of colonial government was the rise of the assembly and the limiting of the power of governors. Often. confidence in human reason. who received money from influential town members.colonies as well as Europe. •COLONIAL GOVERNMENT: Characterized by regular assemblies and appointed militia. law. •PROPRIETARY. John Peter Zenger Trial: Trial involving the founder of the New York Weekly Journal . Kings and Queens could also give away land as well as people having property passed on to them. So when Zenger published articles by his contributors that criticized Colonial government he was arrested and put on trial. Some beliefs brought to the forefront were the laws of nature. One such way was for a company to give out land so an area would become populated. The house had the power of the purse which led them to being the more dominant house. They would observe the colonies and then send the information back to England. and local administration. The colonies then interpreted the law and used it against the British (levy tax). He criticized the "divine right" kings had and believed that the people should have a say and that the supreme power should be state power. All of these ideas helped shape America’s way of government life. Because of low voter participation and indifference toward politics. these were dominated by the colonial elite despite liberal qualifications for male voters. CHARTER. He was announced not guilty. The problem is by the time it got back to England the information that had once been true was now old and wrong. his success paving the way for freedom of the press. colonial government only truly flourished in the major seaports. Rise of the lower house: In Colonial America the lower house had increasingly equal if not more power than the upper house. John Locke’s Ideas: John Locke was a philosopher that supported Colonial America. More common people could get into government than before and make a difference which helped build the foundations of America. Bill of Rights. 1689: Bill that said no Roman Catholics could hold a position of king or queen in England. British citizens saw this as a win in liberty for parliament would have more control than ever. optimism. Its ideas lead to revolutionary ideas. and deism. therefore having an influence on decisions the new powers would make.
founding of colleges." led by Tennent. Bay Colony. The university eventually developed a more secular format effects of the Great Awakening on religion in America: Long term effects of the Great Awakening were the decline of Quakers. He involved himself in the Great Awakening in 1739 preaching his belief in gaining salvation. and Congregationalists as the Presbyterians and Baptists increased. . Old Lights. and George Whitefield. an increase of Presbyterians. Harvard University: University located in Cambridge.Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. who accepted it and sometimes suffered persecution because of their religious fervor." in which he criticized conservative ministers who opposed the fervor of the Great Awakening. Coming from Connecticut. and denominationalism. most of his speeches were based there. Mass. an emphasis on inner experience. His presence helped raise the population by about 3000 people. Jonathan Edwards . in 1740 delivered a harsh sermon. . The school was originally organized to educate ministers because of the scarcity of clergy and lack of an educational institution in the new colony. religious toleration. Anglicans. denomenationalism. Great Britain Versus France . William Tennent: Presbyterian minister who played a chief role in the Great Awakening in Central New Jersey by calling prayer meetings known as the Refreshings around the 1730’s. that was founded in 1636 on a grant from the Mass. Key players were Theodore Frelinghuysen. It also caused an emergence in black Protestantism. Jonathan Edwards. Through the awakening emerged the decline of Quakers. Gilbert Tennent: American Presbyterian minister. That freedom of Will: Sermon about how one must have a personal faith and relationship with Jesus Christ to gain salvation instead of an afterlife in hell. and religious toleration. The Old Lights rejected the Great Awakening and the New Lights. William and Gilbert Tenant. New lights: Two groups of ministries who frequently had heated debates on the issue of God during the Great Awakening. "The Dangers of Unconverted Ministry. The sermon also used the fury of the divine wrath to arouse religious fervor. Another one of his significant projects was the founding of his influential Log College which had teachers educated in all areas of study. The result was a schism (1741) in the Presbyterian church between the "Old Lights" and the "New Lights. A Careful and Strict Enquiry into.Great Awakening A series of religious revivals swept through the colonies in the 1730s. George Whitefield: English clergyman who was known for his ability to convince many people through his sermons.
With America as a new prospect for both France and Great Britain, tensions grew between the two countries. The result was a series of wars like King William’s War, Queen Anne’s War, the War of Jenkin’s Ear, King George’s War, and the French and Indian War. Changes in land Claims of 1689, 1713, 1763: Before 1689 almost all of the land belonged to Spain, and France with Britain only starting. Then by 1713 France was dominating the North America and Britain was spreading up and down the coast. In 1763 with the Treaty of Paris, Britain became the overwhelming power. Differences between French and British colonization: The French mostly had fur traders and posts in North America so they could get goods, they were more inland and made friends with the Indians. While the English were settling for good on the shore, making homes and government- they were all there to start a new life. Why Great Britain eventually won: When William Pitt joined the British leaders he turned things around. He began to treat the Americans like equals or allies instead of subordinates. This lead Americans to feel a sense of pride and a renewed sense of spirit that sent them into several victories that made France eventually concede. King William’s War: In Europe a war fought between the Grand Alliance and France which also embroiled the colonies. The entire war was battled over who would reign in England. In the colonies the Indians were fighting for the French. In 1697 fighting ceased due to the Peace of Ryswick which restored Port Royal to the French. Queen Anne’s War: The second of the four imperial wars that were fought between Britain, France and Spain. It took place from 1702-1713. Though many Spanish colonial towns were captured and burned by English forces, American colonists met with military failure creating a feeling of dependence on Britain. The war ended with Peace of Utrecht. Peace of Utrecht: Treaty that ended Queen Anne's War in 1713. Due to this treaty France had to give up Acadia, Newfoundland and the Hudson Bay territory to England but got to keep Cape Breton Island. The treaty also introduced a period of peace in which the American colonists experienced growth economically and politically. War of Jenkin’s Ear: This war was British versus Spain. It was fought in Georgia and North Carolina. Lieutenant Governor William Gooch led Virginia’s 400 men into the whole 3000 men colonial army and after their Colonel died Gooch succeeded him. When they attacked Cartagena it proved disastrous, though Gooch wouldn’t report it that way. King George’s War: War fought between Britain and France and Spain. It took place not only in Europe but also in North America with American colonists supporting the British with thousands of troops. In the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle Britain gained lands in India but lost Louisburg, which embittered Anglo-American relations.
•FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR: The French and Indian war was fought between Britain and France. It lasted from 1754-1760, with the colonies supporting Britain and the Indians supporting France. This war spanned three different continents and it was the main factor in the ending of "salutary neglect." This war planted the seeds of misunderstanding between Britain and the colonies and indirectly was one of the causes of the Revolutionary War. Britain came out victoriously with the Treaty of Paris. Coureurs de Bois- Unlicensed trader who traded illegally with Indians. Many young men seeing only the prospective wealth left their families and traded illegally with Indians, some even married into the tribes. They also enlisted Indians in the French Army. These Coureurs de Bois were important in setting up fur trade in Canada. Francis Parkman: Francis Parkman was one of the prominent historians of his time (1823-1893). Most of his work concerned the conflict that arose between France and Britain for land in Colonial America. Later on in his career he went west and traveled with tribes, such as the Sioux, which ended with the book, The Oregon Trail. Albany Plan of Union, Benjamin Franklin: Colonial confederation based on the ideas of Franklin calling for each town to have independence in a large whole, known as a Grand Council. It was used for military defense and Indian policies and set a precedent for later American unity. Edward Braddock: Braddock was the General of all the British Troops (French and Indian War), he led an attack against Fort Duquesne, never reaching his destination for they were attacked by the Monongahela River where 900 of his 1200 men were wounded or killed. Braddock was wounded at this battle and died soon afterwards. William Pitt: Prime minister for Britain, who helped Britain bounce back after the Revolutionary War and who lead the war effort against France. Pitt had two terms, 1783 to 1801 and 1804 to 1806. He was considered a moderate, with the backing of the king and the parliament. Pitt’s time in office became a foundation for future prime ministers. Fort Duquesne: This was the fort that General Braddock tried to take during the French and Indian War but him and his troops were slaughtered in an ambush at the Monongahela, where 900 of the 1200 troops were wounded or killed. Later General Amherst captured the fort. Wolfe, Montecalm, Quebec- the Plains of Abraham: The battle of the French and Indian War, between General Wolfe and General Montecalm in which both were killed . It ended with the capturing of Quebec and was one of the final steps that lead Montreal to surrender, thus making Canada no longer a threat. Land squabbles in North America, where, why and what over: Any of the imperial wars that were fought in North America, for if when Britain won they would usually gain territory they had wanted before. Also various battles with Indians over pieces of land because colonists pushed their way onto Indian land, not caring if it belonged to them.
Treaty of Paris (1763): Treaty that ended the French and Indian War was ended by the Treaty of Paris. This treaty ended French reign in Canada. The treaty also called for Spain to give Florida to Britain, and for France to give all lands east of the Mississippi River to Britain. It also was a precursor, for colonial politics would follow Britain. Proclamation of 1763: This proclamation stated that no white settlers could go past the crest of the Appalachians. While this upset many colonists who had claims that far west, Britain explained it was only temporary, for it was meant to calm the Indians, sure enough five years later the boundary was moved further west. Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763: After France had to give up the territory they had near and around the Appalachian Mountains the Indians were afraid that the British would come in and start to settle down permanently, to make sure this didn’t happen Chief Pontiac launched an offensive at Bushy Run and Pontiac’s forces won for the time being. Proclamation of 1763: The British issued this in 1763 in hopes of conciliating the Indians and to lessen white expansion. It banned colonists from settling west if the Appalachian mountains. Though it was supposedly a temporary measure, colonists were angered and the line was moved further west five years later for speculators.
New British Policy and Colonial Resistance
In order to tighten control over the colonies, Great Britain instated many acts and taxes which enraged colonists who argued that it was unfair to tax them when they had no direct representation in Parliament. This resistance was the beginning of America’s revolt against its mother country. writs of assistance: The royal governor of Massachusetts allowed British revenue officers to use this in 1760 in order to capture goods imported illegally in: It was a search warrant allowing officials to enter buildings in which smuggled goods may be. It required no cause for suspicion and homes were often ransacked. It also contributed to the Revolution. James Otis: He was a colonial leader who was also advocate general of the Boston Vice Admiralty Court in 1756. His opposition to the writs of assistance and Townshend Acts led him to declare that Parliament did not have the right to violate natural rights of colonists. He thus published The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proven. Pontiac’s Rebellion: Ottawa chief Pontiac attacked and besieged ten British forts in May, 1763, in order to keep British out of the Appalachians. An uneasy truce was negotiated by 1764, and as a result, the Proclamation of 1763 was put forth in order for Britain to maintain 10,000 soldiers in the U.S. to occupy French ceded territories.
Paxton Boys: This group of Rangers from Pennsylvania Paxton in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, killed some Sasquehannock Indians in 1764. The conflict arose as a result of the desire to expand westward. Governor John Penn in 1764 attempted to punish them, but the people of the area were so upset that a revolt ensued; Benjamin Franklin solved it. Grenville’s Program: British Prime Minister George Grenville was the principal architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament, even though Americans didn’t elect members. •SUGAR ACT, 1764: George Grenville introduced this act which amended the Molasses Act that had taxed all foreign molasses entering the U.S. at sixpence a gallon in 1764. The new act ended the previous British policy of keeping Americans out of all revenueraising measures. It stated that colonists exported certain items to foreign countries only if they passed through Britain first. Parliament hoped that Americans would buy more British items and it increased British sale of European wine. Currency Act, 1764: extended currency Act, 1751: A Parliamentary act, which was originally applicable only in Massachusetts in 1751, but in 1764, it was applied to all the colonies as a means of raising revenue. It increased colonial resentment toward Britain because it disallowed the issuance of colonial money. vice-admiralty courts: Parliament was responsible for this new form of juryless court in Nova Scotia. From 1763 to 1765, when Americans were caught smuggling in violation of the Acts of Trade, they were tried by corrupt judges who received a percentage of the confiscated goods if they found the defendants guilty. A Democracy or not?: Colonial America was a place with more liberal voting qualification, no aristocracy and rise of the assembly. But the ruling class was still the wealthy, they had the power, also voters turn out wasn’t large. One had a better chance in becoming part of the "system" but it wasn’t democratic. Deism: most of the religious thinkers during the Enlightenment were deist. The deists believed that God was a clockmaker who created the world but now just watches it work. They believed that we lived in a perfect universe and that we are laws that we created were natural. Non-consumption: The Sons of Liberty began the idea of non-consumption in 1774 with their vow of non-importation of British goods. When the Boston Port Bill was passed, colonists once again agreed to ban all British goods in order to boycott the British until demands were met. Because of this, state or individual opposition was despised. virtual, actual representation: Parliament felt colonists had virtual representation because every member of Parliament considered the rights of all subjects; the House of
but colonists had none. contracts. it declared that each state comprised the national government through a compact whose provisions were established in the Constitution. . 1765: This was an assembly of delegates from nine of the original thirteen colonies in 1765 which was intended to protest the Stamp Act. they enjoyed actual representation. It was said that no tax that was issued in order to produce revenue for Great Britain was constitutional because American representatives had not voted to allow the tax. eight other colonies to also denounce taxation and declare rights. Patrick Henry: He was an orator and statesman who played a key role in igniting patriotism and leading the colonists toward the American Revolution. in 1768. He is famous for his comment "Give me liberty or give me death. due mostly to regional and bipartisan differences. the states could decide when the compact was broken. at state’s expense. It further led to the doctrine of States Rights.Commons was responsible for protecting the rights of all British and colonists. Hence. stamp distributors: These were the men who had the job of accepting money from the special water-marked paper put into circulation with the passage of the Stamp Act in 1765. Henry’s fiery orations caused. In 1763 he became a member of the House of Burgesses where he introduced seven resolutions against the Stamp Act. Compact theory: First expressed by Jefferson and Madison in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves of 1798. and newspapers must carry a stamp that is taxed. openly criticized Parliament’s practice of taxation without proper colonial representation. pamphlets. Federalists were those who advocated a strong central government. It stated that all legal documents. •STAMP ACT: British prime minister George Grenville’s most detested act. but the group’s demand for no taxation without representation was refused by the House of Commons. in his Circular Letter. to force the distributors to resign before taxes were due. licenses. Opposition to the Stamp Act led to formation of the Stamp Act Congress. the Stamp Act was introduced in 1765 as a means of raising revenue in the colonies. It was intended to raise money for keeping up defense in colonies. They were a target for such associations as the Loyal Nine and Sons of Liberty who attempted. Stamp Act Congress." Virginia Resolves: American leader Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to state their opposition to taxation in 1765. and was passed by Parliament. by the end of the year. They met in New York City and presented the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. It infuriated colonists because it was an internal tax that few could escape. They adopted several resolutions which refuted the power of Parliament to tax the colonies. Because the British elected members. no taxation without representation: John Adams. states wanted different types of representation. Antifederalists demanded more state power. colonial view of the constitution: Colonial views toward the Constitution varied greatly in 1781. through violence. Depending on size.
His ideas led to the Declaration of Independence. internal/external taxes: Introduced by the British Parliament in 1765. An example of an external tax is the Sugar Act passed in 1764 which raised costs only for a select group of people. They proved their value to the cause both by attending political rallies and protests and also by refusing association with men who were Loyalists. but only with the passage of this confirmation. Guy Fawkes Day: Thousands of ardent Bostonians gathered to celebrate this day on November 5. 1765. It further angered colonial resentment to Charles Townshend. When the tea tax was kept. paint. and tea. They formed a Committee of Correspondence to defend themselves against British actions. it was still put into effect solely to raise revenue for the British treasury. In colonial opinion. an agreement to not import any British goods until the Townshend acts were repealed. lead. Daughters of Liberty: Upper class female patriots who formed a union in 1765 in order to give aid to the cause of defeating the reviled Stamp Act. the Sons of Liberty agreed not to consume British tea in protest. paper. however. it was a secret society of patriots which was organized in 1765 in the colonies. The Loyal Nine: A group of middle class workers joined this association in the summer of 1765 in order to resist the Stamp Act. •SONS OF LIBERTY: Members included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere. They realized that if they could intimidate stamp distributors with house-wrecking and tar-and-feathers. They also participated in terrorizing the stamp distributors through house-wrecking and tar-and-feathering in order to achieve respect. The day was named for the anniversary of the day Catholic Guy Fawkes attempted to blow up Parliament and King James I. it is stated that "It is a state of perfect freedom [for man] to do as they wish and dispose of themselves and their possessions. . between many of the colonial merchants. they could bully them into resigning before the act could be put into effect. it was repealed. When nonimportation collapsed. In celebration of his failure. it was just like the Stamp Act in that.Non-importation: There existed. they were unsure whether or not to keep the boycott going." He claims that any person has the right to revolt if the government does not fulfill its duties. 1766: This was a Parliamentary act which was issued in 1766 in order to confirm the British government’s right to pass acts which were legally binding to the colonists. Because the Stamp Act was so opposed by the colonists as well as the British business community. the Stamp Act was an internal tax which few colonists could escape. written in 1690. Declaratory Act. all of the colonists were drastically affected by this tax. public opposition to the tax was minute. though it was said to be an external tax. The Act taxed glass. Revenue Act: Parliament passed the Revenue taxes in 1767. One of the actions they took was to adopt a policy of non-importation in which merchants refused to import goods sent from Great Britain. mobs gathered in the streets of Boston to protest and to set fire to figures of the Pope. Right of revolution: In John Lock’s Two Treatises of Government. making it impracticable. paint. they ultimately played a small role.
and served on the General Court of Massachusetts in 1765. he still recommended they maintain the tea tax. he was a main proponent of opposition to the Townshend Acts and a key figure in the formation of the Sons of Liberty. serving to create an American Board of Customs Commissioners whose sole job would be to enforce the Navigation Acts . He sought appeasement of the British. It was formed in response to anger over the recently passed Tea Act. he argued against the duties of the Townshend acts in this publication. lead. the Massachusetts legislature was dissolved. he led several other angry colonists in the Boston Tea Party of 1773. As a result of unrest over these acts. John Dickinson. paint. Basically. The corrupt members of the . or consume products of Britain unless their demands were met. repeal of the Townshend Acts exept tax on tea: Lord North. paper. •AMERICAN BOARD OF CUSTOMS COMMISSIONERS: Townshend introduced legislation in 1767. Parliament passed these measures in 1767. Members pledged not to import. this was one of the Intolerable Acts in 1774. Due to his literary agitation. The Revenue Act called for customs duties on imports of glass. and tea. Starting a movement for an uprising against the Boston Massacre. They were created because Townshend wanted to crack down on colonial smuggling. The British threatened to dissolve the Massachusetts court unless it was withdrawn. The Association: The First Continental Congress agreed to this "association. It effectively served to further punish the colonists. wanted to eliminate the Townshend duties due to increased hostility against the British and to keep the boycott from gaining momentum.Quartering Act (called the Mutiny Act by the British): Passed by Congress. it allowed for much-hated British officers to be permitted to requisition empty. export. The first called for suspension of the New York Assembly because it would not abide by the Quartering Act. They refused and were dismissed. Colonial reaction was that of further discontent toward their motherland. REACTION: Under the control of British Prime Minister Charles Townshend. because it was profitable for the Royal Treasury in Great Britain. private buildings. •SAM ADAMS: He was an outspoken advocate of the Sugar Act. in a Parliamentary act in 1770. However. Adams contributed to the movement for revolution. •TOWNSHEND ACTS. "Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania": He was a lawyer in Philadelphia and a leader in the movement against taxation on the colonies in the 1760s. Formulating a declaration of rights at the Stamp Act Congress. Massachusetts Circular Letter: The Massachusetts legislature sent the other 12 colonies a letter in 1767 in response to the Townshend Acts and asked for a united response from the colonies. All resistance was repressed by this blatant attempt to force troops in. Moreover. This led to increased hostility toward the colonists. The other assemblies defiantly signed." which was a simple sort of agreement in 1774.
He successfully defended his clients in defense that they were trying to protect their own lives. on June 9. When the Stamp Act controversy was in effect. This led to a major movement between colonists of anger and violence toward the Board members. 1771. in 1764. 1768.S. (which were resumed in the city in 1770 in order to discourage opposition to the Townshend Acts). while John Hancock unloaded without paying the duty. Many were acquitted and anti-British feelings rose. John Hancock’s Liberty: Customs commissioners in Boston requested an armed force for protection and the government dispatched the Romney to Boston in June. Stuck in the mud. when hit by hecklers within the crowd. Though he was the first man to be shot. they failed. The North Carolina Regulators threatened to rebel and not pay taxes. Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Mass. which was a legalized form of piracy. RI. his home was ransacked in 1765. opened fire upon the innocent. he opposed taxes that harmed U. the Liberty was seized. the suspects would have faced trial without jury. their attorney was John Adams. he refused to allow British ships to be returned without unloading and the Boston Tea party resulted. and 300 casualties were inflicted. This upset Americans because it was one of the last of the customs racketeering ships. This led to further discontent towards Britain. With an army of 2500. When investigators were sent to find the initiators. but still supported Britain’s right to impose taxes. The Regulator uprising fell apart and colonies found it harder to resist British.Board practiced customs racketeering. Gaspee Incident: A customs schooner was beached in Providence. trade. it was burned down by local inhabitants. five men were killed. opposed corrupt government and cleared their homeland of outlaw bands of terrorists. he was only one of five colonists. The Boston town meeting made up a 21 . He was either African-American or Native American and he may have been a runaway slave. 1770: British troops. Crispus Attucks: He was the leader of a group of colonists who were killed in the 1770 Boston Massacre. committees of correspondence: They were colonial groups in 1772 which were organized to form resistance to British tyranny. and was a member of both Continental Congresses. He additionally denounced the Stamp Act. In 1888 a monument of him was erected in his honor in Boston. Eight soldiers were tried for murder. wanted to protect the rights of their community. In 1773. analyzed the demands facing the colonists. Carolina Regulators: This name applies to several groups of insurgents who. Boston Massacre. these Regulators fought a band of eastern militia started up by the governor of North Carolina. The South Carolina Regulators. in 1767. 1772.: A colonial governor. Battle of the Alamance: The North Carolina Regulators found their movement peak in this battle on May 16. When told that a customs official had been locked up. John Adams: He was the lawyer for the soldiers who were tried for murder in the Boston Massacre in 1770.
Canada’s government was awarded an abundance of powers. to consider the situation resulting from the Intolerable Acts. lowering the selling price to consumers. as one of the Intolerable Acts. The American government later refused to pay for the tea and was punished through closure of the port. Quebec Act: Parliament passed this greatly detested law which established RomanCatholicism as the official religion in Quebec. disguised as Indians boarded the ships and dumped all the tea into Boston Harbor in protest. given no legislature. Massachusetts Government Act: Parliament passed this act in 1774 as the second of the Townshend Acts which revoked the Massachusetts charter and restructured the government. though he found it morally wrong to do so. Americans united in sympathy for Massachusetts. They issued the Declaration of Rights and Grievances to George III. several laws were composed in 1774 in response to colonial rebellion. he taxed Americans. he demanded an early peace with the Americans hoping to put an end to the Revolutionary War. hurting middlemen. Lord North: He was a British member of the House of Commons during the 1770s. By 1776. gained control over jurymen. further angering colonists. The Governor gained control over naming sheriffs. who. it ordered the U. Boston Port Act: Parliament passed this act on April 1. •COERCIVE ACTS: Passed by the British Parliament. The number of Massachusetts town meetings were also reduced. Unless they paid for the ruined tea. 1774. which would lead to economic difficulties. the port would be subject to permanent closure." This committee became a major political force responsible for the Boston Tea Party. the group. Colonial smuggling was very harmful to the East India Company which had held a monopoly on tea. The Boston Tea Party was the last straw leading to the passage of these harsh acts as measures against the colony of Massachusetts. •BOSTON TEA PARTY: A group of Boston citizens organized a protest on December 16. and . which was against the British tax on tea imported to the colonies The citizens were angry and disallowed three British ships to unload their cargo in Boston. 1773.member committee "To state the Rights of Colonists and of this Province in Particular. the Massachusetts Government Act. 1774. The act provided savings for Britain. By 1779. •FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS. the Quartering Act. and the Administration of Justice Act. They included the Boston Port Act. he realized the war was a lost cause. 1774: The First Continental Congress convened in Philidelphia in September. Under the orders of King George III. They imposed a deliberately short deadline to ensure that the harbor would close. making Protestants angry. Led by Samuel Adams and members of the Sons of Liberty. in turn. navy to close Boston Harbor. The law also extended Quebec’s 1774 land claims. Tea Act: The Parliamentary Tea Act eliminated import duties entering England. The four measures passed were to serve as warnings to the rest of the colonies. Also. also allowing selling directly to consumers.S. but was in turn.
" America’s revolt against Great Britain became a revolution. 1775. 1775 if the situation still hadn’t been resolved. were sent to find and destroy a cache of colonial weapons and supplies at Concord. since matters had already gone too far. Before it was adjourned. on the night of April 18. it was an agreement to boycott trade with Britain. William Dawes: Seven hundred British troops. on April 19. The British then opened fire and charged. By taking these drastic measures. and agreement to boycott trade with Britain. Revolt to Revolution With such events as Lexington and Concord as well as the actions of the Second Continental Congress and America’s faith held in the Declaration of Independence and Thomas Paine’s "Common Sense. they were detected by Americans. They called for non-importation and preparation of local soldiers in the event that the British should have restorted to military force. However. It warned against the natural tendency of all governments to enfringe on the natural rights to liberty for all its people. but it was refected by Congress by a narrow margin. and news was dispatched throughout the countryside by Paul Revere and William Dawes. the British continued on the Concord only to find that almost all of the weapons and supplies had been moved. APRIL 19. but a shot from an unknown source was fired. committees of Safety were in charge of enforcing the Continental Association. they were fired on by Minutemen from local cities. While retreating to Boston. Most delegates felt that such a mild measure would not help. •LEXINGTON AND CONCORD. A British officer ordered the Minutemen to lay down their arms. "country ideology": The plain farmer had this mind set in the 1770s due to the corruption of rulers and "court" hangers-on. Suffolk Resolves: The first Continental Congress passed this in 1774 in response to the Intolerable Acts. Afterwards. or non-importation.called for the Continental Association. the delegates agreed to meet in May. Any colony that did not follow those provisions was to be boycotted. 1775: American Captain John Parker and seventy Minutemen waited for the British at Lexington. This honest wisdom further led to the Quid’s mind set during the time of Jeffersonian Democracy. . Continental Association: Issued by the First Continental Congress. designed to pressure Britain’s economy. The passage of these resolves marked the willingness of the colonies to defend their rights militarily. Paul Revere. the colonies moved away from reconciliation towards war. Galloway Plan: Joseph Galloway called for a union of the colonies and a rearrangement of relations with Parliament.
Congress was divided into two main factions: the delegates that were ready to go to war and declare independence. leading to opposition against taxation. . Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution: Colonial leader Richard Henry Lee presented several formal resolutions to Congress on June 7. due to the protection colonists enjoyed. •"FIRST AMERICAN REVOLUTION" (POSSITER THESIS): This thesis is the idea that the real American Revolution could not have been made possible had not a First American Revolution paved the way. on August 23. Thomas Paine. 1776. and made their ships liable to seizure. the Committee on Independence was formed to further accommodate his proposal. Thus. which declared all colonies in a state of rebellion no longer under his protection. it had much influence in favor of independence. In December Parliament declared all colonies in a state of rebellion. They drew up the Olive Branch Petition. natural rights philosophy: Thomas Jefferson was influenced by the natural rights philosophy. The First Revolution consists of the first sparks of discontent. 1775. George III: After the Battle of Bunker Hill. proclaimed New England in a state of rebellion. with colonial governments. and its mother country. Americans prepared for an all out war with Britain. and self-fulfillment. it convinced many Americans that the British had every intention to carry out a full scale war. Previously. liberty. and King George III. and those that weren’t ready to go that far. If the government and laws lacked the consent. However. the people of Britain wanted retaliation. then they were not legitimate. colonists were enjoying democracy. John Locke. Although its arguments were extreme.S. As a result. and had to be dissolved and replaced with legitimate government or just laws. Combined with the Prohibitory Act. These resolutions called for independence and a national government. he draw upon some of the ideas of natural rights. Second Treatise of Government: John Locke stressed that governments were legitimate only if they rested on the consent of the governed and protected basic rights of their people. which begged George III to restore peace. he issued a Prohibitory act. Common Sense: Thomas Paine published this in January 1776. which called for immediate independence. pleading with him to intercede with Parliament to restore peace. In the writing of the Declaration of Independence. Olive Branch Petition: The Second Continental Congress issued this petition to King George III on July 5. and adopted a Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking up Arms.•SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS: The Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia on May 10. He emphasized the equality of all people and their natural right to justice. After he ignored it. there had been a great deal of affection between the U. The Second Continental Congress later evolved into the revolutionary government.
and the pursuit of happiness" and the "Consent of the governed" to revolt against tyrannical governments. the Committee on Independence was formed. Throughout the war. Moreover. Benjamin Franklin. Somerset Case (in Great Britain): Despite the Enlightenment’s condemnation of black slavery. it’s not a fact revealing truth. Members included Thomas Jefferson.Committee on Independence: After Richard Henry Lee’s resolution on June 7. the Preamble to the Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal. America developed its first real feelings of nationalism and ended up being victorious in its fight for freedom. Quock Walker case. John Adams. 1776. The first passage was an exorbitant reference to the English people. 1776 AND THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: Written by the Committee on Independence. War for Independence With the Declaration of Independence as its fuel. well trained. Its purpose was to draft a statement of reasons for independence which led to the Declaration of Independence. The English Revolution of 1688 and Enlightenment writers inspired some of the ideas in the Declaration of independence. it is believed that this is a statement of faith displays wisdom. he Declaration of Independence contained a list of grievances placing the blame on George III. sugar produced by black slaves was considered of utmost importance. Additionally. Robert Livingston. and well disciplined. transport troops. The decision reached was regarded as the end of slavery in England. They had a strong navy to land troops. Although slavery wasn’t forbidden by the constitution of Massachusetts. and Roger Sherman. Preamble of the Declaration of Independence: Written by the Committee on Independence in 1776. Advantages/Disadvantages for Britain: The British were well equipped. it asserted certain natural rights: "Life. •JULY 4. and the second passage was an attack on the slave trade. Stewart. Granville Sharp defended several blacks in the case Somerset v." and are furthermore allotted unalienable rights by God. America entered a war for independence with Great Britain: the Revolutionary War. a negro. the Superior Court rejected his defense because it was unconstitutional in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.Mass: Nathaniel Jennison was accused of assaulting Quock Walker. guard . Jennison defended himself on the grounds that Walker was his slave. slavery clause in the Declaration of Independence: Two passages in Jefferson’s original draft were rejected by the Second Continental Congress in 1775. liberty.
He urged justice and conciliation towards the American colonies in a pamphlet. Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents. The subordination of women. they were outnumbered by the U. They felt that war was unnecessary to preserve the rights of the colonists. In doing so. Moreover.communication and supply lines. However. The majority of ethnic and religious minorities. About one-fifth to one-third of the population remained loyal to Britain. ethnic and religious minorities. •LOYALISTS. and in two speeches. •GEORGE WASHINGTON AND THE REVOLUTION: George Washington created the Continental Army that had fought against the British. Washington was a highly respected. leaving their positions for others. Also. but soon began writing political satires in the early 1770s. Edmund Burke: In 1766 he was elected to Parliament. Almost immediately Burke sought repeal of the Stamp Act. and some wealthy merchants comprised the Loyalists. Mercy Otis Warren: Before the imperial crisis. He was a strong influence in persuading the states to partake in the Constitutional Convention. Moreover.S. Abigail Adams: Even though she had a scarce formal education.: Many colonists knew how to use firearms. TORIES: They were Anglican clergymen. she challenged the assumption that women were naturally dependent on men. their naval power was less than that of Britain. however. as a prime minister to Britain. "On American Taxation" and "Conciliation with America". particularly as a leader of fashion and social mediator. and mother of John Quincy Adams.S. They had a superior rifle range and accuracy over the smoothbore British muskets. he served on the Committee for Independence in 1776. he served the patriot cause. and they were fighting in their own territory. and also helped persuade the Second Continental Congress to adopt the Declaration of Independence. experienced commander-in-chief. Pennsylvania. were supporters of the revolution. However. he along . Also. and maintained a respect for the monarchy. and he used his prestige to help gain ratification of the Constitution. later became the subject of debate. In Congress and in diplomatic missions abroad. John Adams: He was one of the first men to propose American independence when the Revolution began. Benjamin Franklin and the Revolution: From. His early military experience taught him the dangers of overconfidence and the necessity of determination when faced with defeat. she was among the most influential women of her day. he served on the Committee on Independence. Eighty thousand Loyalists left. Advantages/Disadvantages for U. she was known for her nonpolitical poetry. they had a large sum of money which could be used to hire foreign mercenaries. government officials. which was taken for granted. She was the wife of John Adams. He earned a good reputation from the French and Indian War in 1763. she challenged the lack of equality for women and was a strong advocate of the Revolutionary War.
and England. leaving all but the Tuscaroras and most Oneidas on the side of the British. boosting American morale and credibility. independence and declare war on Britain. With 400 men. Robert Morris: When the United States. the Continental Army was quite diminutive at the dawn of the war. A fervent patriot. The War at Sea: American captains such as John Paul Jones fought in this War at Sea during the War for Independence against Britain. and fought in every major battle of the war. Despite Britain’s naval advantage. in the North Sea.S.000 men prepared for duty at one time. the Continental Army consisted of less than 10. which raised American morale and prestige. He was a surveyor and a frontiersmen who also led successful military operations against Indians allied to the British on the western frontier. 1782. He also led the famous ship. when the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy split. mostly New England freemen. on September 23. this army fought in various battles such as Valley Forge.000 men living in the colonies. signed a peace treaty between the U. Congress turned to him. After France and the United States entered into an alliance against Great Britain. Continental Army: Composed of colonial men. Bonhomme Richard. he engineered the Newburgh conspiracy along with Alexander Hamilton. which concerned new American borders. John Paul Jones: United States Captain John Paul Jones attacked the British territory. . the Serapis.S. In the East. George Rogers Clark: George Rogers Clark led 175 militia and French volunteers down the Ohio River and took several British forts along the northwestern Ohio Valley in the spring of 1778. Lafayette returned to France to further the granting of financial and military aid to the Americans. under the Articles of Confederation. he attacked Fort Ticonderoga in April of 1775. on November 30. but without command. Native Americans in the Revolutionary War: The colonists’ expansion into the Ohio Valley drove the western Indians into allying with the British. Lafayette: The Marquis de Lafayette’s close connections with the French court in 1778 indicated that Louis XVI might recognize U. Out of the potential 250. along with Ethan Allen. the Iroquois in New York were neutral until 1777. who raised an army for the same purpose. he later turned into a traitor. Hoping to panic the country into creating a regular source of national revenue.with John Adams and John Jay. the Serapis. 1779. Jones engaged the British frigate. was unable to prevent national bankruptcy. Led by George Washington.000 blacks served in the army and navy. This was the most famous naval battle in the war. in which the war was brought to England’s shores. Black Americans in the Revolutionary War: About 5. Benedict Arnold: He led one of the Continental Armies into Canada but was defeated. against Britain’s ship.
After two failed British attacks on Breed’s Hill. They fought among 162. and the British succeeded.S. in February. •FRENCH ALLIANCE OF 1778. Valley Forge: American survivors from the Battle at Brandywine Creek marched through Valley Forge in early December.S. the colonists ran out of ammunition. Governor Dunmore offered freedom to slaves who joined the British army. Benedict was shot. it was a failure in that Montgomery was killed. "Bonhomme Richard" and the "Serapis": John Paul Jones took command of a rebuilt French merchant ship and renamed it the U. The U. The Continental Army marched through Valley Forge while the British army rested miles away in Philadelphia. Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill): Three British generals arrived in Boston in May. General Richard Montgomery forced the British to evacuate Montreal in 1775 and invade Canada. deserved diplomatic recognition. The second treaty was the French Alliance of 1778. in the North Sea. he engaged the British frigate. 1777. This was the most famous naval battle in the American Revolution. the Continental army emerged from Valley Forge. On September 23. or to accept the rule of the British. A second force led by Benedict Arnold invaded the land by combining an attack on Quebec. however. After the arrival of Baron Friedrich von Steuben. Conway later resigned after subsequent public revelations. Invasion of Canada: U. 1775 to assist General Gage. The colonists now had two choices: to commit to a full-scale revolution. to be effective if war broke out between Britain and France. and surrendered on October 17. Saratoga: British General John Burgoyne felt overwhelmed by a force three times larger than his own. Hessians: They were German mercenaries who were comprised of approximately 30. 1779.S. Bonhomme Richard. the South feared possible slave revolts. REASONS FOR IT: France entered into two treaties with America. which inhibited use of blacks in the South. Because sermons were such a .However. The first was a treaty of goodwill and commerce. and granted most favored nation status to one another.S. and was replaced by Friedrich von Steuben. the "black" regiment: They were a group of dignified clergymen who preached against British tyranny and resistance to British authority in 1765. and one-third of the colonial troops were killed or captured. victory at the Battle of Saratoga convinced the French that the U.000 other Britons and loyalists but were outnumbered by the 220. which aimed at the removal of Washington as the leader of the Continental Army. This forced the British to consider whether or not to continue the war. 1777. 1778.000 soldiers in the British army during the Revolutionary War. Conway Cabal: United States Major General Thomas Conway wrote a letter to General Horatio Gates that revealed a military side of the Conway Cabal.S.000 troops of the Continental Army. the Serapis.
nearly every colonist saw public fasting and communication and were infected with the idea that it was a sin not to reject Britain.S. Yorktown. General Clinton succeeded Howe as commander in chief in 1778. In April 1775. The Siege of Yorktown began in September of 1781. Though the Revolution was fought in the name of liberty. restricting the category of contrabands to munitions and essential instruments of war. slavery still existed. . Lord Cornwallis: Washington. he was appointed as the new governor of Massachussetts. the idea of the separation of church and state grew stronger. creating a paradox between the slavery and the freedom. •HOW REVOLUTIONARY? : Even though the former colonies were joined under a central government provided by the Articles of Confederation. She also secured the freedom of the navigation of neutral nations. French and British intrigue over U. The French wanted to further continue their residence in Virginia. on September 3.S. and trade with foreign nations increased. League of Armed Neutrality: The empress of Russia. trapped British General Cornwallis on the Yorktown peninsula. could not join because it was fighting in the Revolutionary war.common form of communication. even to ports of belligerents. which brought an end to the American Revolution. Treaty of Paris. and ended when Cornwallis realized that he lost three key points around Yorktown and surrendered. they still acted independently in various areas. which led to further dispute between them and the colonists. slavery virtually ended in the North during the Revolutionary era. boundaries (in Treaty of Paris): France and Britain shared much interest in American territory following the War for Independence. social impact of the war: Women did not receive the status implied by the American Revolution’s ideals. along with Admiral de Grasse’s French fleet. British Generals: Henry Clinton. Catherine II. Great Britain recognized the former 13 colonies as the free and self-governing United States of America. toleration of religious minorities became more prevalent. industry was stimulated. During his career as commander in chief. On the other hand. John Burgoyne: General Howe planned to set up headquarters in New York in 1776 but was delayed by Washington’s escape to Long Island. made a declaration in 1780. General Thomas Gage: He was the commander in chief of Britain’s military forces in America from 1763 to 1775. Some state constitutions were identical to the English charters that had governed them. he issued the order for British troops to march on to concord and seize American weapons stored up there. The U. However. William Howe. inflation became widespread. 1783: Great Britain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris. General Burgoyne was trapped at Saratoga in 1777 and was forced to surrender.
by placing power within the fragmented states. the Articles established states’ rights and also provided for American independence. VA) to grow and dominate the new nation. was a confederation. although the constitutions ranged from extremely democratic models to unicameral legislatures. The federal government lacked the power to tax and form a militia without the approval of all the states. each state was its own powerful entity and had its own tariffs and currencies. the Articles of Confederation established a singlechamber national Congress elected by state legislatures. Newburgh conspiracy: The new nation under the Articles of Confederation was in a financial crisis. Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom: Thomas Jefferson worked on the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom after independence was declared. threatened to force the states into surrendering more power to the national government. Most state constitutions included a bill of rights. Massachusetts voters insisted that a constitution were made by a convention rather than the legislature. making it harder for interstate commerce to occur. and establish a standard for weights and measures. Articles of Confederation Drafted in 1796 by John Dickinson. These Articles notably left out both and executive and judicial branch.Disestablishment. and provided Congress no power to tax or regulate commerce. and was the model for the clause in the First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of religion. The Articles protected against an oppressive central government. However. •WEAKNESSES OF THE ARTCILES OF CONFEDERATION: The government established in 1781. •NEW STATE CONSTITUTIONS: It was necessary for the former colonies to assemble new state governments after the fall of British authority in 1775. instead equalizing the power of the states and opening the union up for expansion. mediate disputes between states. whose pay was overdue. Maryland. which was engineered by Alexander Hamilton and Robert Morris. such as a monarchy or oligarchy. It became a law in 1786. Maryland did not want big states (NY. in hopes of implicitly making it superior to the legislatures. Separation of church and state became more popular. •STRENGTHS OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION: The thirteen states established a permanent government in 1781 in the form of a confederation which included a congress that represented the states and had the power to conduct Indian and foreign affairs. Amending the Articles was a difficult and tedious process. cession of western land claims: Maryland waited to agree to the new government until lands north of the Ohio River were turned over to the United States in 1779. the army. because the amendment would have to be accepted by each state in order to be passed. Through the Newburgh Conspiracy. in which each state held only one vote. uniting all the colonies during the war. .
The existence of slavery could be determined by popular sovereignty in these territories. Land Ordinance of 1785: Congress enacted this law to set a uniform procedure for surveying land in 1785. In exchange. problems which culminated in the War of 1812. The result was an increase in tension between the North and South. Proposed Jay-Gardoqui Treaty. combined with the depression that hit after British markets were lost. 1783. Northwest Posts: After the Revolutionary war. 1780’s depression: The first major depression of the American states occurred after the Revolutionary War in New England. the rebels were successful in moving the government away from Philadelphia. the delegates decided that a convention of all states should be held the year after in order to amend the Articles of Confederation. It established that the settlement of a town would be six square miles and would contain land set aside for schools. 1787: Congress passed this law to define the steps for the formation and admission of states into the Union in 1787. It applied to the lands north of the Ohio River which had been established as the Northwest Territory. The high taxes. Maryland in 1786. Annapolis Convention. This showed Britain’s unwillingness to give up and the weakness of the American government. the tightening of credit. the U. Shays’ rebellion occurred ultimately because of this depression The Constitution . forced the farmers to revolt. Because there was little representation. in an effort to solve the problems of interstate commerce. Northwest Ordinance.Pennsylvania militia routs Congress. 1786: A group of delegates from five states met in Annapolis. and a short growing season that kept crop yields low. setting a precedent for the public education system in the United States. Shays’ Rebellion: A group of Massachusetts farmers led by Daniel Shays protested after taxes were raised to pay for Revolutionary debts in 1786. The causes included high taxes imposed to finance the war debt. but returned with a treaty that renounced Spanish claims to southwestern lands and opened Spanish markets to eastern merchants. Protesting in front of Independence Hall. 1785: John Jay tried to negotiate with Spain for trading rights in New Orleans in 1785. 1783: Eighty soldiers marched from Lancaster to Philadelphia to obtain justice from the state government and Congress on June 17. the British did not leave their posts in an effort to preserve both the flourishing fur trade and the improving relations with the Native Americans. gave up Mississippi trading rights. thus fueling the North-South conflict.S. which housed Congress and the state government.
Montesquieu. which included Madison. in defense of the Constitution. •PHILADELPHIA CONVENTION: A congressional convention met in Philadelphia to amend the Articles of Confederation in 1788. Benjamin Franklin: At the Philadelphia Convention in 1788. Delegates: Alexander Hamilton. and Franklin. whose purpose was to rewrite the Articles. These ideas generally stated that all men should submit to absolute supremacy. a document that compromised conflicting interests. unifying all the states under a powerful federal government. a senate with states represented with two senators each. . Hamilton wrote the "Federalist Papers. The plan resolved the dilemma of using only one of the two self serving documents in the Constitution. examines types of government and how each evolves through factors such as location and climate. VA Plan. His book "The Spirit of the Laws. introduced by William Patterson. the problems with the Articles of Confederation became increasingly obvious.After the Revolutionary War. and a House of Representatives with representation according to population. He also assisted in the writing of the "Federalist Papers" in order to persuade delegates who were fearful of centralized power. Hamilton. in which various compromises were made to pacify sectional differences. George Washington presided over the convention while he and Franklin helped in mediating heated debates. The convention ultimately scrapped the Articles and came up with the much more effective Constitution. this compromise was introduced by the Connecticut delegation in 1788. believed that there should be checks and balances in the government to give each branch equal amounts of power. influencing the idea of sovereignty in the United States. He believed in separate and balanced branches of government. •GREAT COMPROMISE: Also called the Connecticut compromise. resulting in the Philadelphia Convention. George Washington. The delegates. and contained both the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan." written in 1748. The New Jersey Plan. called for a legislature with equal representation and increased powers for the national government. James Madison. NJ Plan: The Virginia Plan called for an executive branch with two houses of Congress which were both based on population. It provided for a presidency. However." along with John Jay. as a commentary on his doctrine of sovereignty. His philosophies represented a reaction against the chaotic Reformation of the seventeenth century. instead of submitting the Articles for revision. The Spirit of Laws: Montesquieu was a French writer whose writings helped bring about the French Revolution. "Father of the Constitution": Madison drafted the Virginia Plan of national government that became the basis for its bicameral structure in 1788. the delegates decided to begin again. Hobbes: Thomas Hobbes wrote Leviathan in 1651. resulting in the drafting of a new frame of government outlined in the Constitution.
which lessened the power of the voting south by making the votes of three slaves equal that of five white votes. including Hamilton. and Madison. •Slavery and the constitution: slave trade. Both aided in easing the problems that arose because of the imbalance of power between states in the Articles of Confederation. Beard thesis. Beard argues that it was written to give them economic advantages that would stem from the stability of the economy. his critics: Beard criticized the Constitution in his "Economic Interpretation of the Constitution" in 1913. the other dealt with slavery and the three-fifths clause. who believed in the Constitution’s democratic purpose. They thought that a balance would be impossible to reach and that the new government would ultimately ruin the states. One dealt with the structure of Congress. Antifederalists: Antifederalists were opponents of the Constitution who thought that it failed to balance power between the national and state governments. Fugitive Slave law: Although the word "slavery" was not used in the Constitution. three-fifths clause. Fiske argues that the Constitution had saved the nation from imminent interstate conflict. 1783-1789 in 1788. the opponents thought that the new government would ultimately ruin the states. they persuaded many of its opponents to ratify it through their speeches. The Critical Period of American History: John Fiske. In order to protect the United States and its citizens. after 1808. the idea surfaces in three places in the Constitution: the three-fifths clause. C. These men became important in the ratification process of the Constitution. an American historian and philosopher. procedures for amendments: To amend the Constitution. the Federalist Papers. Believing that a balance was impossible to reach. In the book. supporters of the Constitution: The supporters of the Constitution. and lastly Congress’ option to ban the slave trade in Washington D. opponents of the Constitution: The opponents of the Constitution were called the Antifederalists. North-South Compromises: There are two main North-South compromises in the Constitution. Fiske. who called themselves the Federalists. which captured and returned runaway slaves who fled into free territories. wrote The Critical Period of American History.Checks and balances—examples: Examples of checks and balances in the Constitution are the congressional power to impeach the president and the presidential power to appoint his cabinet. a bill must first be proposed by either two-thirds of both houses or each state conventions. they opposed it because it failed to balance power between the national and state governments. three-fourths have to approve the bill. and other propaganda. the Great Compromise. For the amendment to be ratified. This system helps to keep all three branches of the government in check and maintain equal amounts of power. the Fugitive Slave Law. Jay. . this process made it difficult to alter the Constitution without valid reason. Unlike his opponents.
necessary and proper clause: An implied power is one not granted in a job description. and Madison in 1788. Undemocratic Elements in the Constitution: According to Charles Beard. Bill of Rights: Mason was a delegate at the Constitutional Convention and helped draft the Constitution. The founding fathers did not believe in total democracy. Some states refused to ratify the Constitution until 1791. in the Federalist number ten. borrow money. loose. elastic clause. Madison: The Federalist papers were written by Jay. Troubled by its power and its failure to limit slavery or contain a bill of rights. and affected the decision in New York. Our founding fathers . All powers not stated specifically in the Constitution were reserved to the states as stated in the Tenth Amendment. there have only been sixteen amendments since 1791. such as Sam Adams. The fight in Virginia ended after the addition of the Bill of Rights. Hamilton. declare war and sustain an army. when a bill of rights was added to the Constitution. These reserved powers were the result of flexibility in the Constitution to adapt over time. he would not sign it. a philosophy adopted by Jefferson. Congress was granted the right to make all laws which they deemed necessary and proper thus expanding their power. yet is meant to be taken. The ratification fights: Critics. or mob rule. number 10: Madison. defeating Mason and Henry. the Constitution was written to the advantage of the elite in the United States. issue currency.George Mason. The eighty-five newspaper essays offered a glimpse of the framers’ intentions in designing the Constitution. or that powers implied within the Constitution should be included in the new government to fit changes over time. respectively. They explained that the Constitution would protect the minority’s rights but would not make them too powerful. The Federalist. where Hamilton won the fight using the "Federalist Papers. implied powers. Hamilton. were successfully won over by the Federalists in Massachusetts. and so used state legislatures and the electoral college to elect senators and the president. Flexibility in the Constitution: The flexibility in the Constitution enabled it to adapt over time. Hamilton believed in a loose interpretation. •RESERVED AND DELEGATED POWERS: Delegated powers were specifically enumerated rights granted to Congress and the President. He also argued that the Constitution would prevent the formation of national factions and parties. The delegated powers of Congress included the ability to tax. Jay. The elastic clause was included into the Constitution to allow flexibility. during the Philadelphia Convention as a response to Antifederalist objections to the Constitution. and shaped the American philosophy of the government. rejected the Antifederalist argument that establishing a republic in United States would lead to a struggle for power." •The Federalist Papers. strict interpretation of the Constitution: The strict interpretation of the constitution meant that it was to be followed exactly to the word.
Aside from the unstable land speculation. His farewell address cautioned the American people to stay out of international affairs. Post Revolutionary America—West: In the late eighteenth century. Manufacturing and merchant marine industries were also. the age requirement was higher. and so Supreme Court interpretations of the Constitution changed over time. the British imposed new embargoes and tariffs on the United States. attempting to reassure the public he was above favoritism and sectional interests. on the other hand. suggesting few laws to Congress. the south had recovered from the war. attempted to restore American credit by advocating a perpetual debt. the framers of the Constitution added the electoral college as a safeguard against the majority opinion. Congress aided the expansion with the Land and Northwest Ordinances Post Revolutionary America—South: Many of the southern citizens had bought land in the west and watched the price of land eagerly. the North’s efforts at postwar recovery was impeded by the depression of the 1780s. and.used vague language. Washington and Hamilton As the first president of the newly formed United States. overpopulation. Post Revolutionary America—North: Plagued by high taxes. remain isolationist. electors could elect a presidential candidate without considering the popular vote and elections could be won without a majority in the popular vote. . and to beware of impending bipartisanship. Electoral College: In order to protect the interests of the elite. Alexander Hamilton. and rebellion. land owning class. George Washington played a largely passive role. and the term limits were six years as opposed to two for the House of Representatives. as secretary of the treasury. •President George Washington: George Washington was elected president in 1788 and again in 1792. As a result. took advantage of Washington’s reluctance to be involved with domestic issues. the Elastic clause and the reserved powers are examples of this ambiguity. As a result the Senate was seen as more of an elitist institution while the House was viewed as reflective of the common people. He tended to shy away from the affairs of Congress and also formed the first Presidential cabinet. appointing two of the ablest men into high positions of responsibility into his cabinet. masses of people had moved into the trans-Appalachian frontier to escape post-revolutionary depression. despite the risk of violence presented by Indians and the British in their Northwest posts. Washington’s two terms set the precedent for being President of the United States. Upper and Lower House: The senate was seen as the upper house because there were less delegates. It had diversified its crops and exported them at prewar levels. negatively affected by independence.
and the Dutch Republic. in which the courts varied from state to state. he became the nation’s first Vice President. before which he was the head of the Virginia delegation at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and submitted the Virginia Plan. was in command of the West Point fortress in New York. New Jersey. Hamilton believed that constant deficit was necessary to stimulate the nation’s economy. in 1783. Britain. The plans attempted to end wartime debt problems. He wanted a national bank and encouraged manufacturing through financial government protection. and also believed that the U. Attorney General Randolph: Edmund Jennings Randolph was the Attorney General under the Washington Administration from 1789-1794. The government’s takeover of state debts freed those of New England. should immediately repay its foreign debt. Secretary of War Knox: Henry Knox was the Secretary of War from 1789-1794. the first one under the United States Constitution.Washington’s Definition of the Presidency: George Washington set the precedent for being the President of the United States. Secretary of State Jefferson: As Secretary of State for Washington’s first term. he was a diplomat to European nations such as France. died in Congress. Judiciary Act. Secretary of Treasury Hamilton: Hamilton was appointed in 1789. Vice President John Adams: Because he ran second to George Washington in the elections of 1788 and 1792. He humbly served two terms and appointed the first cabinet. Thomas Jefferson wanted to establish reciprocal trade agreements with European nations and deny it to the British. proposals. He resigned after the Citizen Genet scandal. They were burdened with filling in the holes of the judiciary system left by the Constitution. 1789: The Congress passed the Judiciary Act in 1789. Washington stayed out of Congress’ way and supported the United States’ isolationist stance in world affairs. Prior to his term as Vice President. and others working in the port cities. In 1790. This plan. reasons for it: Alexander Hamilton wrote to Congress a Report on Public Credit which proposed a way in which the national and foreign debts could be funded and how the federal government would take charge of the debts left by states from the resolution in 1790. in an effort to create a federal-court system and replace the old system. and South Carolina from harsh taxes. he fought in major Revolutionary battles. Prior to this. along with his other plans to try to manipulate the European countries. Hamilton’s Legacy: Hamilton’s devices for restoring the credit of the nation led to great monetary gains for merchants. when the nation’s economy was in shambles.S. and was the Secretary of War under the Articles of Confederation. limiting himself to presiding over the senate. he submitted to Congress a Report of the Public Credit that provided for the payments of all debts assumed during the war. speculators. . •Hamilton’s program: ideas.
Residence Act: Determined that a ten mile square area for the capital of the United States would be chosen along the Potomac River along the Virginia-Maryland boarder.C. excise taxes: A fixed charge on items of consumption. by Alexander Hamilton. The bank successfully established a national currency.S. but the charter ended in 1811. the bank was established in Philadelphia in 1791. and masterfully architecture buildings. The first excise tax placed upon the United States in 1791. the city consisted of beautiful walkways. usually used for revenue raising. wanted to pay off foreign debt immediately and then through tariffs repay the national debt. the tariff succeeded in raising much needed funds for Congress Bank of the U. thus building national wealth and attracting foreigners. and the rest to Americans. He reported that the US was 54 million dollars in debt: 12 million to foreigners. and was permitted by the government to issue legal tender bank notes that could be exchanged for gold. but later was transferred to Washington D. With a duty of 8. the report suggested that protective tariffs on imports from foreign lands would lead Americans to produce more in their homelands.: Chartered by the newly formed federal government. The states were also in debt after borrowing heavily from the government.: The nation’s capital was originally located in New York. foreign debt: National debt accumulated by the US during the Revolutionary war continued to plague Americans.C. and was selected by George Washington. Report on Manufacturers: Presented to Congress in 1791.5%. in his Report on Public Credit. to manufacture earthenware. by Parliament was one which taxed all domestic distilled spirits. and other products in their home in order to avoid importation. tree lined streets. location of the capital: logrolling. glass. On top of that. . The area was to be named the District of Columbia. it encouraged the people of the U. he estimated that the states held debts of over 25 million dollars. after Christopher Columbus. D. Hamilton. An increasing amount of hatred towards the "redskins" further encouraged the violence towards Indians. national debt. for economic and political reasons. hoping to seize it as an opportunity to rebuild the country’s credit base. state debt. Originally planned by Charles L’Enfant.S.. Indian Decline: The frontier warfare during the post-revolutionary era combined with the continuing penetration of western ways into Indian culture caused severe reductions in Indian population and territory. Anger towards this excise tax led directly to the Whiskey Rebellion. Report on Public Credit: Hamilton submitted his report to Congress in 1790.Tariff of 1789: A revenue raising tariff enacted by Congress.
Citizen Genet: Sent to the United States by the French in 1793 to find soldiers to attack British ships and conquer the territories held by the Spanish. the hunger of the workers. drew the plans for the nations capital in Washington D. 1793. In this decision. it led to the establishment of the First Republic and the end of the monarchy. but most were released. and therefore to bear arms or participate in the war. the Neutrality Proclamation stated that the United States would remain a neutral faction in the war with France against Britain and Spain despite heavy French pressures to join their forces. to the excise tax on whiskey in which federal revenue officials were tarred and feathered. Whiskey Rebellion: An organized resistance in 1794. Talleyrand: When a commission was sent to France in 1797 in order to negotiate problems between the two countries. British seizure of American ships: The Privy Council issued a secret order on November 6. in 1791. Many Americans felt the war to be a violation of their neutrality. Y.. XYZ Affair. riots were conducted. Neutrality Proclamation: Issued by President George Washington on April 22. three officials who did not take the process seriously. ship. The federal militia captured many of the protesters. Benjamin Banneker was appointed in 1791. and mobs burned homes of excise inspectors. Z. they were told by the French foreign minister Talleyrand that the agents X. French Revolution: The revolution was a period consisting of social and political upheaval from 1789-1799.S. the undeclared conflict between the two nations lasted from 1798 to 1800. Edmund Genet founded the American Foreign Legion despite Washington’s April 22 proclamation of American neutrality. on which the city is now based. the United States managed to capture ninety-three French ships while France captured just one U. The alliance was used to convince French citizens living in United States territory to become citizens of American.Major L’Enfant. Caused by the inability of the ruling class and clergy to solve the states problems. to confiscate any foreign ships trading with French Caribbean islands. 1793. undeclared naval war with France: Otherwise known as the Quasi-War. In the conflict. French Alliance of 1778: Alliance made between France and the United Sates during America’s civil war in 1778. Benjamin Banneker: Pierre Charles L’Enfant was the French architect who. they seized over 250 American ships which were conducting trade with the islands. the taxation of the poor. and the American Revolution. by President Washington to assist L’Enfant in surveying the land where the capital city was to be built.C. . would only negotiate for a lend of $10 million to the French government.
in response. appointed a committee to set up the U. He began his service with the Pennsylvania militia. Spanish intrigue in the Southwest: Spain attempted. Battle of Fallen Timbers: At the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Jay’s Treaty: Negotiated between the United States and France in 1794. right of deposit at New Orleans: Ratified in 1796. which was drafted in 1795. Washington’s attempts at a failed alliance with the Creek Indians to expand into their lands only led to further conflicts between America and Spain. who were a neutral party. Spain promised to recognize the thirty-first parallel. 1795: This treaty. Anthony Wayne defeated a coalition of Native American tribes as the major general and commander in chief of the troops. the treaty evacuated British posts in the West. the Royal Navy began to inspect American ships in 1793 for suspected defects of the British Navy. "Rule of 1756": The French opened colonial trade to the Dutch. Wayne was a General during the American Revolution. and named a commission to determine how much the British should pay for illegally seizing American ships. in many cases. stated that neutrals could not engage in wartime trade with a country if they were not permitted to trade with that country at times of peace. British prize courts. in 1794.S. and to discourage Indian attacks on western settlers.Royal Navy: They navy of the British empire. "Mad" Anthony Wayne: Known as Mad Anthony due to his quick temper and his bravery. James Wilkinson: An American soldier who participated in the American Revolution and the War of 1812. camps. He served as Secretary to the Board of War and was a brigadier general under Anthony Wayne. Wilkinson was the man who reported Burr’s conspiracy to access Louisiana to President Jefferson. The battle took place around present day Toledo and led to the Treaty of Greenville which opened up the Northwest to American settlers. Treaty of Greenville. It did not resolve the British West Indies trade dispute. The treaty served to end white-Indian hostilities for sixteen years. Pinckney’s Treaty. opened the Northwest Territory to settlement by white United States citizens. to end U. .-French boundary. hoping to further expand their territory into the vast land. These bold actions commonly referred to as impressment. so therefore the treaty between the two races was an important one. The territory had formerly only been inhabited by Indians. the treaty gave westerners the right to access the world markets duty-free through the Mississippi River. further strengthened hostilities between the two countries. to detach the West from the United States. who they then forcibly placed back into their own navy.S. He participated in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown and distinguished himself in the Battle of Monmouth.
paid $60. In the end. while Adams was supported by the Federalists. as European nations already had. •Federalists: The Federalist party was the starting point of the movement to draft and later ratify the new Constitution. whose ideology claimed that the Federalists had become a party geared toward enriching the wealthy at the expense of the poor. as they had not been before. It urged for a stronger national government to take shape after 1781. and Tunis.S. The split in the Federalist party became official with Jefferson’s resignation from Washington’s cabinet in 1793. and Tennessee were all admitted into the United States between 1791 and 1796 by the federal government. •Democratic-Republicans: The first political party in the United States. the DemocraticRepublican party was created by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in opposition to . Washington’s farewell address asked the citizens of the United States to avoid involvement in political problems between foreign nations. John Jay. Kentucky. the demand for payment was ended and the U. the Federalists solved the problem of revolutionary debt. Their admission was spurred by the hope that they would then become completely loyal to the Union. ships in the U. Adams was victorious in the election. Jefferson was made Vice-president. Federalists and Republicans By the election of 1796.Barbary Pirates: Following the American Revolution. Ky. that gave them immunity from these attacks. The Tripolitans had seized U. Tripoli. Tenn: Vermont. Its leaders included Alexander Hamilton. Vice-president Jefferson: Jefferson was supported by the Republicans. created Jay’s Treaty and also the Alien and Sedition Acts. refusal to pay in increase in the tribute paid to the pasha of Tripoli.000 to free Americans caught captive. the Barbary pirates began to raid the ships of the United States. James Madison.S. Under Hamilton. Tripolitan War: From 1801-1805. new states: Vt. election of 1796: President Adams. the war was a battle between the North African state Tripoli and the United States. The United States therefore formed treaties with Morocco. and George Washington rose to power between 1789-1801.S. as a constitutional law stated that the candidate with the second highest number of electoral votes got that position. largely a result of the disagreements over Hamilton’s programs and foreign policies. upon which he formed the Republicans. Washington’s Farewell Address: In his realization of the important role that he had take in developing the role of the president of the United States. the United States political system had become bipartisan.
the views of Alexander Hamilton. in 1799. Society of the Cincinnati: A post-war organization of veteran officers from the Continental Army. the Virginia Resolution stated that states possessed the right to intervene in unconstitutional acts in government. as the party was undecided as to who their presidential candidate should be. the Doctrine of Nullification stated that any federal laws considered by the people to be "objectionable" may be nullified by the states. the Society of the Cincinnati was feared by many because its charter had the possibility of becoming a hereditary aristocracy. The Federalists wanted to nominate Adams." or open air revivals which lasted for weeks at a time where revivalists spoke of the second coming of . while advocating states rights and an agricultural society. the Neutralization Act said residence must remain in the United States for five years before becoming naturalized while the Alien Act allowed the exportation of any alien believed to be a threat to national security. This rebellion alerted those in power to the general disgruntlement of much of the nation. These acts were criticized because they oppressed the people’s First Amendment rights. Convention of 1800: The Federalist party split into two factions during the Convention of 1800. while the "High Federalists. doctrine of nullification: A group of Kentucky Resolutions adopted in 1799. the Second Great Awakening began in the 1790s and was characterized by "camp meetings. •Alien and Sedition Acts: In 1798. It arose to power in the 1790s and opposed the Federalist party. The passage of these resolutions proved the probability of upcoming violent disagreements of how the law should be interpreted. denounced his candidacy. in which Republicans were united by wealth rather then by status. as well as believed that those with talent and ambition should not forget their dreams. and the Kentucky Resolution stated that federal government could not extend powers outside of constitutionally granted powers. Democratic Societies: An organization in which the wealthy are on a level of equality with the poor." led by Alexander Hamilton. The Alien Enemies Act allowed the President to export aliens during times of war and the Sedition Act made it a criminal offense to plot against government. This is best exemplified by the Philadelphia Democratic Society. This action infuriated the farmers because the money was needed to fund the expansion of the nation’s army. rebelled against the government after it released debtors and citizens who did not pay taxes. as it gave membership to descendants. Fries Rebellion: Pennsylvanian German farmers. The party expressed sympathy towards the French Revolution but opposed close ties with the British. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: Written by Jefferson and Madison in protest to the Alien and Sedition Acts. •Second Great Awakening: Occurring mainly in the frontier states.
all but three states allowed blacks voting rights. He received a large bribe for signing the treaty. as well as stripped slaves of the right to trial by jury or presentation of evidence of freedom. and allowed them to enroll in the state militia. when states dropped restrictions on freedom of movement. the rebellion broke out near Richmond. Charles Finney. a system consisting schools for the general public.Jesus. which lead to a greater democratic power commonly seen in the ideals of Jacksonian democracy. This law indicated tightening racial tensions. the Logan Act allowed city councils the power to establish. Thirty five slaves were executed by a swift state militia. but whites still feared what many occur in the future with slave uprisings. His three styles of portrait painting: the "Vaughan" half-length. Alexander McGillivray: The leader of the Creek Indians. Gilbert Stuart: An American painter who is particularly well known for his many portraits of wartime hero and President George Washington. Peale is best known for his fourteen portraits of George Washington. Peale began a museum of parts of nature in Independence Hall. Jeffersonian Democracy Jefersonian Democracy refers to the term of office of Thomas Jefferson which marks the end of Federalist control of American politics. . Fugitive Slave Law: Enacted by congress in 1793.S. Charles Wilson Peale: As a portrait painter of the Federalist period. protected the property of blacks. The rebellion increased tensions between the North and the South. the law required judges to give a slave back to its owner or his representative if caught after running away. the "Lansdowne" full-length. preached not only the second coming of Jesus. an especially prominent preacher of the time. Gabriel’s Rebellion: Led by Gabriel Prosser in August 1800.000 slaves marched to the capital. thereby setting an example of democratic simplicity. and the "Athenaeum" head have often been mimicked. as well as to support and to regulate. who in 1790 signed a peace treaty with the United States that allowed whites to occupy lands in the Georgia piedmont. Logan Act: Enacted in 1795 by the legislative assembly. but spared the rest of the Creek lands from white settlement. A milder agrarian aristocracy replaced a commercial aristocracy. In 1786. By 1796. This act led to the establishment of school systems throughout the U. Legal equality for free blacks: These measures first appeared in the 1780s and 1790s. Virginia when 1. Philadelphia of portraits and helped to found the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1805. but also the gospel of free will.
with Burr as Vice-president. of the Constitution. he was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1791 by Washington. Justice Samuel Chase: Associate justice of the Supreme Court and signer of the Declaration of Independence. by using the Judiciary Act of 1801. thus creating a tie and throwing the presidential election into the House of Representatives. The US refused to pay in 1801. Jefferson purchased the Louisiana territory from the French. 70 percent of the national revenue was applied to reducing the national debt as well. but the US captured the town of Derna. where some of the problems needed to be fixed. but with the election of 1800. Most importantly. in which he sought to restore the country to the liberty and tranquillity it had known before Alexander Hamilton’s economic program and John Adams’s Alien and Sedition Acts. Chase was defended strongly. With Hamilton’s coercion.Jeffersonian placed more emphasis in the common man and brought moreidealism into the government. Treaty of San Ildefonso: Treaty on October 1. •Election of 1800: Jefferson and fellow Republican Aaron Burr. since 1784. and the navy. in which Spain ceded the Louisiana territory to France.) Revolution of 1800: Described by Jefferson in the his election of 1800. Jefferson drove them out. and was ratified as a treaty by the Senate. and was later acquitted by the Senate. which resulted in US ships being captured. •JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY: Jefferson’s administration severely cut naval and military operations. most internal taxes. to end the war. who ran for Vicepresidency in the same year. He opposed war. Jefferson obtained the territory for $15 million. land West of the Mississippi. to which the US had been paying tribute. 1800). Gallatin was the genius behind the public debt cut and creating a large surplus of funds. which was becoming a foremost military power. as well as the threat of French invasion. (The Constitution was amended to require separate votes for each position. for shipping access. led by Lieut. Tripolitan War: (1802-5) War between the United States and the North African state of Tripoli. Threat of French expansion was the result of Jefferson’s goal to obtain the territory. Jefferson’s goal to purchase the territory was the great port of New Orleans. in agreement to Article II. 1800. Stephen Decatur in 1805. resulting in Adams’s last day in office (December 12. Section 2. though purchasing the territory . Midnight judges: Federalists dominated the government. Jefferson was elected as president. and was impeached for his criticism of President Jefferson. received an equal number of electoral votes. The national debt. •LOUISIANA PURCHASE: When France obtained the territory from Spain. not for expansionism. but the opportunities of trade by New Orleans as a sea port. seeing it as detrimental to the national economy. though a Constitutional violation. On this date he appointed last-minute judges to keep the judiciary in the Federalists hands.
1802. 1804. and reached the Pacific in November 1805. a Republican. known as the Orders in Council.was Constitutionally illegal and going beyond his presidential rights. which established a blockade of part of the continent of Europe and prohibited trade with France. where he was imprisoned and died in France. was subject to seizure by France. in which all ships must come to England for licenses of trade. From this territory became 14 new state governments. saw no reason to hand the Federalists an issue by dallying over ratification of the treaty made to obtain the territory. 1807: Napoleon replied to the continuous British opposition. and was acquitted on Sept. where Hamilton was killed. Burr treason trial: Burr purchased land in the newly acquired Louisiana territory. for the governor of NY State. and accused of conspiracy. Milan Decree. in which the French proclaimed a blockade of the British isles. which was to tighten his so-called Continental System. Used by British to regain deserters from the Royal Navy to American . They reached the Rockies. Lewis and Clark: They explored the vast territory west of the Mississippi River by the US. Orders in Council: In May 1806. and established relations with Indian inhabitants. or seize land in Spanish America. 1807. The Decree was answered with another Orders in Council. Dueled Hamilton on July 11. unless American vessels went to British ports for licenses for trade. He was arrested and indicted for treason. and intended to invade the Spanish territory and establish a separate republic in the Southwest. the British followed the Essex decision with the first of several trade regulations. They cataloged plants and animals. Jefferson. 1. The decree proclaimed that any vessel that submitted to British regulations or allowed itself to be searched by the Royal Navy. Berlin Decree. and Toussaint was defeated. 1806: Was created in response to the Orders in Council by the British. and any ship attempting to enter or leave a British port would be seized by France. had turned to the House of Representatives for the decision of the next president Burr’s election in 1804. where Hamilton opposed him. with the Milan Decree. again. Hamilton-Burr duel: Election of 1800 Between Jefferson and Burr. and becoming president for life of the country. Virginia. impressment: Arbitrary seizure of goods or individuals by a government or its agents for public services. after a six-month trial in Richmond. over the Continental Divide. who succeeded in liberating the island from France in 1801. when they where commissioned by Jefferson. •LOUISIANA PURCHASE: Most Federalists opposed the Louisiana Purchase on the grounds that it would decrease the relative importance of their strongholds on the eastern seaboard. Toussaint L’Ouverture: Haitian general on the island of Santo-Domingo. Napoleon sent troops to crush the Haitians.
who wanted more aggressive policies toward the hostile British and French. and the French accepted the United States merchant marine neutrality by the . who ever obliged. pressuring the needs for American goods. the US would halt all commerce with the other nation. repealed the Embargo Act. led by Henry Clay preferred war to the "ignominious peace. The US also agreed to resume trade with the first nation of the two. The Embargo Act was in response to the restrictive measure imposed on American neutrality by France and Britain. Jefferson imposed the embargo instead of open warfare. Thus creating a war spirit by several young congressman elected in 1810. War Hawks: A group of militants in Madison’s Democratic-Republican party.vessels during 1790 to 1812. Tenskwatawa the "Prophet. and prohibited United States vessels from trading with European nations during the Napoleonic War. especially liquor. To pressure the nations to respect the neutral rights of the US and to demonstrate the value of trade with the US. James Barron. when British vessels boarded and obtained their crew from the high paying American ships. Tecumseh: A Shawnee leader. Barron relented and the men were seized. and reactivated American commerce with all countries except the warring French and the British. The young congressman known as War Hawks pushed Madison into a struggle for which the country was not prepared and which ended without victory. 2. who fought against the United States expansion into the Midwest. He was defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. which was designed to discourage the British and the French from interfering with US commerce. This was one of the reasons for the War of 1812. by bribing either the England or France in repealing their restrictions on neutral shipping. resulting in British attack. refused. in May 1810. •EMBARGO OF 1807: This law was passed in December 1807 over Federalist opposition. War of 1812 The war of 1812 was one which the Americans were not prepared to fight. who where at war with each other. 1809. Chesapeake-Leopard affair: In 1807 the US Chesapeake was stopped in the midAtlantic by the British Leopard. who would cease violating neutral rights. He opposed any surrender of Native American land to whites. The British demanded the return and surrender of four deserters from the royal navy." in uniting the tribes from American customs. This group in the House of Representatives. Macon’s Bill No. in which the Chesapeake’s commanding officer." War against Great Britain: For the most part. and tried with his brother. 2: Nathaniel Macon created the Macon’s Bill No. the Napoleon Wars were played out in Europe. Non-Intercourse Act: The Non-Intercourse Act of March 1.
The frigate Constitution defeated the Guerriere in August 1812. which was composed mainly of veterans. with hope of ending the war of 1812. Theophilus Parsons. was their opposition to Jefferson and Madison’s trade programs of neutrality and trade. the Chesapeake lost to the Shannon. . the Untied States seized the British frigate Macedonian. This victory on January 8. and in the same year. •FEDERALIST OPPOSITION TO THE WAR OF 1812: The Federalist party were deeply opposed to the war. •HARTFORD CONVENTION: The Hartford Convention of 1814 damaged the Federalists with its resolutions to the idea o secession. led by Timothy Pickering. the British wanted neutral Indian buffer states in the American Northwest and wanted to revise both the AmericanCanadian boundary. 1815 occurred after the peace treaty that ended the war. Senator George Cabot. which prompted the famous "Star-spangled Banner. Henry Clay. However. •Results of the War of 1812: After the treaty of Ghent. The recommendation of the convention was to have an amendment to the Constitution that would grant taxation and representation in each state. for their lack of support for commercial and diplomatic policies of Jefferson and Madison. Gallatin. during the War of 1812. continuing British blockade. Fort McHenry withstood a 25-hour bombardment by the British Vice-Admiral Alexander Cochane and his fleet. leaving an idea of disloyalty to use against them. as well as Clay. Even more so. Gallatin also was a part in the negotiations of the Treaty of Ghent. encounters were with single-ship battles. and prohibit congress from the embargo. and treaty negotiations: Adams drafted the Monroe Doctrine and arranged for the Treaty of Ghent that ended the War of 1812. and several of the Lowell family of merchants and industrialists in New England. Naval Battles in the War of 1812: The beginning of the War of 1812. Jackson’s victory at New Orleans: Jackson. Fort McHenry.Berlin and Milan Decrees. for example the Non-intercourse act. which was hurting American industries and commerce. The convention on December 14. with the constant violations of neutrality on the seas and in the Great Lakes. and there was an increased sense of national purpose and awareness. Rising Indian opposition to American expansion in the Northwest and Southwest was broken. Francis Scott Key: During the War of 1812 on September 13-14." by Francis Scott Key when he saw the flag still standing. Essex Junto: The Essex Junto was a name given to the extreme nationalist wing. 1814 was to oppose the war. Hatred of the British persisted. captured New Orleans with a small army against the British army. The Treaty of Ghent secured US maritime rights and peace around Europe and the Americas. It opposed the Embargo act and the War of 1812.
in Belgium. and provided that all territory captured would be returned to the rightful owner. canals. it did not bring significant changes in the rights of laborers because many Massachusetts judges still considered unions illegal. steamships: Fulton was an artist turned inventor. introduced a steamship. Economic Growth Industrialization and the transportation revolution were a considerable force in American history. it was longest canal in western world at the time. but this was . This allowed Americans to travel across the country and transport goods into new markets that weren’t previously available. The first true clipper ship. Steamships created an efficient means of transporting goods upstream. Stretching 363 miles from Albany to Buffalo. In 1807. Robert Livingston. the road progressed west during early 1800s. Although this decision made strikes legal. bridges. was built by New York beginning 1817. and clipper ships emerged as new forms of transportation. roads. clipper ships: Clipper ships were sailing ships built for great speed. Hunt. It was a symbol of progress when it was opened in 1825. he and his partner. Hunt: In the case of Commonwealth v. launched in 1845. railroads. Its crushed-stone surface helped and encouraged many settlers to travel into the frontier west. was designed by John W. the Clermont. 1814. improve transportation and communication. Great controversy occurred over fishing rights and the Northwest Boundary. on December 24. Construction began in 1811. and increase productivity. This period was distinguished by the establishment of factories and the creation of many new inventions to save time. National Road( Cumberland Road ): The National Road was a highway across America. between England and America. the first major canal project America. changing the character of life in America by facilitation westward expansion. and urbanization. Griffiths. advancing father west with each year. Commonwealth v. beginning in the 1830s. the Rainbow. and this led to an increase in the building of canals. This treaty ended the War of 1812. transportation revolution: The transportation revolution was the period in which steam power.Treaty of Ghent: This was an agreement between the United States and Great Britain. Robert Fulton. on the Hudson River and obtained a monopoly on ferry service there until 1824. and it later sparked artistic interest in the Hudson River when its use peaked in the 1880s. Erie Canal: The Erie Canal. the Massachusetts Supreme Court in 1842 ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies in restraint of trade.
factory girls (Lowell factory): "Factory girls" were young. It was a cotton textile mill that produced finished clothing. separating these girls from their families. During the Gold Rush. Also. He patented his reaper in 1834 and built a factory to mass produce it in 1847. Capitalizing on new technology. The sewing machine allowed clothing to be stitched in factories very quickly. They wanted to limit the day to 10 hours. they built textile factories in the towns of Waltham and Lowell which produced finished products. In doing this. the Lowell factory hired mainly young girls. Samuel Slater: Slater was the supervisor of machinery in a textile factory in England. working in textile factories such as the Lowell factory. they found poor working conditions and strict discipline. Boston Associates: The Boston Associates were a group of merchants in Boston who created Boston Manufacturing Company in 1813. usually between 15 and 30 years old. Also. mechanical reaper: McCormick was an inventor who improved upon previous designs for the mechanical reaper. The movement was supported by Lowell Female Reform Association and other reform associations. contributing to the transition from handmade garments to inexpensive. unmarried women. Elias Howe: Howe invented the sewing machine in 1845 and patented it in 1846. where. Lowell factory: The Lowell factory was a factory established in 1813 by the Boston Manufacturing Company on the Merrimack River in Massachusetts. . Most of these girls left their families’ farms in order to gain independence or to help their families financially.modeled after earlier ships developed on the Chesapeake Bay. He left England illegally in 1790 to come to Rhode Island. he made a fortune on his invention. unmarried women. This invention lessened the work of western farmers by mechanizing the process of harvesting wheat. from 1849 to 1857. Cyrus McCormick. so that the whole gun no longer had to be replaced if a single part malfunctioned or broke. Slater founded the cotton textile industry in America. from the 12 or 14 hour days that were not uncommon. ten-hour movement: The ten-hour movement was the attempt by workers to obtain restrictions on the number of hours they worked per day. The tools and machines he invented allowed unskilled workers to build absolutely uniform parts for guns. in 1793. eliminating the need for cottage industries. mass-produced clothing. After a difficult battle defending his patent. rather than entire families. In the factories. he founded the first permanent mill in America for spinning cotton into yarn. This was the beginning of mass production. clipper ships were a popular means to travel to California quickly. Eli Whitney. they hired young. challenging cottage industries. interchangeable parts: Whitney was an inventor who introduced the concept of interchangeable parts in 1798.
which he vetoed the bill on constitutional ground. by Richard Rush. and the government took considerable actions to piece it together.Samuel F. The telegraph allowed rapid communication across great distances. evident to merchants when the Embargo of 1807 and the War of 1812 suspended trade to Europe. as well as great victory for labor. Field laid a cable between Irealand and Newfoundland in 1866. Albert Gallatin. the development of America was creating a need for a well made transportation facilities to link the outlying agricultural regions with the trade eaters in the Eastern sea ports. Field and Co.000 miles long and laid from the Great Eastern. In 1841. and foreign domination. Morse. Convention of 1818: Signed at London. A revision was made in 1824 to clear problems that aroused. This was an economic blow that had repercussions. Bonus Bill Veto: In 1817. Rush-Bagot Treaty: Rush-Bagot was an agreement between the US and Great Britain concerning the Canadian border in 1817. which was a blow against monopoly. Nationalism The nationalistic movement was one which brought the nation together. Great Britain’s Prime minister.B. There was a large dependency on trade. This cable was 2. promoting new industries. Economic Independence after War of 1812: The War of 1812 was in part responsible for creating a great sense of national purpose and awareness. aristocratic parasites. 1832. Cyrus W. This allowed for rapid transatlantic communication. This tariff was made in order to defend the industries that were established during the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. Jackson created pet banks and destabilized the national currency and aid. The decision was that there would be a disarmament of the US-Canadian frontier. telegraph: Morse invented the telegraph in 1844. Instead. After four failed attempts. a ship. telegraph companies were formed and lines erected quickly. Cyrus Field: Field was a financier who promoted the first transatlantic telegraph cable. This invention was enthusiastically accepted by the American people. Second Bank of the US: Andrew Jackson vetoed the recharter bill of the Second Bank of the United States on July 10. Field founded a company. This treaty fixed the 49th . and that there would be a precedent for the amicable settlement of peace between the US and Canada. usually transmitting political and commercial messages. and the French prime minister. Tariff of 1816 (protective): This was a protective tariff that was principally intended to hold the production of textiles and goods. This was Madison’s last act. The economy of the nation was a large force in the merging of the nation.
Slave Power: The term Slave Power refers to the belief that pro-slavery southerners were united an attempt to spread slavery throughout the United States. slavery was considered necessary in order to maintain the agricultural economy of the entire region. cotton became the principal cash crop in the South. Arkansas. Even more so. defending slavery. and the invention of the cotton gin made it practical to grow cotton throughout the South. Most Northerners were suspicious of the influence of southern slaveholders in Congress. the entire Southern economy became dependent on the success of cotton as a crop. and the "Cotton Kingdom" spread west into Alabama. British exports unloaded textiles. for the most part. they merely protested that it could not be eliminated without destroying the South. triggering a depression. slavery was becoming an increasingly sectional issue. George Fitzhugh. •"KING COTTON": In the 1800s. It was so profitable that the vast majority of southern farms and plantations grew cotton. Panic of 1819 : Occurred when the Second Bank of the United States tightened its loan policy. Louisiana. The British textile industry created a huge demand for cotton. causing a great depression for farmers. the Kansas-Nebraska Act. that caused distress throughout the country. Sectionalism and Slavery In the early 1800s. southerners supported slavery and northerners opposed it. sectionalism: Sectionalism is loyalty or support of a particular region or section of the nation. This was the first description of slavery as a "positive the farmer groups good. and Southerners were becoming more united in their defense of slavery as an institution. "necessary evil": In the South. dividing the country into North and South to the extent that it led to the Civil War. Before George Fitzhugh in 1854. and also established fishing privileges for the United States off the coast of Labrador and Newfoundland. whether for moral or economic reasons. He argued that slavery benefited the slave by providing him with food and shelter. meaning that it was increasingly dividing the nation along regional lines. Essentially.parallel to divide the US and Canadian boundary. and the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. southerners did not assert that slavery was a boon to society. Mississippi. rather than the United States as a whole. Sociology for the South. Slavery was particularly sectional issue." . or the Failure of Free Society: In 1854. especially western farmers. Tennessee. and Texas. especially because of the Fugitive Slave Act. Northerners were becoming more opposed to slavery. and that free laborers in the North were not treated any better than slaves. Fitzhugh wrote Sociology for the South.
West Florida. Adams-Onis Treaty: It was the treaty in 1819 that purchased eastern Florida to establish the boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana territory. 1810: Annexed when southern expansionists went into the Spanish Dominion. provisions. the Quadruple Alliance consisted of England.S. starting the Seminole War (1835-42). and were often cited by northerners as proof that slavery degraded nonslaveholding whites. and Prussia. •MONROE DOCTRINE: origins. Fitzhugh argued that free laborers in northern factories were not treated any better than slaves. with a sum of five million dollars. impact: President Monroe’s message to Congress on Dec. and often Christian religion. where they survived by grazing hogs and cattle on land that the usually didn’t own. European powers could not colonize the American continents and shouldn’t attempt to colonize newly independent Spanish . They were considered lazy and shiftless. George Canning: The British foreign minister.positive good: In the South. captured the fort at Baton Rouge. pine barrens: The poorest class of whites in the Lower South tended to cluster in the mountains and pine-barrens. mountain whites in the South. Helper wrote The Impending Crisis of the South in an attempt to persuade non-slaveholders that slavery harmed the Southern economy. Purchase of Florida: Spain surrendered Florida to the United States in 1819 by the Adams-Onis Treaty. Also. It was adopted as a resolution on January 15. 1811 and authorized as an extenuation of US rule over East Florida. shelter. it consisted of 3 principles: U. Russia. the independent State of republic of West Florida. policy was to abstain from European wars unless U. Quadruple Alliance: Formed in 1815. Austria. interests were involved. and proclaimed on September 26. He proposed that the US and Britain issue a joint statement opposing European interference in South America and guaranteed that neither would annex Spain’s old empire." It was believed that slavery benefited slaves by providing them with food.S. This however began a rebellion by the Indians. The Holy Alliance was an organization of European states that advanced the principles of the Christian faith. and it regulated European politics after the fall of Napoleon. The Impending Crisis of the South: In 1857. using the poor whites of the pine-barrens as an illustration of how the institution of slavery degrades non-slaveowning southerners. and becoming another reason for Indian hatred of the white man. Hinton Helper. he supported nationalist movements throughout Latin America and dissuaded foreign intervention in American affairs. 2. 1823. It provided for the cession of Florida to the United States in return for American settlement of claims of her citzens against Spain. George Fizhugh established the philosophy that slavery was "positive good.
Webster advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson.S. the southern boundary of Missouri. it was used to justify U. Chief Justice John Marshall: decisions: Dartmouth College v. expansion by presidents John Tyler and James Polk. . The War of 1812 eliminated some divisive issues. it was reduced to $1. the minimum purchase was reduced to 80 acres.American republics. In the federal land law passed in 1804. Clay proposed a protective tariff in support of home manufactures. Clay’s American System: In his tariff speech to Congress on March 30. After a state charters a college or business. 1824. River to the Rocky Mountains.25. a strong national bank. Dartmouth College into a state university. Tallmadge Amendment: The Tallmadge Amendment (1819) restricted further importation of slaves into Missouri and freed slave descendants born after Missouri’s admission as a state. Adams forced Spain to cede Florida and make an agreeable settlement of the Louisiana boundary. the minimum purchase was decreased to 160 acres. •MISSOURI COMPROMISE: Congress admitted Maine as a free state in 1820 so that Missouri would become a slave state and prohibited slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase territory north of 36 30. the Roosevelt Corollary was introduced. and distribution of the profits of federal land sales to the states. Congress had a right to prohibit slavery in some territories. It was unconstitutional to change it. at age 25. drafted in 1819. It passed in the House but not the Senate due to sectionalism. In 1820. Spain consented to a southern border of the US that ran from the Miss. Ridiculed in Europe. federal land policy: The federal land law passed in 1796 established a minimum purchase of 640 acres at a minimum price of $2 an acre and a year for full payment. Monroe made an effort to avoid political controversies. internal improvements such as federal aid to local road and canal projects. Daniel Webster: Supporting the tariff of 1828. and Republicans embraced the Federalist’s issues. John Quincy Adams as Secretary of State: Fla: With Monroe’s support. In 1904. which forbade discrimination against citizens from other states in Missouri but did not resolve whether free blacks were citizens. Henry Clay proposed the second Missouri Compromise in 1821. it can no longer alter the charter nor regulate the beneficiary. he was a protector of northern industrial interests. In the debate over the renewal of the charter of the US Bank.31. Woodward (1819) The question was whether New Hampshire could change a private corporation. Era of good feelings: This phrase exemplifies both of Monroe’s presidencies. In 1820. but soon sectionalism divided the nation. from 1816-1824. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. in the Transcontinental (Adams-Onis) Treaty.
nullification: He anonymously wrote the widely read South Carolina Exposition and Protest. and liquor in 1828. fur. Southerners worried that U. electoral vote. Adams. Jacksonian Democracy Jackson personified the desireable and undesireable qualities of Westerners. Adams became president. participation would insinuate recognition of Haiti. flax. He acknowledged that he wrote the SC Exposition and Protest in 1831. However the popular vote was much closer. Distinct changes in laws. in which he made his argument that the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional. strict Jeffersonians claimed it to be unconstitutional. practices. Crawford. which gained independence through a slave revolution. wool. including Calhoun were Republicans. Jackson’s supporters called the action a "corrupt bargain" because they thought that Jackson was cheated of the presidency. The South had few plans to build canals and roads. In the South. with a political base in the South. showing that the Republican party was splintering. he appointed Clay as secretary of state. New England manufacturing interests were favored because it raised the tariff on imported textiles. Jackson won more popular and electoral votes than the other candidates but didn’t manage to gain the majority needed Because Clay supported Adams. due to rival sectional components. In 1832. this bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp. internal improvements: President Adams proposed a program of federal support for internal improvements in Dec. the allegation was widely believed. Adversely affected states had the right to nullify. he convinced the South Carolina legislature to nullify the federal tariff acts of 1828 and 1832. Tariff of Abominations: Named by southerners. Calhoun withdrew and ran for the vice presidency. within their borders. Clay: All five candidates. these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods. Adams had strong support in . •VICE-PRESIDENT CALHOUN: South Carolina Exposition and Protest. or override. and popular attitudes gave rise to Jacksonian Democracy and were in turn accelerated by the new equilitarian spirit. "corrupt bargain": After Adams won the presidency. felt that federal support meant a possibly corrupt giveaway program for the North.•ELECTION OF 1824: popular vote. House vote: Jackson. Although there is no evidence to link Clay’s support to his appointment of the secretary of state. Panama Conference: President Adams angered southerners by proposing to send American delegates to a conference of newly independent Latin American nations in Panama in 1826. Jackson. Jacksonian Revolution of 1828: Jackson won more than twice the electoral vote of John Quincy Adams. 1825.S. He stood for the right of the common people to have a greater voice in government. the law.
It increased Jackson’s popularity in the South. National Republicans: They became the Whig party during Jackson’s second term. The National Republicans ran Henry Clay whose platform consisted of his . 1831: Marshall ruled that the Cherokees were a "domestic dependent nation" entitled to federal protection from mistreatment by Georgia. In the middle states and the Northwest. 2. Trail of Tears: A pro-removal chief signed the Treaty of New Echota in 1835 which ceded all Cherokee land to the United States for $5. kitchen cabinets: During his first term. spoils system: Jackson defended the principle of "rotation in office. Martin Van Buren and John H. Jackson was portrayed by the opposition as a common man. during the election of 1828. along with numerous former Federalists who believed that the national government should advocate economic development. He believed that internal improvements violated the principle that Congress could appropriate money for objectives only shared by all Americans. election of 1832: Jackson. Whigs: The National Republican party altered its name to the Whig party during Jackson’s second term. Georgia. age of the common man: All white males had access to the polls. He wanted to give as many individuals as possible a chance to work for the government and to prevent the development of an elite bureaucracy. the popular vote was close. natural.000 to 4. an illiterate backwoodsman.000 Cherokees migrated west to the Mississippi along the Trail of Tears. They were united by their opposition of Jackson’s policies. Most Cherokees condemned the treaty.New England while Jackson swept the South and Southwest. Cherokee Nation v. Supposedly. but were also members of the official cabinet. He was depicted as being uncorrupt. Jackson repeatedly relied on an informal group of partisan supporters for advice while ignoring his appointed cabinet officers." the removal of officeholders of the rival party on democratic grounds. Georgia.000 Cherokees died. a strong defender of states’ rights and Unionism won the presidency. 16. John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay guided this party in the 1830s. and plain. They were the Jeffersonian Republicans. They became a national party with appeal by 1836. they met in the White House kitchen. committed to Clay’s American System and believed in active intervention by the government to change society. 1832: Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokees were not a state nor a foreign nation and therefore lacked standing to bring suit. Eaton belonged to this group. Between 1835 and 1838. His supporters described his simple and true morals and fierce and resolute will.6 million. Maysville Road veto: President Jackson vetoed a bill to grant federal aid for a road in Kentucky between Maysville and Lexington in 1830. Worcester v.
Clay Compromise: He devised the Compromise Tariff which provided for a gradual lowering of duties between 1833-1842. Webster contended that the Union was indissoluble and sovereign over the individual states. Jackson tried to destroy the Bank by vetoing a bill to recharter the Bank. Taney: Jackson’s policy was to remove federal deposits form the Bank of US and put them in state banks. Peggy Eaton affair: Jackson’s secretary of war. A financial recession resulted. when South Carolina. He removed the federal government’s deposits from the Bank and put them into various state and local banks or "pet banks. Secretary of treasury Roger B. he believed that the Force Bill would produce a civil war. Critics called the state-bank depositories pet banks because they were chosen for their loyalty to the Democratic party. Eaton." not a league of states. States that suffered from the tariff of 1828 had the right to nullify or override the law within their borders. Without the compromise. A final resolution of the question of nullification was postponed until 1861. Martin Van Buren: The accepted name for a group of Democratic party politicians. They were socially disregarded by Calhoun’s wife and Calhoun’s friends in the cabinet. Many opposed the Bank because it was big and powerful. married Peggy Eaton in 1829. He used Calhoun’s anti-tariff arguments to support his position and referred to the plausibility of nullification. Some disputed its constitutionality. NY. •NULLIFICATION CRISIS: Calhoun introduced the idea in his SC Exposition and Protest. John H. seceded from the Union and started the Civil War." Biddle tightened up on credit and called in loans. Calhoun resigned in the same year. The Force Bill authorized the president to use arms to collect customs duties in South Carolina. accompanied by other southern states. They took a leading role in national and NY . Jackson proclaimed that nullification was unconstitutional and that the Constitution established "a single nation. their activities were centered in Albany. hoping for a retraction by Jackson. •BANK WAR: Nicholas Biddle operated the Bank of the United States since 1823. which never occurred. Calhoun resigns: When Jackson favored the higher rates for the Tariff of 1832. Roger B. Webster-Hayne Debate: Senator Robert Hayne of South Carolina made a speech in favor of cheap land in 1830. The Anti-Masonic Party ran William Wirt who received 7 electoral votes. Taney implemented the policy. Jackson believed that the Eaton affair was Calhoun’s plot to discredit him and advance Calhoun’s presidential ambitions. and the customs officials were ordered to stop collecting the duties at Charleston. He went back to South Carolina and composed an Ordinance of Nullification which was approved by a special convention.American System.
The basic goals emphasised were to transced the bounds of intellect and to strive for emotional . Chief Justice Roger B. from permitting the construction of a new bridge across the Charles River. rise of the second party system: Because of the gradual hardening of the line between the two parties. prominent members included Van Buren. The origins of the depression included Jackson’s Specie Circular.State politics between 1820 and 1850. Also. but by abandoning distribution. interests in politic erupted among the people. Taney ruled that no charter given to a private corporation forever vested rights that might hurt the public interest. This satisfied northern manufacturers. strong contrasts. Britain controlled the flow of specie from its shores to the US in an attempt to hinder the outflow of British investments in 1836. One of the earliest. His opponent. The Bank of the United States also failed. "Tippecanoe and Tyler too" Harrison won 80% of the electoral vote but died a moth later. so did much violence and serious disturbances. it infuriated many southerners and westerners Reform: Social & Intellectual European Romanticism branched into American mainstream society. New things such as rousing campaign techniques. William Henry Harrison was ridiculed as "Old Granny" by the Democrats. Independent Treasury Plan: Instead of depositing its revenue in state banks. and was given the most successful campaign slogans in history. Tariff of 1842: In August of 1842. Van Buren persuaded Congress to establish an Independent Treasury in which the federal government would keep the revenue itself and thereby withhold public money from the grasp of business cooperation. Tyler signed a bill which maintained some tariffs above 20%. panic of 1837: Prices began to fall in May 1837 and bank after bank refused specie payments. election of 1840: Van Buren was nominated but no vice president was put up. competent political machines in the US. but abandoned distribution to the states. due to the need of revenue to run the government. and simple choices began to appeal to the ordinary people. Dorr’s Rebellion: As a popular movement emerged in Rhode Island to abolish the limitations set forth by the charter granted by Charles II in 1663. Taney: The Charles River Bridge Company sued to prevent Mass. The protesters sought to do away with the state constitution which restricted suffrage to freeholders led the reform to grant suffrage to non-property owners.
" and "Power. He was also a Transcendalist who believed that one could satisfy their material purposes with only a few weeks work each year and have more time to ponder life’s purpose. The topics of his essays were broad and general. Edgar Allen Poe: Poe.understranding. On Civil Disobedience: He was considered to be a "doer. he introduced characters like frontiersmen. and the authority of the individual apprehension experience. and a ten-hour workday. Orestes Brownson. which was a Transcendalist journal with Ralph Waldo Emerson and George Ripley. Brownson was a flexible theologian and writer. and journalist. It agreed on the scaredness. he was a popular essayist and lecturer. He. Melville wrote with much pessimism. which contains much pessimism. They believed in emphasis of the spontaneous and vivid expression of personal feeling over learned analysis. Ralph Waldo Emerson: Serving briefly as a Unitarian minister. philosopher. she edited The Dial. and developed a distinctly American theme with conflict of between the customs of primitive life on the frontier and the advance of civilization." "Nature. and that truth was inborn and universal. Nathanial Hawthorne. He. poets lecturers and essayists. These included such intellectuals as Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau. Transcendentalists-Transcendalists included many brilliant philosophers. writers. The Spy." He wrote OCD to defend the right to disobey unjust laws. The Last of the Mohicans. and Walt Whitman. Moby Dick: Drawing ideas and theme from his own experiences in life. The Scarlet Letter. The Pioneers: He wrote historical novels under Sir Walter Scott’s influence. To fiction. After writing Summer on the Lakes. His book. Henry David Thoreau. the abolition of imprisonment for debt. He wrote on subjects such as "Beauty. The Dial: A feminist. along with Poe and Hawthorne. wrote with concern for the human mind because of their pessimism about the human condition. were concerned with analyzing the mental states of their characters.A member of the Transcendentalist movement. uniqueness. These Locos-Focos called for free public education. James Fenimore Cooper. focuses on the human mind instead of the social relationships. critic.Hawthorne turned to his Puritan past in order to examine the psychological and moral effects of the adultery. she was offered a job and wrote significant literature as a critic of the Tribune from 1844 to 1846." He was a Transcendalist who believed that knowledge reflected the voice of God. with Melville and Hawthorne saw man as a group of conflicting forces that might not ever be balanced. along with Poe and Melville. Herman Melville. He was particularly active with the founding of the Workingman’s and Loco-Focos parties in New York. He changed literature by freeing it from its . Margaret Fuller.
evils. Democracy in America: A French Civil servant. Antebellum Reform Americans after 1815 embraced many religios and social movements in pursuit of solutions for the problems. Walt Whitman: By writing Leaves of Grass. These movements were generally more active in the Northern states." which continued to give the him the support of Americans who were proud of their best known writer. He wrote Sketch Book. His poems of Evalgeline and Hiawatha preached of the value of tradition and the impact of the past on the present. Longfellow. Flourishing between the 1829s and 1870s. the painter realized that the American landscape lacked the "poetry of decay" of Europe. his disciples divided into smaller Adventist groups of which the two largest are the Advent Christian Church and the Seventh-Day Adventists . Washington Irving: Residing in New York and serving in the war of 1812. Alexis de Tocqueville. but his poems took on a different style. Following him were the Millerites. Not only did he write in free verse. and misfortunes of mankind. they began to paint the awesomeness of nature in America. he traveled to this country in the early 1930s to study the prison system. a poet. the area from which literature was most prominent. he left the US and lived in Europe until 1832. which contained "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. After the failure of his prophecies. Hudson River school of art-Americans painters also sought to achieve a sense of nationality in art. William Miller claimed the Second coming of Christ would occur in 1843. millenialism: In the 1830s. Realizing this.determination to preach a moral and established the idea that literature should be judged by the positive effect they had on the reader." and "Rip Van Winkle. It reflected the broad interest in the entire spectrum of the American democratic process and the society which it had developed. being energetic and candid at a time when humility were accepted in the literary world. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Coming from New England. Whitman broke the conventions of rhyme and meter to bring new vitality to poetry. wrote Evalgeline which was widely read by schoolchildren in America. DiA was a result of his observations.
Dorothea Dix: In 1843. 1833. this association was created after the New York Trades Union called a convention of delegates from numerous city centrals. National Trade Union: Organized in 1834. Holyoke. These communities often condemned social isolation. Mt. were formed. lyceum movement: Began by Josiah Holbrok in the 1820. then to Nauvoo. She. contradicting the traditional idea of unions being illegal under the conspiracy laws of the English common law. New Harmony. the institution of private property. Founded by Mary Lyon in 1836. His "Social Gospel" offered salvation to all.After it was established in 1833. religion. after discovering the maltreatment of the insane in 1841. 1836. Mt Holyoke College in Massachusetts is the oldest U. Amana Community: Attempting to improve man’s life during industrialism. union control of apprenticeship and a closed shop. biology. Brook Farm. Oberlin.Charles G.S. college devoted to women’s education. along with help from Horace Mann and Samuel G. criminal conspiracy laws: Initially. shorter hours. . and that people’s destinies were in their own hands. these cooperative communities. Commonwealth vs. conversation. He believed that conversions were human creations instead of the divine works of God. Oberlin College was converted into the center of western abolition by Theodore Dwight Weld. Hunt: This decision deemed that the trade union and their strike techniques were legal. they moved to Missouri.. Illinois. lyceums were local organizations that sponsored public lectures. Although this was a milestone. led the fight for asylums and more humane treatment for the insane. geology. Lectures were held on such topics as astronomy. this union disintegrated along with a number of other national conventions with the Panic of 1837. Headed by Ely Moore. Onieda. The early unions strove for higher wages." he was a pioneer of cooperation among Protestant denominations. trade unions were persecuted for their strikes because they were construed as illegal conspiracies under the common law. physiology. Brigham Young: Joseph Smith organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints after receiving "Sacred writings" in New York Unpopular because of their polygamy. They were then led to the Great Salt Lake by Brigham young after Smith was killed. Howe. marriage. Finney: Known as the "father of modern revivalism. known as Utopian communities. Mormons. it in fact did not open a new era for labor unions. Most judges still believed unions were illegal. The spread of these lecture revealed the widespread hunger for knowledge and refinement. who was elected to Congress on the Tammany ticket. presented a memorial to the state legislature which described the abhor conditions in which the insane were kept.
The most influential of reformers. They were also discriminated in the areas of education and employment. German immigration. proclaiming a Declaration of Sentiments Months earlier. Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a women’s rights convention at Seneca Falls.public education.The first national temperance organization.1845-1854: In this single decade. along with Stanton. She provided instruction in math and philosophy in which women could not take earlier. Horace Mann. it was created by evangelical Protestants. New York. Emma Willard: In 1814. For the next ten years. 1848: Under the eye of Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. She led the fight for educational equality among sexes. the largest immigration proportionate to the American population occurred. Lucretia Mott: 1848. but was devoted to women’s rights. grade the schools. This spurred new sentiment for nativism and a new anti-Catholic fervor. She also established the Troy Female Seminary in 1821. in 1835 Morse warned that the governments of Europe were filling the US with Catholic immigrants as part of a conspiracy to undermine and destroy republican institutions. standardize textbooks. Among those adopted were a demand for women’s suffrage and a diminution of sexual discrimination in education and employment. Willard established the Middlebury Female Seminary where she devised new innovations in female education. and compel attendance. The Irish was the largest source of immigration with the German immigrants ranking second in number. Irish. not receiving the opportunities that men possessed. This encouraged the development of educational institutions for women. Elizabeth Cady Stanton: She along with Lucretia Mott planned a women’s right convention at the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Seneca Falls which sparked the women’s movement. Created in 1826. they followed Lyman Beecher in demanding total abstinence from alcohol.Extremely anti-Catholic. Mann wanted to put the burden of cost on the state. She was also active in the fight for abolition and temperance. they successfully worked for the passage of the New York Married Women’s Property Act which recognized women’s right to her separate property. Man became the secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education. this convention adopted resolutions for women’s rights. Women’s rights : Women could not vote and if married. Seneca Falls. They denounced the evil of drinking and promoted the expulsion of drinkers from church. they had no right to own property or retain their own earnings. American Temperance Union. Mann promoted a wholistic change in public education. Nativism: The Irish immigration surge during the second quarter of the nineteenth century revived anti-Catholic fever . .
Many abolitionists. William Ladd led the peace movement by establishing the American Peace Society in 1828. and uncompensated end to slavery. With this. creating sectional tension because most abolitionists were from the North. In the North before the Civil War. such as William Lloyd Garrison were extremely vocal and helped to make slavery a national issue. William Lloyd Garrison: William Lloyd Garrison was a radical who founded The Liberator. He was joined in the peace movement by Elihu Burritt who founded the League of Universal Brotherhood in 1846 and promoted the 2d Universal Peace Conference held in Brussels in 1848 prison reform: Prison were meant to rehabilitate as well as punish. Because the organization never had control over the many local antislavery societies. In this profession. there were only a few abolitionists and these were generally considered radicals. The Auburn System allowed prisoners to work together but never make contact and remain confined at night in a windowless cell. . and as sectional tension mounted. often demanding immediate. uncompensated emancipation of all slaves. they were prominent and vocal. This was generally considered radical.Catherine Beecher: Lyman Beecher’s daughter and a militant opponent of female equality. they became more prominent and influential. American Peace Society: In a social reform movement. it provided women with worthwhile pursuits beyond the family. she discovered the institution of education in which women could play an important part in. she fought for a profession in which females could be appreciated. Because it sanctioned numerous activities in reform such as temperance and education. The Pennsylvania system made each prisoner spend of his/her time in a single cell with no outside contact. However. •ABOLITIONISM: Abolitionism was the movement in opposition to slavery. but not social equality for blacks. Almost all abolitionists advocated legal. this slowed the advance of feminism. "Cult of True Womanhood": The alternate ideal of domesticity. issues such as the role of women in the abolitionist movement. an abolitionist newspaper. and there were only a few adamant abolitionists prior to the Civil War. Abolitionism Abolitionism is support for a complete. and role of abolitionists as a political party led to the division of the organization into the American Antislavery Society and Foreign Antislavery Society. in Boston in 1831. women became the main source of teachers. In 1840. immediate. He advocated immediate. American Antislavery Society: The American Antislavery Society was an organization in opposition to slavery founded in 1833. its division did not greatly damage abolitionism.
the trustees of the seminary tried to suppress abolitionism. Grimké sisters: Angelina and Sarah Grimké were sisters who toured New England. . 55 whites were killed by Turner and his followers and many blacks were lynched by white mobs. and the author of A Letter to the People and A Discourse of Matters Pertaining to Religion.. They became controversial by lecturing to both men and women. Before the uprising was brought to a halt by white militiamen. Theodore Parker: Parker was a clergyman.uncompensated emancipation and even civil equality for blacks. He was dismissed when. Turner led about 70 blacks into a revolt against their masters. He led an antislavery demonstration on campus and a mass withdrawal of students from the school. and participated in John Brown’s raid in 1859. Violent opposition from slaveholders in 1836 forced him to move his presses from Missouri to Illinois. The Observer. where he established the Alton Observer. as well as its articles and speeches using arguments based on morality to advocate immediate emancipation made it one of the most persuasive periodicals in the United States at the time. and his death stimulated the growth of abolitionist movement. Elijah Lovejoy: Lovejoy was American abolitionist and the editor of the an antislavery periodical. abolitionist. theologian. and reformer. The rebellion convinced white southerners that a successful slave insurrection was an constant threat. Beecher. Lovejoy was killed by an mob in 1837. He was also an active opponent of slavery who aided in the escape of slaves and the rescue of Anthony Burns. in 1834. Its bitter attacks on slavery and slaveowners. Sarah wrote Letters on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes and Angelina wrote Letters to Catherine E. abolition and elimination of capital punishment. Turner and fifteen of his companions were hanged. In Virginia in 1831. lecturing against slavery. •NAT TURNER’S INSURRECTION: Turner was a slave who became convinced that he was chosen by God to lead his people to freedom. The Murder of Lovejoy speech protested the murder of Elijah Lovejoy and gained him recognition from the public. This made Garrison a famous and highly controversial abolitionist whose main tactic was to stir up emotions on the slavery issue. These students then centered their activities at Oberlin College. temperance. Wendell Phillips: Phillips was an American orator. He also spoke publicly in favor of women’s rights. In 1838 both sisters wrote classics of American feminism. His most famous speech. supported New England Emigrant Society. The Liberator: The Liberator was an anti-slavery newspaper published by William Lloyd Garrison and Isaac Knapp beginning in 1831. in 1837. Theodore Weld: Weld was an abolitionist student at the Lane Theological Seminary.
Douglass’ influential speeches encouraged slaves to escape as he did and motivated northerners to oppose slavery. Incidents such as this contributed to the intensification of sectional conflict in the United States. Frederick Douglass: Douglass was an escaped slave. the plan was betrayed by other slaves. In spite of her illiteracy. after escaping from slavery in 1849. They killed the captain. Godlessness. Expansion to 1840 . resulting in the hanging of Vessy and his followers. and slavery which attracted large audiences. Because of her efforts to lead her people to freedom. The system had no formal organization. Sojourner Truth: Sojourner Truth was a runaway slave who became an influential figure in both women’s societies and the abolitionist movement. advocating a black rebellion to crush slavery. making eloquent speeches against sex discrimination. the Creole. in the early 1830s. David Walker. Walker’s Appeal: David Walker was a free black from Boston who published his Appeal in 1829. In 1822.500 that he won in a lottery. the North Star. He captured his audiences with descriptions of his life as a slave. underground railroad: The underground railroad was a secret network of antislavery northerners who illegally helped fugitive slaves escape to free states or Canada during the period before the American Civil War. he planned to lead a group of slaves in an attacking Charleston and stealing the city’s arms. She was the most famous leader of the underground railroad. However. They intended to sieze the federal arsenal at Richmond. made 19 journeys back into the South to help as many as 300 other slaves escape. she traveled widely through New England and the Midwest. The purpose of Walker’s Appeal was to remind his people that they were Americans and should be treated fairly. took control of ship and sailed for Bahamas. but it helped thousands of slaves escape and contributed to the hostility between the North and South. but the plan was betrayed by other slaves. Creole affair: The Creole Affair was an uprising by a group of slaves who were in the process of being transported in the ship. He also published a newspaper. Denmark Vesey: Vessy was a slave from South Carolina who bought his freedom with $1. Tubman was known as "Moses" among blacks.Gabriel Prosser: Prosser a Virginia slave who planned a slave uprising in 1800 with the intent of creating a free black state. where they became free under British. who became a powerful aboltionist orator. Prosser and his comrades were captured by the state militia and executed. Harriet Tubman: Tubman was a black woman who.
a frontiersman. Before. especially southern planters with slaves. Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged San Antonio and the city’s 200 Texan defenders retreated into the abandoned mission. Sam Houston. Exaggerated stories written after his death made Crockett an American folk hero. However. during which after Santa Anna was captured and forced to signed a treaty granting Texans their independence. San Jacinto: The battle of San Jacinto was the last battle of Texan war for independence. retaliated at the battle of San Jacinto. and a soldier. that became the setting for and important episode in Texan war for independence from Mexico. Austin became one of the leaders of the Texas Revolution. he was a highly successful empresario. In 1835. When Santa Anna and his men attacked. the Texans killed half of Santa Anna’s men in 15 minutes and Houstan captured Santa Anna and forced him to sign a treaty recognizing Texan independence. a great majority of Americans lived east of the Appalachian Mountains. he overthrew government and named himself dictator. William Barrett Travis: Travis was a lawyer before he moved to Texas in 1831. 1840. so when the Mexican government tried to restrict the rights of these settlers. became colonel in Texas Revolution. In 1836. but got captured at the battle of San Jacinto in 1836. He was killed while defending the Alamo in 1836.1n 1790. However. the Texas War for Independence resulted. From 1827 to 1835 Crockett represented Tennessee in Congress. In the 1820s. The Mexican government never recognized this treaty. so Texas became the Lone Star Republic. Alamo: The Alamo was a mission in San Antonio. the leader to the Texans. who had contracted 300 American families to move to Texas by 1825. He invaded Texas in 1835. Travis became a war hero when he was ordered to defend San Antonio and the Alamo. In he 1835 went to Texas and joined the revolution against Mexico. After Mexican president Santa Anna invaded Texas in1835. Stephen Austin: Austin was a prominant leader of Americans in Texas. greatly outnumbering Travis’ 200 troops. After this defeat. in 1834. but many began moving west intermittently. Travis and all of his men died in battle. At San Jacinto. he was forced into . Texas was a popular destination for American settlers. Texas. In 1836. The battle lasted less than 20 minutes. •TEXAN WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE: In 1836. but could no longer afford to fight. Texan General Sam Houston and 800 of his men ambushed Santa Anna and the Mexican army. Santa Anna: Santa Anna was elected president of Mexico in 1833. Mexican president Santa Anna invaded Texas and brutally crushed the rebels at the battle of the Alamo. Davy Crockett: Davy Crockett was a politician. All of the Texans were killed in their attempt to fight the Mexican army. they mainly settled the areas east of the Mississippi River and avoided the arid Great Plains region.
He opposed slavery. The concept justified westward expansion in all its forms and ramifications. but called back in 1846 to fight in the Mexican War. it was considered inhospitable and early settlers chose to cross it on the way to the Willamette Valley of Oregon rather than settling there. or even the duty. He led them in the battle of San Jacinto. The term itself was coined by John O’Sullivan in an 1845 magazine article. Americans did not flinch at atrocities such as provoking war with Mexico or slaughtering Indians. This sense of duty created a sense of unity among the nation and stimulated westward expansion. he was the Liberal Republican nominee for president. •"MANIFEST DESTINY": "Manifest Destiny" was the term used. throughout the 1840s. the persecution of the Indians. Because of these features. Sam Houston: Houston was a military commander and an American statesman who served in House of Representatives from 1823 to 1827. This would spread the glorious institutions of civilization and democracy to the barbaric Native Americans. including the Mexican War. are considered imperialistic conquests. This area. However. In order to accomplish this destiny. the present -day Midwest. he founded the New York Tribune. to expand westward across the North American continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Horace Greeley: Greeley was a journalist and political leader. and other such ethnocentric acts. to describe Americans’ belief that they were destined by God to spread their beliefs across the continent. Texas was an autonomous nation from the time Santa Anna recognized Texan independence at the battle of San Jacinto until it was annexed by the United States in 1845. but he was not an abolitionist. Republic of Texas: Texan rebels declared their independence from Mexico in 1836. was characterized by its arid climate. Was it Imperialism?: American annexation of territories such as Oregon are generally not considered imperialistic because these lands were obtained by negotiation between two equal powers and the people there were not opposed to joining the Union. a flat topography. Great American Desert: The "Great American Desert" was a nickname for the Great Plains.retirement until 1838. They drafted a constitution modeled after the United States Constitution and chose Sam Houston as their president. In 1841. where he captured Santa Anna and achieved Texan independence. and lack of trees. such as the Mexican cession. lands gained by force. In 1872. In 1836. He was editor of the New Yorker and a Whig associated with Governor Seward of New York. He was overthrown in 1845. Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny is the belief that Americans had the right. Houston was chosen as president of the Texan rebels. .
Annexation of Texas. This treaty was defeated in the Senate. Polk believed that the land was part of the Louisiana Purchase. and he won by a small margin. a treaty was signed in 1846 giving the United States all of Oregon south of the 49th parallel. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. Birney. America and Great Britain had jointly occupied the Oregon Country. A deadlock at the Democratic national convention resulted in the nomination of dark-horse candidate James K. Also. and therefore it belonged to the United States. but Polk insisted that the Rio Grande River was the boundary line. and the two countries divided Oregon at the 49th parallel. Polk favored American expansion. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny. POLK: Polk was a slaveowning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. Slidell Mission to Mexico: Slidell was a negotiator sent to Mexico by James Polk with orders to gain Mexico’s recognition of the independence of Texas and to purchase California and New Mexico. however. in early 1845. the Mexican governmen began war preparations when Texans accepted annexation. and Oregon. Joint Resolution under President Tyler: In 1843. He opposed Clay’s American System. but later. However. especially advocating the annexation of Texas. In response. instead advocating lower tariff. Polk used "54° 40’ or Fight!" as a campaign slogan. Mexico claimed that the Nueces River was boundary of Texas. Congress passed a joint resolution to annex Texas because of the growing popularity of annexation. In compromise. in 1846 Polk agreed to negotiate. The Democrats. the Whigs nominated Henry Clay. latitude. Polk sent troops to occupy Texas and the disputed territory south of the Nueces River. he was a "dark horse" candidate for president. the line 54° 40’ N. Disputed Territory: A dispute over the southern boundary of Texas contributed to the Mexican War. Polk began to demand that America obtain the entire territory. Rio Grande. Reannexation of Oregon: Prior to 1846. Polk. nominated James G. he was not received by the Mexican government because the threat of military revolt left the Mexican president to weak to negotiate. •ELECTION OF 1844: In the election of 1844. large numbers of Irish immigrants turned out to vote for Polk. •JAMES K. and in 1844 he succeeded in sending a treaty to Congress for the annexation. . The Liberty party. Tyler started a campaign to annex Texas. However. California. implying that the he would declare war if Britain did not give the United States all the Oregon territory up to its northern boundary. were divided between Martin Van Buren and Lewis Cass. In 1844. consisting of a small group of northern antislavery Whigs who were alienated by Clay’s indecisiveness. Nueces River. separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. in 1844. 54° 40’ or Fight!: In the election of 1844. Reoccupation of Texas: After Congress voted to annex Texas. and he won the election. However.
and politician known as "the Great Pathfinder. seizing the city of Sonoma. he led an army to Santa Fe and took the New Mexico territory without firing a shot. he assisted in the annexation of California by capturing insurgents. Fremont: Fremont was an explorer. Kearny then suppressed a rebellion of both Indians and Mexicans. He represented Missouri in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. married adventurer John C. and gave $15 million to Mexico in compensation. and Chapultepec.The land between these two rivers was uninhabited. John C. Five thousand American troops commanded by General Taylor defeated three times as many Mexican troops under Santa Anna. and led those troops victory at Vera Cruz. He was sent to Mexico by Polk to negotiate with Mexican president Herrera. Taylor was put in control of all of northern Mexico. and declaring the independence of the "Bear Flag Republic. Stephen Kearney: Kearney was an American colonel in the Mexican War. ending the war. As a result of this battle. Fremont became the first presidential candidate for the Republican party. Jessie Benton. and Benton used his influence to have records of Fremont’s explorations published as government documents. the war resulted in and American victory. The main cause of the war was American desire for territory. His troops won important victories in northern Mexico at Matamoros. They wanted Trist to convince Herrera to lower the price he was asking for California and to give . General Zachary Taylor: Taylor was an American major general who became a war hero during the Mexican War. •MEXICAN WAR: The Mexican war lasted from 1846 to 1848. Nicholas Trist: Trist was the chief clerk of state department and a peace officer. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo." In 1846. He ran for president of United States in 1852. gave California and New Mexico to the United States. Monterrey. soldier. He also led the final defeat of Santa Anna when he captured Mexico City in 1847. This American victory also hastened end of the War. made the southern boundary of Texas the Rio Grande. and managed to send a detachment of his army south into Mexico in time to join Taylor in the Battle of Buena Vista. In 1846. His daughter. and Buena Vista. The war took place mainly on Mexican soil. Battle of Buena Vista: The battle of Buena Vista was a battle during Mexican War. Partially because of disorganization and instability in the Mexican government. Cerro Gordo. Fremont. especially Texas and California. Senator Thomas Hart Benton: Senator Benton was an American statesman. but it was a significant slice of Mexican territory." In 1856. General Winfield Scott: General Scott commanded American troops during the Mexican War. and his resulting popularity helped him win the presidential election in 1848.
and the issue was settled by Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842. In 1846. It settled a dispute over the boundary between Maine and New Brunswick. Missouri to the Willamette Valley. Utah. New Mexico. stretching almost 2. Herrera rejected the offer. The event heightened tensions between the United States and Britain.000 miles from Independence. •OREGON FEVER: During the 1830s and 1840s. This was an important part of westward expansion. •MEXICAN CESSION: The Mexican Cession was the land that Mexico ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo in 1848. The addition of so much land to the United States exacerbated conflict over the expansion of slavery because some Northerners feared that the extension of slavery into California and New Mexico would deter free laborers from settling there. Nevada. because they believed that to have control of all of Mexico would give the United States more power. The treaty was very popular in the North because the United States got more than half of the disputed territory. He became involved in the fur business and organized a fur trading empire from the Great Lakes to the Pacific Ocean and to China and Japan. but this tension was soon eased. and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Full-scale war was avoided through an agreement in 1839. The fertile farmland available in the Willamette Valley attracted many farmers." Many settlers traveled to Oregon overland by way of the Oregon Trail or around Cape Horn in the newly invented clipper ships. This territory included California. Webster-Ashburton Treaty: The Webster-Ashburton Treaty was a treaty negotiated by Lord Ashburton of Great Britain and Daniel Webster of the United States in 1842. Caroline Affair: The American steamboat. Aroostook War: The Aroostook War was a boundary dispute between settlers in Maine and New Brunswick from 1838 to 1839. Arizona. enthusiastic reports from missionaries and pioneers. John Jacob Astor: Astor was a wealthy New York merchant who invested in real estate. was being used by Canadian rebels when it was attacked by the government of Canada in late 1837 in American waters. In 1842 Daniel Webster asked for an apology from British government. Texas.Americans the right of movement over the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The pioneers . this movement failed because the acquisition of California and her ports satisfied Polk. However. many Americans traveled to the Oregon Territory in order to start a new life. He created the American Fur Company and established Astoria. All Mexico Movement: Many Senators in Congress wanted the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to include all of Mexico. the Caroline. the first major fur trading post in Oregon. Oregon Trail: The Oregon Trail was an overland route to the Oregon territory. People in the East heard exaggerated. convincing them that Oregon was a "pioneer’s paradise.
which were antebellum in the time the religion was born. and his platform was based solely on personal popularity because he was a war hero.who traveled this trail in wagon trains faced many dangers. Oregon Territory: Congress made the Oregon Territory an official territory of the United States in 1848. Young has been criticized for both his support of polygamy and his intolerance towards opposition. Originally they had jointly occupied the entire territory. The Mormons are characterized by their preference to be set apart from the rest of the community. Sutter’s holdings were found invalid by the Supreme Court. 49th Parallel: The 49th parallel was the line of latitude dividing the United States’ and Great Britain’s portions of the Oregon Territory after 1846. After the Mormons were forced out of Illinois. Land squatters disputed over Sutter’s land claims and. Both parties avoided making the issue of slavery a campaign issue. dividing it at the 49th parallel. In 1848. Prior to 1846. the two countries split the territory. he was killed by a mob in 1844. Taylor: Zachary Taylor was the Whig candidate in the election of 1848. After being charged with treason and jailed. but a compromise was forged in 1846 because president Polk demanded title to this territory and neither side wanted to go to war over it. He translated the Book of Mormon in 1827. where they prospered. Smith saw himself as a prophet. Their church is based in Utah and they believe that the Book of Mormon is the supplement for the Bible. Mormons: The Mormon religion was founded in 1827 by Joseph Smith. Joseph Smith: Joseph Smith was the founder of the Mormon church.000 acres of land by the Mexican government in 1834 and established a sawmill on the land in 1846. increasing the negative sentiment towards Mormonism. Taylor won election on his popularity. especially those from the Mississippi River Valley. after which. Reports of the abundance of this land sparked the movement of many pioneers to the West Coast. subsequently. Brigham Young: Brigham Young was the patriarch of the Mormon church who took control of the church after Joseph Smith was killed.500 emigrants used overland trails like the Oregon Trail to reach Oregon between 1840 and1848. It is estimated that about 11. Election of 1848: Cass. apparent in their views.. Lewis Cass was the Democratic candidate. In a 1846 treaty. Willamette Valley: The Willamette Valley was an area of fertile farmland in the Oregon Territory which attracted large numbers of farmers in the 1830s and 1840s. Illinois. Young led them to Utah in 1846. John Sutter: John Sutter was granted 49. he discovered gold. This discovery led to the onset of the California Gold Rush. he and his followers set up a model city and temple in Nauvoo. . the Oregon Territory had been jointly occupied by Great Britain and the United States with its northern boundary the line 54°40’.
The South’s less industrial economy suffered less than the North. territory and were pro-Wilmot Proviso. Van Buren: The system was introduced by Martin Van Buren in 1837 and it passed through Congress in 1840." •TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO: This was the peace treaty between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican War. and by doing this. who viewed this as a proof of superiority in both Southern economy and slavery. 10. Independent Treasury System. Wilmot Proviso: David Wilmot. They believed slavery should not be extended into the newly acquired U. 1846: The Walker tariff was created by Robert J. kept public money from private business corporations.000 Americans. Polk’s secretary of the treasury. The bill slashed all duties to the minimum necessary for revenue. he brought back the Independent Treasury System. As a result of inadequate shelter and food and the lack of medical supplies. This also kept the government’s money out of state banks. It also reversed the trend of replacing certain specifics for ad value duties and dropped the minimum valuation principle. proposed that slavery be banned in land acquired from the Mexican War. Free Speech. Expansion and Slavery The expansion of slavery into new territories and onto the western frontier became a major issue after the Mexican-American War. the Independent Treasury System was repealed. but passed the House. Free Men. The tariff was signed July 30. Walker.S. It was taken out of the War Appropriations bill in order for Senate to pass the actual bill. along with immigrants from Europe. The proviso was given to Congress in August 1846. Walker Tariff. This intensified the divisions between the Whigs and Democrats. Their party slogan was "Free Trade.forty-niners: In 1849. panic of 1857: The causes of the panic were overspeculation in railroads and lands. when Polk was elected in 1844. Mexico gave . Barnburners: The Barnburners were a part of the Democratic party in New York. and a break in the flow of European capital to American investments as a result of the Crimean War. They left in 1848 to form the Free Soil Party but rejoined after the election of 1848. However. Through the treaty. It never passed the Senate. Asia and South America rushed to California in search of easy riches. in 1846. 100. Independent Treasury System. Competition led to violence and greed. Polk: After Van Buren was defeated in the election of 1840 by William Henry Harrison. 1846. false banking practices.000 died the first year and few even benefited from the expedition. Southerners fought to assert their rights while many Northerners wished to prevent the expansion of slave labor into new states. The bill had the federal government keep their revenue. a Congressman from Pennsylvania. Free Labor.
Webster’s 7th of March speech: Webster’s speech was an eloquent one presented in favor of the Compromise of 1850. Today. territory to include parts of Arizona. He ran. and New Mexico to the United States. Henry Clay: Henry Clay was an influential American politician who earned the title of "The Great Pacificator" with his development of three compromises. . The treaty was signed on February 2. California was admitted a free state. Colorado. Omnibus bill: The omnibus bill is a term used to describe a bill that has many unrelated and separate topics within it. 1848. and the former Liberty party members in the election of 1844. California was admitted as a free state.S. Conscience Whigs. Despite his efforts. Slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia. assumed all claims of the American people against the Mexican government and also paid Mexico 15 million dollars. though. California applies for admission as a state: Because the population grew during the gold rush and they were in need of a better government. the treaty worked to expand the U. Although they were unable to carry any state. There was controversy on the issue of it being a free or slave state. for president six times and devised the "American System" that favored a protective tariff and federal support of internal improvements. they had enough influence in North to convey their point. He was a senator during the debates over the compromise. but it was later pushed through Congress as separate measures. Webster argued that years of tension built up from the North’s growing power would be relieved by the compromise and that the North would make the South its equal. while a stricter Fugitive Slave Law was enforced. while slavery itself was not abolished and sectional peace returned to the northern and southern states for a few years. They nominated Martin Van Buren on a platform of opposition to any kind of slavery. and Nevada. but through the Compromise of 1850. The issue of slavery eventually did lead to future conflicts. In the end. California . The bill most commonly known for being omnibus is the Compromise of 1850. The U. California decided to petition to become a state in September of 1849.Texas with Rio Grande boundary. He supported the Compromise of 1850 on the basis of the theory of nullification.S. Wyoming. Calhoun was also a war hawk. •COMPROMISE OF 1850: The Compromise of 1850 was an eight part compromise devised by Henry Clay in order to settle the land disputes between the North and South. Free Soil Party: The Free Soil Party created by the Barnburners. unsuccessfully. most states do nor allow omnibus bills. As part of the compromise. Calhoun: Calhoun is most known for the "nullification crisis" in 1828 between he and president Jackson over the tariff of 1828 (tariff of abominations). the speech made few converts. Henry Clay introduced the bill as a whole. Utah. John C. thus saving the Union.
and ended Japan’s isolation. a country closed to the rest of the world for 2 centuries. Perry and Japan: Commodore Perry opened relations with Japan. even force. unsuccessfully. The anger of the slaves led to riots and other acts of violence. He was arrested on charges of theft and violation of the Fugitive Slave Law. The laws included the prohibition of the use of state jails to confine alleged fugitives. Gadsden Purchase: The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. The results of the law were that the North became a hunting ground for slaves and slaves were denied a trial by jury and other protections they were entitled to. Belgium in 1854 to issue an unofficial document that gave the United States permission to attain Cuba by any necessary means. France. Northern resistance demonstrated that the slavery issue could not be ignored. Southern states objected to the laws because they violated sectional equity and reciprocal trust. opened Japanese ports of to U. rejected the manifesto. the 1850 slave law was more strictly enforced.Fugitive Slave Law: Unlike the previous 1793 slave law. the battle for federal supremacy commenced. commerce. Pa. however. 1842: This case resulted when Pennsylvania attempted to ban the capture and return of runaway slaves within its territory.. Ostend Manifesto: American ambassadors to Great Britain. but Burns was resold to friends who freed him. section 2 of the Constitution deems the return of fugitive slaves a federal power. . in 1853. Anthony Burns: Burns was an American slave who escaped in 1834. and include the island in the Union. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad. Booth: Booth was arrested for aiding the escape of a fugitive slave in 1859. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement. During the trial. a mob of Boston abolitionists stormed into the courthouse to attempt. Prigg v. a challenge to the fugitive slave law of 1793. •PERSONAL LIBERTY LAWS: Discontent with the injustice of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. The treaty he forged protected the rights of sailors shipwrecked in Japanese territory from inhumane treatment. President Pierce.S. President Pierce sent him back to his master. In turn. to rescue Burns. northern states passed "personal liberty laws" in order to strengthen the use of the habeas corpus writs and prohibit state officials from accepting jurisdiction under federal law. permitted American ships to buy coal in Japan. Because article IV. the state law was declared unconstitutional. but habeas corpus was not valid as a result of Chief Justice Taney’s decision that a court or judge has certain limits of power. Ableman v. and Spain met in Ostend. The Wisconsin Supreme Court issued a writ of habeas corpus to release him.
The purpose of the bill was to facilitate the building of the transcontinental railroad on a central route. popular sovereignty: this compromise solution was first proposed during the time of the Wilmot Proviso: the residents of each territory had the option of determining whether it would be a free or slave state. Buchanan disapproved of it. Lecompton Constitution: This constitution was devised by the anti-slavery delegates of Congress in 1857 to protect the rights of the slaveholders in Kansas and advocate popular sovereignty. however. 36° 30’ line: The 36° 30’ line was established by the Missouri Compromise and drew on parts of California and New Mexico.Stephen Douglas a strong advocator. sacked the town of Lawrence. but their attempt . It was proposed by Stephen A. a part of the Compromise of 1850 and Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. "Beecher’s Bibles": Because the abolitionist government in Kansas was organized in 1856. Polk supported the idea of expansion to end the discussion of whether the new territory acquired was slave or free." those who supported slavery. He was also a strong supporter of the Compromise of 1850. New England Emigrant Aid Company: Aiming to prevent the expansion of slavery into Kansas. The act enforced popular sovereignty upon the new territories but was opposed by Northern Democrats and Whigs. It was passed. blocking slavery and territory north of that line. Northerners sent antislavery settlers into this area in 1854. 1854: The Kansas-Nebraska Act ended the peace established between the North and South by the Compromise of 1850. The retaliation was preceded by a pro-slavery posse’s armed raid through Kansas. Ridiculing the free staters. Each claimed to be the lawful one. Pottawatomie Massacre: John Brown led a small group of abolitionists into a proslavery settlement in 1856 to kill unarmed men and boys at Pottawatomie Creek in retaliation to the border ruffians’ invasion and sacking of the abolitionists’ town of Lawrence. an abolitionist. The Wilmot Proviso sought to extend the boundary line westward. •KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT. Douglas: American politician known for his debates with Abraham Lincoln prior to the election of 1860. thus armed themselves and commenced guerilla warfare.Stephen A. John Brown. who aroused the question of slavery in territories with the development of the KansasNebraska Act in 1854. because President Pierce supported it. In 1856. also led a retaliation two days later ." following the advice of an antislavery minister that rifles would do no more than Bibles to enforce morality in Kansas. but supported it so that Kansas could be admitted as a state. Douglas was an advocate of the annexation of Mexico. Douglas of Illinois and repealed the Missouri Compromise. "Bleeding Kansas" and Lawrence: Topeka and Lecompton were the two rival governments of Kansas. Missouri "border ruffians. they dubbed their guns "Beecher’s Bibles. a pro-slavery posse armed with guns mobbed through the town.
Freeport Doctrine: Stephen A. . wrote this novel to illustrate the evils of slavery. The 1850s: The Road to Secession During the 1850s. 500. Illinois. Douglas’ "Freeport Doctrine" stated that exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. where Douglas argued on the basis of his opposition to the Lecompton Constitution and depicted Lincoln as a radical abolitionist. raided a mass of Irish canal workers. Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 during Illinois senatorial campaign: The LincolnDouglas debates were a series of seven." referring to the slavery issue. Lincoln’s "house divided" speech: The "house divided" speech was a speech presented before the Republican party’s state convention in 1858 in Springfield. Lincoln predicted in his speech that there would mean eventual freedom for the slaves. They walked out on the Nashville convention in 1850. It warned the people that a "house divided against itself cannot stand.000 copies were sold in the U. southerners rejected the doctrine because it did not insure the rights of slaves. fire-eaters: The fire-eaters were extreme advocates of southern rights. The novel stimulated Northern action against slavery. contributing to the Civil War. Lincoln condemned Douglas for not taking a moral stand against slavery. though the majority of settlers originated from Missouri and the Midwest. The meeting itself led to the ultimate decision on the compromise. so tensions between the two-sided mounted until Southerners became convinced that nothing short of secession could protect them Northern persecution. while suspicion of their secession rose amongst the northerners. sectional issues such as slavery became very divisive. In 1858. The issue of slaver polarized people. a reaction that hurt him in the election. and others were translated into 20 languages. a Northern abolitionist outraged by the Fugitive Slave Law. Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Harriet Stowe. and Southern slaveowners felt that their rights and interests were no longer being fairly represented. Nashville Convention: Delegates of the northern and southern states assembled in the summer of 1850 to decide on the issue of the Compromise of 1850. Settlers were mixed in their views on slavery. Fire-eaters discussed southern rights. and whipped and lynched slaves in the 1860s.was unsuccessful.S. Northerners began to increasingly support free soil and even abolition. Settlers from New England arrived slowly. They were labeled "fire-eaters" due to their recklessness and by making their presence strongly felt by all those around. Though the South denounced the novel.
birth of the Republican Party: The party was formed in 1854 by northern Democrats who left the party because of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. made a speech titled. yet rich in pathos and dramatic incident. Fremont of the Republican Party. Franklin Pierce of the Democratic party won the election with 27 of 31 states. The loss of votes from the South was the result of Scott’s campaign. Buchanan won the election. A Tale of Great Dismal Swamp (1856) and The Minister’s Wooing (1859). also. therefore. Preston Brooks. Millard Fillmore of the Know-Nothing Party. It was determined that temporary residence in an area did not make one free. Know-Nothing Party: This election was between John C. except those states where slavery already existed. which did not allow Congress or territorial governments to exclude slavery from any area. and James Buchanan of Democratic Party. Under his leadership. •DRED SCOTT DECISION: Chief Justice Roger B. leading to the cruel treatment slaves. a senator from Massachusetts." denouncing slavery. Charles Butler. Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act split the Whig Party. Fillmore’s inexperience weakened his party. Taney ruled that Scott was not a citizen because he was a slave in 1856.Harriet Beecher Stowe: Stowe was an abolitionist writer who wrote powerful novels attacking slavery both before and after the Civil War in such novels as Dred. and was conducted by an abolitionist to raid the federal arsenal and start a slave uprising. "The Crime Against Kansas. in 1856. at the same time. and. Butler’s nephew came into the Senate chamber and hit him on the head. Republicans became more suspicious of Slave Power in Congress. election of 1852: The election of 1852 was the end of the Whig Party. All opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act and believed that slavery should be banned from all territories of the nation. election of 1856: Republican Party. He is well-known for handing down the Dred Scott decision. Former Whigs and KnowNothings were party members. and the nomination of General Winfield Scott exacerbated the sectional split. he did not have the right to sue in federal court. Chief Justice Roger B. Sumner-Brooks affair: Charles Sumner. increasing the popularity of the Republicans. and that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because it violated the fifth amendment. southern fear of future slave uprisings increased. ridiculing the South Carolina senator. At his death. the federal government had increased power over foreign . Taney: Taney was a Southerner appointed by Jackson as the 5th justice of the Supreme Court. John Brown’s raid: The raid took place at Harper’s Ferry in 1859. It failed and Brown was convicted of treason and hanged because he had ties with the northern abolitionists. making Brooks a hero in the South. The novels are rambled in structure. She also wrote short stories and poetry.
Democratic Party conventions: The first assembly of delegates in Charleston in 1860 resulted in the split of the Democratic party as the Southern "fire-eaters" left the convention. •ELECTION OF 1860: candidates. An unsuccessful second attempt to reach a consensus in Baltimore led them to nominate two candidates. Republican Party of 1860: In order to lure votes from Northern states to their party. They were unable to agree on a platform based on the protection of slavery. was organized in favor of the Northerners. His nomination completed the split of the Democratic party. which had a platform based on the preservation of the Union. Taney ruled in 1861 that Lincoln exceeded his authority in suspending habeas corpus. John Breckenridge: A division in the Democratic Party led to the nomination of two candidates for the 1860 election. John Brown: John Brown was an American abolitionist who attempted to end slavery through the use of violence. The constitutional party. This plays a major role in justifying the secession of the Southern states by stating that a state had the right to withdraw from the political entity it created. an economic system based on protective tariffs. Buchanan and the secession crisis: Buchanan declared secession of states illegal. This increased the tension between the North and South. Buchanan’s vice president. who held a moderate view on slavery. He is regarded a martyr to the cause of human freedom. Breckenridge. He refused Southern demands to remove troops from Fort . Bell created the new Constitutional Union party. John Bell: Opposed to both Lincoln and Douglas. His life ended when he was hanged for murder and treason. The democrats nominated two candidates. He was the leader of John Brown’s raid and the Pottawatomie massacre. was nominated by secessionists on a platform based on protection of slavery in territories.relations. each with opposing viewpoints on the slavery issue. Douglas and Breckenridge. parties. nominated John Bell. an opposer of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Lecompton constitution. and not on the controversial slavery issue. yet he had no power to prevent it. federal aid for internal improvements and the distributing of 160-acre homesteads to settlers in order. created by Whigs. They nominated Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln’s nonchalant views towards slavery led them to victory. Whigs nominated Bell in 1860. Compact Theory of Government: This theory involves the idea that the United States of America was founded by the union of thirteen individual states creating a federation of states. issues: A united republican party attempted to appeal more to the North in order to win the campaign and developed an economic program to amend the damages of the 1857 depression. who had the desire to preserve the Union.
mineral resources.Sumter. factories for manufacturing war goods. and Texas had seceded. In addition to that. Georgia. •North’s advantages in the Civil War: The Union clearly had more military potential with its larger population of 22 million. Lincoln’s innauguration South Carolina. Mississippi. It also repealed personal liberty laws. Crittenden Compromise proposal: The compromise was proposed by John Crittenden in an attempt to preserve the Union. and to guarantee protection of slavery below this line. During the Civil War the company contributed to the Confederacy cause. It divided the nation and resulted in the death of more Americans than all other wars combined. secession: Slavery fueling the states’ rights issue along with the loss of Congress and Northern opposition to the new Fugitive Slave Law made the election of 1860 the straw that broke up the union. the Union had more advantages in terms of material goods such as money and credit. The amendments were to bar the federal government from intervening in southern states’ decision of slavery. . The North in comparison with the South in these areas makes the North seem more advantageous. Alabama. Florida. It became the nation’s fourth largest producer of iron products. food production. This allowed the Confederacy to produce a more able corps of officers. and an established railroad system to transport these material resources. eventually won. Southerners came from a rural rather than urban environments and therefore had more men experienced in the use of firearms and horses. The Union. with advantages such as greater organization and prosperity. bloody war fought mainly over the issue of slavery. Louisiana.000 Americans died and thousands of fields. homes. •South’s advantages in the Civil War: The Confederate States of America had a strong advantage in the fact that they were fighting a defensive war in familiar territory. Because his efforts to supply the fort failed and due to failure of a constitutional plan. Lee. The Civil War The Civil War was a terrible. but not before 620. By March 1861. to restore the Missouri Compromise. such as Robert E. Tredegar Iron Works: guided by Joseph Reid to success during a time when the economy in the North and South began to plunge because of their increased divergence. and entire towns were destroyed. he left the office disappointed and discredited. but it also had advantages buried deep within its much stronger military tradition.
but the fort was eventually retaken by Union forces in 1865. Called on again in 1862. After capturing Savannah. . Virginia. Sherman: He fought in the Vicksburg and Chatanooga campaigns and ge undertook the Atlanta Campaign. but he allowed the Confederates to withdraw across the Potomac and was again removed. At Chancellorsville Jackson again flanked the Union army but was mortally wounded by his own troops. Jackson: At the 1st battle of Bull Run Jackson earned his nick name when he and his brigade stood "like a stone wall. The Confederate ironclad frigate Merrimac had sunk the Cumberland and defeated the Congress in Hampton Roads but was forced to withdraw March 9 after an engagement with the Union’s ironclad Monitor. 1861. He would run for president in 1864. South Carolina and it was the site of the first conflict of the Civil War on Apr. and won the battle of Gettysburg. Antietam. and later at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. built by John Ericsson. and received the surrender of General Johnston.Fort Sumter: Fort Sumter is a fort in Charleston harbor. McClellan: He was criticized for overcaution in the unsuccessful Peninsular Campaign and removed from command. with a force of 60. but he was criticized for not following up his victory. on his famous march to the sea. Carolina. he turned north through S. Bull Run: On July 16. Grant: In 1862 he captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in Tennessee. but Jackson checked the advance and routed the raw Union troops. Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomatox Courthouse. he took the offensive in the 7 Days Battle and beat the Union army at the 2nd battle of Bull Run. he checked Lee in the Antietam Campaign." Serving under Lee. with aid from the forces of Johnston. He burned Atlanta and set off.000. devastating the country. Lee: Commanding the Army of N. Monitor and the Merrimac: March 8. 1862 was the date of first naval battle between ironclad ships. 12. Jackson flanked the Union army to set up the Confederate victory at the second battle of Bull Run. barely escaped defeat at the Battle of Shiloh and ended Confederate control of the Mississippi in Vicksburg. He directed the Union army in the Wilderness Campaign and he received Lee’s surrender. Meade: He made himself known in 1862 at Seven Days Battle and the battles of Bull Run. McDowell attacked Beauregard’s soldiers. General McDowell began to move on Confederate General Beauregard at Manassas Junction. he thoroughly defeated Bragg at Chattanooga. He commanded of the Army of the Potomac from 1863. The Confederates under Beauregard bombarded the fort and were eventually victorious. Commanding in the West. near the bridge over Bull Run River and drove them to the Henry House Hill. Lee repulsed Union advances at the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville and Grant’s assaults in the Wilderness Campaign.
On July 3 Lee ordered George E. food shortages plagued the Confederacy. Lee sent Jackson to capture Harpers Ferry. congressman from Georgia and was opposed to secession but he remained loyal to Georgia when the state seceded. trying to invade Maryland and Pennsylvania. Antietam: In September 1862. As a result. but Lee’s own advance was halted by McClellan. Copperheads: Copperheads were Northerners who sympathized with the South during the Civil War. and Ohio. The term Copperheads was also used to label all Democratic opponents of Lincoln. Vicksburg’s fall completed the encirclement of the Confederacy. The group was led by Clement L. He was briefly imprisoned in 1863 for maintaining in a speech that the war was being fought to free African-American and enslave whites. The surrender at Appomattox virtually ended the Civil War. the Union was pushed to Cemetery Hill.. U. Congressman Clement L. Robert E. Grant opened siege. Gettysburg: It was Lee’s second invasion of the North. Lee surrendered to Union Gen. . the Union controlled all of the river except for the 200 miles south of Vicksburg. It was a Union victory only in that Lee’s advance was stopped. 1865. Appomattox: Confederate Gen. and after 6 weeks the Confederates surrendered. and he was against many of the policies of President Davis. After the war he was interned for several months. many clung to the belief that cotton would never fail them. on September 17. and weakened the states’ rights policy for which the South had seceded.Vicksburg: It was a battle fought for control of the Mississippi River. First.S. Then the South took the Peach Orchard but were repulsed. Indiana. Maryland. who attacked him at Antietam Creek. As president of the Confederacy. Meade and Lee met just west of Gettysburg. but the rest of the Confederate forces did not surrender until May 26 at Shreveport. cotton versus wheat: Efforts by the Confederate government during the Civil War to convince planters to grow to wheat instead of cotton received little success. Pickett’s division forward in its infamous disastrous charge against the Union center. While some planters heeded the government’s pleas. Vallandigham and was especially strong in the states of Illinois. Louisiana. and Lee surrendered without his approval. he assumed strong centralized power. By late 1862. He had many disputes with Confederate generals.S. The 1864 Democratic platform reflected his pro-Southern views. Vallandigham: Vallandigham was the leader of the Copperheads during the Civil War.S. In May of 1863 U. Jefferson Davis: He left Washington after the secession of Mississippi. He was elected vice president of the Confederacy. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9. Alexander Stephens: He was a U. the so-called bloodiest day of the war.
Lincoln used it to intimidate border states into rejecting secession.suspension of habeas corpus: Writs of habeas corpus are court orders requiring that the a cause of imprisonment be demonstrated before a person is jailed. so at first the blockade was not as effective as northerners had hoped it would be and blockade-running was a common way for Southerners to obtain supplies Anaconda Plan: The Anaconda Plan was a Union strategy in the Civil War calling for the establishment of a naval blockade around the Confederacy to prevent the importation of supplies from Europe. The Gatling gun was created created a man by the name Gatling. Gatling Gun: The Gatling gun was one of the earliest machine guns. the north attempted to establish a blockade of all Southern ports in order to stop the flow of essential supplies to the Confederacy. They were able to hit targets more accurately at large . Submarine: Four submersible vessels were built during the American Civil War by the Confederates for use against the federal fleet. Despite the many hardships that it entailed. They permitted almost any American citizen to acquire a homestead of up to 160 acres of land in the West. Homestead Laws: The Homestead laws were laws passed in Congress in 1862. Acts such as these had been blocked by southerners. northerners in Congress enacted legislation such as the Pacific Railroad Act authorizing a transcontinental railroad and the Homestead Act granting free land in the west. railroad: After the South seceded. tariff. This weapon contributed to the high number of casualties in the Civil War. and when they were. It was slowly implemented and only partially successful. Republican legislation passed in Congress after Southerners left: banking. The Union navy was fairly weak. but the blockade did contribute to the Northern victory. This allowed poor farmers to obtain land in the west and increased westward expansion. Submarines were used only to a limited degree in the Civil War. but it was the most effective of early models. Rifle: An improved rifle was one of the important technological advancements that transformed the Civil War. and they were far from perfected. Black Soldiers: It was not until late in the Civil War that African American soldiers were allowed to participate in combat. One of these submarines successfully dragged a mine through the water to sink a northern ship. but sunk itself as well. on the condition that the homesteader cultivate the land for 5 years. Northern blockade: During the Civil War. This basic civil liberty was suspended by both Lincoln and Davis during the war to deal with dissent. military service was a source of pride for blacks because it symbolized their freedom. who intended to make war so horrible that it would make peace. homestead. they suffered a far higher mortality rate than white troops.
It also pushed the border states toward abolishing slavery. ironclad steamers. Lincoln was . 1861. built by a company in England for the Confederate navy. but the issue increased tension between the Union and Britain. helped to keep the British from recognizing the Confederacy. The claims were not resolved until the Treaty of Washington in 1871. and removed Mason and Slidell. a number of Republicans sought to prevent Lincoln’s renomination. he was instrumental in averting hostilities between the two nations. but contained many loopholes. as ambassador during the Civil War. This also contributed to the high number of casualties during the war. This proclamation had the dual purpose of injuring the Confederacy and preventing Great Britain from entering the war in support of the Confederacy. although he failed to stop the sailing of the Alabama. draft riots: The Federal Militia Act of 1862 and the Confederate Conscription Act of 1862 allowed for conscription. President Lincoln released Mason and Slidell. The claims were for compensation for damages inflicted on Union property by a Confederate steamship built by the British. regardless of the number of stops made before arrival in the port. During the Civil War the Union embraced this idea. This was another source of diplomatic tension during the Civil War. Charles Francis Adams: Adams was an American diplomat who. the Alabama. A Union captain stopped and boarded a British vessel. contains contraband. a raider built in Great Britain for the Confederacy. Laird rams: The Laird rams were two double-turreted. In order to balance Abraham Lincoln’s Union ticket with a Southern Democrat. seizing ships traveling from England to the West Indies with the final destination of Confederate ports. It was issued by President Lincoln after the battle of Antietam. two Confederate emissaries who were on board and he interned them in Boston. Alabama claims: There were a series of claims for indemnity made by the United States upon Great Britain in 1862. but the establishment of a draft prompted volunteering. so that trench warfare became a necessity. •Emancipation Proclamation: The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order ending slavery in the Confederacy.distances than previous guns. election of 1864: In 1864. Riots in 1863 by anti-conscription protesters and impeded the process of drafting soldiers.. conscription. Trent Affair: In Nov. The Emancipation Proclamation only freed slaves residing in the territories in rebellion against the government of the United States. the Trent. the Republicans nominated Andrew Jackson for vice president. making open fields a hazard. so the British purchased them for the royal navy. "continuous voyage": The concept of "continuous voyage" involves the idea that a voyage intended for an enemy port. The United States threatened war if these ships were released to the South. In the Trent affair.
both the Confederate and Union governments were forced to sell public lands and tax.. Ex parte Milligan: Ex parte Milligan was an 1866 Supreme Court limiting the authority of martial law and the suspension of habeas corpus in times of war. the court declared that "martial law can never exist where the courts are open in the proper and unobstructed exercise of their jurisdiction. There were many disagreements about the best way to accomplish this and many important pieces of legislation emerged as a result. which she headed until 1904. John Wilkes Booth: Booth was a Southern sympathizer during the Civil War. who plotted with six fellow-conspirators to assassinate Union leaders. citizens could vote in elections that would create new state governments and new state constitutions. Reconstruction lasted from the end of the Civil War in 1865 until the Tilden-Hays Compromise in 1877 restored the Democrats to power in the South. Clara Barton: Clara Barton." She not only helped the war effort by nursing. and organized the American Red Cross. could get a full pardon and restoration of rights after taking an oath. escaped with a broken leg. When ten percent of the 1860 voting population had taken this oath. The fear that heavy taxation would cause unrest and corrode support of their cause. 1865: President Lincoln wass assassinated while attending a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theater in Washington. •Lincoln’s ten percent plan: In it all southerners. On Apr. Barton worked for the International Red Cross in the Franco-Prussian War. he shot President Lincoln during a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theater in Washington.C. but he was shot later. in the North. she also helped the Union obtain medical supplies. He escaped. Andrew Johnson. greenbacks.C. assassination of April 14. Lincoln was succeeded by his vice president. but was later shot and killed. 14. After that the state would once again be eligible for representation in Congress and readmitted to the Union. 1865. This led to high inflation. financing of the war effort by the North and the South: In order to pay for the Civil War. the governments issued bonds and. D. except high-ranking Confederate officials. The assassin. D. pledging loyalty to the Union and accepting the end of slavery. John Wilkes Booth. a Union nurse during the Civil War. In this case. Reconstruction Reconstruction was the process of bringing the southern states that had seceded during the Civil War back into the Union." .able to overcome Democratic candidate George McClellan and win a second term in office. After the War. was known as "the Angel of the Battlefield.
•Radical Republicans: The Radical Republicans were a group of Republicans unhappy with the corruption and policies of Grant’s administration. civil rights legislation was practically overturned with open discrimination. the permanent disfranchisement of Confederate leaders. calling for a stricter form of Reconstruction than that proposed by Lincoln. but unpopular with many of the leaders of his party. 1867: The Reconstruction Acts divided the Confederate states except Tennessee into five military districts. Texas v. The party nominated Greeley for president. They issued Wade-Davis Manifest. Wade Davis Manifesto: Congress. . was a case which involved the disposition of Civil War bonds used by Texas. When the states were readmitted into the Union. the unreconstructed South: This term refers to failure of Reconstruction to permanently reform the South. Joint Committee on Reconstruction: The Joint Committee on Reconstruction was the Congressional committee consisting of leaders of both houses of Congress which led Congressional Reconstruction after the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 were passed. White in 1868. Among their leaders were Carl Schurz. and exploitation of African-Americans was common. The term scalawag was applied both to entrepreneurs who supported Republican economic policies and Whig planters who had opposed secession. Greely was a choice acceptable to the Democrats. This committee would exist until after Hayes was elected president. Wade-Davis bill. Horace Greely. This military occupation would last until the states created new constitutions that included black suffrage. so Grant won reelection despite the corruption within his administration and his poor leadership. conquered territory theory: The conquered territory theory was a popular theory held by many Reconstruction policy makers after the Civil War that the southern states which seceded from the Union to form the Confederate States of America should be treated as if they were territories conquered from a foreign nation. in July 1864. and Charles Sumner. which declared the primacy of Congress in matters of the Reconstruction. passed the Wade-Davis Bill. there was corruption in the states. veto. Military commanders in the districts were appointed to oversee constitutional conventions in the districts and the creation of state constitutions. scalawags: A scalawag was a white Southerner who joined the Republican party during the Reconstruction period. which had left the Union. After Lincoln pocket vetoed this bill. 1869: The trial of Texas v. •Reconstruction acts. White. Even after Republicans withdrew. The decision also declared secession unconstitutional. radicals sought to displace him. Scalawags were considered traitors to the Southern cause and were condemned by Southern Democrats. and ratification of the 14th Amendment. It was held that states in rebellion did not lose their existence or identity.
guaranteeing civil rights and was a leader in the impeachment of President Johnson. Andrew Johnson: As president he was denounced by the radical Republicans for his Reconstruction program. It was founded in the South in 1866 in opposition to Reconstruction. He was one of the leaders of the radical Republicans’ Reconstruction program and was also an active participant in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.carpetbaggers: Carpetbaggers were Northerners who went to the South during Reconstruction. harsh vagrancy laws meant to intimidate the freedmen. Ku Klux Klan: The KKK was an organization formed by ex-Confederates and led by Nathan B. He proposed the Fourteenth Amendment. rituals. restrictions on blacks’ ability to own property. He wanted to subdivide confiscated land and distribute it among the freedmen. Thaddeus Stevens: As a leader of the radical Republicans’ Reconstruction program after the Civil War. The African-American vote won them important posts in Republican state governments. Antietam. the maintenance of schools for illiterate former slaves. Gettysburg." He sincerely desired the betterment of the lives African-Americans. the radical Republicans passed a resolution of impeachment against him for violation of the Tenure of Office Act. Stevens saw the Southern states as "conquered provinces. but the Senate failed to convict him by one vote. black codes: The black codes were local laws intended to force African-Americans to continue working as plantation laborers. and Chattanooga campaigns. they condemned the newly-freed slaves to conditions not unlike slavery. "forty acres and a mule": "Forty acres and a mule" refers to the desire of Radical Republicans such as Thaddeus Stevens to carry out land redistribution in the South. Forrest disbanded the Klan in 1869. and most intended to settle in the South and make money there. They imposed prohibitive taxes. Freedmen’s Bureau: The Freedmen’s Bureau furnished food and medical supplies to blacks. and the distribution of lands abandoned by or confiscated from Southern proprietors. When Johnson tried to force Stanton out of office. General Oliver O. Charles Sumner: Sumner was the aggressive abolitionist who was physically assaulted by Preston Brooks after making a strong antislavery speech. Essentially. and to needy whites as well. he was unable to prevent many abuses to freedmen. It was also concerned with the regulation of wages and working conditions. but managed to provided needed food and medical and employment aid to many people. Forrest. Proposals such as these failed in Congress and state legislatures. They carried their belongings in carpetbags. As commissioner of the Freedmen’s Bureau after the war. to terrorize AfricanAmericans and their supporters. Chancellorsville. whippings and lynchings. . Howard: Howard was a Civil War general who took part in the Bull Run. Members used disguises.
" This amendment guaranteed freedom for African Americans. or property. 1870. he presided over the impeachment trial of President Johnson. As chief justice. color. Hiram R. without due process of law. when he created a national bank system. or previous condition of servitude. The term includes both the bringing of charges. give evidence in court. liberty. It prohibited "slavery or involuntary servitude except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. by removing Secretary of War Stanton faced impeachment. Chief Justice Chase: Salmon Chase was the sixth chief justice of the Supreme Court and an abolitionist. was as secretary of the treasury. Blanche K. Secretary of War Stanton: Edwin Stanton served as the secretary of war under Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. It prohibited the president from dismissing any cabinet member or other federal officeholder whose appointment had required the consent of the Senate unless the Senate agreed to the dismissal. They were both . but his dismissal by President Andrew Johnson and his subsequent refusal to leave office act precipitated the impeachment of President Johnson in 1868." Tenure of Office Act: The Tenure of Office Act was a measure passed by Congress in 1867.Civil Rights Act: This act was passed in Congress with nearly unanimous Republican support in March 1866. Bruce: Revels and Bruce were the first two AfricanAmerican politicians to serve a full term in the United States Senate. convey. make contracts. This amendment explicitly forbid denial of the right to vote for citizens "on account of race. This is the only instance of impeachment of an American president. 1868. after violating the Tenure of Office Act. and it attempted to redress the issue of slavery by defining all persons born in the nation as citizens. It also specified the rights of citizens. The formal accusation of Johnson went through the House on Feb." Also. 24. Revels. Johnson’s violation of this act caused the impeachment crisis. President Andrew Johnson. hold. •IMPEACHMENT: Impeachment is the formal accusation by a legislature against a public official. Thirteenth Amendment: The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution was ratified in 1865. or articles. and inherit property. It said that no state can make or enforce any law which "deprives any person of life. His greatest achievement. Fourteenth Amendment: The Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868. but the Senate failed to convict him. the right to sue. to remove him from office. states could not "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. and the trial that may follow. however." Fifteenth Amendment: Secretary of State Hamilton Fish ratified the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution of United States on March 30.
This along with the crop lien system held back African Americans economically. 1877. political. on January 29. the South became solidly Democratic. and limited the rights of tenants and sharecroppers. segregation: Segregation was the practice held in the South after legislation made explicit discrimination in law illegal.representatives from Mississippi. and five Supreme Court justices. A cycle of dependency and debt would be the result of these systems. and credit. . Black economic rights were eroded away with this crop lien system and along with sharecropping. •Compromise of 1877: As a result of the electoral vote from the election of 1876. and Gone With the Wind. especially those of the many slaves who first tasted freedom during this period. Solid South: After Reconstruction. Southern society changed in order to adjust to emancipation. crop lien system: Through this system. the Democrats cut back expenses. Landlords provided land. Reconstruction Myth: The Reconstruction Myth is the false belief that during Reconstruction. Hayes was unanimously awarded the electoral votes from Oregon and South Carolina and the ones from Louisiana by a commission vote of 8 to 7. The croppers contributed labor and received a share of the crop’s value. The social and political atmosphere of the postwar South would endure long into the 20th century. Congress created a 15-member bipartisan commission. seed.. Radical Republicans intended to exploit the South by forcing it into economic and political submission. sharecropping: It was the farm tenancy system that arose from the cotton plantation system after the Civil War. Once they gained control. In response to that legislation the concept of "separate but equal" dominated the policies Southern policy makers. wiped out social programs. but former slaves were still relegated to inferior and submissive positions through economic. The Legacy of Reconstruction Reconstruction changed the lives of southerners. to resolve the dispute concerning the electoral votes between Tilden and Hayes. and social restrictions of their rights. This practice of keeping the races separate would not officially broken up until the mid-twentieth century. five Republicans. These white southerners remained a major force in national politics well into the 20th century. lowered taxes. minus their debt to the landlord. Such beliefs were promoted by movies such as Birth of a Nation. and were the only two African-American Senators during Reconstruction. the white southern landowners possessed a tight hold over African American farm production during much of the Reconstruction periond. The committee consisted of five Democrats.
Napoleon III proclaimed himself the Emperor of France. Civil War. Grant proved to be a passive president with little skill at politics. instituted reforms. In it. Ulysses S. which resulted in his deposition.S. Grant did manage to make some important accomplishments in the area of foreign policy.9¢ per acre. purchase of Alaska: Alaska was ceded to the United States by the Russian Czar Alexander II in a treaty signed on March 30. Although he was a strong military leader. 1867. he prevented American filibustering expeditions against Cuba from escalating into war with Spain. Secretary of State William Henry Seward arranged the $7. Maximilian’s empire disintegrated when French troops withdrew. but his ability to cope with domestic controversy. Secretary of State William Seward: Seward was the American Secretary of State who handled diplomatic issues during and after the Civil War. and Great Britain settled many minor disputes such as the Alabama claims. Napoleon III: After his election in 1848. the U.S. 1871: The Treaty of Washington was a treaty arranged by Hamilton Fish. Also. Grant was admired throughout the North and was endorsed by Union veterans. which had arisen during the U. Although the French drove Juárez’s army from the capital. Grant: Grant was an American general and the 18th president of the United States. Treaty of Washington. created chaos in national politics. but it added a significant amount of territory to the United States. He arranged the Treaty of Washington. Grant was elected president of the United States in 1868 because he was a war hero. Maximilian in Mexico: Maximilian was instructed by Napoleon III in 1864 to establish a French empire in Mexico.Grantism and Postwar Politics Ulysses S. and rebuilt Paris. but his cabinet was riddled with corruption. Critics ridiculed this purchase as "Seward’s icebox. which settled disputes with Britain over the Alabama claims the and Canadian-American boundary. The United States invoked the Monroe Doctrine as justification for their demand for French nonintervention." but it expanded American territory at a reasonable price. A war hero. The treaty also provided for arbitration of disagreements over the Canadian-American boundary and fishing rights. but the Mexicans were hostile to Maximilian and loyal to President Juárez. He was involved in the Trent Affair and his most notable act was the purchase of Alaska. Secretary of State Hamilton Fish: Fish served as Grant’s secretary of state. This purchase was denounced at the time as "Seward’s folly.2 million purchase at 1. especially the economic issues which began to arise. His successful imperialist ventures were overshadowed by a failed campaign in Mexico to create a French-Mexican Empire and the Franco-Prussian War. .
Banks closed. Milwaukee. allowing the candidate to focus on his campaign rather than fundraising. Although he was also endorsed by the Democrats. leading to a Democratic victory in the next congressional election. demand rose. 16 distillers in areas of Saint Louis. was unmasked in 1875 after taking money from the "whiskey ring. Orville Babcock. September 24. Liberal Republicans: The Liberals Republicans’ revolt marked a turning point in Reconstruction history. Grant formed the Liberal Republican party and nominated as their candidate the journalist Horace Greeley. He then used this commission as Republican campaign funds. supporting the Republican southern policy while attacking regular republicans on several key issues and denouncing Grantism and the spoils system. Credit Mobilier: Officials of the Union Pacific Railroad created a fake construction company. farm prices plummeted. Belknap was Grant’s secretary of war. The act was later repealed. gold market. called the Credit Mobilier. Black Friday: Scandal caused a short-lived financial crisis in the United States that occurred on Friday. Grant’s vice-president."Whiskey Ring": Grant’s private secretary. Colfax. Both raises were made retroactive two years back. he loyally defended his subordinates. depression: Transforming the northern economy. However. Fisk and Gould probably made a profit of about $11 million through their manipulations. Sanborn Grab Fraud: In the Sanborn Grab Fraud. receiving a 50% commission for all money collected.000 in unpaid taxes. and Chicago were captured. election of 1872: In 1872. "Salary Grab Act": In the Salary Grab Act of 1873. . The panic was precipitated when two financial speculators. once the depression began." a group of distillers who bribed federal agents to avoid paying millions in whiskey taxes. Belknap resigned in 1876 when voters learned of his corruption. and the new party collapsed. in order to cheat the government out of money allotted to the construction of the Union Pacific Railroads. was linked to this scandal. James Fisk and Jay Gould. attempted to corner the U. 1875. steel furnaces stood idle. On May 10. Greeley was defeated. Panic of 1873. He took a bribe to sell lucrative Indian trading posts in Oklahoma. Republicans unhappy with the reelection of President Ulysses S. the Panic of 1873 triggered a five-year depression. a politician named Sanborn was given a contract collect $427. This issue divided both major parties and was compounded by the repayment of federal debt. and one out of four railroads failed.S. 1869. Bribing of Belknap: William E. They split the Republican party. Congress voted a 100% pay raise and a 50% increase for itself. Although Grant was not personally involved. but it was another example of the corruption of the postwar government. The public was shocked.
and promoted the inflation of farm prices. Greenbacks. With some convincing." Grant signed this act. fought to keep greenbacks in circulation. the era referred to the decades from the 1870s to the 1890s where Americans struggled to battle corruption in a morally deteriorating society. political and economical problems of the newly industrial nation. Taking its name from the novel. the Republicans backed Rutherford Hayes against the Democratic candidate. Greenback-Labor Party: The Greenback party was formed in 1876 with James Weaver as its presidential candidate. They resorted to a tactic known as "waving the bloody shirt. which promised to pay the war debt in "coin. making him president. In 1883. Samuel Tilden. The tactic emphasized wartime animosities by urging northern voters to vote the way they shot." which was used in the last two elections. The party elected 14 members to Congress . political candidates were forbidden from soliciting contributions from government workers. election of 1876: The presidential election of 1876 resulted in neither Democrat Samuel Tilden nor Republican Rutherford Hayes receiving the 185 electoral votes necessary to become president. The party adopted the debtors’ cause. Specie Resumption Act: The Sherman Specie Resumption Act promised to put the nation effectively on the gold standard in 1879. . There were 20 disputed votes. This act also set up a civil service commission to prepare competitive exams and establish standards of merit for a variety of federal jobs."Waving the bloody shirt": During the election of 1876. he ended military rule of the South. robber barrons schemed to corner the gold market. The Gilded Age. Ohio Ideas: During the Civil War the Union had borrowed money through the sale of war bonds. Diverse groups participated in the political arena as they attempted to reform the social. • PENDLETON CIVIL SERVICE ACT: Because of the Pendleton Civil Service Act. it changed the minds of the Republican voters who also wanted to continue Greenbacks for the sake of "easy money. politics played an increasingly important role in the lives of the common men. and a Congressional committee gave all of these to Hays. Senator John Sherman of Ohio and other Republican leaders obtained passage of the Public Credit Act of 1869. he had the courage to endorse the act which reformed the spoils system. Although President Arthur was a Stalwart. known as Greenbacks." Debtors favored the Greenbacks because they could repay debts easier with this inflated currency. Congress enacted a civil service law introduced by Senator George Pendleton of Ohio. Unfortunately. In exchange. to private citizens. As prosperity returned. Gilded Age Politics As America modernized. the Greenbacks faded.
Blaine’s mistake allowed Cleveland to obtain New York’s electoral votes. gold standard. in the presidential election of 1884. James G. who favored the spoils system of political patronage. Arthur: He became president after the assassination of Garfield. Stalwarts.S.S. refused to support the nominee of their party. The Dingley tariff of 1879 increased rates to an all-time high levels while the Currency Act of 1900 officially changed the U. senator. and Rebellion. Cleveland supported low tariffs. civil service legislation. while Democrats preferred low ones. the Sun. and was elemental in his party’s success in elections. The two differed mainly over who would control the party machinery. He supported the passage of the Pendleton Act in 1883. Romanism. who ran against Conkling.Chester A. The Wilson-Gorman Protective Tariff also unsuccessfully attempted to create an income tax. The Independent Republicans. Blaine: Blaine was a Republican Congressman. They were joined together as the Republican party." supported Cleveland." Blaine failed to repudiate the remark and the Democrats widely publicized this insult to Catholics. rose above the political corruption prevalent during the times and headed a reform-oriented administration that enacted the first comprehensive U. drinkers and patriotic Democrats. Treasury surplus: The high tariffs were feeding a large and growing budget surplus. but disputes over patronage split it into two: Stalwarts and Halfbreeds. High Tariffs: Republicans preferred high tariffs. This surplus stood as a continual temptation to distribute it in the form of veterans . "Rum. Half-breeds: They argued with the Stalwarts on the issues of who would control the party of machine and would distribute patronage jobs. Mugwumps: This term designated dissident members of the Republican party. Blaine. James G. The Democrats controlled the House. secretary of state under Garfield. who served from 1881 to 1885. and Rebellion": At a rally on election eve. Election of 1884: James G Blaine was nominated by the Republicans. Roscoe Conkling: The Stalwarts. a clergyman denounced the Democrats as the party of "Rum. Instead. they supported the Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland. Blaine was considered one of the most popular Republicans of his time. who. and a presidential candidate under the Republican Half-Breeds. while Grover Cleveland was the Democratic nominee. who was later elected. This 21st president. The battle over patronage split the Republican party into two factions: the Half-breeds and the Stalwarts. The term was first used derisively in a New York City newspaper. Romanism. which cost Blaine the election. The Half-breeds supported civil service reform and merit appointments to government posts. were lead by New York Senator Roscoe Conkling. known as "Mugwumps. while the Republicans dominated the Senate.
The Republicans falsely portrayed the Democrats as advocates of "free trade. the Republicans turned to Benjamin Harrison. The ambassador fell into the trap and advised Murchinson to vote for Cleveland. He argued that lower tariffs would not only cut the federal surplus but also reduce prices and slow the development of trusts. the economy recovered from a severe depression. The Republican Congress of 1890 became known as the Billion-dollar Congress. He appointed a past GAR commander as commissioner of pension. Veterans disability pensions cost the government millions dollars a year. 90% of all the states were convinced to adopt a new ballot like the one in Australia. The line started with first the president pro tempore. In 1890.pension or expensive public-work programs. The GAR actively encouraged veterans to file claims. there would be a line of succession. This was a Populist goal articulated in the Omaha Platform. Cleveland was convinced that surplus constituted a corrupting influence. McKinley Tariff: His administration enacted a higher tariff in 1897 and committed the country to the gold standard in 1900." which many felt would have horrible consequences. and continued. Billion dollar congress. which was a method of voting that listed voter options. It generally promoted business confidence. The Republicans gracefully publicized the "Murchinson Letter" as a foreign attempt to meddle in an American election. Congress had eased the rules for securing them. . issues: Because Blaine decided not to run. rather than Harrison. candidates. Czar Reed: Harrison quickly rewarded his supporters. The secret ballot is also known as the Australian ballot. The paper ballot emerged as a dominant voting method. secretary of defense. Presidential Succession Act of 1886: This act determined that if both the President of the United States and the Vice President both died or if they were both disqualified. bowing to GAR pressure. Pension GAR: After the Civil War. known as pork barrel projects. secretary of state. but in 1879. Probably in part because of these policies. Benjamin Harrison. veterans formed the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) to lobby for pensions. Republican focused on the tariff issue. Harrison signed the pension bill that Cleveland had earlier vetoed. His tariff message upset many corporate boardrooms who thought that lowering the tariff would hurt their prosperity. Election of 1888. Secret ballot: Between 1888 and 1896. secretary of treasury. Harrison won in the electoral college by defeating Grover Cleveland. Cleveland’s 1887 annual address: Cleveland focused his entire annual address message to Congress on the tariff issue. and the Republicans became identified with economic prosperity. "Murchinson letter": Charles Murchinson wrote a letter to the British Ambassador to ask how he should vote during the election of 1888.
Cleveland turned to Wall Street bankers J. It was passed by William McKinley’s administration during a time when both the House of Representatives and the Senate were dominated by Republicans. Pan Americanism. but later proved to be an excellent addition. this tariff became a law without the signature of approval from Cleveland. which restored confidence in the government." it was generally thought to be useless. the U. Gold Standard Act.2 million was paid to Russia for Alaska. Although the U.S. Due to the discovery of gold in Alaska and the prosperity of farms prices. the U.Election of 1892: The Republicans re-nominated Harrison.S.S. it preferred market expansion to the traditional European territorial colonialsim. markets for surplus production. Voters generally reacted against the high McKinley Tariff.S. "New Imperialism" Growing into a leading nation. The government then bought gold. The Currency Act of 1900 officially changed the U. and he won the election. to the gold standard. Also known as "Seward’s Icebox" or "Seward’s folly. Morgan and August Belmont agreed to lend the government $62 million in exchange for U. the United States hoped to further its international standing by emulating European nations that were expanding their influence throughout the world. did expand its influence in other countries. Morgan bond transaction: During the depression of 1893 to 1897. Subsequent to this act. and opportunities for overseas investments. James Blaine: In 1881 Secretary of State James G. Seward negotiated the purchase of Alaska in 1867. Blaine advocated the creation of an International Bureau of American Republics to promote a customs . 1900: This act officially put the United States on the gold standard. which increased rates to all-time high levels. bonds at a special discount. and it was highly contested by Congress. but the supreme court declared it unconstitutional in 1895. Alaska: Secretary of state William H. Dingley tariff: The McKinley administration furthered its conservative platform through the Dingley Tariff of 1897. During the 1870s. The Populists nominated James B Weaver who did not did better than expected. "new imperialism" was directed towards finding access to resources. there was little protest against the Dingley tariff. while the Democrats turned to Grover Cleveland who was a Conservative. $7. Cleveland’s conservative economic policies brought him support. It did have a modest income tax of 12% on all income over $4000. the gold reserve dwindled to $41 million.S.P. went on and off the gold standard several times and abandoned it in 1971. Wilson-Gorman Tariff: In order to increase the sight of the governments role in an age of towering fortunes.
Corporations emerged. from its traditionally isolationist feudal society into a world power.S. received international recognition as a comprehensive of naval strategy.major industrial empires that drastically changed the face of American business. the industrial sectors of society rapidly expanded. Facing ruin. Tariff autonomy to Japan: During the Meiji period following the collapse of the shogunate. 1937. annexation. The Influence of Sea Power: . . and requested U. Even the common man shared in the American desire to gain wealth through the new industrial economy. navy sought access to the Port of Pago Pago as a refueling station. taking on imperialistic quailites. Americans generally favored industrialization. the planters deposed Queen Liliuokalani in Jan 1893. The title of The Influence of Sea Power upon History. the Japanese army in Manchuria moved troops into the area. The United States also worked to bring an end to the War of the Pacific which was fought between Chile and the alliance of Peru and Bolivia. A Union naval officer during the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865. Although the war was never actually declared. ratified a treaty with Samoa in 1878 which gave America trading rights and a naval base at Pago Pago.S. He was promoted to the rank of captain in 1885. Port of Pago Pago: Restless stirrings in America were felt in the far-off Samoan Island in the South Pacific. Hawaii was claimed as an American territory in 1898. Captain Mahan. precipitating another SinoJapanese war. and the captains of industry created . The U. The assassination of Garfield kept Blaine from his organization until 1889.S. Japan controlled its own tariffs. Emperor Meiji took it upon himself to enact tariffs. Japan transformed.union of trade and political stability for the Western Hemisphere. Mahan served in the navy for nearly 40 years. US mediation of border disputes: The United States offered its aid to promote the peaceful resolution of border conflict between a number of states. Sino-Japanese War: A Chinese patrol clashed with Japanese troops on the Marco Polo Bridge near Beijing on July 7. Using the incident as a pretext to begin hostilities. proclaimed the independent Republic of Hawaii. Although many opposed the large businesses when they hurt individuals. The U. and thus. Hawaiian Revolution: Hawaii’s wholesale sugar prices plummeted as a result of the elimination of the duty-free status enjoyed by Hawaiian sugar. Industrial America During the late 19th century.
published in 1776. John D. automatically regulating the supply of and demand for goods and services. In 1882 Rockefeller formed the Standard Oil Trust. which was an association of the largest oil refiners in Cleveland. Horizontal consolidation: Within three years. Rockefeller helped form the South Improvement Company in early 1872. Adam Smith. It allowed Americans to travel from coast to coast in a week. the first corporate trust. His philosophy was simple: "watch the costs and the profit will take care of themselves. The Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads were joined together to form the first transcontinental railroad in May 1869 when railroad executives drove a golden spike into the ground at Promontory Point." • UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD. he said. and several associates. the Standard Oil Trust had consolidated crude oil by buying throughout its member firms. it had previously taken several months to do so. "Robber Barrons": Known as the great captains of industy and as robber barons who lined their pockets. This. Rockefeller: He is famous for his Standard Oil Company. Rockefeller integrated the petroleum industry vertically by controlling every function from . The doctrine favors capitalist self-interest. or villains." He endorsed a laissez-faire approach to economics and was the first to define the system of capitalism.Laissez-faire: It meant non-governmental interference in business. Rockefeller integrated the petroleum industry horizontally by merging the competing oil companies into one giant system.000. Some of these Robber Barrons were Jay Gould. his brother William. Rockefeller. He had a desire for cost cutting and efficiency. The Wealth of Nations: In The Wealth of Nations. and John D. but spend the surplus each year for benevolent purposes. Utah in order to connect the two. was declared an illegal monopoly and ordered dissolved by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1892. Vertical consolidation: The Standard Oil Trust had consolidated crude-oil buying throughout it members firms and slashed the number of refineries in half. when he had an annual income of $50. CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD: The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 had authorized the construction of the transcontinental railroad. and natural consumer preferences as forces leading to optimal prosperity and freedom. Andrew Carnegie: Carnegie decided to build his own steel mill in 1870. Adam Smith believed that self-interest was an "invisible hand in the marketplace." At the age of 33. Standard Oil Company: The Standard Oil Company was organized in 1870 by Rockefeller. and he arranged with the railroads to obtain substantial rebates on shipments by members of the association. these captains. "beyond this never earn. make no effort to increase fortune. It had slashed the number of refineries in half. competition. Hill. It began in the late 18th century as a strong liberal reaction to trade taxation and nationalist governmental control known as mercantilism. of industry made their money by manipulating the stock markets and company policies.
Carnegie was free to pursue philanthropic activities. Steel corporation. He also founded the journal Science in 1883. lowering cost. He controlled all aspects of manufacturing from mining to selling. and in 1870. he was most famous for his invention of the telephone. With Hill. He was one of the cofounders of the National Geographic Society. senator from California. After the agreement. This new technology. With Frick’s great leadership. and he served as its president from 1896 to 1904. combined with cost analysis. With Henry’s help. he became associated with the New York and Harlem Railroad in 1867. Thomas A. He founded the Vanderbilt University. Since the age of 18. he combined Carnegie’s company with Federal Steel. Great Northern Railroad: He reorganized and expanded the railroad industry in the 1870s and 1880s. An American inventor. His other inventions includes the induction balance. and became president in 1886. Carnegie’s steel mill profits rose every year despite labor troubles and a national depression. At the same time he began to act as head of the Vanderbilt family. and motion picture projector had advanced the life of modern society. Paul and Pacific Railroad. and improving efficiency.S. Therefore. electric generating system. provided a learning railroad experience for Carnegie. audiometer. The bessemer invention offered a means of driving up profits. Henry Clay Frick: Frick’s job was to manage the daily operations of Carnegie’s company. Leland Stanford: An American Railroad magnate and a politician.S. He and three other partners bought the St. he served as the Republican governor of California and the U. Alexander Graham Bell: An American inventor and teacher of the deaf. Bessemer process: The process consisted of a shot of air blasted through an enormous crucible of molten iron to burn off carbon and impurities. Bell had been working on the idea of transmitting speech. He shared the same dream as Carnegie to interconnect industry system with technology. James G.production to local retailing. . he started the Central Pacific Railroad Company. Charles Schwab: He became president of Carnegie Steel when he bought half of the company for half a billion dollars. This became the first business to capitalize at more than $1 billion dollars. his development of a practical electric light bulb. he founded the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. and the first was recording cylinder introduced in 1885. sound-recording device. Edison: He epitomized the inventive impulse. Cornelius Vanderbilt: An American industrialist and philanthropist. He was exemplified as a robber baron who manipulated stock markets and company policies. Morgan set up the U. Hill.
He later became a partner and the president. Morgan refinanced their debts and built an intersystem alliance by purchasing blocks of stock in the world of competing railroads. He also marketed U.S. and educated at the University of Pennsylvania. and statesman.: He was a Philadelphia banker who had taken over the new transcontinental line. in 1869. merged to form the American Tobacco Company in 1890. They also developed the technique of refrigerating food in order to ship food across seas. his vault was full of bonds that he could no longer sell. and steaks. Jay Gould and Jim Fiske: They attempted to corner the gold market in 1869 with the help of Grant’s brother-in-law. Andrew Mellon: An American financier. Cook fail to meet obligation and his bank. Gary was a strong foe of unions. Mesabi Range: Andrew Carnegie bought an ore company in the newly opened Mesabi Range in Minnesota in 1892. Within few years.United States Steel Corporation. Grant’s reputation was tarnished and could not be restored. Phillip Armour: Swift. In September of that year. but he introduced profit sharing and encouraged higher wages and better working conditions. Duke: An American tobacco industrialist and philanthropist whose career originated with a small family business. the Northern Pacific. James B. James lead and dominated the national market. The family concentrated on cigarette production in 1881. Pierpont Morgan: When national depression struck a number of railroads in 1893. When gold prices tumbled. of the firm that developed into the Mellon National Bank. . along with four partners. They both won a large share of the eastern urban market for meat. originally a steel company town. is named after him. Gary: Gary was a lawyer who later became president of the Federal Steel Company in 1898. The city of Gary. in 1902. "Stock watering": This term referred to the act of issuing stock certificates far in excess of the actual value of the assets. investors were ruined. he started his career in the banking firm of Thomas Mellon and Sons of Pittsburgh. which was the largest in the nation. industrialist. Some who "stock watered" persuaded the populace to buy up stock. J. but then sold the stock when prices rose. Iron production began there in the late 19th century. Elbert H. and Philip Armour turned pigs and cattle into bacon. government securities on a massive scale. a Chicago meatpacker. Jay Cook Co. This was during 1890 when the stock market was at an all time high. was shut down. pork chops. Gustavus Swift. Gould and Fiske salvaged their own fortunes. James. and made a profit while ruining the business of other investors. The hills contained large deposits of iron ore.. Unfortunately. The Mesabi Range is one of the chief iron-producing regions in the world. Indiana.
short haul: It was cheaper to ship a long haul on the railroads than it was to ship a short haul. were discriminated against. INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION: The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 was passed to provide that a commission be established to oversee fair and just railway rates. Depression of 1873: Early in Grant’s second term. which allowed the government to investigate and oversee railroad activities. Rebates: A rebate is a partial monetary return of an amount paid. The pool lacked legal status. while the trust was a legal device that centralized control over a number of different companies by setting up a board of trustees to run all of them." . many state legislatures. Long haul. The Interstate Commerce Act prohibited rebates for railway rates because they discriminated between different groups. Fourteenth Amendment’s "due process clause": The fourteenth amendment declared in its first clause that all person born or naturalized in the United States were recognized as citizens of the nation and as citizens of their states and that no state could abridge their rights without due process of law or deny them equal protection of the law. This Act was passed in 1887 with the Interstate Commerce Commission. The Sherman Antitrust act failed to define either trust or restraint of trade clearly. • SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT. the country was hit by an economic depression known as the panic of 1873. prohibit rebates. Trust: Competition became so vicious that railroads tried to end it by establishing pools in order to divide the traffic equally and to charge similar rates. the Interstate Commerce Commission. Small farmers were angered that they were required to pay more than other interests were. As a result. Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890. between 1890 and 1904. When Standard Oil faced the problem of antitrust suits in 1892. Brought on by over expansive tendencies of railroad builders and businessmen during the immediate postwar boom. Holding Companies: A holding company is a corporation that owns a controlling share of the stock of one or more other firms. who made many short hauls. the Panic was triggered by economic downturns in Europe and by the failure of Jay Cooke’s bank. outlawed rate discrimination as a result of protests led by the Grangers. Small farmers were angered that they. In the 1870s. which outlawed trusts and other restraints of trade. 1890: Fearing that the trusts would stamp out all competition. end discriminatory practices. lawyers invoked New Jersey law that allowed permitted corporations to own property in other states by simply reorganizing the trust as an enormous holding company. the government prosecuted only eighteen antitrust suits. The act established a new agncy. and require annual reports and financial statements. Violators were fined up to five thousand dollars and one year in prison. and it was instead used to hinder the efforts of labor unions who acted "in restraint of trade. • INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT.Pool.
• KNIGHTS OF LABOR. Labor Unions.S. professional gambler. His novels portray the demoralizing effects of modern technology on the human fate. attack the railroad and wheat industries in the United States. they excluded bankers. TERRENCE POWDERLY: The Knights of labor dreamed of a national labor movement. William Sylvis: In 1866. and was led by Uriah Stephens. Samuel Gompers: An American labor leader. was a noted pioneer of naturalism in literature. Georgia. As editor. lawyers.Frank Norris. and cooperative employer-employee ownership. In their organization. • AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR (AFL): Confronted by big business. They did not intend to have a violent revolution nor political radicalism. who was also the head of the Garment Cutters of Philadelphia. an end to child and convict labor. Feeling that they were helpless against the practices of the large corporations. He bought share in Atlantic Constitution in 1879. workers collectivized to gain power through their numbers. He led the AFL for forty years. novelist Frank Norris. mining. The Octopus:The U. and liquor dealers. published in 1901. and manufacturing. Samuel Gompers and Adolph Strasser put together a combination of national crafts unions to represent the material interests of labor in the matter of wages. he. and demanded equal pay for women. but also embraced banking reform and an end to conviction labor. Sylvis called a convention in Baltimore that formed the National Labor Union (NLU).S. They welcomed all wage earners. published in 1903. such as the National Labor Union and the Knights of Labor. workers organized themselves to protect their welfare. and safety precautions. Henry Grady: Henry Grady was a U. journalist and orator born in Athens." which referred to a rejuvenated south. They demanded bargaining in labor contracts with large corporations such as railroads. acting on his dream of a nationwide association to represent all workers. New South. he did much to restore friendly relations between the North and South during a period of bitter hatred and conflict. and The Pit . His best-known works. The Growth Of Labor Reacting to the emergence of big business. The organization supported the eight-hour day movement. National Labor Union. hours. The Octopus. stressed cooperation between management and labor instead of strike actions. This organization was founded in Philadelphia in 1869. He often lectured on the concept of "The New South. . as a means of obtaining labor demands. URIAH STEPHENS. were created in order to establish forums for workers to express discontent. until his death in 1924. as president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL).
Closed Shop: The closed shop is an agreement between a trade union and an employer which is a collective bargain. President Rutherford B. Blacklist. Many police and civilians were injured as well. This spread up and down the railroad line across the nation. but they were controlled by the management. In the Homestead Strike. either in process or threatened. It provides that employees in the bargaining unit shall be union members and remain in good standing in the union as a condition of employment. In 1877. They often spied on the unions for the companies. John Peter Altgeld: He served as the liberal governor of Illinois from 1893 to 1897. workers began to strike to obtain better conditions. Great Railroad Strike. requiring a defendant to refrain from committing a specific act. The terms are set forth in a written agreement that the union and the employer promise to enforce. the National Detective Agency. restraining. • haymarket square riot: Strikers and police had a confrontation while a strike was in progress on May 4. However. so the company had the final word on the labor policy. it was a company-sponsored labor union that was dominated by the management. injurious to the plaintiff. It is an order or decree in the law of equity. a process by which unions and employers negotiate terms of employment. Injunction: An injuntion is a court order.Collective bargaining: The major function of unions is collective bargaining. The AFL demanded collective bargaining in labor contracts with large corporations. they were called in as strikebreakers. 1877: A group of railroad workers on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad rose up and began to strike due to wage cuts. 1886. Yellow Dog Contracts: With the formation of labor unions. Injunctions are generally preventive. The workers wanted unions. at the McCormick reaper works in Chicago. which forced the employee to agree not to strike or join a union. killing many of them. Company Union: First adapted by the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company in 1915. and they got them. which which made getting another job later much harder. They also made employees sign yellow dog contracts. employers blacklisted employees that went on strike. Many of these shops were banned by the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947. It was generally used against strikers. when a railroad strike broke out. Railroad roadhouse were torched. or prohibitory in nature. Pinkertons: They were a group in Allan Pinkerton’s organization. Several protesters were shot by police the day before. Hayes sent in troops to stop the strike. 100 people died in the strike. The police were attempting to break up the meeting when a bomb was thrown by a protester. He was criticized for pardoning the anarchists who threw the bomb in the Haymarket Square . the Pinkertons fired on the strikers. A violent gun battle ensuedin which seven police were killed. and a protest against police violence was called.
The union was involved in the 1894 Pullman Strike. Richard Olney: He was the United States Attorney General from 1893 to 1897. These urban centers quickly crowded." Urbanization Rapid urbanization began in the 1870s as people flocked to the cities. Eugene V. in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. it was one of the most violent strikes in U. He also helped organize the Social Democrat party in 1897. that unions were prohibited from setting up boycotts in support of strikes. because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. Connecticut.Riot and for objecting to the use of federal troops in the Pullman strike. Danbury Hatters Strike:. He later became a lecturer and organizer for the Socialist movement. The General Manager’s Association attempted to get an federal injunction from Olney against the strikers for refusing to move cars carrying U. President Grover Cleveland interfered and stopped the strike by saying that they had interfered with the right of the government to maintain the uninterrupted transport of mail. and Tin Workers. His action was considered dangerously radical by the American public. mail. Steel. residential. Debs. He also sat on the board of directors of three major networks of railroads. Debs led a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads. which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894. and 1912. American Railway Union: Created by Eugene V. and many cities became impersonal metropolises that were divided into business. Amidst this chaos. Homestead Strike: Called in 1892 by the Amalgamated Association of Iron. he helped bring about the shut down of western railroads with the 1894 Pullman Strike. it was a union created in a short-lived attempt to bring all of the railroad workers into one organization. He was arrested for these actions. which was known for its hat industry. history. 1908. after a strike by workers in Danbury. Debs: As the president and the organizer of the American Railway Union. 1904. Debs was arrested and the strike was broken up. social and ethnic centers. He was the party’s presidential candidate five times: in 1900. This union was a precursor of the union movement that followed in the 1930s.S. . It was against the Homestead Steel Works.S. company guards and Pinkertons opened fire on the strikers after four months of striking. Pullman Strike: The American Railway Union and Eugene V. The Supreme Court declared in 1908. killing and wounding many strikers. On July 6. after meeting socialist Victor Berger. It was said that a boycott was a "conspiracy in restraint of trade. which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company. The state militia dispersed the strikers.
poorly built. In addition. • TAMMANY HALL: Founded by anti-federalist William Mooney. He held New York City and state political posts where he increased his power. Streetcar Suburbs: The creation of electric streetcar systems allowed families to move farther from the city’s center. He was best known for his cartoons slandering the corrupt Tammany ring of New York during the period from 1869 to 1872. Cox: Cox. He worked his way up the ladder from being a newspaper boy to being the head of the political machine. and he received generous rewards. the Tammany Society. it is the name for the New York Democratic party machine. referred to the police corruption that took place in the Tammany Hall political machine. It began to gain power with the rise of Boss Tweed in 1868. Its leader. However. and was opposed by reform groups. they were inhabited mainly by new immigrants. had a reputation for being one of the most honest bosses. Forming the Tweed Ring. Tammany Hall gained a great reputation for its corrupt practices. which bought votes. Smith.corruption thrived as political bosses ran the city for their own personal gain. He was paid by these candidates. Thomas Nast: A political cartoonist and caricaturist. and that contained filth. There was a lack of fresh air and light in these housing units. The practices included paying bribes to make an individual a police officer. Boss George B. . George Washington Plunkitt: A minor boss in Tammany Hall and a member of the New York State Assembly. He later worked for Harper’s Weekly. It appeared as if the nation was modernizing quicker than it could deal with problems of urbanization. Alfred E. created by George Washington Plunkitt. he became an illustrator for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper in 1855. The worst tenements became known as slums. Streetcar companies purchased land on the city’s periphery and made tremendous profits on the sale of the real estate. Tenements: Built by a landlord. also known as the Tammany Society. This facilitated the move away from the city’s center. tenements were small housing units that were extremely overcrowded. he helped with many public works in the city. and in addition. the boss of Cincinnati’s Republican political machine. ran for president of the United States. or to get him to the position of a sergeant. Boss Tweed: He was an important figure in New York’s political machine. he was skilled in winning numerous votes for party candidates by associating with and being kind to the people in New York. he controlled New York politics. to get him a promotion. whose supposed goal was to preserve democratic institutions. "Honest Graft": This term. The streetcar system allowed people to live farther away from their work. and encouraged judicial corruption.
With his support. in his construction. He also created and manufactured steel-wire ropes which he used. Louis Sullivan: Sullivan was an American architect who used steel frames to design skyscrappers. rather than on the academic and impressionist styles of the 19th century. It was an international exhibition in which modern art was first shown in the United States. Armory Show: It was an art exhibition that took place in New York between February 17 and March 15. He created the philosophy of "Organic Architecture. Roebling: Roebling was one of the creators of the suspension bridges. One of his most famous works was the Brooklyn Bridge which he completed shortly before his death. He was also influential in the passage by Congress of the 1873 law concerned with obscenity in the U. mails. he was influential in bringing about parks and playgrounds in overcrowded neighborhoods. metal furniture." Ashcan School: This school contained a group of painters. John A. popular. and early social documentaries in American history. and he introduced many innovations. including double-glass windows. of which he became secretary. Jacob Riis. along with steel cables. who later became a famous architect. He was also the author of The American Commonwealth (1888). the Ashcan School focused on more contemporary subjects. Together with his partner Dankmar Adler. Frank Lloyd Wright: Wright was one of the greatest twentieth-century architect and is cosidered a pioneer of the modern style. He wanted to reform tenement housing and schools. known as The Eight. It became known as the Comstock Law. and air conditioning. His most famous pupil was Frank Lloyd Wright. Led by Robert Henri. who helped organize the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice in 1873. political institutions.S. which is one of the most discerning studies ever written on U. . He began as a designer for the Adler Sullivan firm. In addition. who exhibited their style together as a group in 1908. He served as the ambassador to the United States from 1907 to 1913. He was also the founder of what is now the Chicago School of Architects.Denis Kearney: He was a labor leader who protested the increasing numbers of Chinese laborers when California had an economic depression in 1877. he formed the Workingman’s Party of California. 1913 at the 69th Regiment Armory. Anthony Comstock: Comstock was a reformer. which later became associated with the Grange movement. How the Other Half Lives: Riis was a social reformer and writer who wrote one of the most influential. A quarter of a million paid to see the show.S. James Bryce: He was a British historian and statesman who became the leader of the Liberal Party. he produced over 100 buildings.
and Welsh immigrants. . In addition. anarchists. "Old Immigration": This Term applies to those migrating from Western and Eastern Europe. one and a half million traveled over from Ireland. The Theory of the Leisure Class: Thorstein Bunde Veblen was best known for his book.Thorstein Veblen. All of these immigrants came over in search of jobs and of new economic opportunities. polygamists. Bowers. "New Immigration": They were a new group of immigrants coming into the United States that consisted of Italians. Next came the British.S. Slavs. Many immigrants faced the dual problems of changing cultures and migrating from a rural life to an urban one. By this law." his writing was an assault on the values and lifestyles of the Gilded Age businessmen. In addition to these difficulties. persons suffering from loathsome or contagious diseases. Literacy tests: Passed by Congress in 1917in order to restrict immigration. the new immigrants often faced prejudice from nativist Americans. and persons liable to become public disturbances and problems were all excluded form the U. this was a secret antiCatholic society founded in 1887. There had also been increasing labor violence against the Chinese. They were the largest group of immigrants that migrated to the United States. and all convicts. Most of the immigrants came from peasant and poor backgrounds and boosted America’s foreign-born population by 18 million. arriving from Southern and Eastern Europe. and any immigrant who could not pass the tests was not allowed entry into the U. in Clinton Iowa. a flood of immigrants. their numbers first began to increase. which was published in 1899. it was one of three laws that attempted to solve the increasing immigration problem. The largest group of approximately three million. Jews. The Theory of The Leisure Class. during the 1870s. Chinese Exclusion Law. Scottish. However. 1882: Passed by Congress.S. came from Germany in the 1840s and 1850s. and Armenians. Introducing the concept of "conspicuous consumption. From Melting Pot To Salad Bowl The earlier immigrants to American consisted mainly of Northern Europeans. immigrants had to be examined. They were often discriminated against. gushed into the already overcrowded metropolises. and the numbers continued to increase for the next three decades. It died in 1911. American Protective Association: Founded by Henry F. and it supported the Republican Party until it split over the question of whether or not to support William McKinley. The panic of 1893 greatly increased its membership. Literacy tests were imposed on all immigrants. and also from the Middle East. They came from both Southern and Eastern Europe. Greeks. prostitutes. In the 1890s. which totaled 2 million. the law enlarged the group of immigrants that could be excluded from the United States.
Washington Gladden: He was a Congregationalist minister who became known for his pragmatic social theology.S. Salvation Army: Founded by Methodist William Booth. Groups were formed to aid the less fortunate Americans who inhabited the slums of the cities. Anti-Saloon League: During and after the American Civil War. He sought to solve social problems caused by the industrialized society by applying Christian principles. It was a welfare agency for needy families. Jane Addams. By 1916 they enacted anti-saloon laws in 23 states and in 1917 they passed the 18th amendment beginning prohibition. which was the first settlement house in the U. in 1912. protecting society’s weaker classes.S. he wrote 38 books. in many cases. the laws regulating many aspects of saloons were either reduced or eliminated. He argued against William Graham Sumner in his Dynamic Sociology and stated that the laws of nature could be changed by mankind through government experts regulating big business. and it also served to combat juvenile delinquency and to assist the recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. In addition. Addams played a large role in the formation of the National Progressive Party and the Women’s Peace Party. He also helped found the Society of Jesus to publish periodicals for the working class. In 1908 the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America adopted a social creed that called for many improvements in society. The movement preached and taught religion and human dignity to the working class in order to correct the effects of capitalism. middle class Americans strove to enact reform measures that would aid their society. which include Working People and their Employers. In addition. she created the Hull House in 1889 in Chicago. there was a prevalent feeling of condecension towards the poorer classes. it is a religious and charitable organization dedicated to spreading the Christian faith and giving assistance to those in . With the help of Ellen Star. Walter Rauschenbusch: He was a clergyman who was one of the leaders of the Social Gospel movement. Although these citizens strove to aid their fellow man. As a result. Lester Frank Ward: Ward worked with the U. He linked theological liberalism with strong social concern.The Middle Class Reform Impulse As Americans viewed the poverty throughout their cities. • SOCIAL GOSPEL: It was a Protestant liberal movement led by Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch that applied Christian principles to the numerous social problems that affected the late 19th century United States as a result of industrialization. He worked with Walter Rauschenbusch as a leader of the Social Gospel movement. Geological Survey. and preventing the destruction of natural resources. many people united in this league in the fight against saloons. Hull House: She was a social worker and a Nobel laureate.
but in reality. Looking Backward. Herbert Spencer: Spencer was a British philosopher. and then turned toward literature. In the U. in 1891. Josiah Strong: Strong was the secretary of the American Home Missionary Society and the minister of Cincinnati's Central Congregational Church. and A System of Synthetic Philosophy. Bellamy created the journal. Afraid that poverty was escalating. He was also editor in chief of the religious and political periodicals Independent and The Christian Union. libraries. In this book. This novel led to the formation of many socialistic clubs. it began constructing gyms. he wrote his book Our Country. • Edward Bellamy. This novel was a depiction of an ideal society in the year 2000. YMCA: British Sir George Williams founded this organization in response to unsanitary social conditions in large cities at the end of the Industrial Revolution. New York. Rev. He recommended a shift to what he called a single tax. control all social order and they can not be changed by man. He published his most famous work in 1888. Also. he stated that land ownership is concentrated in the hands of a few. such as survival of the fittest. they misinterpreted his words. To further publicize his views. 2000-1887: He was an essayist and journalist who founded the Springfield Daily News. he stated that unchangeable laws of nature. Principles of Psychology. It was believed that human progress depended highly on competition. and summer camps. who was also one of the earliest and best known abolitionists. and the less fit in society would be poor and the lower classes.S. His works include Social Statics. Those who were best fit for survival would become rich and powerful. whose goal was to give aid to the London slums. Many felt that this theory was expounded by Charles Darwin. like all other organisms compete for survival and success in life. he was an effective champion of women's rights and suffrage. and to stop the young workers from gambling and engaging in other disreputable. • SOCIAL DARWINISM: It is a theory developed in the late 19th century by which individuals and societies believed that people. Progress and Poverty: George was an economist and social philosopher.. which was entitled Looking Backward. Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis in 1885. and these people reap the benefits of the rise in value of the land. . Henry George. 2000-1887. William Graham Sumner. He created a system of philosophy that included his own theory of evolution. where he stated that cities were centers of anarchy and destruction.need of both spiritual and material aid. Henry Ward Beecher: Beecher was the pastor of the Plymouth Church of the Pilgrims in Brooklyn. but also incorporated all existing fields of knowledge. In his book Progress and Poverty. New Nation. It was founded in 1865 in England as the Christian Mission. What Social Classes Owe Each Other: Sumner was a sociologist and author of What Social Classes Owe Each Other. who was regarded as one of the first sociologists.
In his theory. Charles Sheldon.The Single Tax: Developed by social philosopher and economist Henry George. He used religious virtue to justify the quest for wealth as a Christian endeavor. causing them to strive to express their views through various forms. Scientist. Charles Darwin: Darwin was a British Scientist who created the theory of modern evolution. The Wings of the Dove. it was a doctrine of social reform where all taxation should be reduced to a single tax on land. Many Catholic socialism movements are derived from this. Moody: Moody was the creator of the Illinois Street Church which was later renamed the Moody Memorial Church. He was also the author of the book In His Steps . Rev. Dwight L. Rerum Novarum. came a fervor of cultural display. The Flowering Of American Culture Along with the new social currents of the day caused by rapid urbanization. immigration. and it found fault with capitalism for the poverty and insecurity that it left the working class in. 1891: Formulated by Pope Leo XIII. he began a series of revival meetings and opened the Northfield Seminary for Young Women and the Mount Hermon School for Boys. it was the Catholic social doctrine. Some of his famous writings include The Ambassadors." His theories were presented in his novel The Origin of Species. and the growth of business. It emphasized social problems which tied it into the Social Gospel Movement. which he gave over 6000 times. the development of organisms came through a process called natural selection. and it was influenced by 17th century philosopher John Locke and British economist David Ricardo. American culture diversified as Americans saw the society around them drastically changing. Together with Ira Sankey. Henry James: James was a writer and brother of philosopher William James. He wrote about the impact of European culture on Americans who traveled or lived abroad. she published . Russell Conwell. which is often called "survival of the fittest. He also founded the Bible Institute in Chicago in 1889. and The Golden Bowl. which is the story of people who tried to pattern their lives after the life of Jesus. The doctrine was described in his book Progress and Poverty. In His Steps: He was a Congregational clergyman and a social reformer. After a remarkable recovery from sickness. Mary Baker Eddy: She was the founder of the Christian Science Association and the Church of Christ. It held private property as a natural right. "Acres of Diamonds": Conwell was a Baptist minister who preached about ordinary man's and capitalist's materialistic longings. This was the message in his "Acres of Diamonds" lecture.
The span of this era ranges from the end of the Civil War. He created a set of books containing 50 volumes known as Harvard Classics. who remodeled the curriculum on a liberal basis. Josiah Willard Gibbs: At Yale. and Purdue profited from its provisions. Iowa State. Many universities such as Michigan. Former President Woodrow Wilson received his Ph. Nouveau riche: It was the new class of people which was created by the wealth and prosperity generated from the industrial capitalism and the big businesses. and courses in science and humanities. it is a time period which criticized the lobbyists. Harvard: Educated at Harvard University. the act introduced a bill to establish state colleges of agriculture and to bring higher education within the reach of the common people. Johns Hopkins University: Financed by John Hopkins. It was founded in 1876. she founded the international daily newspaper Christian Science Monitor.Science and Health.000 a year to help establish and maintain agricultural experiment stations. It was a supplement to the land grant colleges. The movement was imitated numerous times in the United States. Charles W.D. This act gave each state $15. In addition. Morrill Land Act. westward expansion. Proceeds from the sale of public lands were given to states to fund the establishment of these universities of agriculture and mechanics. and those who got rich in the postwar boom. he became the president of Harvard. as well as strikes. 1862: Introduced to Congress by Republican Justin Morrill. lectures. it is an institution of higher learning in Baltimore. They were called land grant colleges and were located in the Midwest and West. It is world renowned for its medical school and its applied physics laboratory. depressions. despair and bitterness. immigration. Eliot. It later expanded to include concerts. Maryland. 1887: It was an act written by Representative William Henry Hatch of Missouri. he was a professor of mathematical physics for 34 years. Chautauqua Movement: Methodists John Heyl Vincent and Lewis Miller founded this movement. He laid the foundations of the modern understanding of electromagnetic phenomenon and thermodynamics. and urban growth. • "gilded age": Given its name by the novel by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley. buoyancy and free-spending. he was an assistant professor of mathematics and chemistry there for five years. 1869. which the government in order to promte the teaching of agriculture. which combined daily Bible studies with healthful recreation. politicians who took bribes. This class . in political science here. about the fundamentals of her metaphysical system of healing. The real importance of his studies and theoretical descriptions of the behavior of subatomic particles have only been recently recognized. In 1869. The period was characterized by industrial production. to the turn of the century. swindlers. Hatch Act.
Frank Norris. Pragmatism: Developed by William James and Charles Sanders Pierce. Robber barons were included in this class. was influential in the reform movement. and the purpose of thought is to guide action. and The Open Boats and Other Stories. He was also president of the American Academy of Arts and Letters." He published a collection of his works called The Luck of Roaring Camp and Other Short Stories. and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. which he edited. In his life he wrote many works. As a psychologist. He is characterized by his humor and sharp social satire. William James: James was a philosopher and psychologist. which is summed up in his lectures entitled Pragmatism: A New Name for Old Ways of Thinking. editor of The Nation: Godkin was an editor.grew during the Gilded Age. and editor of the Atlantic. He published these stories under the titles MainTravelled Roads and Other Main-Travelled Roads. and The Rise of Silas Lapham. who championed authors such as Stephen Crane. These stories included "The Luck of Roaring Camp" and "The Outcasts of Poker Flat. Maggie. William Dean Howells: Howells was a novelist. He and others codified the standards in the Victorian era in both literature and the fine arts. . Stephen Crane: Cranes was a writer and poet who began the use of the naturalistic style of writing. Godkin. a Girl of the Streets. who came up with the philosophy of pragmatism. which published many of his famous works. He was also a former mugwump and anti-imperialist. Mark Twain and Charles Dudley: It is a novel written in a time when materialism and corruption controlled the lives of Americans. critic. It was written by Twain. Bret Harte: Harte was a writer who was also the editor of the Overland Monthly. who used Mark Twain as his pseudonym. He also wrote for Atlantic Monthly. E. Mark Twain. Tom Sawyer.L. His most famous novels include The Red Badge of Courage. The Gilded Age. His many famous novels include The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn. Most of these people were self-made and showed their importance through ostentatious displays. the effect of an idea is more important than its origin. Hamlin Garland: Garland was a short story writer who used his experiences working on farms in Iowa and South Dakota as central themes for his countless short stories that denounced American farm life. whose criticism in his book The Nation and New York's Evening Post. and War is Kind and Other Poems are two volumes of his poems. and Henry James. including A Fearful Responsibility. it is a philosophical doctrine stating that the test of the truth of a proposition is its practical utility. The Black Riders and Other Lines. he wrote his famous Principles of Psychology which established him as one of the most influential thinkers of the time. Mark Twain: Twain was a writer named Samuel Langhorne Clemens.
Winslow Homer: One of the greatest American painters. diligence. William Randolph Hearst: Through dishonest and exaggerated reporting. He also incorporated Japanese styles of art and made many technical innovations in art. The White Girl and Twelve Etchings from Nature are his most famous etchings. The two used every tactic. Along with their male counterparts. She pleaded her cause with every president from Abraham Lincoln to Theodore Roosevelt. they saw themselves in a new light. Among his collection are Luck and Pluck. Hearst was quite willing to take credit for this.and Dudley was the coauthor. By emphasizing merit rather than focusing on social status as the way to determine success. they crusaded for pressing reforms. his more than 100 novels had a major impact on the youth of that time. Tattered Tom. including sensational yellow journalism. These paintings often have great dramatic effect because of the way they show man's powerlessness in the face of the unfeeling and mysterious forces of nature. where poor youth would win fame and money by having virtues of honesty. and his most famous Ragged Dick. He is also well known for his portraits. . publisher Joseph Pulitzer was one of the leading combatants. Winslow Homer is best known for his watercolors and oil paintings of the sea. • HORATIO ALGER’S BOOKS FOR YOUTH: Alger was a writer of juvenile fiction. Susan B. His novels held a theme of rags to riches. Anthony fought for women's suffrage. She traveled from county to county in New York and other states making speeches and organizing clubs for women's rights. Many women asserted their independence by participating in social reform movements. James McNeill Whistler: Whistler was an etcher and painter who was a champion of modern art. As millions of women began to work outside the home. as his New York City newspaper testified in an 1898 headline: "How Do You Like the Journal’s War?" The Emergence Of Modern Woman The new urban environment fostered the growth of feminism. Many of the characters in the novel were recognized by readers of the book as figures in society. and perseverance. Anthony: For more than half a century Susan B. Joseph Pulitzer: Joseph Pulitzer was a large newspaper publisher. William Randolph Hearst's newspapers whipped up public sentiment against Spain. actually helping to cause the Spanish-American War. His chief opponent was William Randolph Hearst. and began to demand certain rights. In the newspaper circulation wars of the 1890s. such abolition and prohibition. to encourage people to buy their papers.
Clara Barton: Single-handedly. After this. and proceed to damage as much of the place as she could with her hatchet. Carry A. Anthony retired in 1900 from the NAWSA. Catt continued to play a large role in the fight for Women's rights. In 1872 she campaigned to organize a branch of the Red Cross in the United States. Bicycling emerges as a hobby for women: Constraints on women were loosened toward the end of the nineteenth century when bicycling swept the U. Partly through their efforts. A young lecturer and educator. Francis Willard: In 1874 a temperance crusade swept the United States. recreation. joined the movement. Though Catt was forced to resign in 1904 due to her husbands illness. Its activities included welfare work. In 1870 an estimated one fifth of resident college students were women. later called the National Woman's party. became famous for building the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). N. berate the customers. For 23 years she directed Red Cross work in every great disaster. By 1900 this had increased to more than one third. as well as in many other states. in lobbying for the right to vote during World War I. Fearful of waning vitality. for activities in woman suffrage movement. She was the scourge of tavern owners and drinkers alike in Kansas. It became the nation’s first mass organization of women.S. Stanton helped to organize a political movement that demanded voting rights for women. She led the Congressional Union for Women's Suffrage. she chose Carrie Chapman Catt to take her place. She was a prominent leader in the campaign for what became the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution which guaranteed female suffrage.S. . six states adopted Prohibition by 1890.J. she remained active in NAWSA and in 1915 became its president. Carrie Chapman Catt: When Susan B. Alice Paul: Alice Paul was a U. Willard stressed religion and morality in her work. she headed the search for missing soldiers. labor arbitration and public health. Women’s Christian Temperance Union: The Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was founded in 1874. She was imprisoned three times in England and three times in the U. woman suffragist who was born in Moorestown. she organized supply depots to serve Civil War soldiers. middle and upper-class women turned to bicycle riding as a source of exercise. Carry A. Nation would appear at a saloon. Frances Willard. She succeeded in 1881. Higher education was broadened by the rise of women's colleges and the admission of women to regular colleges and universities. Nation: A vehement foe of alcoholic beverages. Colleges admitting women: By the end of the 19th century the number of women students had increased greatly. For four years after the war.Elizabeth Cady Stanton: A pioneer in the modern quest for women's rights.S. She soon became the president of the newly formed union. prison reform. and a way to escape the restrictive Victorian attitudes towards female physical activity.
the geography of the U. America expanded across the continent.S. Others used it to fence in land or cattle that did not belong to them. was unknown to most Americans. Colorado in 1864. When war would break out. It was originally started by Andrew Johnson as the first homestead bill but met strong opposition by Southern Representatives and therefore could not be passed until the secession of the Southern States during the Civil War. An increased number of people living in the cities also contributed to the fact that cities had higher divorce rates than rural areas. Existing treaties. the Indians would either be defeated and transported. including that between the Sioux and the U. 1862: This act cut up Western public lands into many small holdings for the free farmers. The Frontier West As America expanded. . Their perceptions of western regions were drawn from descriptions left by early travelers. Chivington. but violations continued to occur. but it was often at the expense of the Native Americans who already occupied the land.S." It was a region deemed unfit for settlement. 1871: By this act Congress decided that Indian tribes were no longer recognized as sovereign powers with whom treaties must be made. Homestead Act. and shelter. This was due to more opportunities for women which made them less economically dependent on their husbands. Maps published prior to the Civil War often called the Great Plains area the "Great American Desert. Indian Appropriations Act. were still to be considered valid. and were attacked despite a previous agreement made with the governor. This lead to many conflicts. at Little Big Horn.Divorce rate: By the turn of the twentieth century divorce rate in the United States had started to steadily grow. though. Barbed wire. led by Colonel John M. many Americans desired to move westward and cultivate new lands. As Americans continued to move the frontier farther and farther west.S. Plains Indians: Great Plains tribes began attacking wagon trains carrying settlers during the 1850s. Accustomed to allowing their cattle to roam the open range. the Cheyenne were being led by Chief Black Kettle. many farmers objected to barbed wire. clothing. Great American Desert: For years. attacked and massacred the Cheyenne Indians that were settled along Sand Creek. At the time. Chivington Massacre: The United States Army. Joseph Glidden: Barbed wire was invented and patented by Joseph Glidden in 1874 and had a major impact on the cattle industry of the Western U. They had been angered by settlers who drove away the buffalo herds they depended on for food. Federal government policies intended to facilitate the move westward. or a treaty would be made in which they lost part of their lands.
Joseph led his people in an unsuccessful resistance to white settlers who were confiscating land. was a discourse concerning the plight of American Indians published in 1881. Helen Hunt Jackson. shaped the American character and institutions. Wearing the Ghost Shirts. and was passed in 1887. the absence of a Christian based religion. This event ended the conquest of the American Indian. Chief Joseph: When he became chief of the Nez Perce Indian tribe in the American Northwest in 1871. FRONTIER THESIS: In his analysis of how the frontier. Battle of Wounded Knee: Convinced that Sitting Bull was going to lead an uprising. Jackson also wrote Ramona concerning the same topic. The tribe was ordered to move. Dawes. Turner decisively rejected the then common belief that the European background had been primarily responsible for the characteristics of the United States. by Jackson. Col. • DAWES SEVERALTY ACT. but when three of his tribe killed a group of settlers. under Sioux leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse. the army under Lieut. on Dec. was sent to enforce the order. 1890.by turning Indians into farmers. He also justified overseas economic expansion as a means to secure political power at a time when America began focusing on expanding its influence throughout the world. the United States Army massacred more than 200 Indians at Wounded Knee. moving from east to west. • FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER.the lack of private property. he attempted to escape to Canada with his followers. wiped out General Custer's men in 1876. 29. 1887: It was proposed by Henry L.In this battle the main body of Indians. A Century of Dishonor: This book. When the Sioux refused. The ritual allowed them to reaffirm their culture amidst the chaos. Custer. . The main point of the law was to emphasize treating Indians as individuals as opposed to members in a tribe. Ghost Dance Movement: As the Sioux population dwindled as a result of the federal government policies. they engaged in ritual dances that they believed would protect them from harm. It was designed to reform what well-meaning but ignorant whites perceived to be the weaknesses of Indian life-. Joseph agreed.Battle of Little Big Horn: The Sioux refused to sell the land to the government in 1875. the Ghost Dance movement which had been recently revived by Indians rapidly died out. She gathered information regarding American Indians and their lives while serving on a federal commission investigating the treatment of Indians. and refused to leave the area to inhabit reservations. South Dakota. they turned to the Ghost Dance to restore their original dominance on the Plains. After the incident. or severalty. the nomadic traditions of the Indians. and the general instability in their way of life -.
many of their reforms were later enacted. OMAHA PLATFORM. Creating the Populist Party with James Weaver as their presidential candidate. enacting immigration restriction. 1892: The Populist party.S. They failed to unite. Illinois. and small profits. An influx of settlers came to Nevada.S. the Populists strove to bring their reforms into the political limelight. citizens of the U. however. was a party that represented the "common man. the farmers made their grievances known through the Granger Movement. The railroads appealed to the Supreme Court to declare the "Granger laws" unconstitutional. The Omaha platform of 1892 nominated James Weaver of Iowa for president. Nevada was built. • POPULIST PARTY PLATFORM. It called for government regulation of the economy in order to redress their greivanes. the Court ruled against the railroad’s objections in Munn v. or people's party. This discovery contributed to the speed by which Virginia City. Only in 1877 did the Supreme Court rule that states could regulate businesses of a public nature. Farmers’ Alliance: This alliance was a political organization created to help fight railroad abuses and to lower interest rates. the farmers were urged to start cooperatives such as grain elevators. creameries. and in 1892 gave way to the Populist party. and consisted of the Northwest Farmers' Alliance in the north and the National Farmers' Alliance and Independent Union in the south. • GRANGER MOVEMENT: During the decade of the 1870s. Membership peaked in the mid-1870s. It was founded in New York in 1873. There was little the farmers could do concerning prices. setting a graduated income tax and limiting the presidency to a single six-year term. Instead. debts. farmers were beset with problems of high costs. U. . and Nevada granted statehood in 1864. Some of their goals included creating postal savings banks. and stores. Although they did not succeed in electing their candidate to the presidency." It was created towards the end of the nineteenth century.Safety Valve Thesis: This assertion stated that as immigrants came to the eastern United States during the late nineteenth century and "polluted" American culture. To counteract unjust business practices. Granger Laws: The Grangers in various states lobbied state legislatures in 1874 to pass maximum rate laws for freight shipment. would have the West as a "safety valve" to which they could go in order to revitalize their pure Americanism. The Populist platform represented views of farmers in the West. Comstock Lode: One of the richest silver mines in the United States was discovered in 1859 at the Comstock Lode in Nevada. Reform Populism In The 1890s Populism emerged in the 19th century in order to reform the system from within.
"Crime of 1873": This is the term given to a federal law of 1873, which adopted the gold standard over the silver standard. This dropped silver coinage in favor of gold coinage, by advocating free silver. This "Crime of 1873" was one of the motivating forces behind the beginning of the Free Silver movement. Bland-Allison Act: This act was passed over the presidential veto in 1878 and required the secretary of the treasury to buy at least 2 million dollars of silver each month and coin it into dollars. Because of its weight and bulk and the fact that it had not been coined since 1806, most of the silver did not circulate; rather, remained in the treasury. Sherman Silver Purchase Act: This act forced the treasury to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver each month.. However, the price of silver did not rise and precious gold was being drained away from the treasury while cheap silver piled up. This act, therefore, helped to precipitate the panic of 1893, and it caused a decrease in foreign investments in the U.S. economy. Bimetallism: Bimetallism is the use of both silver and gold as the basis of an economy as opposed to the use of one or the other or none. During the gold and free silver campaigns of the early 1900s, the Republicans believed in a money system based on the single gold standard, while the democrats believed in bimetallism. "Coin" Harvey: The silverites’ most influential piece of propaganda was William H. Harvey's Coin’s Financial School, published in 1894. It explained the monetary issue in simplified partisan terms, denounced "the conspiracy of the Goldbugs," and insisted that the free coinage of silver would eliminate the debt. Free silver: This was a chiefly unsuccessful campaign in the late 19th-century U.S. for the unlimited coinage of silver. Major supporters of this movement were owners of silver mines, farmers, and debtors, for whom silver production would be economically favorable. William Jennings Bryan led the democratic party to support free silver during the 1890s. 16 to 1: During the Panic of 1873 the world market ratio of silver to gold fell below the ratio of 16:1 for the first time in world history. This coincided with the opening of rich silver mines in the Western united States and also with post-Civil War deflation. It resulted in the movement in favor of free silver and bimetallism of the populists Depression of 1893: This panic swept the country two months after the second inauguration of President Grover Cleveland. Banks closed their doors, railroads went bankrupt, and farm mortgages were foreclosed. People hoarded gold, and the treasury’s gold reserve was depleting. A notable cause was the struggle between the free silver and gold advocates. Coxey's Army, 1894: This was actually a band of unemployed people who marched to Washington DC during the depression of 1894 under the leadership of Jacob S. Coxey, a
quarry operator. They urged the enactment of laws which would provide money without interest for public improvements, which would create work for the unemployed. Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, 1893: In 1893 President Grover Cleveland, who stood for the gold standard, succeeded in having the Sherman Silver Purchase Act repealed over the strong objections of William Jennings Bryan. However, little gold was in the treasury; thus, the panic of 1893 could not be avoided and the crisis remained until 1896. Ocala Demands, 1890: These demands were essentially a platform of the Democratic/ Populist party for the 1892 election created at a gathering in Ocala, Florida in 1890. Northern leaders generally favored a third party candidate, while Southerners feared that it would weaken the southern Democratic Party. Tom Watson: An U.S. journalist, legislator, and a southern alliance leader from Georgia, he urged southern farmers to recognize their common plight and act together. He was also the Populist party’s presidential candidate in 1904 and 1908, served as a senator from 1921 to 1922, and edited The Weekly Jeffersonian, a populist magazine. James B. Weaver: An United States legislator and prominent figure during the Populist movement, he served as a congressman from 1879 to 1781 and 1885 to 1889. He was the presidential candidate of the Greenback and People’s parties in 1892. Weaver was also a former civil war general. "Pitchfork" Ben Tillman: An U.S. Populist party leader born in South Carolina, he was elected governor of South Carolina in 1890 and 1892, and he served on the U.S. Senate from 1894 to 1912. Very progressively minded, Tillman promoted many reform programs in South Carolina, including better public education. Mary Ellen Lease: She was a fiery lawyer from Wichita, Kansas who was very active in the movements for agrarian and labor reform. She burst out on to the scene in the 1890's as a spellbinding Southern alliance orator vehemently crying that the farmers needed to "raise less corn and more hell." "Sockless" Jerry Simpson: He was an intelligent rancher from Kansas who lost his stock in the hard winter of 1886 to 1887, and he became a major Southern Alliance leader. When he mentioned the expensive silk stockings of a conservative politician and remarked that he could afford no such fineries a hostile newspaper editor named him "Sockless Jerry." Ignatius Donnelly: A noted United States writer and a champion of the Populist Party, Donnelly served as an U.S. Congressman from Minnesota from 1863 to 1869. He also wrote Great Cryptogram in an attempt to prove that Francis Bacon wrote William Shakespeare's works.
JENNINGS BRYAN: Despite the fact that he was defeated three times for the presidency of the United States, William Jennings Bryan, the principal figure of the Populist party, molded public opinion as few leaders have done. A surprise to the public, he polled many votes during the 1896 election, which may have been a direct result of his "Cross of Gold Speech." For many years he was the leader of the Democratic party, and it was his influence that won the Democratic presidential nomination for Wilson in 1912. "Cross of Gold Speech": William Jennings Bryan won the national Democratic convention's nomination for the presidency in 1896 through a vigorous appeal for free coinage of silver known as the "Cross of Gold" speech. Turning to those who wanted only gold as the monetary standard, he exclaimed: "You shall not crucify mankind upon this cross of gold." As a Populist, he did not support the gold standard since it would deflate the currency, which would make it more difficult for citizens to repay debts.
OF 1896, CANDIDATES, ISSUES: The presidential candidates were the Republican William McKinley from Pennsylvania, and the Democrat William J. Bryan. The Populists also supported Bryan for the presidency, but chose Tom Watson for the vice presidency. The Republicans believed in the gold standard, while the Democrats believed in bimetallism and the unlimited coinage of silver. McKinley won the election. The Populism collapsed after 1896, but Progressivism emerged in its wake. Marcus Hanna: He was an industrialist who became convinced that the welfare of industry, and therefore the nation, was bound by the fortunes of the Republican party. To further his goals he waged the most expensive political campaign the nation had ever seen to get William McKinley elected president in 1896. He also served in the Senate.
As the 19th century came to a close, many voices cried for American expansionism to match the imperialistic ambitions of Europe and Japan. The dream for global destiny was justified by such logic as the expansion of overseas markets, desire for a stronger navy, and the spreading of Christianity to uncivilized peoples around the globe. Eventually, this expansionism translated into conflict, climaxing in 1898 with the Spanish-American War. James G. Blaine, Pan-Americanism: As Secretary of State, Blaine fostered closer U.S.Latin American relations and brought about the first Pan-American Congress in order to forge commercial, social, economic, military, and political cooperation among the 21 republics of North, Central, and South America. Venezuelan boundary dispute: Venezuela had a dispute over its boundary with the British Colony of Guiana. In 1895, while the British refused to resolve the issue, United States Secretary of State Richard Olney sent a message to London declaring that the US would be "practically sovereign on this content."
Bering Sea seal controversy: When the US purchased Alaska in 1867, it included some small Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea. Congress leased the island to a US company which killed seals with the understanding that they would not kill more than 10,000 male seals per year. This led to the regulation of pelagic sealing in 1893. "Yellow journalism": Two rival newspapers in New York City, William Randolph Hearst’s Journal, and Joseph Pulitzer’s World, sensationalized editorializing on the issues to increase circulation. One of Hearst’s gimmicks was "The Yellow Kid," which gave the name of Yellow Journalism to this tactic. Josiah Strong, Our Country: Reverend Josiah Strong wrote the book Our Country: Its Possible Future and Present Crisis expressing his fears of the inability of relief organizations to cope with the explosive growth of the urban poor in the 1870’s and 1880’s.
•Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890)
helped create and develop the expansionist movement. Mahan, former head of the Navy War College at Newport, Rhode Island wanted to expand United States Navy to build an isthmusian canal, and to establish strategic colonies as cooling stations, and to protect US political and economic interests. Samoa, Pago Pago: America’s Navy wanted to establish a port in the Samoan Islands, so their ships could refuel in the island of Pago Pago. This was an example of the United States Navy’s expansion efforts in the pacific. Their goal was to obtain more ports so they could have more ships out on the ocean to control the seas. Virginius: In 1873 a Spanish gunboat captured the Virginius, a ship fraudulently flying the American flag, in Cuba. Secretary of State Fish and the Spanish minister came together in Washington and signed a protocol bringing the end to the Virginius affairs. Spain paid the US $80,000. de Lôme letter: On February 8, 1898, Hearst’s Journal published a private letter written by Spanish minister to the United States Depuy de Lôme regarding his reservations for Cuban independence and disparaging President McKinley. Many Americans would have agreed, but they resented hearing it from a Spanish diplomat. Maine explodes: When an explosion rocked the Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898, killing 266 American crewmen, irritation turned to outrage. A review of the evidence later concluded that a ship-board ammunition explosion caused the blast. Still, a navy inquiry blamed the blast on a "Spanish mine."
•Teller Amendment: The U.S. had been motivated o war in part by the desire to aid the
Cubans in their attempt to liberate themselves from the colonial rule of Spain. To this end the Teller Ammendment was added to the Declaration of War. It speciffically prohibited the annexation of Cuba, as a cause of the war.
acting largely on his own. The war ended after Spanish Admiral Pascual Cervera attempted to break through American forces losing 474 men. domestic sugar growers ended the duty-free status of Hawaiian sugar. Cleveland and Hawaii: In 1887 the United States gained the right to establish a naval port in Pearl Harbor. Forming the Anti-Imperialist League. they believed that every country captured by the U. the Hawaiians decided to request United States annexation. Rough Riders. One American and 381 Spanish men died in the attempt. Action started on May 1. Hawaiians were uncertain if they wanted annexation at all. Roosevelt resigned to become second in command of the Rough Riders.S. placing the American army on high ground overlooking Santiago. American Anti-Imperialist League: The critics of imperialism were many and influential. This fleet destroyed and captured all ten Spanish ships that were assigned in Manila Bay.• SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR: The Spanish-American War lasted just three months with only a few days of actual combat. The treaty gave the United States a new imperialistic reputation. 1898. Queen Liluokalani was overthrown when Hawaii’s sugar prices dropped 40% and planters wanted the independent Republic of Hawaii. President Grover Cleveland was troubled with the crisis in Hawaii since Hawaiians claimed to want annexation. The Filipinos celebrated their freedom from four hundred years of Spanish rule on July 4. In 1898. captured the hill. once their queen was overthrown. Commodore Dewey. Treaty of Paris. Annexation of Hawaii: In 1890 under the McKinley Tariff. . had the same rights under the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. Roosevelt was an impatient disciple in the Spanish-American War. After Hawaii’s sugar prices dropped 40% and Queen Liluokalani was overthrown. 1898: The Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American War and developed an American empire overseas. In the treaty. San Juan Hill: The battle of San Juan Hill was fought on July 1. when George Dewey’s fleet steamed into Manila Bay in the Philippines and seized or destroyed all ten Spanish ships anchored there. A division including the Rough Riders. 1898 during the American advance on Santiago during the Spanish-American War.1898. Manila Bay: The first action of the Spanish-American War came in 1898 when Commodore George Dewey’s fleet steamed into Manila Bay in the Philippines. Spain agreed to abandon Cuba and exchange Puerto Rico. However. under the command of General Kent. Assistant Secretary of Navy Theodore Roosevelt: Theodore Roosevelt was appointed as Assistant Secretary of the Navy by President William McKinley in 1897. Queen Liluokalani: Liluokalani was the Queen of Hawaii who did not like Americans since they built their port in Pearl Harbor. Guam and the Philippines to America for $20 million.
Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico: By the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain recognized Cuba’s independence and ceded the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific Island of Guam to the United States in exchange for $20 million. As 1899 dawned Americans possessed an island empire from the Caribbean to the Pacific. Walter Reed: In 1900 Walter Reed was appointed to the Yellow Fever Commission as a result of his investigation of the disease. After being sent to Cuba to find out more about Yellow Fever, he discovered that the disease was carried by a mosquito. He later became a curator at Army Medical Museum and a professor at Army Medical College. Insular Cases: The decisions regarding whether the Constitution applies to Puerto Rico and the Philippines are known as the Insular Cases. They ruled that the residents are inhabitants but not citizens of the United States. Because of this ruling, these countries were not honored by the Constitution and were treated as colonies.
Amendment: Senator Orville Platt, at the request of the War department, made a revised bill to remove some of the restrictions stated in the Teller Amendment. The Platt Amendment stated that the United States would withdraw from Cuba if they did not sign a treaty with any other foreign power. It also gave the United States the right to interfere with Cuba if they believed that it was not a fit enough country to take care of itself. Also, they established the right to hold a naval base in Cuba. Protectorate: When a more powerful state controls the economy, foreign affairs, or police power of another state, it is considered a protectorate. In the case of the United States, Cuba was a protectorate as a result of the Platt Amendment. Other examples might include Nicuaragua, the Dominican Republic, Hawaii, and other Pacific islands.
Philippine insurrection: In 1896 Emilio Aguinaldo started a Filipino movement for independence to get out of Spain’s control. When Spain surrendered, Aguinaldo drew up a constitution and proclaimed the Philippines’s independence. When the Treaty of Paris gave the United States power over the Philippines, Aguinaldo became angry and tried to fight. He soon realized that he would lose and gave up. Secretary of State John Hay, Open Door Notes: John Hay’s Open Door Notes was a policy that explained the importance of American commercial influence on foreign policies. The Open Door Notes stated that the pre-thought "informal empire" was correct as opposed to overseas colonies being favored by imperial power. Boxer Rebellion: The Boxers, a secret group of Chinese men known as I Ho Ch’uan, opposed Christianity in their country. Numbering 140,000, the Boxers killed thousands of foreigners as well as Chinese suspected of being Christian. British, American, Russian, Japanese and French soldiers were sent to China to end the "Boxer Rebellion." Extraterritoriality: Extraterritoriality is a principle in international law that allows certain visiting foreign citizens or their property to be exempt from the laws of a host nation. Foreign heads of states traveling abroad and diplomats representing their home countries are examples of people benefiting from extraterritoriality.
Most favored nation clause: The most favored nation clause is a commercial treaty that regulates special low tariffs on goods imported to the United States. All countries awarded the Special Nation Status must be treated equally. Duties for the same group of goods should be the same low regardless from which country signatory of the status they are imported.
Roosevelt & Progressivism
Many intellectuals increasingly challenged the foundations of the social order. Voices of reform thundered over the nation calling for democratic government, better cities, and the curbing of corporate power. This movement, labeled progressivism, found its first national leader in Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt actively pursued many of his goals: labor mediation, consumer protection, conservation, business virtue, and activism abroad. His successor, Taft, continued in Roosevelt’s aims but lacked his political genius. Election of 1900: candidates and issues: William McKinley, the Republican candidate, beat William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic candidate, for President. The Republican campaign theme of prosperity, summed up in the slogan "A Full Dinner Pail," easily won him a second term. McKinley had 284 electoral votes where as Bryan had 115.
Big Stick diplomacy: One of Roosevelt’s most famous statements was "speak softly and carry a big stick." An example of his meaning in this statement was when Canada wanted the Alaskan land that America owned. They were fighting over the boundaries because of gold found in the area. Roosevelt simply stated that if the boundaries would change, there would be serious consequences. Because of his problem solving method, Roosevelt was known to use "Big Stick" diplomacy. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty: The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 stated that both the United States and Britain promised not to claim control over any canal built between the oceans that separated their countries. This included the Panama Canal which America later took over anyway. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty: In 1901, the United States planned to construct the Panama Canal. This meant they would be in need of a new treaty. Secretary of State John Hay and British Ambassador Sir Julian Pauncefote agreed on a new treaty that would drop England’s claim on the canal. Panama Revolution: Financed by Philippe Bunau-Varilla, chief agent of the New Panama Canal Company, the Panama Revolution was a planned revolt by Panamanians against Colombian occupation of the Isthmus of Panama. The United States did not encourage the revolution, but it did make clear that it would not allow it to fail.
• The Panama
Canal: When a French company supposed to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama went bankrupt, it offered to sell its assets to the United States. The Hay-Herrán agreement, which would have granted the US a ninety-nine-year lease on a
strip of land for canal construction, was rejected by the Colombian senate. Determined to have a canal, Roosevelt found a collaborator in Philippe Bunau-Varilla, who organized a "revolution." After Panama was recognized, the canal building commenced. Virgin Islands purchased: Denmark, in 1917, sold to the United States its West Indian territories for $25 million, including the Virgin Islands. These islands, located at the perimeters of the Caribbean, were of great military importance during the Second World War. They mainly served to protect the US mainland as well as the Panama Canal. Goethals and Gorgas: George Goethel was a civil engineer who directed a completion of the Panama Canal. William Gorgas helped to make it possible to construct Panama Canal by killing mosquitoes carrying yellow fever and malaria. Theodore Roosevelt later appointed these men important positions in The Panama Canal Zone. Venezuela Crisis, 1902: In 1902 the country's debts became so large that European creditor nations blockaded Venezuela; the United States intervened to obtain arbitration of the dispute. Castro's departure for Europe in 1908 opened the way for his deputy, Juan Vicente Gomez, to seize power. Drago Doctrine: Luis Maria Drago was an Argentine diplomat who formulated a supplement to the Monroe Doctrine known as the Drago Doctrine. In 1902, Great Britain, Germany, and Italy imposed a joint naval blockade on Venezuela in order to coerce that country into paying its debts.
Corollary: In 1904, Roosevelt created the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. This doctrine justified U.S. intervention in the affairs of Latin American nations if their weakness or wrongdoing warranted such action. An example of this interference was the American intervention in Haiti when it was not wanted. The document was primarily a pass for the US to interfere with other countries’ business when it was not wanted nor needed. U.S. intervention in Haiti: In 1915, President Woodrow Wilson sent the United States Marines into Haiti. The purpose was to calm the anarchy that the US claimed existed in the country. In 1916, Congress ratified a treaty that would allow the US ten years of control over Haiti to maintain order and give political and economic assistance. Dominican Republic: In 1915, after bloody upheavals in Haiti and the Dominican Republic, Wilson ordered the marines. A Haitian constitution favorable to U.S. commercial interests was ratified in 1918. The marines remained in the Dominican Republic until 1924, and in Haiti until 1934. Revolution in Nicaragua: In 1911 a US-supported revolution in Nicaragua brought to power Adolfo Díaz, an officer of the American-owned Nicaraguan mining property. American bankers loaned the Díaz government $15 million in exchange for control of most of Nicaragua. When a revolt broke out, Roosevelt ordered in the marines.
Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth: The Russo-Japanese war (1904-05) was the first conflict in which an Asian power defeated a European country. Fighting began when the Japanese attacked the Russian fleet at Port Arthur after Russia, which had occupied Manchuria during the Boxer Uprising in China, refused to withdraw its troops. San Francisco School Board Incident: American relations with Japan suffered when the San Francisco school board, in 1906, ordered all Asian children to attend segregated schools. Summoning the school-board members to Washington, Roosevelt persuaded them to reverse this discriminatory policy. Elihu Root: As secretary of war in the cabinets of William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, Root reorganized the army and established the Army War College. As Roosevelt's secretary of state from 1905 to 1909, he reformed the consular service, improving US relations with Latin America, and sponsoring a series of arbitration treaties. Taft-Katsura Memo: By the Taft-Katsura Memo of 1905, the United States and Japan pledged to maintain the Open Door principles in China. Japan recognized American control over the Philippines and the United States granted a Japanese protectorate over Korea.
Agreement: In the 1890’s, workers feared their jobs would be taken by the Japanese immigrants and they wanted a law preventing any more immigrants to move to the United States. In 1907 Japan proposed the Gentlemen’s Agreement which promised that they would halt the unrestricted immigration if President Roosevelt promised to discourage any laws being made that would restrict Japanese immigration to the US. Great White Fleet: This was a naval fleet that went on a voyage around the world. After 15 months, when the fleet returned, President Roosevelt met all the crew members personally. The two objects of this voyage were being friendly with the nation’s allies but also to show other nations the naval power of the United States. Lodge Corollary: When a Japanese syndicate moved to purchase a large tract of land in Mexico’s Lower California, Senator Lodge introduced a resolution to block the Japanese investment. The Corollary went further to exclude non-European powers from the Western Hemisphere under the Monroe Doctrine. Root-Takahira Agreement: In 1908, Japan and the United States signed the RootTakahira Agreement. Through this document the two nations promised not to seek territorial gain in the Pacific. These two nations also promised to honor an open door policy in China. Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917: Robert Lansing, Secretary of State under President Wilson, negotiated the Lansing-Ishii agreement on November 2, 1917 with Japan,
Madero was overthrown by a military regime led by Victoriano Huerta. Allied forces later became antiBolshevik and seized the port. Mexican migration to the U. Allies favored the Whites during the period of Russia’s civil war. The government created was based on the Constitutional model.S. overthrew Porfirio Díaz. and Chile.S. Huerta. General Pershing: During the political turmoil of Mexico in 1916. 1917 (Puerto Rico): The Jones Act of 1917 was passed by the United States to regulate trade in Puerto Rico. This policy was taken although it was clear that the United States had obvious ties to Britain and would likely favor it. Carranza: Rebels. United States involvement in this campaign compromised American neutrality. efficiency. Mexican Revolution. In 1914. Russia to defend Allied military stockpiles from German attack. Massive US response angered some Mexicans and led to hostilities. Democracy. then burned down Columbus in New Mexico. Congress passed the Jones Act which provided for a government for the Philippines and committed the United States to granting Filipino independence. They filled partly the US need for labor during war. Its establishment encouraged parallel pricing for all carriers. the conference came to an end. These new immigrants found mainly in railroad industries and agriculture where jobs were vacated by the war. this led to Mexican-American hostilities. In 1913. Pancho Villa. Archangel expedition: In 1918.000 Mexicans had migrated to the United States. In effect.000 troops to catch Villa with no avail. bandit Pancho Villa murdered 16 Americans.: In the period from 1877 to 1910 economic conditions were worsening in Mexico. a bill was finally passed to actually grant the Filipinos their independence. With the U. Eventually. the ABC powers called a conference to prevent a war between the United States and Mexico caused by the Veracruz Incident. outraged. it was America’s policy of neutrality throughout most of the First World War. In 1934. "watchful waiting": "Watchful waiting" refers to Wilson’s policy towards the events unfolding in Europe. By 1914 more than 100. The US refused to recognize Huerta’s government because it had come to power violently. Brazil. When president Carranza rejected the proposal for a new Mexican government. ABC Powers: The ABC powers consisted of Argentina. Díaz. It established the Sea Land service to prevent carriers and shippers from using unfair pricing practices. pragmatism: Democracy is a form of government in which a substantial proportion of the citizenry directly or indirectly participates in ruling the state. Allied forces landed in the port of Archangel. General John J. the US still felt they had a right to China. Jones Act. led by Francisco Madero in 1911.whereby the United States recognized Japan's special interests in China. . Jones Act. 1916 (Philippines): In 1916. Pershing was sent with 12. However.
" Henry Demarest Lloyd. His best-known works. Frank Norris. Wright Brothers. and biographer. Thorstein Veblen. How the Other Half Lives: A journalist.Pragmatism is a philosophical movement. He developed his antimonopoly theme as financial writer and editor at the Chicago Tribune. Wealth Against Commonwealth: A leading opponent of business monopolies. marking the beginning of the individual progressive spirit. The Octopus: The U. His novels portray the demoralizing effects of modern technology on human fate. The Theory of the Leisure Class: Thorstein Veblen is best known for his book The Theory of The Leisure Class (1899). His photographs. History of the Standard Oil Company: As a Pennsylvania journalist. After over 200 calculations and tests at Kitty Hawk they built the first practical airplane. Tarbell became famous as a muckraker through her well-documented articles on political and corporate corruption in McClure's Magazine and American Magazine." Veblen continued to write other books dealing with the same general theories. Veblen’s book is a classic of social theory that introduced the concept of "conspicuous consumption. attacked the railroad and wheat industries in the United States. David Graham Phillips. asserting that some cities were run by political bosses who remained in power with the help of powerful businessmen. "Muckrakers": Those American writers who early in the 20th century wrote both fiction and nonfiction to expose corruption in business and politics were called the muckrakers. developed in the United States. Muckraker was a term first used by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906. The Treason of the Senate: Author of many popular problem novels of the early 20th century. They were given this name because of their tendency to "spread the muck around. was a leader of the muckrakers. which holds that both the meaning and the truth of any idea is a function of its practical outcome. Henry Demarest Lloyd was one of the pioneer muckrakers of the late 19th century. and books focused on the squalid living conditions of the city's poor and spurred legislation to improve those conditions. Lincoln Steffens. editor. photographer. novelist Frank Norris was a noted pioneer of naturalism in literature. Jacob Riis. They were highly honored internationally and a monument to them was built at Kitty Hawk. His "Treason of . articles. Ida Tarbell. He wrote a series of articles that documented corruption in American cities. Kitty Hawk: Wilbur and Orville Wright created the modern field of aeronautics.S. Joseph Lincoln Steffens. and reformer. Phillips was also a prominent journalist. The Shame of the Cities: An eminent American reformer and journalist. The Octopus (1901) and The Pit (1903). Jacob August Riis publicized the plight of immigrants in New York City slum tenements.
Boy Scouts.. of each party nominate the party’s nominees for public office. earning him the name "the Great Dissenter" among his colleagues. Charlotte Perkins Gilman. formed to educate the youth of America. Oliver Wendell Holmes. Initiative allowed voters to enact laws directly. It originated in Wisconsin (1903) and rapidly spread throughout the rest of the United States. Direct primary: The direct primary was another progressive municipal reform. heavily embody Dewey’s concept of "learn by doing. was an economics research professor at Northwestern University. The referendum allowed voters to express their opinions of specific issues. a school in which students learned of life by actively doing things rather than following a strict curriculum. John Dewey. Australian ballot (secret ballot): Many electoral reforms gave voters greater control over the government. Richard Ely: Ely. greatly affected educational techniques. a progressive economist. His ideas conflicted with McDougall’s." They focused on teaching children of their proper patriotic role in society and working to broaden the horizons of their members though a number of varied activities. Girl Scouts: The Boy and Girl Scouts. Jr. Supreme Court: Holmes was a professor of law at Harvard who resigned to become a member of the Supreme Court." "learn by doing": Dewey’s ideas of progressive education. As a jurist he interpreted the Constitution in a very liberal manner. He analyzed the transmission of social behavior through society by its transmission from one person to another. described in The School and Society. . Woman and Economics: Gilman was a leading American feminist writer known for Woman and Economics (1898). referendum. not the leadership. It provided that the members. The School and Society.the Senate" series of articles (1906) in Cosmopolitan magazine were an important contribution to the muckraking movement in American journalism. It attacked the commonly accepted idea that women should be economically dependent on men while suggesting alternatives such as cooperative kitchens and day-care programs. recall: These were three types of progressive electoral reforms passed by some western states. He founded the American Economic Association in 1899 and was the first economist to suggest that government interference in regulation of the national economic was not harmful but even sometimes helpful. He founded the Laboratory School. especially at the ballot boxes where voters could be easily swayed. a feminist classic she wrote. Initiative. another psychologist who believed that the process of evolution created instinctive sociological behavior. Edward Ross: Ross wrote one of the first books dealing with social psychology. "progressive education. Through recall voters were able to directly remove public officials from office.
were killed by brutal working conditions. which were protected from the short-sighted greed Roosevelt saw in many large companies. he began to create several groups to raise public awareness of nature and the necessity of conservation. strongly supported by Roosevelt and Pinchot. Through this act Roosevelt also enlarged Pinchot’s forest staff from 123 to 1. By 1916 they enacted anti-saloon laws in 23 states and in 1917 they passed the 18th amendment beginning prohibition.By 1910 all states had replaced the corrupt system of preprinted ballots with a new secret ballot. locked in the factory and unable to escape. As a result. consisting of approximately 200 million acres. which was much more difficult to rig. Funding came from public-land sales and was used to build irrigation projects.500 people. Newlands Reclamation Act. Triangle Shirtwaist Co." This progressive concept denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trustbusting attitude. It prodded the concerns of many progressive reformers since the workers. These concerns raised new questions of human and immigrant rights and of existing labor laws. Conservation conference. It insured that all natural resources would be managed by experts. International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU): This union of American needle-trade workers launched drives to improve working conditions. followed by the National Conservation Commission. 1891: The Forest Reserve Act. and union recognition. end the practice of workers paying for their own equipment. created a system of national forests. The first meeting was of the White House Conservation Conference. fire: An accidental fire at the Traingle Shirtwaist Company killed 141 workers. Baer: The Anthracite coal strike was the first strike in which the government became involved but did not side with the management. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good. 1902. Anthracite coal strike. begun in Australia. . Anti-Saloon League: During and after the American Civil War the laws regulating many aspects of saloons were either reduced or eliminated. on a speaking tour against the Northern Securities Company. It is remembered for the militancy of its early organizational drives and its fight against sweatshops. George F. Square Deal: Roosevelt. safety conditions. 1908: As Roosevelt’s conservative trend began to permeate through the public mind. Forest Reserve Act. 1902: Roosevelt drafted the Newlands Reclamation Act when he noticed that decades of rapid industrial growth had destroyed much of the limited natural resources of the land. called for a "square deal. many people united in this league in their fight against saloons. Roosevelt instead mediated a series of negotiations between the strikers and the owners over issues of wages. and raise working rates.
The company was dissolved. but he broke up many other large. He earned the "trustbuster" name when he filed suit against the Northern Securities Company. The ICC was also given greater rate-setting power as well as the ability to begin court proceedings against companies disputing the new rates.B. DuBois: For more than 50 years W. granted the Interstate Commerce Commission enough power to regulate the economy. Hepburn Act. It allowed them to regulate cable and wireless companies dealing with telephone and telegraph lines. and sociologist. He left many of the larger companies serving the public good alone. followed by 43 other cases. began a quality rating system. to require a uniform system of accounting by regulated transportation companies. a black editor. Members of the Niagara group joined with concerned liberal and radical whites to organize the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.Elkins Act. Northern Securities Co. The Elkins Act strengthened the ICC by stiffening penalties against secret railroad rebates to favored shippers. W. monopolistic companies in the interests of American welfare and economy. It created strict sanitary requirements for meat. It was a large holding company formed by railroad and banking interests. passed in 1906. .E. in conjunction with the Elkins Act. Previously.B. in an attempt to reduce the corruption in the railroad industry. Mann-Elkins Act. It allowed the ICC to set freight rates and. deeply conservative at heart. In 1902 Roosevelt "trustbusted" them by claiming they violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in holding money against the public good. was a leader of the civil rights movement in the United States. however. rebates: The Interstate Commerce Commission was initially created to regulate the economy for the federal government. Ont. DuBois. prevented corporate officials from pleading immunity in cases concerning their own corporation’s illegal activities. believe that they must be held to strict moral standards. in 1905. 1903. 1910: The Mann-Elkins Act further extended the regulatory ability of the ICC. It was not originally given enough power to regulate the monopolized railroad system.. DuBois and other black leaders who shared his views founded the Niagara Movement.E. case: This was the first company Roosevelt filed suit against in his trustbusting stage. and provisioned for a federal department to inspect meat. Meat Inspection Act: The Meat Inspection Act was passed by Roosevelt as a strong response to Sinclair's book describing the conditions of food as well as wartime scandals in 1898 concerning spoiled canned meats. He helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and was its outstanding spokesman in the first decades of its existence. • "trustbuster": Teddy Roosevelt. historian.B. Niagara movement: At a meeting in Niagara Falls. 1906: The Hepburn Act. many officials used this immunity plea to avoid testifying in any way concerning their actions. did not want to destroy the big corporations that he saw necessary to American life. He did. W.E. Immunity of Witness Act: The Immunity of Witness Act.
1908: The period of Booker T. The Socialist Party was represented by Eugene Debs. enacted through the efforts of Harvey Wiley and Sinclair in 1906. Washington represented a period of increasing anti-black violence. Taft easily won. and mass public segregation. They ran for continued anti-trust enforcement. It generally reflected the views of the blacks and whites who headed the NAACP. sponsored educational programs. and strict credit policies.E. legal. W. This act solved problems concerning fraudulently labeled items. The Jungle: Sinclair was an American writer and reformer who wrote The Jungle. DuBois was editor of The Crisis from 1910 to 1934. He often wrote that Blacks should develop industry and business separate from the white economy in order prove their non-dependence on white society Brownsville Incident: Roosevelt.B. human. though not as racist a president as those before him. This book exposed the unsanitary working conditions in the stockyards of Chicago. and engaged in protest actions. The Crisis: The Crisis was the magazine of the NAACP. white resentment of black advances. a conservative gold standard. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP): The NAACP was an organization founded in 1909 by blacks and whites under such leaders as W. finally culminating in the Federal Reserve Act. eventually leading to the Panic of 1907.Springfield Ill riot. gave consumers protection from dangerous and impure foods. Pure Food and Drug Act: The Pure Food and Drug Act. All products must be clearly labeled and must explain a product which cannot be seen or judged by a consumer. Panic of 1907: Roosevelt’s constant trustbusting of large corporations caused questionable bank speculations. and political rights of black Americans.E. He helped manage several campaigns including the Republican presidential nomination of . conservation. economic. and increased international trade. Upton Sinclair. DuBois to safeguard civil. William Jennings Bryan ran for the Democratic Party on a similar anti-trust platform. It eventually led to the enactment of the Pure Food Act.B. This panic brought the need for banking reform to the forefront of political activity. The large anti-black riot in Springfield in 1908 was representative of the peak of a period of harsh discrimination. Mark Hanna: Hanna was a successful American politician and businessman. eventually leading to an investigation of both working conditions and the conditions of food. did not have a perfect record. It lobbied for legislation. In 1906 he discharged an entire regiment of blacks accused of rioting in Brownsville. issues: The Republican platform consisted of Taft and Sherman. Election of 1908: candidates. This unfair and illegal action was later reversed by Congress once all involved parties had died.
to new heights. these problems were solved. . The populace agreed with this opinion by electing him governor as an independent. regulatory commissions became more prevalent and numerable. Hanna was later selected chairman of the Republican National Committee. It also tried to teach immigrants English customs. • Municipal Reform: The beginning of the Progressive Era is marked by a great increase in municipal reform. Florence Kelley. He adopted a direct primary system. but as the progressive movement entered the national government. broke from this party in 1924 when he realized big business was dangerously out of control. Scientific management. The excesses of the monopolistic railroad companies became known to all. Taylor: Taylor was an engineer who first integrated scientific management with business. Wisconsin. which used organized consumer boycotts and strikes to force improved factory conditions. Nearly all elements of the urban population participated in these reform efforts. In 1889 she created Hull House in Chicago. In 1899 she was selected general secretary of the National Consumers’ League. and passed other progressive reform legislation. Regulatory commissions: As the Progressive Era advanced. "laboratory of democracy": La Follette enacted sweeping changes during his governorship of Wisconsin in 1900. Businessmen pushed for citywide elections and for the city-manager system of government. initially a Republican in Congress. La Follette: La Follette. In reforms concerning the commoners. began to regulate the railroads in his state. Under this form of government the city was run by a committee of three elected commissioners. home rule for cities: Home rule was a new form of city government other than the mayor-council form that emerged in the Progressive Era. Jane Addams. a settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. previously only found at the municipal level. He also created a legislative reference library for lawyers. He became foreman of the Midvale Steel Company in 1878 and used mathematics to determine maximum industrial productivity.McKinley. • Robert M. The new state level of regulation had some inherit problems. This municipal level reform soon moved to the state level. increased corporate taxes. The middle class began the movement and was the core of urban beautification. an organization he used to collect a large war chest to assist in McKinley’s election. They locally ran the county rather than allowing the state to handle affairs. In an effort to end the abuses of the rich capitalists regulatory commissions were created to divide the concentrated wealth. Hull House: Addams was a prominent social reformer in the US and Europe. He took the reform movement. She saw its evils as a resident in Hull House for several years. Addams also played an important role in the National Progressive party. consumerism: Kelley was largely responsible for the regulation of child labor. Frederick W. even the political bosses assisted. using time and motion studies to find what each worker should for the highest efficiency. the state.
Ohio. including La Follette and Norris. Burnham was the designer of the famous Chicago Plan. He strongly opposed many progressive reforms and was thus not very popular in the house. Payne-Aldrich Tariff. Bureau of Corporations also in 1903): This department was created in 1913 with the intention of assisting the welfare and working conditions of the general worker. which is what they were elected to do. Pingree reformed taxes. Taft lost standing with the progressive Republicans. Progressives and Democrats joined to remove much of his power in 1910. . replacing them with five elected commissioners. Many Progressive reformers considered this a sign that the companies and various special interests were preventing consumer prices from reaching reasonable levels. They were experts in rebuilding the ruined city. Uncle Joe Cannon (Old Guard): Cannon was a Republican who served as Speaker of the House from 1903 to 1911. San Jones reformed profit sharing and education in Toledo. It began in Texas when progressives removed the corrupt mayor and council. the honesty in government. as a result. in conjunction with John Root. Under investigation it was found that Ballinger did nothing illegal though he did bend the government's environmental policies. Johnson reformed public ownership of utilities in Chicago. Insurgents: Insurgents was a nickname for a small group of reformist Republicans. City manager plan. Daniel Hudson Burnham. It was empowered to investigate and report illegal corporative activities. turned against Taft after his passage of the 1909 tariff and completely separated after he supported the Payne-Aldrich Tariff. This group. Taft focused primarily on a continuation of trustbusting and reuniting the old conservatives and young progressives of the Republican Party. a plan in which many beautiful pre-skyscraper buildings were designed in Chicago. 1909: This tariff was initially intended to lower several other tariffs. Taft also strongly supported a national budgetary system. Hazen Pingree: These were all progressives who reformed the political process. the Democratic party swept the 1912 elections. 1909 Chicago Plan: Burnham. Ballinger-Pinchot controversy: Pinchot charged that Ballinger was giving the nation's natural resources to private corporate interests. Brand Whitlock. but after numerous compromises in the Senate it became a protective measure. Since Taft have given him support. Sam (Golden Rule) Jones. He was unable to reunite the two parties and. commission plan: This form of government replaced the traditional mayor/council version in several cities.Tom Johnson. Department of Labor (from 1903 Department of Commerce and Labor. William Howard Taft: As president. allowing the Republican-Democratic coalition to run the Senate. built the first steel-frame buildings that later developed into modern skyscrapers. The separation between progressive and conservative republicans was caused by this group. and beautified his city.
He planned to promote better relation. Bull Moose Party: This party. President Taft moved to construct his own competing rail system. Roosevelt unveiled a plan in which he called for a protection of welfare over property. Secretary of State Knox: Knox was responsible for the creation of the Latin American Division of the State Department. only "unreasonable" combinations restraining trade were illegal. President Taft sought to avoid military confrontation by using money to increase foreign interest in the US. formally known as the Progressive Party. Rule of reason: Standard Oil case. This interpretation emerged when the court broke these two companies into smaller firms. Kansas speech: The differences between Taft and Roosevelt were revealed in Roosevelt’s 1910 Osawatomie "New Nationalism" speech. Through a change in House rules he ended the rule of the Speaker of the House Joseph Cannon. As he ignored the limitations of party politics he slowly lost support. was created by Theodore Roosevelt after his split with Taft. According to this "rule of reason" principle. Manchurian railroad scheme: In an attempt to force Japan and Russia to sell their land in Manchuria for railroad investment. China refused to approve Taft’s plan and Japan and Russia began to grow suspicious of the US’s motives. opposing Taft’s support of numerous tariffs as well as the Old Guard in Congress. and political stability in Latin America rather than sending the military to force stability. a dam building company. woman suffrage. He planned to donate large sums of money to generate economic. It was created in his anger of Taft being nominated in the Republican Party. American Tobacco case: In 1911 a progressive interpretation of the Sherman Act was enacted by the Supreme Court. His efforts were largely a failure as most of the money never reached the actual people of Latin America. but the US kept a portion of the military in the Dominican Republic. This was planned to quiet revolutionary thoughts and to prevent foreign financial problems. They outpolled the Republicans but lost to the Democrats. and prohibition of child labor. They advocated primary elections. • "dollar diplomacy": In an effort to avoid Roosevelt’s "big stick" economic policy. He also created the Tennessee Valley Authority. Progressivism to Wilson . Taft-Roosevelt split: In 1912 the Democrats finally regained control of the presidency due to the Taft-Roosevelt split. Most of the money was stolen by corrupt government officials. Roosevelt’s Osawatomie. Taft’s inability to associate with the progressive elements of his party convinced Roosevelt to return. Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party and thus siphoned enough votes to cause the Republicans to lose the election. social.Senator George Norris: Norris was a reformist senator who favored federal regulation of public utilities.
To overcome this stumbling block the Democrats united with the Progressives. National Monetary Commission: The National Monetary Commission examined monetary data collected by the Pujo Committee and recommended a new form of . Roosevelt tried to run with the Republican Party. Socialist Party: Eugene V. Roosevelt. Debs . Wilson’s "New Freedom" campaign was concerned with progressive programs similar to both parties. Debs was an American Socialist leader and five time presidential candidate. he suggested a redefinition of government. This platform was essentially identical with many of the progressive reforms later passed under Wilson." was a radical labor group formed by "Big Bill" Haywood. A Federal Trade Commission was also planned to regulate the economy." This platform followed the previous trustbusting and regulation trend as well as alleviating many common progressive concerns such as child labor. In 1897 he created the Social Democratic Party of America. He did not. Woodrow Wilson easily glided to victory as the Democrats also took both houses of Congress. the divided Republicans were no match for the united Democrats. and minimum wages. • Election of 1912: Wilson. however. New Freedom: The Democratic Party. running under a compromise platform. Taft. but Taft was chosen. to which Wilson belonged. Daniel DeLeon. • Woodrow Wilson. His Socialist party was quite popular until it splintered apart along internal divisions. • Theodore Roosevelt. Specifically. all big business was morally evil and should be broken up. Debs continued to run on the Socialist platform. Herbert Croly. democracy. Though they won several strikes. Wobblies.000 votes. Except on the issue of race. New Nationalism: In the election of 1912 Roosevelt was nominated under a platform nicknamed "The New Nationalism. they were more rhetoric than action. and individualism. Four amendments to the Constitution within the span of eight years demonstrated the efficiency of the progressive impulse. woman’s suffrage. and labor legislation. "Big Bill" Haywood: The Industrial Workers of the World. He received nearly one million votes for president while he was imprisoned in jail. They were never large. Eugene V. Wilson’s agenda included tariff reform. banking and currency reform. the election identified the party firmly with reform for the rest of the century. He dreamed of an activist government which would serve all citizens. The Promise of American Life: Croly best captured the nature of progressivism in this book. Roosevelt copied many of his ideas for his New Nationalism platform. support trustbusting in the same way that Roosevelt did. IWW. corporate regulation. All of the platforms dealt primarily with economic reform. but they captured many people’s imaginations as they preached revolution. Debs. Debs even received 900.In 1912. indicating the change that Americans wanted.issues: The election of 1912 was very interesting for most Americans since there were 4 active political parties. He left and created the Progressive Party. nicknamed the "Wobblies. Wilson ran with the Democratic Party. had a past history of 45 ballots without a nomination. To him.
published in 1916. suggesting a secure Treasury reserve and branch banks. His 1899 release of "Maple Leaf Rag" was the beginning of popular ragtime music. They each believed that history must be reexamined from a modern perspective and that the economic. dramatic. Historical revisionism: Mary and Charles were two historians that pioneered a new perspective on history. The right to do so was upheld in the court case Buck v. Edgar Lee Masters. He believed that ragtime should evolve into an indigenous black American opera style. is a preview to the ideas later espoused by Adolf Hitler. This story demonstrated the power of film propaganda and the racist effects it had on people. Immigrant children could easily imagine away their restrictive home conditions. The Birth of a Nation: D.banking. many progressives moved to create censorship boards for these films. and a forced eugenics movement by crime and by race type. The Passing of the Great Race: This book. . His work’s realism and irony contrast with the romantic and sentimental trends in progressive literature. Mary Ritter Beard. Noticing the lack of moral oversight. Eugenics movement: The Eugenics movement is one of the best examples of progressive ideas contradicting science. Charles A. It used new innovations such as the intercutting of scenes shot in different settings. D. Written in the Progressive Era. demonstrating the revolt against conventional social standards that was beginning. and social threads of present time must be followed back to generate a clearer picture. became extremely popular in the Progressive Era due to the freedom they offered children from parents. movies costing a nickel each. produced by Edwin Porter in 1903. These scenes were later unified to form a coherent narrative ending in a scene of suspense. Beard. Nickelodeons: Nickelodeons. Edwin Porter. This advice. Madison Grant. W. Ragtime: Scott Joplin was a pianist and one of the most important developers of ragtime music. used to adjust the value of money to keep the economy stable. W. this book calls for absolute racial segregation. Scott Joplin. Bell. They accomplished this by sterilizing many criminals and sex offenders. well-acted films. Some Americans believed that the society could be improved by controlled breeding. Spoon River Anthology: Edgar Lee Master’s poems are unique in that they are presented as the voices of a town’s graveyard talking about their lives. was the first major American film. It also began a trend towards hour-long. The Great Train Robbery: The Great Train Robbery. Griffith. immigrant restriction. Griffith revolutionized the field of motion pictures after his production of The Birth of a Nation in 1915. later became the Federal Reserve System. political.
. This amendment is the midpoint of a growing drive towards women’s rights. They found that the money and credit of the US is localized inside a small group of rich capitalists. He served as the chief justice of the Supreme Court in the depression years of the 1930s and supported many aspects of Roosevelt’s liberal New Deal. passing many progressive reform measures. This amendment resulted from intense efforts among various women’s movements. moved the election of senators from the state legislatures to the general populace. He conducted regular ‘revivals’ throughout the nation. is an obvious indicator to the Progressive era in which it was passed. Federal Reserve Act: The Federal Reserve Act was a compromise designed to stabilize the currency in the US. Margaret Sanger: Sanger was a leader among birth-control advocates. She attacked the Comstock Law. is a logical progression from the prohibition movement. ratified in 1919. This committee’s findings later led to the creation of the Federal Reserve Banking system. in which he used broadcasting to strengthen people’s bond with Christianity. This law was intended to create a more democratic. The broadcasts of his revivals are considered among the most effective ever. granting women the vote in 1920. In the spirit of progressivism they were granted the vote in 1920. It followed the ideas already laid down by the Australian secret ballot and the direct primary. they began to demand the ability to vote from their male peers. She was convicted for this "public nuisance. Eighteenth Amendment: The Eighteenth Amendment. It split the US into 12 regions with one Federal bank in each region. It authorized the income tax thereby allowing the Underwood-Simmons Tariff of 1913 to lower many tariffs. Charles Evans Hughes: Charles Evans Hughes was an American jurist and statesmen. The discount rate at which the federal bank lent the money determined the interest rate. ratified in 1913. Commercial banks bought stock from this bank. Nineteenth Amendment: The Nineteenth Amendment. As governor of New York he eliminated much of the corruption in government. fair society in the eyes of progressives. This amendment invalidated an earlier Supreme Court decision calling the income tax was unconstitutional. and eventually gained the right for birth-control. In 1916 she opened the first American birth-control facility. Pujo Committee: The Pujo Committee researched and later reported on the concentration of money and credit over the general populace. Seventeenth Amendment: The Seventeenth Amendment. As women felt their power in politics increasing. ratified in 1913. Sixteenth Amendment: The Sixteenth Amendment. proving to the nation that women could effect political changes.Billy Sunday: Billy Sunday was an American Fundamentalist preacher and professional baseball player. prohibited the non-medical sale of alcohol. a law which prevented the distribution of birth control." won an appeal.
International disputes could be deferred to the Hague Tribunal as stipulated by the arbitration treaties." heavily advocated it. and picket was also confirmed. The commission also regularly generated statistics of economic and business conditions to the public. Federal Trade Commission. He later was part of the Roosevelt administration and was involved in New Deal legislation taking his traditional Wilsonian democracy to the New Deal era and its actions. labor’s Magna Carta (?): The Clayton Act was designed to clarify the Sherman Antitrust Act in terms of new economic issues that had arisen. It investigated economically unfair business practices and regulated these. Panama Tolls dispute: In 1912. This new power was first used in the Tariff Act of 1913 which set the tax of corporate income at 1%. made legal by the sixteenth amendment to the Constitution. promoted free and fair trade competition. a differing view on neutrality. Income tax: The income tax. The US’s stubbornness on the issue of neutrality rights led Bryan to resign his position in 1915. The treaties were undermined by disputes of individual national interests. Woodrow Wilson appointed Louis Brandeis. noticing that it followed his principle of "New Freedom.Underwood-Simmons Tariff: The Underwood-Simmons Tariff reduced the tariffs from the Payne-Aldrich Tariff to about 29%. but unfavorable court interpretations rendered many of its pro-labor sections powerless without further legislation. "Brandeis brief": In 1916. The right of unions to strike. a Jew. Practices such as local price-cutting and price discrimination were made illegal. to the Supreme Court. It also levied a 1% tax on all rich families. Louis Brandeis. • Clayton Antitrust Act. to correct for this monetary loss. An example of such a treaty is the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Bryan served as Secretary of State to Wilson. originally declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. boycott. cease and desist orders: The Federal Trade Commission. the United States should keep Americans off belligerent ships. After some dispute the United States eliminated the exemption clause and the president signed the bill in 1914. It included a graduated income tax. This act would have been labor’s Magna Carta had it been followed. the United States passed a bill that would exempt the United States from payment in the use of the Panama Canal. which was briefly opposed because of anti- . was later ratified as the Sixteenth Amendment. Great Britain opposed the move saying it violated the 1901 Hay-Pauncefote Treaty. arbitration treaties: The arbitration treaties were negotiated by Secretary of State Root with 25 other nations. Colonel House: Colonel Edward M House was part of the Wilson administration and served as an advisor to the president. Income tax has been greatly increased as tariffs have been lowered. Wilson. created by the Federal Trade Commission Act. He felt that instead of insisting on passenger’s rights. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan: From 1913-1915.
Students not in college benefited because they were taught agricultural skills by county agents. 1916: The Federal Highways Act of 1916 was pushed by Wilson and supported by the Democratic congress. Prior to this act. La Follette Seaman’s Act: Passed in 1915. It forbade interstate shipment of products whose production was due to the labor of children under fourteen or sixteen. Prior to the passage of this act. created a system of agricultural extension work funded by federal grants. making loans harder to obtain. which allowed farmers to more easily secure long-term. Included provisions regulating work hours. In 1908 in Muller v. Smith. The act signaled a major victory for railroad workers. it gave the federal government greater control over education because it required that states submit proposals for education to a federal board. the La Follette Seaman’s Act improved working and living conditions as well as making ships safer. . Keating-Owen Act: The Keating-Owen Act. Federal Warehouse Act: Wilson heavily supported the Federal Warehouse Act. An example of Wilson’s sympathy to labor and was one of his important worker protection laws. farmers had to use actual money or property as security. regardless to the party responsible. This aided the automobile industry and allowed for the existence of more cars. Adamson Act. changing industrial society. This law was particularly important because it was the first attempt by Congress to regulate interstate commerce. attempted to prevent the problem of child labor. Smith-Lever Act: The Smith-Lever Act. using land or crops as the loan security. as well as pay and food quality. This represented the Court’s adapting to the new. the employee had to prove they were not at fault and that it was not a normal risk. Workmen’s Compensation Act: The Workmen’s Compensation Act heightened the rights of employees to bring legal action against their employers for injuries. It stated that federal funds would match appropriations made by states funds for highway construction. Oregon.Semitism. from regional Farm Loan Banks. It applied to US ships as well as any ship docked in a US port. enacted in 1914.Hughes Act: The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 created the Federal Board for Vocational Education to encourage agricultural growth. This act created scales of compensation for any injury. Furthermore. his Brandeis brief provided evidence as to why women need limited work hours. The act was designed to attract Americans to ocean occupations. It was part of the governments plan to encourage a growth in American agriculture. passed in 1915. low-interest credit. 1916: The Adamson Act of 1916 was a compromise that avoided a railroad strike. It set an eight hour day for interstate railroad workers with a salary of one and a half for overtime work. Federal Highways Act.
Wilson won the election. in turn drawing Great Britain into the war. Triple Entente: Allies: Beginning in the early 1900’s.2 billion by the end of the war. Germany. AustriaHungary. with its blank check provision to Austria. Triple Alliance: Central Powers: The Triple Alliance consisted of Germany. and Serbia were created. loans to the Allies: In total. Great Britain utilized its sizable navy to blockade all trade going in and out of Germany. eventually going on the offensive in 1917 by itself blockading Britain at the cost of American involvement. . Balkan States gained their independence from the Ottoman Empire. the United States lent the Allies over $10 billion. had in encouraged the war declaration on Serbia. This system of alliances had escalated what was once a localized incident. Charles Evans Hughes was the Republican candidate who attacked the inefficiency of the Democratic Party. British blockade: In an attempt to win the war of attrition that was World War I. Wilson declared war in 1917. the British Lusitania was sunk bringing protests from Wilson. it led to increased reparations for Germany because of allied indebtedness.First World War When war burst upon Europe in August 1914. the newly independent nations of Romania. Great Britain owed the United States over $4. Lusitania. This great indebtedness led to conflict later when the United States attempted to collect." Ottoman Empire. Fearing a world dominated by imperial Germany. Britain. Wilson immediately proclaimed American neutrality and called on the nation to be neutral "in thought and in action. Balkan Wars: The ancient Ottoman empire had lost its grip throughout the late 1800’s. and seething over violation of neutral rights on the seas. The Arabic was sunk in the same year and Germans followed with the Arabic pledge promising to stop attacks on passenger vessels. Serbia’s allies by treaties.Hungary. Germany declared war on Russia and France. Germany responded with its U-boats. Wilson. so was able to continue his idealistic policies. Germans sunk the Sussex and made the Sussex pledge to promise a stoppage of attacks. Bulgaria." Yet the United States and Britain were linked by extensive economic ties and many Americans felt close emotionally with the British. Germany declared war on the allies (Russia and France). In the Balkan Wars. election of 1916: Hughes. as well as Italy. Arabic pledge. most Americans wanted no part. Also." From it. After Austria declared war on Serbia. issues: Wilson ran for reelection for the Democrats on the call that he had kept the United States out of the war. "Sick man of Europe. called the "sick man of Europe. In 1916. Afterwards. France and Russia had signed treaties with each other. Sussex pledge: In 1915.
March and Bolshevik: In March 1917 a revolution overthrew Russia’s tsarist regime. Anything German was frowned upon. At the beginning of the first World War. in which he proposed the declaration of war against Germany. It depicted Germans and other enemies on bad terms. President Wilson called a special Congressional session for April 2. war declared. was headed by journalist George Creel. or Liberty Loans. It would be a Mexican opportunity to retake the Mexican Cession. Germany announced it would resume unrestricted submarine warfare. Eventually. or CPI. and served to censor the press. These revolutions were caused by and led to Russia pulling out of World War I. 1917. bond drives: Treasury Secretary William Gibbs McAdoo organized the raising of funds. The CPI was a propaganda committee that built support for the war effort in Europe among Americans. commonly called the October Revolution. 1917. 1917." His words were a call to the European nations to stop the conflict based on a balance of power and to form a peace in which nations together would keep the peace. This was one of a few events which led to widespread public support for the Allies and eventual United States involvement in the World War. This action was backed by the German belief that this would lead it to victory before the Americans could become involved in the war. a new democratic world order led by the United States would follow. formed in 1917. People felt obliged to buy bonds because they were afraid of being seen as unpatriotic. • Zimmerman Note: Also known as the Zimmerman Telegram. a democratic revolution could arise. It was based on the belief that from this international power struggle. they raised over $21 billion for the war. In other words. Russian Revolutions. April 1917: On March 2. The Creel Committee.unrestricted submarine warfare: On January 31. "Make the world safe for democracy": "Make the world safe for democracy" was Wilson’s famous line justifying United States involvement in the World War. The declaration was passed by the Senate by a vote of 82 to 6 and in the House by a vote of 373 to 50 before it was then signed by Wilson. Wilson foresaw the vengeful atmosphere that would follow a prolonged war. was an armed coup organized by the Bolshevik party. Mexico should attack the US. • Creel Committee: The Committee on Public Information. a repudiation of the Sussex pledge. Wilson’s "Peace without victory": In 1916 President Wilson called for a "peace without victory. necessary for the war with five campaigns between 1917 and 1919 with much excitement. Americans sided with neutrality. the Zimmerman note was a message intercepted by British intelligence from Germany to Mexico in 1917 proposing that in the event of a German war with the United states. . The second Revolution. was successful in raising widespread American support for the war effort. and sink all ships without warning whatsoever.
It also encouraged production by allocating raw materials. production. Bernard Baruch: Bernard Baruch was a Wall Street broker before being chosen by President Wilson in 1918 to head the War Industries Board. It was poorly applied and used to trample civil liberties during the war hysteria as in the example of the imprisonment of Eugene Debs. on May 18. the Selective Service Act was passed. The Sedition Act of 1918 made illegal any criticism of the government. Men from 21-30 were to register for the military. 24 million registered. . Debs imprisoned: Eugene Debs was questionably imprisoned and was given a 10 year prison term for giving a speech at a Socialist’s convention. selective service: As part of US mobilization for war. he served in the US Air Service as commander of the 94th Aero Pursuit Squadron. or obstructing recruitment or the draft. or American Expeditionary Force. His imprisonment was an example of the reactionism and hysteria of the period. the United States military was in poor disarray and men were desperately needed. 1918: The Espionage Act of 1917 enacted fines and imprisonment for false statements. During the war. This was part of Wilson’s effort to take stronger action in the war effort. inciting rebellion. and 3 million were actually drafted. and a response to the poor harvests of 1916 and 1917. postal service. 1917. Eugene V.S. involvement in the war and for warning of the dangers of war and militarism. The speech criticized American policy.S. At the time. it set prices for agricultural goods high to encourage the production of agricultural products. Pershing. AEF: From 1917-1918. prices. Eddie Rickenbacker: Rickenbacker was an American Aviator during World War I. Herbert Hoover. he was America’s leading pilot. Food Administration: The Food Administration was created in 1917 as part of the war effort. Sedition Act. Also papers which opposed the government could be banned from the U. Headed by Herbert Hoover. the AEF." Espionage Act. and labor relations. the War Industries Board controlled raw materials. He was aided by a coalition of 100 businessman who advised him on fiscal policy. instituting strict production and purchasing controls. standardizing manufactured products. would have a stronger bargaining voice with a separate army.War Industries Board: Created in July 1917. sent 2 million men to France under General John J. Most enlisted in search of action and adventure. It encouraged conservation with such days as "meatless Tuesdays. 1917. Made into a party-like atmosphere. The United States insisted the AEF be independent of French and English armies because it was believed the U. and paying high prices to businesses. Shooting down 22 planes. He received the Distinguished Service Cross as well as the Congressional Medal of Honor.
The US never joined because of controversy over Article X of the League Covenant that took away the United States’s freedom of determination in world affairs. American membership in the League of Nations. and Vittorio Orlando represented Italy. The other points dealt with self determination and finally a general association of nations. These provisions set the stage for World War II. Each had a different prerogative and differing interests. so the conference became not an American but a Democratic affair. Clemenceau for France. aims of Allies and US at peace conference: The main goal of Wilson and the American delegation was to secure an international peacekeeping organization. and included Secretary of State Robert Lansing. was dominated by conflict among the "Big Four. It also made German colonies mandates under the League of Nations and included the controversial article X that kept the US out of the League. the League of Nations." and the resulting treaty proved a disaster. it existed from 1920 to 1946. Big Four: Wilson. meeting in Geneva. George. Wilson pushed the Fourteen points and was partly successful. In a fourteen-point speech to Congress. US Versailles delegation: The delegation was headed by President Wilson himself. November 1918 saw the war grind to a halt. Orlando: The Big Four were the dominating four at the Versailles conference after World War I. General Tasker Bliss. The aims of the other allies were not as liberal as that of the US.Postwar Aims During the war. The peace conference. Wilson summed up United States war aims and its noble objectives. They dealt with the things that led to the first World War. Lloyd George for Britain. During the conference of Versailles. After WWI. Blatantly missing from the delegation were any Republican leaders. Clemenceau. Implemented at the Versailles conference. arms reduction and free trade. a peace based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points. President Woodrow Wilson represented the United States. Wilson believed that United States involvement would translate into a new democratic world order. Switzerland. Wilson failed in his most cherished objective. . Wilson promoted his Fourteen Points while other Allies sought vengeance. For example. • Fourteen Points: The Fourteen Points were Wilson’s proposals and beliefs for a postwar world order. • League of Nations: The organization promoted by Wilson in his Fourteen Points was the League of Nations. the first points called for open treaties. and attorney Henry White. Ultimately. held at Versailles in 1919. The enormous reparations settled on was representative of this atmosphere. Colonel Edward M. The treaty found Germany liable for the war and established new nations based on self determination. House. it divided German colonies into mandates of various League members. • Versailles Conference and Treaty: The Big Four dominated the conference in 1919 that determined the postwar world order. freedom of the seas. until it was taken over by the United Nations.
Article 10 of the Versailles Treaty: The most controversial of the League of Nations covenants. Johnson. so new nations were created to allow this. Senate rejection. reservations: Senate reservationists did not fully oppose the League except for mainly one Article. Austria. It led to hatred among Germans and inadvertently contributed to conditions precipitating World War II. The colonies became in actuality. Estonia. Hence. self determination: The idea of new nations and self determination was behind some of the aspects of the Treaty of Versailles. Germany accepted total responsibility for her and her allies for starting the First World War. Germany’s colonies became mandates of the League of Nations and delegated to France. This article was a large part of why the US rejected the League. Hungary. Even with the doctrine of self determination. which was one of their purposes in fighting the war. all others must become involved. Reparations payments were based on this claim. Wilson . new nations. it was felt that this would ensure peace in the postwar world order. some $33 billion to the Allies for civilian and veterans costs. and Finland were new nations which filled this definition. Self determination meant every nationality getting their own country. allowing for the rise of Hitler and World War II mandate system: As a provision of the Versailles Treaty. Yugoslavia. Germany was forced to pay a huge sum. They wanted that article removed before ratification. The belief manifested inself in the international world court that was established and later in the establishment of the United Nations after the demise of the League. It stated that every nation would serve to protect the territorial integrity and existing governments of all other League nations. Latvia. They opposed nearly all of the provisions of the League of Nations and felt that the League obstructed the United State’s freedom of self determination. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. Article 10 said that all nations must protect the territorial and political integrity of other League members. • "irreconcileables": Borah. Lithuania. those of the respective countries. The article meant that if one nation was engaged in war.• collective security: Collective security was the dogma behind Article X of the League of Nations covenant of the Versailles Treaty. Czechoslovakia Poland. Japan and Britain. Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty: By Article 231. boundaries for new countries still left many misrepresented and under others’ control. as was stipulated by Article X. La Follette: The irreconcileables were those in Congress who felt the United States should not be a member of the League under any circumstances. reparations: Reparations were implemented by European powers wanting vengeance against Germany. This huge amount led to Germany’s economic downfall. They did not want the United States going to war defending another League member without Congress’s permission.
over 21 million men were injured during the war.5 million deaths on both sides. black migration to Northern cities: During the war. The Red Scare in the United States followed Communist revolutions in Russia. blacks left their traditional homes in the South and migrated North for job opportunities in the war industries. About 500. In a variant of Wilson’s theme of determining the postwar peace. Red Scare. Harriet Stanton Blatch: A prominent women’s leader who during the war offered a view on why women should play a role in the wartime effort. Some were deported under the Alien Act. Congressional elections of 1918: In 1918. they will have an opportunity to gain power and rights. military casualties alone accounted for just over 8. farmers. Russia and Germany by far lost the most men at 1. Thousands of American Women took vacated jobs and became involved in industrial production as well as volunteer agencies at home and abroad. women should play a role so that after the war. wartime manpower losses: During World War I. and blacks in important ways. For all its horrors. The wartime mood also gave a boost to moral-reform movements. tired of idealism.7 million killed each.attempted to overcome them and get ratification for the League but was unsuccessful in his campaign. In comparison. Led to racial tension and violence in the North. Supplied America’s labor needs. Palmer led raids and arrested around 700 suspected communists and anarchists. This growing concentration of blacks led to the Harlem Renaissance. World War I brought prosperity to the American economy. Mitchell Palmer. women. The antiradical panic crested in the Red Scare of 1919-1920. the wartime spirit saw new racial violence and fresh antiradical hysteria. revealed their feelings in the election of 1920 leaving Republican Warren Harding in the office. the United States lost only 126. Women’s Roles in World War I: Prominent women’s leaders like Carrie Chapman Catt and Anna Howard Shaw saw war as an opportunity for women’s rights. In November 1919. the Republicans gained an advantage in both the House of Representatives as well as the Senate. The United States never joined the League of Nations. there was a string of bombings.000 blacks migrated North during the war. . Among the victims was Attorney General A. Americans. Impact of the War The war affected the lives of millions of industrial workers. Republicans no who had traditionally supported Wilson’s plans in Europe no longer supported him because of his cry to voters for a Democratic Congress. Still. Palmer raids: In 1919.000 men. In all.
Twenties Domestic Affairs America of the 1920s was a period of prosperity as well as industrial and technological growth. fueling the Red Scare. the immediate abandonment of the foreign and domestic policies of Wilson. inflation. The rise in prices was regulated by the WIB which set prices. Republicans chose Senator Warren G.2 million for prenatal and baby-care centers in rural areas. This meant a return to high protective tariffs and a reduction in taxes. It was due to decreased European purchases from American industries after the war. Sheppard-Towner Act: Lobbying for child-labor laws as well as worker protection for women and support for education by the Women’s Joint Congressional Committee resulted in the Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921. 1917 until Mar 1. With the recent end of World War I. inflation during the First World War: As Americans were sent to Europe to fight in World War I. They were forced to carry heavy traffic while ignoring maintenance. this term came to symbolize. 1920 and attempted to insure the operation of the railroads. police: Post-war strikes occurred because of an increase in prices. With the shortage came higher wages which led to more purchases and in turn. The government responded with troops to break up the strike. steel. The most famous strike was in a Seattle shipyard. Esch-Cummins Transportation Act: Also known as the Transportation Act of 1920. 1920. The United Mine Workers of America under John L. Harding of Ohio and Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts. They advocated a "return to normalcy" from the war environment. The result was the Act of Feb 28. Roosevelt for his running mate. James Cox. Chicago police struck and were all fired. to powerful businessmen. issues: Senator Warren G.1920 in Boston. Roosevelt were the Democratic nominees. They ran on a platform endorsing the League with reservations. a labor shortage was created. Harding in an address before the Home Market Club on May 14. Harding. . this act allowed the government to take over the railroads from Dec 26. vice-presidential candidates: The democrats nominated James M. coal. Lewis struck as well. election of 1920: candidates. and Franklin D. It was followed by the improved economy of the 1920’s until the Great Depression struck. Harding was the Republican dark horse with running mate Calvin Coolidge. brief depression. 1920-1921: A brief depression occurred from mid-1920 to the end of 1921. Harding sensed popular longing for calm and won in a landslide victory. Prices fell and unemployment was over 12% at its height.strikes: 1919. Election of 1920: candidates. thus turning to the leadership of Warren G. Cox and Franklin D. This act provided $1. issues. Americans yearned for a return to "normalcy" and political leaders that could provide it. Normalcy: Coined by Warren G.
Harry Sinclair: Forbes. Teapot Dome. An example of this was the 1919 federal law imposing taxes on the products of child labor that he overturned. Nathan Bedford Forrest served as the first Grand Wizard for this organization. director of the Veteran’s Bureau. friendly manner and advocacy of a return to "normalcy" resulted in a landslide vicotry in the election of 1920. the CPPA adopted policies of pro-labor. was forced from office in 1924 after receiving payments from violators of prohibition. and government ownership of railroads and utilities such as telephones and electricity.000 people annually.000 people annually. appointed attorney general. and warned of "the tyranny of bureaucratic regulation and control. KKK revival: A KKK was an organization founded in Pulaski.S. Bureau of the Budget: Created by the Budget and Accounting Act on June 10. in 1924. quota system: In 1921 Congress limited annual immigration to about 350. but then it was revived in 1915. Sceretary of Interior Fall. Harding. Fall leased government oil reserves in 1921 to Sinclair. 1923. All suspects evaded prosecution. Coolidge.•Immigration Acts 1921. . Under his jurisdiction. As president. his administration was full of scandals and on Aug 2. They were formally disbanded in 1869. Simmons.S. profarmer. The Bureau provided for a more efficient management of the budget within the treasury department. 1922 (CPPA): A committee designed to revive the practices of the progressive era." Taft. In 1924. Chief Justice William Howard: Taft was appointed by President Harding in 1921.: Although Harding lacked the qualifications for presidency. president of the Mammoth Oil Company. 1921. Harry Daugherty. from their respective country since 1890 and completely rejected the immigration of Asians. Tennessee in 1866. Warren G. this act provided for the Bureau to be located in the treasury department with the director appointed by the president. •Harding scandals: Charles Forbes. led by William J. This also restricted immigration to 2% of the total number of people who lived in the U. his ordinary. was exposed and convicted of stealing funds from it for personal economic growth. Unfortunately. They aimed to destroy radical political power and establish white supremacy in the U. where his silences became legendary. they limited the number to 164. Conference for Progressive Political Action. believed the government had no obligation in protecting citizens against natural disasters. Daugherty. the Supreme Court overturned many progressive reform measures that were opposed by popular business interests. Harding died in San Francisco of a heart attack. Calvin: Harding’s death brought vice president Coolidge to the presidency. 1924. The intent of these provisions was to reduce the immigration of foreign people in the United States. It helped defeat the conservative Republican candidates in 1924. he held an antipathy to progressivism.
Mellon also succeeded in balancing the budget every year from 1921 to 1928. or transportation of alcoholic liquors in 1917. Hoover was an inexperienced candidate that had never sought a public office before." He denounced the bill as an unconstitutional scheme because it would benefit American agriculture at the expense of the general public’s welfare. the Socialist party and AFL supported this nomination. who won with 54% of the vote.Mellon. He secured the passage of legislation that established the Board to Promote Cooperative Commodity Marketing. Election of 1928: candidates. a compromise candidate. election of 1924: candidates. vetoes: The veto of the McNary-Haugen Bill by Coolidge reflected a fear of "the tyranny of bureaucratic regulation. The Republicans nominated Coolidge. personalities. He also helped reject further tax cuts for the rich. McNary-Haugen Bill. Congress lowered the income tax rates for the wealthy. also. Robert La Follette. Senator George. Progressives saw it as a way to deal with the social problems associated with alcoholism. Al Capone: The Volstead Act of 1919 established the Prohibition Bureau within the Treasury Department. Federal Farm Board: This action was a result of Hoover’s response towards the problems faced by agriculture. 1920 two robbers killed a clerk and stole money from a shoe factory in South Briantree. Muscle Shoals: Norris successfully prevented President Coolidge from selling a federal hydroelectric facility at Muscle Shoals. Sacco and Vanzetti Case: On Apr 15. Capone was a mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. The Democratic Party nominated John W. Secretary of Treasury tax cuts: Mellon was the secretary of the treasury under Harding. Volstead Act. Davis. but it lacked financial stability and was ineffective. •Prohibition: Prohibition was first an issue before World War I. Massachusetts. and Hoover. closet manufacturing of alcoholic beverages and a rise in criminal activities within the cities due to illegal importation of alcohol led to its repeal with the 21st amendment in 1933. Smith was the Democratic candidate with the experience of being the governor of NY. backgrounds: Candidates Al Smith and Herbert Hoover represented the social and cultural differences of the 1920s. yet he won. Coolidge. Alabama to automaker Henry Ford for only a portion of the value of the land. By doing so he was permitted to raise farm prices while still preserving the voluntarist principle. Progressive Party: CPPA delegates revived the Progressive Party at the meeting in Cleveland in July of 1924 and nominated Robert La Follette for president. Norris. sale. his illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties. Under his administration. However. Nicola Sacco and Bartholomeo . Congress submitted the 18th amendment prohibiting the manufacture.
It began the radio era when KDKA. This boom also was started with the invention of the affordable automobile. 1920. A growth oriented business climate of the time was expansionist regarding American capitalism. Clarence Darrow. While the movie industry produced new celebrities and jazz music became popular. and jitterbugs.S. •Prosperity: This is a term that refers to the economic stability and opportunity experienced during the 1920s. Darrow was the head of ACLU’s lawyers. Amidst the speakeasies. The economy during this time was stimulated by the new and booming electrical industry. Americans responded to criminal cases also. •fundamentalists. The American Civil Liberties Union volunteered to defend any teacher willing to challenge this law. to start broadcasting on Nov 2. based in Pittsburgh. Fundamentalist legislatures even introduced bills to prohibit the teaching of evolution in schools. "If you turn hell upside down you will find ‘Made in Germany’ stamped on the bottom. literature flourished and flappers defined a social trend. It also shows that not only famous cases have been products of social developments.Vanzetti were arrested and both were charged with the robbery and the murder. Scopes Trial. Americans began to stray from traditional values as the culture changed. Pittsburgh: This was the first successful radio station in the U. Both men died in the electric chair on Aug 23. Federal Radio Commission. The inventions of new consumer goods and home electrical products contributed to this prosperity. William Jennings Bryan agreed to assist prosecution. Billy Sunday’s most famous quote reads. This case has been referred to for its moral lesson on human nature. Aimee Semple McPherson: During the twenties. . An evangelist. Roaring Twenties American culture and society in the 1920s were marked by a wave of new lifestyles and ideas. This radio station also influenced the establishment of the Federal Radio Commission. jazz. 1927: The FRC was created by Congress and extended the principle of governmental regulation of business activity to the new radio industry. broadcast the news of President Harding’s election. KDKA. The jury found them both guilty. This can be seen as an example of the progressive spirit that still survived in the legislative branch and its effect on society. Billy Sunday. winning many followers. were angered by the theory of evolution. 1927. Leopold and Loeb Case: The case in 1924 involved the murder of a young boy by two rich and intelligent college students. William Jennings Bryan: In 1925. the Tennessee legislature outlawed the teaching of evolution in public schools. Protestants who insisted on the divinity of the Bible." Evangelist McPherson used drama and theatrical talent in her sermons.
Alfred P. However. His first silent film was The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921) but his peak was with The Sheik (1921). James Weldon: American author. Charlie Chaplin was a silent film actor who appeared in 1914 with the Keystone Film Company. and diplomat who reflected his deep consideration of black life in the United States. Unfortunately. feminist Alice Paul’s National Women’s Party lobbied for an equal-rights amendment to the Constitution. Rudolph. Alice Paul: During the twenties.: In 1893.S. In 1908 he started production of the Model-T. Chaplin. Other feminists. In 1907. Lasky Feature Play Company. Garvey. This occurred because the war with Germany fermented wider support for the movement. Charlie: Valentino was an actor who was idolized by female fans of the 1920s. National Women’s Party. By 1917 it successfully established prohibition in 19 states. The result of the efforts of the ASL was the 18th amendment passed in 1918. and labor activists condemned Paul’s stance on this issue. Ford. the movement depended on the patronage of white people. Johnson.: He was an American motion picture director and producer who in 1913 joined with Jesse Lasky and Samuel Goldwyn to form the Jesse L. Anti-Saloon League: Another organization formed during the progressive era. •Harlem Renaissance. the AntiSaloon league was spurred by the Women’s Christian Temperance Movement in 1893. de Mille. In 1920 he became the NAACP’s first black executive secretary. In 1913 Ford began using standardized interchangeable parts and assembly-lines in his plants.Women’s Christian Temperance Movement: Formed in 1874. . James Weldon Johnson served as field secretary of the NAACP from 1916-1920. Ford completed the construction of his first automobile and in 1903 he founded the Ford Motor Company. radicals. the proposed amendment never succeeded through the party. lawyer. He used musical rhythms and the traditions of African American culture in his poetry. The Harlem Renaissance refers to the black cultural development during the 1920s. Langston Hughes: Hughes was an American writer known for the use of jazz and black folk rhythms in his poetry. Cecil B. Universal Negro Improvement Association: Garvey was a black nationalist leader who created the "Back to Africa" movement in the U. Marcus. he led a printers’ strike for higher wages at a printing company in Kingston. De Mille produced and directed the first feature film made in Hollywood called The Squaw Man in 1914. Progressives encouraged the legal abolition of alcohol. Henry. Sloan. In the 1920s he was a prominent figure during the Harlem Renaissance and was the Poet Laureate of Harlem. the Women’s Christian Temperance movement grew in momentum during the progressive era. he started a weekly newspaper called the Negro World. Valentino. In 1914 he founded the UNIA and in 1916. the Model T.
Flying in his single engine plane. They never formed a formal literary movement. that started a demand for dancers who could fulfill the expectations of the 1920s. those were the "good times. However." By this he referred to the public’s admiration of leaders like President Harding. Jack: Babe Ruth was the most popular player in the history of baseball. and Pulitzer Prize winner. Bruce. The American Mercury: Mencken founded the magazine The American Mercury in 1924. and William Carlos Williams.L. Lindbergh. He began in 1914 on the Baltimore team of the International League. he was the first person to make a nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic. Scott Fitzgerald. Dempsey. On May 20. This name also refers to the general prosperity and liberation of the people during the time. Fred Astaire was involved with the choreography in the movie along with other famous dancers such as Berkeley. comments on how people conform blindly to the standards of their environment. . 1927. Lewis. Babe. when jazz music became popular and in style. The Jazz Singer: The Jazz Singer was a movie.Ruth. his ideas became popular during the 1920s. Mencken. written in 1922. Babbitt: Main Street was written in 1920 and is where Lewis first developed the theme of the monotony. Louis: Lindbergh was an American aviator. these writers were seen to be ex-patriots. The writers include: Ernest Hemingway. Spirit of St. made in 1927. Such a title reflects the revolution in music during the time. His lectures in 1909 at Clark University advanced psychoanalysis in the United States. Mencken remained the editor until 1933. but individually they were all influential writers. and lack of values in American middle-class life." Freud’s. Jack Dempsey was an American professional boxer who became world heavyweight champion in 1919 but lost the title in 1926. Charles. engineer . Main Street. H. the Jazz Age: The Jazz Age is the general label of what the twenties represented. Sigmund theories: Freud was a Viennese physician whose studies of human sexuality and human psychology first appeared in the 1890s. He targeted his work at the shortcomings of democracy and the middle-class American culture. Sinclair. he flew from New York City to Paris. Balanchine.. Spirit of St. editor of the magazine. Bitter about their World War I experiences and disillusioned with different aspects of American society. The Man Nobody Knows 1925: Barton was an advertising executive that described Jesus Christ as a managerial genius who "picked up twelve men from the bottom ranks of business and forged them into an organization that conquered the world. emotional frustration. Barton. •"the Lost Generation": This term refers to a group of American writers who lived primarily in Paris during the 1920s and 1930s. F. and De Mille. Babbitt. Louis.
An American Tragedy: In 1925. Written in 1922. In that speech Roosevelt refereed to the need to quarantine aggressor nations by acting upon them in a collective measure. Foreign Policy in the 1920s In relation to the rest of the world. Being one of the writers of the Lost Generation. A Farewell to Arms: In Hemingway’s novels.. such as the League of Nations and the World Court. F. Roosevelt on Oct 5. T. The burden of domestic chores were alleviated with new technology. Independent and representing the rebellious youth of the age. dangling cigarette. while women themselves turned to a more liberated attitude. and men of simple character and primitive emotions. Dreiser believed in representing life honestly in his fiction and accomplished this through accurate detail and descriptions of the urban settings of his stories. Women of the twenties were noticed more for their sex appeal and presented as thus in the advertising industry. Focus during this era was upon domestic affairs more so than foreign affairs. the United States drew into isolation. An American Tragedy had great success. Flappers: Called a flapper because they would leave their boot flaps open. New restrictions on immigration and a lack of membership in international organizations. The Great Gatsby: Fitzgerald wrote this book in five months and completed it in 1925. heavy make-up. The isolationist disposition of the U. he usually depicted the lives of two types of people: men and women deprived of faith in their values by World War I. •Collective Security: The term "collective security" was first mentioned in the inaugural speech made by president Franklin D.S. He also portrays his characters as victims of social and economic forces. New woman: During the 1920s changes in postwar behavior had a liberating effect on women. This poem that is one of the most widely discussed literary works. the flapper was the stereotype of a woman in the 1920s. thus saying that nations need to stick together in order to combat evil. Fitzgerald was bitter because of the effects of the war. Hemingway. 1937. Fitzgerald. Theodore. and her ever shortening skirt length. The Waste Land: Eliot won the Nobel Prize for literature for his poem The Waste Land.Eliot. Ernest. . the flapper was usually characterized by her "bobbed" hair. as reflected through its foreign policy during the twenties.S. for Americans sought to secure their nation after the effects of World War I and maintain prosperity. The plot was a sensitive and satiric story of the pursuit of success and the collapse of the American dream. contributed to this isolationist period of America. Dreiser. called for collective security. The Waste Land expresses Eliot’s conception of the contrast between modern society and societies of the past. Scott. This was Hemingway’s second most important novel next to The Sun Also Rises (1926).
Young Plan: The Dawes Plan. GB.S. .. at the end of WWI. This act prompted the formulating of the Twenty-One demands written by China. The 5 power treaty (US. Aug 1924.75-1. Nine Power Treaty: The 4 Power treaty (US. Five Power Treaty. The numbers are the allowed amount of tonnage for each nations’ supply of battleships. Twenty-One Demands: Japan in 1915. These demands recognized Japan’s rights in Shandong. reparations were a major concern. 1. It also helped to reinstate the Open Door Policy. the World Court has the option of choosing cases. Fr. Four Power Treaty. this treaty was a series of notes between U. 1929 was for the final installment of the reparation payments and reduced the amount due by Germany significantly. it sought to bring about a change in the way countries dealt with foreign policy. Kellogg-Briand Treaty: This treaty of 1928 denounced war between countries when it was used for the purpose of handling relations between countries. The principle is to hear cases that extended from the different participants in the court. Fr.75 Italy.. 5-5-3-1. reparations: Reparations is a term applied to the issuing of money from one nation to another.75-France. and the desired amount of battleships that each nation should have. At the conference which was called by the United States the issue of the arms race and the idea of keeping peace on the Pacific ocean were discussed. and Japan) discussed respect towards Pacific nations. regarded reparations payments and consisted of an annual allotment of 2.5 billion gold pieces to the US from Germany. The 9 Power Treaty restated the Open Door Policy. and Italy) halted battleship construction for 10 years and developed the ideal tonnage ratio. The Young Plan signed on Jun 7. From this conference came the ideal of setting a standard on the desired tonnage that each nation should have. The ideal tonnage ratio for the countries were 5-US. 5-GB. 1928. the World Court was established in 1946 exceeding from a charter that was established by the UN.World Court: Also named the International Court of Justice. •Washington Disarmament Conference: Also called the Washington Naval Conference it convened during 1921-1922. not all cases submitted would be tried. 1917. 1. GB. The money is usually given to a nation that has been damaged by the destructiveness of war due to the acts from the other county. Secretary of State Robert Lansing and the Japanese military informer Kikujiro Ishii. 3-Japan. Dawes Plan. 1920 at the Washington Arms Conference. USSR. Signed by Frank Kellogg of the US and Aristicie Briand from France on Aug 27. During the First and Second World Wars. Pertaining to this treaty was the reconciliation of the two countries on the issue of foreign policy in the Far East.75 ratio: These ratios were conceived on Dec 14. invaded the city of Shandong and forced China to hand over the right of Japanese imperialism in the former German regions plus the city of Shandong. Lansing-Ishii Treaty: Signed on Nov 2.
S. Hoover saw this as a way to accelerate the decade’s trend towards corporate consolidation and cooperation. Welfare capitalism: Hoover welcomed this idea and urged further movement in this direction. and the stock market crash of 1929 resulted. However. and the ensuing struggle of the government to relieve Americans and recover the economy. American Individualism. Calvin Coolidge. 1929 when the great stock market crash occurred. who could handle the pressures given by a damaged society. Federal Reserve Board: The Federal Reserve Board tried to establish an easy credit policy. "rugged individualism" meant people who were self made individuals. 1927-1928: The United States refused to recognize the government established in Nicaragua under the regime of Emiliano Chamorro. "Rugged Individualism". Black Thursday: Black Thursday refers to Oct 29. the U. would become self sufficient. To accomplish this they increased the rate on federal reserve notes to decrease speculation. The Fordney-McCumber Tariff. Americans viewed him as a man who would further boost the nation’s growing prosperity.Sending troops into Nicaragua. the president at the time felt it necessary to send troops to Nicaragua. and who would rise above them in order to succeed. 1922: The ideal quality which every American should possess. The crash was caused by a number of ailments: the decline of agriculture. Hoover Administration When Herbert Hoover was elected to the presidency in 1928. During his term of office. . by 1933 Hoover expelled the troops for they were no longer needed. Their message went unheard. it also warned member banks not to loan money for the purpose of buying stocks. He believed that economic development demanded corporate cooperation in the areas of workers wages and production regulations. Voluntarism: Hoover believed that a socially responsible economic order could only be brought about by the voluntary action of capitalist leaders and not through governmental persuasion. Hoover also believed that cutthroat capitalism was unnecessary. relations. and the panic which led to bank foreclosures all over the United States. came the onset of the Great Depression. 1922: This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. however. The goal of this tariff was to push foreign competition out of the way of American markets and after an isolationist principle was introduced. Unfortunately for Hoover. his ideologies and legislation were not as effective in restoring prosperity to the nation. the unregulated trade within the process of buying stocks. These ideas were encompassed in Hoover’s book.
Within the act a five man Home Loan Board was created and the creation of banks to handle home mortgages provided money to homeowners that needed loans. electricity. and monopolistic companies in order to pump money back into the economy during the years of the Depression. Emergency Committee for Employment: The Emergency Committee for Employment was created in 1930 under the presidency of Herbert Hoover. Trickle Down Theory: Applied by Herbert Hoover. The goal for the committee was to coordinate efforts between other agencies in order to provide relief for the massive unemployed during the years of the Great Depression. It pushed rates on imported goods to the highest point they’ve ever been.. (RFC): Created under the presidency of Herbert Hoover. Reconstruction Finance Corp. Hoover Dam provides flood control. the loss of enthusiasm directed at the consumer products that were being produced and a loss of mirth in the economy created a no buying situation. and thus creating a surplus supply of money that would "trickle" down onto the rest of society. 1930: Like the Fordney-McCumber Tariff. the overproduction of goods by industries. at that time. railroads. the uncontrolled policies of the stock market.•Causes of the Great Depression: The Great Depression was not solely caused by the stock market crash in Oct of 1929. the HawleySmoot Tariff also rose protective tariffs on the United States.S. On the contrary there were many other factors involved. Hoover Dam: Originally called Boulder Dam. America could not keep up with international trading thus further deepening the problem. National Credit Corporation: Created in 1931. The areas hardest hit was England for it depended greatly on U. Located on the Colorado River in Arizona. on the brink of foreclosure. and irrigation for farms. . The inflation in agriculture. Federal Home Loan Act: Under the presidential term of Hoover in 1931 the Federal Home Loan Act was created. exports. money that could be used for loans. Depression as an International Event: Due to the devastating effects that the Depression had on the American way of life a spiral of depressions sprung up all over Europe.. the Trickle Down theory was an economic ideal which held the belief that the government should get involved in the economy by pumping money into it. to provide lending agencies that would be able to give banks. As part of the New Deal it was constructed between 1931 to 1935 and began operations in 1936. The isolationist principle also reflect the isolationist move the US was moving towards in the 1920s. it stands 726 feet high and 1244 feet wide. the RFC was designed to give out loans to banks. the Hawley-Smoot Tariff. the National Credit Corporation under the persuasion of Herbert Hoover got the largest banks in the country.
Out of the meeting came the decision to withhold grain and livestock from the economy. the HooverStimson doctrine was a collection of letters from the U.S. . The name was termed due to the cold. Excessive force was used to disband these protesters.P. "Hooverville": "Hooverville" was a name given to any shanty town that manifested itself during the period when Herbert Hoover was president. The main issue that he focused on was the methods he could use to reconcile differences between the Mexican government and the Church. Dwight D.Morgan and Company.S. Hoover believed that giving economic aid to the poor would stifle the economy. Cardenas nationalized many oil companies. Stimson Doctrine: Based on the principles of the Kellogg-Briand pact. France. Morrow also named Ambassador Morrow was a worker for J. London Naval Conference: US. and because they were veterans and heroes of this country. it was contradictory to the ideals of the Roosevelt Corollary. in 1932 the deadline for the veterans was pushed back by the government to a latter date thus causing the group to march onto Washington to demand their money.Reuben Clark in Dec of 1928. Representative J. Hoover’s popularity plummeted because of it. Though the issue was never reconciled due to the fact that Britain and other European Countries went off the gold standard before the plan could be implemented. The number of battleships was a great concern to these nations for they wanted to live in peace with one another. unfriendly disposition that Hoover took on the policy of helping out the poor.Farmers’ Holiday Association: In 1931 farmers from the Midwest got together to discuss the methods they would use in order to stop the policies that devastated the agricultural economy.The president of Mexico in 1938 was a man named Lazaro Cardenas. not in a war like situation. These letters written on Jan 7. Japan. and Italy convened in 1930 to come to a mutual agreement pertaining to the number of battleships that were in existence. The purpose of the meeting was to reinstate the principles of the Monroe Doctrine to the events that were happening in Latin America. Mexico’s naturalization of oil: . valued then at 450 million dollars. to China and Japan. The conditions were that Mexico had to give fair compensation to the countries. Clark Memorandum: The memorandum was called by the U. GB. Hoover Moratorium: The Hoover Moratorium was held in 1931 to discuss the payment of the allied war debts sustained during WWI. However. 1932.S. from England and the United States. Ambassador Morrow: Turned into an ambassador for Mexico. did not formally recognize any change in territory if it was brought about by armed forces. •Bonus Army: The Bonus Army was a group of WWI veterans who were supposed to be given economic relief from the government due to their involvement in the war. concluded that the U.
sell products. the various programs all contributed to the eventual. During her term. Frances. and Adolph A. humanitarian and displayed her politics and social issues as a wife of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The men most known are: Raymond Moley. 1932: The Norris-La Guardia Act forbade the issuing of injunctions to maintain anti-union contracts of employment. and developed the CCC. musical programs. Secretary of Labor: Being the first woman to be appointed to a Cabinet position (1933-1945). or to promote a political issue. Hoover’s platform was to increase the government’s role in the economy.Norris-La Guardia (anti-junction) Act. and Fair Labor Standards Act (1938). Roosevelt’s extensive program to restore the economy made up the New Deal. Rexford Tugwell. The issue was ending the Great Depression. Fireside Chats: During the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office Roosevelt held informal radio conversations every so often that were dubbed "fireside chats. Election of 1932: candidates. Roosevelt and the New Deal Declining appeal of Hoover to the public led to the election of Franklin D. Perkins was also a social reformer. the prevention to perform work. the Social Security Act. Roosevelt in 1932. and comedy shows. . these legislative measures dealt with assisting people financially. While not all were entirely successful. Age of the Radio: Radio reached its climax in the 1930s when millions of Americans listened to network news commentators." Roosevelt won. Moley was conservative while Tugwell and Berle were interested in reform. though gradual. Berle.S. Roosevelt’s message was "Pay attention to the forgotten man at the bottom of the economy period. Perkins. recovery of the economy. Overall. Roosevelt." The topic discussed was the economy that had been plagued by the depression. and the means that were going to be taken in order to revive it. pushed for a limit on employment age. and recover the prosperity before the Depression. reform other systems and institutions. Perkins strengthened the Department of Labor. She mostly fought for women and minority groups. the president and business companies utilized this resource to attract people. Many of her books include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and This Is My Story and On My Own. issues: The Republican candidate was Hoover and the Democratic one was Franklin D. Also. Brain Trust: The term brain trust refers to the individual people outside the Franklin Roosevelt appointed presidential cabinet that helped in the decision making process of the president. and the restraining of an act committed by either a group or of an individual striker. Eleanor: Eleanor Roosevelt is portrayed as a U. Roosevelt.
enabled FDR to pass acts critical to stabilizing the economy. fiscal policy: The policy gave government control of the money supply and created a high economic rate to stabilized prices and wages. FDR proposed a series of relief and emergency measures known collectively as the New Deal. Deficit spending: The manner in which the government spends more than it receives is refereed to as deficit spending. and Reform: These three areas. FDR intended to revive the lost prosperity of the economy by reforming other institutions and programs. and reform. Fiscal policy is regulation of trade between domestic or foreign goods. Emergency Banking Relief Act.e.•Keynesian economics: Keynes looked at the economy in a wider sense: macroeconomics. The Recovery category put forth measures that would help aid in the speedy recovery of areas hit hardest by the depression (i. The Hundred Days symbolized the beginning stages of the New Deal because the measures taken focused on relief. Now that the poor have jobs they have the necessary income to buy products and this cycle occurs again. this theory pumped governmental money to the poor so they could buy products. Reform was a category in which the government tried to recreate areas that seemed faulty (i. He theorized that the relationship between supply and demand was critical: when the demand doesn’t meet expectations there is unemployment and depression while if demand surpasses production inflation occurs. from Mar 9 to Jun 16. This demand in turn will produce jobs for the poor. deficit spending is also seen as inefficiency of government spending. 1933: Implemented during the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt’s first term the Emergency Banking Relief Act allowed the reopening . •Relief. but fiscal policy makes an exception because its purpose is to raise revenue. Hundred Days: Measures taken during Roosevelt’s first days in office. recovery and reform: key phrases from the New Deal itself.e. This is done to stimulate the economy through the rise in government costs or due to the decrease of taxation. On the other hand. "Bank Holiday": Franklin Roosevelt in 1932 called for a "bank holiday" which permitted banks that were hurt from the depression to close down for a few days in order to regain stability. and thus recover the nation’s wealth. Import duties are still possible. Further help to relieve the problem of the foreclosing of banks was the Emergency Banking Act which was passed during the holiday to help open more banks. relief. Through these measures. Monetary policy. banking system). recovery. by relieving the plight of the people. Pump-priming: Supported by Roosevelt. This would increase sales and cause a demand for that product. New Deal: In light of the Great Depression. are the categories into which the New Deal was split. agriculture and industry). The solution is to have the government spend while maintaining low taxes and when there is demand that a tight budget should be created. Recovery. The Relief category was defined by the acts implemented in the area of aid to the unemployment.
both which stifled the economy. In order to stop the problem of "dust bowls" created by the overuse of soil. teach fire ." Johnson. The NIRA pumped money into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition. Jun 1933. it separated deposit banking from investment banking. It tried to help mend the ailing problems that had plagued agriculture since the ending of the First World War. The act itself made 750 million dollars that had once been kept in the governments gold reserves now able to be used in the creation of loans to private businesses and other major corporations. This program created jobs that would try to conserve the nation’s natural resources. granted subsidies to farms who did not continually use the same plot of soil. Hugh: Hugh Johnson was the head of the National Recovery Administration who quickly created the organization and rallied support for the NRA by throwing parades in all of the main cities across the United States. The act provided healthy banks with a Treasury Department license and handled the affairs of the failed banks. •Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA). the National Industrial recovery Administration was designed to administer the codes of "fair competition" brought forth by the NIRA. Such codes established production limits. In addition. The government also tried to restrict the production of certain commodities. The main focus of the NRA was to break wage cuts and strikes. under the AAA. the government. •Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): Created under Franklin Roosevelt. Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA): Placed under the PWA. section 7a allowed the workers to organize and enabled them to bargain collectively. Section 7a of the NRA: Developed by Senator Robert F. set wages and working conditions. the CCC aimed at men particularly in the age group from 18-25. the NIRA focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. second AAA 1938: The first AAA was rendered unconstitutional years after the Act of 1938. Wagner helped organized labor by not allowing employers from discriminating against union members. (FDIC): This measure as the second of the banking acts enacted during Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office. The CCC would take these men out of the workforce and place them on jobs that would reforest certain areas. Wagner of New York. "The Blue Eagle. The Federal Deposit Insurance Committee allowed all bank deposits up to 5. •National Industrial Recovery Administration (NRA): Promoting recovery. passed in Jun of 1933. "The Blue Eagle" was the symbol of the NRA.of healthy banks. 1933: In February of 1933 the Glass-Steagal Act was signed. and disallowed price cutting and unfair competitive practices.000 dollars. Glass-Steagall Act.
and controlling floods. Roosevelt created the FERA in May 1933 and as a part of the New Deal. Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC): As part of the Hundred Days that understood the nation’s tragedy of foreclosed mortgages. each man would work for one year. National Youth Administration (NYA): As part of President Roosevelt’s New Deal plan. Harry Hopkins. who was cautious and suspicious. administered this program directed at local causes. the TVA was eventually curtailed in 1980 when nuclear plants were introduced. the HOLC refinanced American home mortgages. the TVA was a governmental agency which ruled several federal programs of building dams.000 public works project which constructed dams. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): The SEC. he set up the National Youth Administration to provide part time work for high school and college students. the PWA was a governmental agency which spent $4 billion on 34. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA): Senator Norris: Pushed for by Senator George Norris. an important federal agency was established.S. listened to complaints. This agency served more than two million people and was set up because students were the most rebellious due to their exposure to new ideas. The SEC required the registration of all companies and securities and required disclosure of company information and registration of all company securities exchanged. bridges. Federal Housing Authority (FHA): This agency forced small down payments and lowinterest loans on home sales and thus stimulated the economy. this measure allocated $500 million to relieve cities and states. the Secretary of Interior. Public Works Administration (PWA): Harold Ickes: Headed by Harold Ickes. protected investors. and public buildings. and help to stop soil erosion. Franklin D. it also helped to restore the livelihood that was missing in agriculture. the construction of hydroelectric dams. Created in 1933. Between 1933-1942 3 million men were put to work under the CCC. issued licenses and penalized fraud. Roosevelt to create the CWA. It was designed to help rural Americans refinance their farmland. Civil Works Administration (CWA): In Nov 1933 relief administrator Harry Hopkins convinced Franklin D. The CWA provided temporary public works that allocated a billion dollars for short-term projects for the jobless during the winter but was demolished when the spring arrived. This valiant effort allowed one-fifth of all U. mortgages to become refinanced which would prevent another Great Depression Farm Credit Administration: During Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office. This stimulation allowed a . it was named the Farm Credit Administration. established in 1934. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA): One of the most powerful social workers.prevention and soil conservation.
000 miles of roads. the disabled. and adjusted with the inflation. Resettlement Administration: As part of the New Deal and led by Rexford Tugwell. there were many loopholes. 1935: This act allowed the government to raise a spectrum of tariffs ranging from personal taxes at higher income levels to rises in corporate taxes to having heavier levies on gifts and estates. Social Security Act: Created by the U. 1935: Supported by R.000 bridges. 1935: The Gold Clause Act stated that private contracts dealing with certain railroad bonds were unable to interfere in the coining of money. The regulation in the value of money for those areas defined were specifically the areas given to Congress when the Constitution was written. Wagner. The Federal Arts Project created positions for artists by making positions for art teachers and decorated posts for offices and courthouses with murals. This program was so successful that by 1941 40% of these farms had received electrical power. As an independent agency. Harry. and post offices were built. Federal Arts Project: Directed by Harry Hopkins in 1935. Rural Electrification Administration (REA): The REA was an agency that provided low-interest loans to utility companies and farmers’ cooperatives to reach the 90% of rural farmers who lacked electrical power. Wagner Act. Even though the Resettlement Administration lasted two years. •Works Progress Administration (WPA). Gold Clause Act. hospitals. This originated from the Townsend clubs which pushed for a $200 pension. F. Hopkins. Revenue Act. (Also known as the National Labor Relation Act) National Labor Relations Board (NLRB): This agency was assembled by Congress in 1935 and oversaw the National Labor Relation Act (1935). . As an integral part of the New Deal. and established the National Labor Relations Board. arts. the NLRB controlled the secret ballot elections during collective bargaining and managed the complaints of unfairness by the employers or unions.1935. Soon the program was expanded to include dependents. and 125. the eight year program employed 8 million people and provided $11 billion dollars to the economy in which 650.S.new market for private homes that accelerated the construction-industry through the utilization of technology to mass-produce homes. this agency created loans for small farmers and sharecroppers to buy their own farms. secured workers the right to bargain collectively. the Wagner Act of 1935 established defined unjust labor practices.000 schools. it catalyzed the force of unionization. it satisfied the requirements of the governmental concern of sharecroppers. this act supported old-age advantages by utilizing a pay roll tax on employers and employees. 124. Congress on August 14. As an expression of the class spirit of the Second New Deal.
The act. The legislative measures brought reform and reinstated confidence in the people. the cost of law enforcement.S. Wikersham Convention: Officially named the National Committee on Law Observation and Enforcement. they had loaned 1 billion dollars assisting thousands of farmers. Fair Labors Standards Act: maximum hours and minimum wage: This act was created by the Roosevelt administration of northerners to undermine the South’s competitive edge. This agency created low-interest loans allowing farmers and sharecroppers to buy their own land. Twenty-First Amendment: Ratified within the span of 10 months. by providing benefit payments to farmers who practiced soil conservation methods. the federal government assumed responsibility in reviving economic prosperity. This policy was used on various occasions of armed troops being sent to Latin America to maintain political stability. It established a minimum wage for most workers while it concurrently created a forty-four hour work week and banned child labor. vastly increasing the power of the president. part of which he used to set up the Works Progress Administration. The amendment also permitted states to levy a tax on alcoholic substances. The amendment also set the date of the President’s inauguration back to Jan 20. . Results of the New Deal: Several accomplishments of the New Deal contributed to the nation’s economy.Emergency Relief Appropriation Act: As part of the Second New Deal in relation to the high unemployment rate in April 1935. 1933 repealed the eighteenth amendment which dealt with the passing of prohibition. the treatment of juvenile delinquents. By 1941. Ultimately this resulted in support from Latin America during World War II. Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenancy Act: The act created the Farm Security Administration and replaced the Resettlement Administration. the ideology was that the U. Congress was forced into passing the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act in which Roosevelt was granted five billion dollars. the Twenty-First Amendment on Dec 5. and other similar problems that faced society during that era. would respect the rights of other nations. For the first time. helped to stem the overproduction in agriculture thus stabilizing farm prices. 1936: The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act was formulated to replace the Agricultural Adjustment Act. Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act. the Wikersham Convention in May of 1929 discussed the probing problems of prohibition. Twentieth Amendment: Also known as the Lame-Duck Amendment the Twentieth Amendment in 1933 called for the ending of the "lame-duck" sessions of Congress from Dec of the even numbered years until the following Mar. Good Neighbor Policy: Stated in 1933 by Roosevelt in his inaugural address.
. American Federation of Labor. Steel Workers Organization Committee. sit down strikes: These strikes were characterized by employees occupying the work place yet doing nothing. Steel recognized the union. big city machines. and electrical workers. gave the workers a wage increase. Only until Roosevelt’s presidency did the U.Recognition of the USSR. intellectuals. Indian Reorganization Act. By March 1937. Steel. Also. and Southerners favored these relief programs. United Mine Workers. Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). Because blacks. Lewis of the United Mine Workers and Sidney Hillman of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers established the CIO in the November of 1935. This 2 million-member group welcomed all autoworkers. Lewis. 1933: The United States didn’t recognize Russia because of the betrayal when Russia withdrew from WWI due to the Russian Revolution in March of 1917. South: Franklin D.: John L.000 members out of which Lewis co-founded the CIO. they merged with the Democratic Party. This type of passive resistance allowed the employees to halt production. AFL: The AFL was led by Samuel Gompers and was composed of craft unions that excluded unskilled and semiskilled workers.S.S. This tactic was utilized in the strike by the United Automobile Workers against General Motors in 1937. The size of the union grew as production in the 1900’s grew. safer working conditions. steelworkers. credit. Enacted on Jun 18. unions. Roosevelt relied on state and local Democratic leaders who pushed beyond the traditional Democratic base. An example of this is that the Emergency Banking Act passed through Congress in one day. Coalition of the Democratic Party: blacks.S. recognize Russia. Because of this action. Lewis in 1890. U. the Congress was viewed as conservative. it provided the Indians direct ownership of their land. its methods. By 1935. UMW: This union was created by militant leader John L. thus paralyzing the business. government. SWOC: Led by Philip Murray. reflect Lewis’ military style. many other companies began to do the same. John L. 1934: Authorized by the U. SWOC gained recognition by striking against U. big cities machines. intellectuals. Congress. Wilson and the other Allies agreed to weaken Russia.S. and political stands. the dissidents formed the Committee for Industrial Organization. at the treaty of Versailles. a constitution.S. In 1935 it had about 250. and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs. and accepted a 40-hour week. it allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U. 1934. based on his stands on increases in pay. Roosevelt. "conservative coalition" in Congress: Because of the combination of a majority in Congress and the agreeableness of President Franklin D.
America First Party (1944). issues: The candidates included Franklin D." Smith decried blacks. •"court packing" proposal: This proposal was announced by Franklin D. Roosevelt. Davis. these charges resulted in the Supreme Court declaring the NRA unconstitutional by stating that the NRA was regulating interstate commerce a violation of federal regulation. Coughlin. Roosevelt’s New Deal. Although Congress rejected it. Roosevelt allowing the president to appoint new Supreme Court members for each one over 70 years of age. This resulted in some New Dealers leaving the president’s side and humiliated President Franklin D. Wall Street. totaling six in all. Hughes. and the Christian National Crusade (1947). Ending in 1940. Douglass. Roosevelt from the Democratic Party. It called for a pension for citizens over 60 years of age to receive $200 provided by the federal government. and William . After Chief Justice Evan Hughes’ leadership in expressing their disapproval in this plan. Smith. Townsend. Dr. Roosevelt between 1937 to 1939 to guarantee a foundation for a liberal majority and thus extending Roosevelt’s New Deal policies after leaving office. Chief Justice Charles Evans: Hughes guided the Supreme Court in the attack against President Roosevelt in his plan to "pack" the Supreme Court in 1937. United States: This case took place in May 1935 when a New York company was charged with a violation of an NRA poultry code. Father Charles: Coughlin used his status as a U.: Both radical agitators. He asserted reactionary views and revolved around anti-New Deal and ant-Semitic views. Gerald L. It lasted for four years and was composed of famous members like Alfred E. Huey. Alfred M. Francis: Townsend developed the Townsend Plan in 1933 which embraced 5 million supporters.S. Congress and the American people disapproved of the action as well. Reed. Also. Catholics. Communists. Alf Landon. Smith and John W. Frankfurter. he upheld the Wagner Act in which workers had the right of collective bargaining in the National Labor Relations Board v.Liberty League: This group was made of conservative Democrats who were against the economic and fiscal policies of Franklin D. Roman Catholic "radio priest" to announce his political and economic views. Landon from the Republican party. they supported the Republican candidate. and Jews. Stanley F. Felix.K. and labor unions in the Union Party (1936). In addition. Schechter v.. Long. Election of 1936: candidates. he created the magazine Social Justice which attacked Communism. Jones & Laughlin Steel. Hugo. New Members of the Supreme Court: Black. William O. Share the Wealth.: These four men were appointed by Franklin D. Long was known for his Share the Wealth program that painted a picture in which "every man [was] a king. Townsend’s ideals were an early foundation of the Social Security Act.
Roosevelt’s New Deal policies. to help the unemployed receive jobs. 1936: Originated from a Federal Trade Commission chain store investigation. they debated on the validity of each poll in relation to Franklin D. also known as "dust bowls. On Jun 19.Lemke from the Union Party. to give assistance to the rural poor. GATHERING STORM . This occurred because after two generations of a melange of drought and poor farming techniques these areas. restricted federal employees from political campaigning. "Roosevelt recession": Although the economy improved in 1936 and early 1937. It disallowed bribery of votes. The Grapes of Wrath written by Steinbeck in 1939 illustrates the plight of a dust bowl family. this act was passed and applied to all buyers or sellers. and to incorporate social-welfare benefits. Robinson-Patman Act. FDR won in a landslide victory. and unemployment statistics increased. 1937: The purpose of this act was to amend the Sherman Anti-Trust Act by exempting any contract or agreement ("horizontal agreements") in which a product would be set at a significantly lower price. John Steinbeck. Gallop Poll. In the end. the Hatch Act tried to exterminate corruption during elections. Roosevelt and expressed in his State of the Union Address in January 1935. 1939: Supported by Senator Carl Hatch of New Mexico and passed by Congress on Aug 2. and social welfare. 1939. it once again fell back in mid 1937. and limited donations from individuals which were to be given to political campaigns." once fertile land. Hatch Act. 1936. organized labor. Okies. the Second New Deal focused on and enlarged the federal program to incorporate the jobless. There. Some of the major factors of this recession were federal policies that greatly reduced consumer income. it eliminated unfair business practices and destroyed monopolies. this act was an amendment to the Clayton Act. Miller-Tydings Act. A violation of this would be an unfair method as stated in the Federal Trade Commission Act. Literacy Digest Poll: The poll was initiated by Franklin D. The principal issue was how to exploit the New Deal’s popularity. create harder regulations on businesses. and merchants large or small. became waste areas and unusable. Roosevelt during his presidency and involved in a court case: Literacy Digest poll v. •dust bowl. when industrial production and steel output declined. The Grapes of Wrath: "Okies" were poor farmers who moved west to California and Arizona during the 1930s or moved to the crowded cities. •Second New Deal: Created by President Franklin D. Roosevelt wanted to levy heavier taxes on the rich.
1938: Another conference before WWII. A U.S." stated that American waters should be free of hostilities from non-belligerent nations. and also restated the sovereignty of the American states. Montevideo Conference: This conference was held in 1933. to the future independence of the Philippines. determination to resist "all foreign intervention or activities that may threaten them. Some of the issues were related to unresolved conflicts left over from World War I. 1933: Meeting of 19 American republics. the Lima Conference adopted the Declaration of Lima. Additionally." Declaration of Panama." Also a pact was adopted promising consultation if war was imminent Lima Conference. It was unanimously approved by the Pan American Nations. the Philippine Congress was made elective. Jones Act. in which the American treaty of reciprocal Assistance was signed. members would meet and decide necessary actions to be taken Buenos Aires Conference. Depression and out of control inflation totally destabilized Germany’s government and allowed the rise to power of the Nazis. who were able to capitalize on a German sense of injustice and nationalistic frustration. delegation to the conference endorsed a document that declared "no state has the right to intervene in the internal affairs of another. Descendants of Spanish subjects in 1899 were designated citizens. 1939: Adopted at Panama city by the foreign ministers of the American Republics. 1940: The act was created to prevent the transfer to European colonies to Germany in the western hemisphere. sixteen resolutions were passed to deal with the outbreak of war in Europe. 1916: This act provided for the government of the Philippines and committed the U. 1934. Voting rights were given to all literate male citizens over 21. which provided for the . and Supreme Court justices were to be appointed by the president. Philippines: The act eliminated certain objectionable provisions of a previous act known as the Hawes-Cutting Act. committing each republic to assist another in times of any attack or if an American republic were threatened by a situation not involving an armed attack. Secretary of State furthered the interests of Latin American States when he asked for a reduction of trade barriers. it expressed the U. XIV entitled "Declaration of Panama. It stated that the American Republics would take over and administer any European possession in the New World endangered by aggression.S. 1936: It was opened by Roosevelt when he stated in a speech that any non-American state seeking "to commit acts of aggression against us will face a Hemisphere wholly prepared to consult together for our mutual safety and our mutual good.S. Act of Havana.The two decades prior to the outbreak of hostilities in World War II were a period of increasing unrest both politically and socially in many areas of the world. Resolution no. Tydings-McDuffie Act. Rio de Janeiro Conference.
effective 10 years after the inauguration of an authorized government. Russia’s Commissar of Foreign Affairs MaksimM. Japan Attacks China. It also provided for trade relations with the U.S. and instituted the cash and carry policy which meant that nations that were seeking to trade with the U.independence of the Philippine Islands after 12 years. Japan attacked the Chinese province of Manchuria and installed a puppet government. citizens not to travel on belligerent vessels. Franco: This war lasted from 1936-1939. The revolution was supported by Spanish conservatives. Litvinov asked for action against fascist governments. This united or popular front formed in 1938. •neutrality legislation: A series of Neutrality Acts were passed in 1935. 1936. Mussolini: Mussolini founded the Fasci de Combitimmento after being kicked out of the Socialist party in 1919. monarchists. All these allegations were investigated by the Nye committee. was powerless to stop it. industrialists. landowners. Spanish Civil War.S. He came into power in the 1920s. "merchants of death": This term refers to the business corporations and banks who were blamed for dragging the U. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia which did not have a way of stopping him from invading because Ethiopia was such a weak nation without a strong army and a supply of ammunition. these laws placed an embargo on exports of war materials to belligerents. Ethiopia: Mussolini was intent on building an African empire comparable to those of the European nations.S. It also warned U.S. Popular Front: In order to gain the support of the Allies. In July of 1936. had to purchase the goods they wanted as well as provide their own vessels in which they could be shipped out to their country. prohibited loans to belligerent nations. was dragged into WW I. fascist Franco led the Spanish army units to overthrow the elected government in Spain. In 1935. called for a collaboration of Communist Socialist to fight fascism. China’s leader. Chiang Kai-shek: Japan was taken over by a militaristic government that had expansionist dreams. and by 1926. Nye Committee: Instituted due to public concern over the issue that the U. Russia sought a formation of united-front governments in foreign countries. and 1937. He also pursued an aggressive policy which won him support in every sector of the population. Japan declared war against China. . Mussolini had transformed Italy into a single-party totalitarian regime. and Roman Catholic hierarchy.S. Chiang Kai-shek. In 1931.S. into the war because they were desperate to protect the millions of dollars invested in loans and weapon sales to Britain and France. this committee was headed by Senator Gerald Nye. In 1937. banks and corporations financing WWI and supplying arms and loans to the Allied nations. The Committee held hearings between 1934 and 1936 and compiled evidence of involvement of U.
as hostilities escalated in both the East and West. This was a severe blow to the Popular Front. Nazi sympathizers in Austria welcomed Hitler’s annexation of Austria. the United States was fenced in and forced to choose a side. not one to push ahead of public opinion. Finally. gave in to Hitler’s demands on territory that Germany had lost after the end of WWI." 1937: Roosevelt recognized the power of the antiwar feelings demonstrated at home. He pursued a militaristic and expansionist foreign policy. gunboat Panay and three Standard Oil ships. . which were evacuating American officials from China. Nazism: Adolf Hitler’s Nazi party came into power in 1933 and clamped a dictatorship on Germany. Austria Annexed: Hitler annexed Austria in 1938 and expanded the German borders.S. Neville Chamberlain: This conference was held in 1938 between England and Germany. Supporting the Allied forces. evident in his plan to raise a half million man army and expand German borders to Russia. nonaggression pact between Germany and USSR: Stalin. representing England. Thousands of homes were vandalized and synagogues were burned to the ground. Jewish businesses and schools were wrecked and looted. After France fell to Germany. pressure increased on the United States. the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor pulled the United States into the global conflict. "Quarantine speech. 1939 agreeing not to make war on each other and divided up Poland between the two nations: the USSR and Germany. Many people in Britain were very disappointed in Chamberlain and how easily he had appeased to the demands of Hitler. He was replaced soon after by Winston Churchill. the United States attempted to maintain a distance. Kristallnacht: Meaning "The Night of Broken Glass. made a formal apology and promised indemnities later set at $2 million. who advocated a popular front against fascism. he assured a visiting Australian leader in 1935 that America would never enter a war. Nothing was spared. was considered a legitimate target by the Axis. In a 1937 speech. He proclaimed an Anschluss between Austria and Germany and German troops rolled into the capital city Vienna. Japan accepted responsibilities of bombing the ships. Gathering Storm 1940-1941 As World War Two began in Europe. signed a pact with Nazi Germany on August 24. appeasement. he suggested the possibility of a "quarantine" of aggressor nations. Chamberlain was very much blamed for the oncoming of WWII due to his actions toward Hitler. However. Hitler’s actions here furthered his plans to expand German borders and his rule." this rampage was carried out by Nazis all over Germany and Austria to destroy Jewish homes and structures. though not officially in the war. the United States.Panay Incident. Hitler. 1937: Japanese bombers engaged in war with China bombed and sank the marked U. His racist views targeted all non-white Christians who expressed anti-German ideas. Chamberlain. •Munich Conference.
Lindbergh.000 men from the English channel. Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies: Instituted by Roosevelt to oversee loans and other such financial activities occurring while Germany attacked Britain. 1940. and carry them on their own vessels. . The committee was compromised of many pro-isolationist who thought that the allied powers could do nothing to stop the war. he was faced with stiff resistance by the America First Committee in 1940. Tojo: Japanese leader during WWII. "cash and carry": A precautionary move by the U.Invasion of Poland. April 1940.S. it was extended when Japan was incorporated into the Axis by the signing of the Tripartite pact.S. Blitzkrieg: When Poland refused to restore the German city of Danzig lost after WWI. It was largely used in the later years of communist hysteria. and in 1940 made Minister of War. 22 France capitulated. advocated total war. Mussolini attacked from the South at the same time. and controlled government and military operations during WWII. Isolationism. The British were already being driven back when Hitler attacked Netherlands. fall of France: Hitler’s launched his blitzkrieg on France in 1938. oversaw lend lease policy implemented by Roosevelt for purposes of protecting America and also to help stop Germany in Europe. Italy and Germany. Smith Act: The Smith Act was created in 1940 and outlawed any conspiracy to overthrow the government. Hitler’s troops attacked Poland on Sept." and quickly occupied many western European nations. Originated in the RomeBerlin Axis with the 1936 Hitler-Mussolini Accord and their alliance in 1939.. Charles: Isolationism was the foreign policy practiced by America after WWI. Belgium and Luxembourg. or "lightening war. America First Committee: When FDR expressed a desire for American intervention in WWII. and imprisoned individuals not because of any acts of violence or espionage.1. but rather for their rhetoric and their views on the American government. Axis Powers: Group of countries opposed to the Allied powers. In 1941. Resigned 1944. Led the Japanese army against Manchuria. In Sept. and even joined the America First Committee to demonstrate his antiwar sentiment. to make sure they stayed isolationist. as most citizens did not want to be involved in many international affairs. 1939. and on Jun. England evacuated 338. Charles Lindbergh was a big supporter of this policy. appointed Prime Minister. The Committee. The Axis powers were Japan. This meant that the allied countries had to only pay for the goods and the United States would ship them. An extreme militarist. Nations who wanted to trade had to purchase the materials from the U. Became Army Chief of Staff in 1937. Hitler unleashed his Blitzkrieg.
over 300 aircraft were destroyed or damaged. •Japanese Relocation: Japanese-born Americans and immigrants from Japan were sent to concentration camps in the early 1940’s because of a fear that they would leak out . Their public statement expressed their ideas of a postwar world. Japan signed this alliance in September. election of 1940: candidates. December 7. By August 1945. Willkie. Each of the signatories pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the U. Thirty-five other nations besides Great Britain. The major issues were WWII and military spending. In less that 3 hours. soil. arms in history. 1941: On the morning of December 7. Worst loss of U. USSR. France. Roosevelt endorsed the nation’s 1st peacetime draft and advocated a military spending increase. Everyone on the homefront was expected to do his or her part in the war as well. •Pearl Harbor. and frowned upon aggression. the amount totaled $48 billion. Atlantic Charter. and 8 battleships.S. •"Lend Lease. which originally authorized $7 billion. and 3 destroyers were sunk or crippled. 1940." March 1941: Program set up to loan the Allied nations arms and other materials to wage war against the Axis powers. and the Republicans nominated Wendell L. Housewives grew Liberty Gardens and went to work in place of the drafted men. Homefront Though World War Two was not fought on U. with the previously allied Italy and Germany. Britain gave the United States 99 year leases to establish military bases on British possessions in the Western hemisphere.destroyers-for-bases deal: In exchange for fifty old WWI American destroyers which had in been recommissioned in 1939 and 1940 and were serving on neutrality patrol. and to strafe the planes parked side by side at nearby air bases. August 1941: FDR met Churchill to discuss joint military strategy. The United States government established many wartime organizations to monitor supplies and food as well control propaganda. The Lend-lease bill was approved by Congress in 1941. S.S. the entire country pitched in to help the war effort. and China received loans from the lend lease. 3 light cruisers. affirmed national self-determination. of which the United States received $6 billion in repayment by these nations. Tripartite Pact: The Tripartite Pact was a 10 year military and economic alliance also known as the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis. and endorsed the principles of collective security and disarmament. scores of Japanese dive-bombers and torpedo planes flew across Oahu to bomb the ships that were anchored in Peal Harbor. issues: Roosevelt was nominated by the Democrats for a third term. Families were encouraged to help fathers and brothers by not buying tin or rationing sugar or buying war bonds.
sugar. as well as all letters going overseas. bond drives: In order to finance the war and give people a sense of involvement in the war effort. he established the Office of Censorship. The treasury department sold about $40 billion "E" bonds to investors. and the war industry. bond drives were held. Revenue Act of 1942: Because of the expenditure on the war. Most of these people were suspected of being spies for the Japanese. Office of War Information: Roosevelt wanted public opinion to be positive during the war. The captured Japanese were released in 1942. oil. coffee and shoes. FDR announced a plan for massive war production.000 non-Jews. in 1942.S. hoarding and price administration. It examined all written documents. and nearly twice the amount in higher denomination. the War Labor Board was instituted to mediate disputes between management and labor. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas. FDR established the War Production Board. and FDR apologized to them. Office of Price Administration (OPA): Instituted in 1942. although it was late in inception. in order to maintain the positive public opinion in America. It allocated scarce materials. profiteering. and also to study how profit can be gained through the production of weapons and supplies. Although Congress refused to grant him a progressive tax. The War Labor Board acted as the mediator to prevent massive strikes and wage increases that occurred with the demand for workers. The bonds raised half the money for WWII. the Revenue Act raised the top income-tax rate from 60% to 90% and added middle class and lower income groups to the tax bracket as well. War Production Board: In 1942. and sought to prevent strikes and out of control wage increases. War Refugee Board (WRB): FDR established the War Refugee Board in 1943 to help rescue and assist the many people who were condemned to death camps. though there was no solid evidence to support such accusations. Roosevelt wanted to pay for as much as possible through taxes. butter. to Japan. 1 million still died.000 Jews and 20. this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation. and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers. It relocated many refugees in need. including works of publishers and broadcasters. War Labor Board: Established in 1942. War Manpower Commission (WMC): FDR established the War Manpower Commission in 1942 to help supervise the mobilization of males and females in the military. limited or stopped the production of civil goods. Office of Censorship. Office of Strategic Services: FDR and the Joint Chief of Staffs formed the Office of Strategic Services which served as an intelligence agency during WWII and was a . Although it saved 200. and in 1941. meat. In order to get the necessary amount of raw materials.information about the U.
MacArthur. replacing those men who had entered the military. the United States hoped that after Germany was defeated. •Women in World War II: Women served in significant numbers during World War II. gather intelligence information required for planning. Blacks moved into service in all areas of the military. General MacArthur was credited for the great successes that the Americans had in the Pacific wars. He was the strategist behind the Pacific Wars. and as such played an important role in aiding the postwar economic recovery of Europe with the Marshall Plan. •African-Americans in World War II: Many civil rights groups used the need of the government for the cooperation of all its citizens in the war effort to push a new militancy in redressing discrimination. both as civilian support personnel and in the uniformed services in the Woman’s Army Corps (WAC) and Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service in the Navy (WAVES). Women moved into the civilian workforce.000 troops. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD): Formed in 1941 to contract out the development of new medicines and ordinances. A large migration of blacks from the South to Northern industrial areas made civil rights a national rather than regional concern and broadened the political effects of black votes. tanks. Led by General Eisenhower. The U. General. radar devices.predecessor of the CIA. including heavy industry. Island hopping proved to be the only way the United States could retake the Pacific from the Japanese. Discontinued by Truman in 1945. General: Eisenhower led the D-Day invasion with great success. advanced jets. the troops landed in Morocco and . and was highly respected by his peers in the armed forces. the Allied forces hammered at the Italian and German lines. and the Second World War The United States was involved in two major areas of conflict. He became Secretary of State for President Truman. From bases in England and Africa. Eisenhower. and the development of DDT and other pesticides. Opting to first prevent the complete takeover of Europe. it employed an allied army of more than 100. the struggle in Europe and the battle in the Pacific Theater.1942 to conduct espionage. Operation Torch: Undertaken in November 1942. and to analyze the enemy. rockets. which provided assistance to war-torn Western Europe. freeing men for combat pilot positions. although most in segregated units until 1948. George Catlett: An American military commander who was Army Chief of Staff during World War II.S. Women pilots ferried planes from station to station. It spent $1 billion dollars to produce sonar. It began on June 13. Marshall. the Allies would concentrate on the Japanese threat.
June 6. The Big Three was compromised of Stalin. member of the Big Three. By the end. the head of the Chinese government. Surrounded. allied forces seized control of Sicily. 150. FDR and him and were the major parties involved in allied conferences. Stalingrad: The site of one of the bloodiest battles during WWII. An additional million waded ashore in the following weeks. "Final solution": Hitler persecuted Jews in Germany and sought to rid Germany of them. Winston: British Prime Minister during WWII. By summer’s end British secured Belgium and the Americans recovered France and Luxembourg. Invasion of Sicily: Stalin pleaded for a second front in Russia. he asked for assistance from the U. in the form of equipment and arms. 1943: In the middle of the North African campaign. the Japanese were determined to wipe out any remaining ships of the decimated American fleet when they sailed toward Midway. Roosevelt and Churchill met at Casablanca and resolved to attack Italy before invading France. 1944: In the first 24 hours. Genocide. Roosevelt was convinced by Churchill to delay the second front from 1942 to a later date. where Jews were methodically executed by means of poisonous gas or other forms. and allies reached inland in July. The Russians were victorious at the battle. and have forces in Africa to protect English colonies since Germany was attacking Africa.S. he ordered dive-bombers to destroy the ships. In roughly a month. when the allies were better equipped to fight. and thus were able to launch a counter-offensive against Germany and drive the Nazis from Russia. During WWII. he set up many concentration camps. Churchill. Italian military leaders surrendered to the allied forces on September 8 1943. arriving in Paris by August. and tried to reduce Soviet mistrust of the west. but Churchill objected and Roosevelt agreed for a plan to invade Sicily in the summer on 1943.. Casablanca Conference. D-Day. They also vowed to pursue the war until the unconditional surrender of the Axis power.Algeria and pressed eastward to entrap the German forces being pushed by British forces in Libya. the Germans surrendered in May 1943. Thousands of soldiers died at the hands of German and Russian armies during the battle of Stalingrad. FDR promised Chiang that Manchuria and Taiwan would be . Japanese codes were decoded and Admiral Nimitz knew the exact plans and location of the Japanese ships. When Germany first began attacking Britain. But. Cairo Conference.000 allied troops landed on the beach of Normandy. In a clever move. Battle of Midway: In 1942. 6 million perished. 1943: FDR met with Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek. second front: The plan that was going to be used to aid the Soviet Union in fighting the Germans.
•Atomic bomb: The atomic bomb was successfully built in 1944 and was employed in bombing the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. to coincide with the Russian offensive from the east. "unconditional surrender": Term used by the allied powers to describe what kind of surrender they wanted from Japan-one without negotiations. They agreed to divide Germany into occupation zones. drove the Nazis back to Rhine. Japan surrendered. and did was by relying on Nazi scientists. 25. the new German government surrendered unconditionally on May 8. U. which the U. The bomb unleashed terrible fury on the two cities. Americans celebrated this Victory in Europe day with ticker tape parades and dancing in the streets. but with the explosion of the Abomb. 1943. The assault forces suffered nearly fifty thousand casualties in the battle before being able to subdue Japanese resistance. 1943: FDR met with Stalin and Churchill and set the date for the invasion of France for May or June 1944. Oppenheimer. turned its full attention to the War in the Pacific Manhattan Project: Because Nazi scientists were seeking to use atomic physics in a harmful manner. After the A-bomb fell on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. In 1943 and 1944. in 1941 FDR launched a secret program to produce an A-bomb before the Germans. Hitler threw the last of his reserves to fight against the allied troops in December of 1944. Okinawa was 350 miles from Japan and a key area for staging the invasion of Japan by the American troops. had undertaken to build the atomic bomb before Germany. J. There was also debate on whether such a potent and powerful weapon should have been unleashed before proper tests were conducted on the long-term effects. killing hundreds of thousands of people through the incinerating heat and radiation poisoning. Teheran Conference. . Okinawa: The island of Okinawa was secured by the Americans after the battle of Iwo Jima.S. the Cold War Era had just begun.returned to China and that Korea would be free with the hope that Chiang would fight until Japan surrendered unconditionally.S. the Manhattan Engineering district worked to stockpile U-235 and in 1945 attempted to use it in a bomb. Battle of the Bulge: As the allies prepared for an attack on Germany after penetrating up to Germany’s border. On Dec. Oppenheimer was later employed by Harry Truman to work on building a more destructive weapon known as the Hydrogen bomb. to impose reparations on the Reich. Robert: The scientific director of the Manhattan project. the allies stopped the last German counter-attack and within a month. V-E day: As Russia pushed the Germans back into Germany and reached the suburbs of Berlin. and Stalin promised to fight Japan after Hitler’s defeat. Afterward.
partitioning of Korea. The next day a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki killing. Churchill and FDR promise for Soviet concessions in Manchurian and return of lost territories. Winston. Some 80. Churchill. Stalin and Churchill in Crimea. Germany: As decided by the Potsdam by the Council of Foreign minister. Nagasaki: The 1st A-bomb was dropped on Hiroshima by the U. Germany. Roosevelt’s death and the beginning of Truman’s presidency brought new tensions to the relationship. •YALTA CONFERENCE: Conference of Russia. Great Britain and US in Feb. France. he was also active in several treaty conferences. Stalin also had considerable influence in the Yalta agreement as well as .Hiroshima. The Soviet Union agreed to drop demands for reparations and Germany was decentralized into British.1945 with leaders FDR. Stalin recognized Chiang as China's ruler. and to make provisions for the trials of war criminals. •POTSDAM CONFERENCE: Truman. Charles: The French President during WWII. French and US zones. "Iron Curtain" speech: Asked for Anglo-American cooperation to combat an "Iron Curtain" that cut across Europe from the Baltic to Adriatic. In 1935 Stalin endorsed a "Popular Front" to oppose fascism. A Council of Foreign Ministers was established to draft treaties concerning conquered European nations. de Gaulle. Stalin and Churchill met in Potsdam Germany from July 16-Aug.S. 2 to decide on postwar arrangements begun at Yalta. Russia’s traditional paranoia led to the establishment of a communist satellite buffer zone around the USSR. The spread of communism into Asian and South American countries exacerbated anticommunist feelings in the United States and contributed to the pressure for increased buildup of defensive forces. approved plans for a UN Conference and promised free elections in Poland. Russian. agreed to drop demands for reparations from Germany. An early theory for Soviet containment. Origins of the Cold War Although relations with the Soviet Union were already strained. The result was statement of Soviet intent on entering the Pacific War two to three months after the end of the European war. in 1945 after Japan refused unconditional surrender. Vietnam. The iron curtain was the satellites and territories held by the communist Soviet Union. Britain and the Soviet Union and then reorganized through selfdetermination. Stalin: Ruler of Russia from 1929-1953. which obliterated the city.000 people died immediately and 1000s more died of radiation poisoning in later years. Vietnam and Korea were divided into zones to be held by US.
. Fear and hatred against communism and Socialism continued throughout the Cold War. the International Court of Justice. and UN Charter: A meeting of world nations to establish a international organization for collective security.being a leader of one of the world's superpowers. 1946 was the first UN General Assembly. After WWII.C. socialism. These "satellites" were nations conquered by the Soviet Union during the counteroffensive attack of the Russians against the Germans during WWII. and the Secretariat. The UN represented a worldwide attempt for a peaceful world after the hidden treaties and chaos caused by WWII. the Soviet Union. foreign currencies would be valued in relation to the dollar and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and World Bank were created. Economic and Social Council. General Assembly. Bretton Woods Conference: Meeting of Allied governments in 1944. was to curb Stalin's and communist influence. socialism and communism became fearful subjects after WWII as fears of war led to hatred against socialist and communist American troops. electing Trygve H. The "Barouch Plan" set up the International Atomic Development whose goal was for use of peaceful potentials for atomic energy and to provide nations with security against surprise attacks. Great Britain and Russia gathered. These superpowers consisting of the United States. Conferences represented the superpowers and their importance in postwar reconstruction. Nuremberg trials: Thirteen trials held accusing leaders of Nazi Germany of crimes against international law from 1945-1949. Atomic Energy Commission: To oversee the control and development of nuclear weapons. 1945. and Great Britain began proceedings such as the Yalta and Potsdam. enslavement. General Assembly. communism: Two forms of governing. UN: Security Council. San Francisco Conference. Secretary-General: January 10. the primary focus of Amer. Dumbarton Oaks Conference: An international conference held August-October 1944 at Dumbarton Oaks Washington D. Trusteeship Council. looting and atrocities against soldiers and citizens of occupied countries. From the Bretton Woods Agreement. 39 delegates from US. Lie of Norway as Secretary General. to discuss plans for an international organization to be named the United Nations. satellites: The countries surrounding the Soviet Union created a buffer zone between Russia and the rest of Europe. The conference established committees. Accusations included murder. superpowers: The world powers after WWII created a new balance of power.
outside pressure.S. Kennan was the American charge d'affaires in Moscow through WWII. Point Four: A post-WWII foreign aid treaty devised from the fourth point of President Truman's inaugural address in 1950. . Kennan. Vietnam. Reforming the Departments of War and Navy they became the Departments of Army.. The Truman Doctrine became a major portion of Cold War ideology. a communist coup led by Klement Gottwald took control of the Czechoslovakian government after the October 5 announcement of Moscow's plan to block the Marshall Plan in Europe. Marshall: Marshall Tito is the name used by Josip Bronz since 1934. Navy and the new Department of the Air Force. 1947 after the British told the US they could not afford to continue assistance to the governments of Greece and Turkey against Soviet pressure for access to the Mediterranean. the president announced that the United States would assist free people resisting "armed minorities or. •MARSHALL PLAN: Truman's secretary of state George C. Korea and Egypt. 1948. Yugoslavia. The theory of containment was accepted by the U. Through his rule he kept Yugoslavia independent of Soviet control and was recognized as the only lawful authority in Yugoslavia. The Marshall Plan also hope to minimize suffering to be exploited by communist nations. CARE: A part of the US Information Agency. Aid was rejected by communist nations. Tito. Voice of America was a US government radio station sent to Eastern Europe nations. •TRUMAN DOCTRINE: From Truman’s address to Congress on March 12. Voice of America. George F. Plan would make provisions to supply US investment capital and personnel to agricultural and industrial development as well as development in other national interests.Department of Defense created: The Department of Defense was created in 1947 by the National Security Act." Meant as a offer for aid against communism the Truman Doctrine established the United States as a global policeman. a title proved by US actions in the UN. Tito was the communist dictator of Yugoslavia until proclaiming himself president in January 1953. government and seen through the domino theory and US actions in Vietnam and Korea. Result of need for a consolidated department. 27. a feeling of personal responsibility for the containment of communism. Czechoslovakian coup: On February 25. 1947. Czechoslovakia became a communist satellite of the Soviet Union.: An advocate for tough foreign policy against the Soviets. Marshall proposed massive economic aid to Greece and Turkey on Feb. •CONTAINMENT. The Marshall Plan was expanded to mass economic aid to the nations of Europe for recovery from WWII. He was also the anonymous Mr.. X who wrote "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" in the magazine Foreign Affairs advising a policy of restricting Soviet expansion to protect western institutions.
In 1949. 1948: From the UN General Assembly on April 28. Bulgaria. on October 1948. Hungary. Warsaw Pact: Treaty unifying communist nations of Europe signed May 1955 by: Russia. Tse-tung. and Romania after the signing of the NATO treaty in 1949. •NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO): Following the Vanderberg Resolutions on April 4. Denmark. Southeast Asia Treaty organization (SEATO). head of the Chinese Communists demanded US halt military aid and for US forces to leave China in January 1945. and Portland joined the Canadian-US negotiations for mutual defense and mutual aid. Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) and the Australia. complied with Communist demands. and France to gain access to Berlin. 1948 Israel proclaimed independence and US recognized the new state but the Arabs rejected the proclamation and declared war against Israel. Poland. Mao. The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington on April 4. June 24.S.Gandhi: Spiritual and political leader of India. The organization considered an attack against one member of the alliance. the Western Powers began Berlin Airlift to supply residents of Berlin. After 321 days in 1949 Russia agreed to end blockade if the Council of Foreign Ministers would agree to discuss Berlin. and the U. 1949 creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. New Zealand US (ANZUS): All these treaties were formed post WWII as mutual defense pledges in an attempt to halt the spread of communism through Europe and Asia. Norway. 1947. 1920 led nonviolent disobedience movement for independence for India. The NSC-68 became of major importance throughout the Cold War as it spoke of the need to remain a step ahead of the Soviet Union to protect its own security. the communists controlled major cities and to avoid a full scale war with China. . British. •BERLIN BLOCKADE: On March 20. •NSC-68: In the 1950's President Truman called for a top secret investigation from the CIA to review national defense policy. the Palestine partition of Arab and Jewish states. The airlift provided food and supplies to the blockaded people and intensified antagonism against Stalin. fall of China. "lost China": Mao Tse-tung. Communist China dedicated support but did not sign the treaty. On May 14. Czechoslovakia. Albania. During 1924 led another civil disobedience movement for India's freedom in exchange for India's help against Japan Assassinated. East Germany. Italy. 1948 the Soviet withdrew representation from the Allied Control Council and refused to allow US. The NSA-68 called for a massive military buildup and increase in defense spending through raising of taxes in fear of Soviet aggressive intentions and military strength. Admitted in U. an attack on all. Israel created.N in 1949.
tuition fees. limited war: After Japan's defeat in 1945. 1953. G. At this point in time. Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion: A 1943 organization that controlled all aspects of the economy. June 24. Bill of Rights. MacArthur was general in the Pacific Wars. •KOREAN WAR. US gained UN approval to stop the considered communist domino. At the beginning of the Korean War. After losing major cities. the population in the United States increased rapidly with the baby boom. and US interference would lead to outbreak of war. A cease fire was installed on July 26. 1944 and helped to stimulate economic growth and the accumulation of wartime profits. giving the president power to defend Formosa without committing to defense of islands. Chiang Kai-shek. Quemoy. Matsu: On September 3. 1944: Congress enacted the bill to provide living allowances. all the citizens in the United States wanted was a return to normalcy. new factories and equipment. he became the United Nations Commander in Korea. The "limited" war was to hold the 38th parallel without beginning WWIII. the Communist army attacked the Nationalist held islands of Quemoy and Matsu. Truman-MacArthur controversy: During WWII. Needed to facilitate cooperation in the war effort between the . These attacks led to the Formosa Revolution which Eisenhower issued. the Nationalist government moved their headquarters to the city of Formosa. Truman and Domestic Issues With the return of large amounts of soldiers from the Second World War. women were forced to return to their homes as former soldiers reclaimed the workplace. supplies.State Department "White Paper. This exodus of working women promoted the idea that the proper place for the women was in the home. Chiang Kaishek was opposed by the communist leader Mao Tse-tung who opposed US involvement in the war. and economic deficiencies. military. Formosa: Chiang Kai-shek was the Nationalist leader in China whom the United States supported during the Chinese civil wars. but laid the seeds for the later women’s movement. He was recalled from duty after expressing unpopular opinions about the US policy in Korea. Korea was divided at the 38th parallel between Soviet troops to the north and the People's Democratic Republic and US troops to the south. Also." 1949: The United States Relations With China. and loans for homes and businesses.I. 1950 North Korean troops attacked the Republic of Korea. medical treatment. With Special Reference to the Period 1944-1946 warned that the Nationalists were on the verge of collapse because of political. It was accepted June. provoking war.
Employment Act of 1946: Truman promised economic growth and established the Council of Economic Advisors to assist the president in maximizing employment. consumer prices rose only 8% while the total cost of living rose 28% between 1940-1945. Taft.: Representing a small group of Republican senators. plants moving their corporate headquarters here. Congress cut the goal of full employment. Robert A. manufacturers. and thus ended price controls. postwar inflation: Two years after the war. Truman vetoed the measure. and permitting the president to call an eighty-day cooling period. and retailers. J. baby boom: The number of babies being born between 1950-1963 rose substantially and the mortality rate dramatically dropped allowing for a 19% increase in the population. Sen. and purchasing power. Truman wins with 24 million votes and the platform of the some of the New Deal and bipartisan foreign policy. Truman vetoed Congress’ 1946 bill that would have extended O. although Congress overrode it.A. Wary of federal deficit spending and increased presidential powers. a republican devoted to National unity and Strom Thurmond. issues: Truman ran against Dewey. transformed through technology. low taxes and energy costs. candidates. extension of the OPA vetoed: Congress instituted a ration program to conserve materials and battle inflation. 1948 election.W. increased war production 33% in May 1943. Strom Thurmond: They helped Truman win by showing how the communists in the Wallace campaign forced liberals back into the mainstream Democratic Party.’s life.P. He supported that tax measures favorable to the wealthy and no minimum wage increase. Because of opposition from food producers. he warned that entering into NATO would provoke an arms race with Russia and force the United States to provide military aid to Europe. production.M. closed shop. Strom Thurmond was able to collect 1. . This generation was able to fuel the economy and widen the realm of education. the O. and brought green lawn and suburbs. who represented the Dixiecrats. Taft-Hartley Act: Congress modified the Wagner Act in 1947 to outlaw the practices of delaying a strike. Because it proved detrimental to certain unions. representing states rights. "right to work" laws: An area across TX and southern CA called the Sunbelt outlawed unionized shops which were to prevent non-unionized workers to benefit.government and representatives of industry and the military. Dixiecrats.2 million votes and ran under the Democratic party symbol. The National War Labor Board tried to contain restriction by limiting wage increases and Congress gave the president the power in 1942 to freeze wages to help combat inflation.
Considered the true New Deal liberal. Taking advantage of this "Red Scare" was Senator Joseph McCarthy who utilized the fear and panic of United States citizens to advance his own interests. this bill proclaims that "No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice.S. It also became involved in undercover operations to destroy operations made to be hostile toward the U. Twenty-second Amendment: adopted in 1951. health insurance. agricultural subsidies. expanded social securities. This laid the foundation for the investigations of the House Un-American Activities Committee.Progressive Party. building of low income housing units. few said anything. •FAIR DEAL: Truman proposed a social and economic program during his State of the Union message in 1949. Henry Wallace: He was nominated for President after being fired by Truman for questioning action taken towards Russia. Citizen participation was essential through direct democracy which was equal in only one way : all can exercise the right to vote. federal aid to education. •HOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE (HUAC) : FDR established this organization to serve as a platform to the denunciation of the New Deal and communism growth in the U. expanded public power. McCarthyism As a result of the recent escalation of the Cold War and the spread of communism throughout the world. It enlarged the New Deal by adding housing. economic security. 1949: The CIA was enacted to pursue and conduct espionage and analyze information and facts concerning the actions of foreign countries. It also brought about hysteria and caused blacklisting to occur so that people considered to be "communists" never found work. flood control. soil conservation. conservation.S. slum clearance. supported social-welfare programs and justice and equality for minorities." It resulted from the agitation following FDR’s running for and being elected to a third or fourth term of office of president. Americans for Democratic Action (ADA): Founded in 1947 to initiate the development and promotion of a national liberal agenda of public policy. Wallace’s’ campaign forced liberals back into the Democratic party. reclamation. Though many Americans believed the investigations were wrong. increased the minimum wage. . Used to investigate and expose communist influence in America and blurred the line between dissent and disloyalty. domestic paranoia concerning communist infiltration increased. National Securities Act of 1947.
•MCCARTHYISM, McCarthy, Senator Joseph: He started the hysteria that occurred after the second Red Scare and accused U.S. citizens of being communists. These accusations appealed to Midwestern Americans who found that anti-communism was to fight against liberals and internationalists. It took over the U.S. as a means of fighting communism without realizing that the U.S. was in danger of losing what it was fighting for, Freedom and the Constitution. McCarthy, Senator Joseph: Republicans support and political power was given to senator McCarthy to instill fear within the Democratic Party. He was supported by the GOP party and many resented that he accused many people of being Communists without having proof of their disloyalty. By accusing many of communism, McCarthyism arose. Hiss, Alger: Identified as a member of the communist party by and initially denied claims. Proof was given that Hiss was involved in espionage in the 1930s with the transmitting of information to the Soviet Union through microfilm. Indicted for perjury and sentenced to five years in prison, 1950 McCarran Internal Security Act, 1950: Required all organizations that were believed to be communist by the attorney general to submit a roster of the members and financial statements to the Department of Justice. It also excluded communists from working in defense plants, passports to communists and deported aliens suspected of subversion. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg:. In March of 1951, based primarily on the testimony of their alleged accomplices, Henry Greengrass and Harry Gold, the Rosenbergs were found guilty of conspiring to commit espionage. Their electrocution in 1953 represented the anti-Communist fever that gripped the U.S. Hollywood 10: The 10 people from the entertainment industry called before the House Un-American Activities Committee as "unfriendly" witnesses in October 1947 became known as the Hollywood Ten. All refused to state whether they were communists, served prison sentences, and were blacklisted in the film industry. Fuchs, Klaus: He was a German physicist who was a British citizen from 1942-1950 and an atomic scientist in the United Kingdom and the United States from 1942 on. He was sentenced to prison in England in 1950 for having given atomic secrets to the USSR. After he was freed in 1959, he went to East Germany. "Pink Lady" - Douglas, Helen Gahagan: When Richard Nixon ran against the liberal Democratic Jerry Voorhis for a California congressional seat in 1946, he won easily by suggesting that Voorhis had left-wing tendencies. When Nixon ran for the Senate in 1950, he used similar charges to defeat the Democratic candidate, Congresswoman Douglas. •ANTI-COMMUNIST VOCABULARY: Red, pink or pinko, left-wing, and commie were some of the slurs thrown around during the McCarthy years to brand people with a communist "taint." These campaigns were known as witch-hunts by those who opposed
HUAC tactics, and like the Salem witch-hunts, accusations alone, without any proof of wrong-doing, could be enough to ruin someone and get them "blacklisted" and unable to find employment.
Eisenhower and the 1950s
Hailing Eisenhower as someone whom one might have as a regular neighbor, the country overwhelmingly elected the former and celebrated World War Two Allied forces commander. Although a former military leader, Eisenhower strongly believed in the ascendancy of civilian control over the military and condemned what he termed the "military-industrial complex." During Eisenhower’s administration, the USSR made several advances in the space race pushing the United States to catch up. 1952 election: candidates, issues: Truman would not seek reelection. The Democrats drafted Adlai Stevenson, who was unsuccessful. The Republicans decided to back the war hero Dwight D. Eisenhower who chose Nixon as his running mate. The GOP controlled both houses. •IKE AND MODERN REPUBLICANISM: He provided Americans with the stability they craved, and labeled his credo "Modern Republicanism." In general, he was conservative on monetary issues and liberal "when it came to human beings." During his term as president, he backed the most extensive public-works program in U.S. history: the Interstate Highway Act and also extended social security benefits and raised the minimum wage. "fiscal management": Large scale labor organizations and social welfare were used to deal with powerful pressure groups. It rejected an extreme step to the right side of politics and a return to the pre-New Deal policies. Also, it abandoned the goal of a balanced budget in favor of increased spending to restore prosperity. Niebuhr, Reinhold, Rand, Ayn, The Fountainhead: Niebuhr was a theologian who expressed neo-Orthodox Protestant views and liberal social thoughts. Ayn Rand was a U.S. novelist who became a citizen in 1931 and wrote about the struggles of poverty. Her work was important in expressing life’s hardships and was published in 1928. McCarran-Walter Immigration Act, 1952: Passed over the presidents’ veto, it validated the quota system firmly based on the idea that national origin restrained immigration from southern and Eastern Europe. This act also empowered the attorney general to exclude and deport aliens suspected of being communists. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW): Eisenhower transformed the Federal Securities Agency into the H.E.W. and gave it cabinet rank in 1953. This agency allowed for the reorganization of government in order to achieve greater efficiency and a better economy.
Interstate Highway Act: Passed by Eisenhower, this was the largest and most expensive public-works system in American history that allowed for the building of 41,000 miles of expressways in 1956. Allowed for suburban growth, the decay of central cities, and increased America’s reliance on cars. St. Lawrence Seaway: Approved by Eisenhower, this seaway linked the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean in 1954. It was built to accelerate suburban growth, expand trade to promote economic prosperity, and allowed boats greater access to transport goods. It connected Montreal and Lake Ontario promoting good relations with Canada. Landrum-Griffin Act: Passed in 1959 to regulate the government of unions, guarantee members’ rights, provisions for anti-corruption, and fair elections. Enacted due to the concern of financial misconduct on the part of union officials and connected to gangsters and organized crime. Hoffa, Jimmy: He became president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters in 1957. Jury tampering was found after he was sentenced to thirteen years in prison for the fraudulent use of the union pension fund. After losing his appeals, he was sentenced in 1967 but only served about four years and nine months in prison. AFL-CIO merger: In 1955, this brought 85% of all union members into a single administrative unit, which promised aggressive unionism under the leadership of AFL’s George Meany as president and CIO’s Walter Reuther as vice-president. However, the movement was unable to achieve its old level of success. Alaska, Hawaii: Congress approved Alaska as the forty-ninth state of the Union in June and Eisenhower signed the Alaska statehood bill on July 7, 1958 . Congress approved of giving Hawaii statehood in March of 1959 and it was admitted to the Union on August 21, 1959. •FIRST INDOCHINA WAR: After WWII, Ho Chi Minh of the Vietminh declared himself leader of the Republic of Vietnam and began a war to drive the France imperialists out of Vietnam in Dec of 1946. After a 55 day siege, the French surrendered at the fortress of Diem Bien Phu and July 21, 1954 a truce agreement was signed with France surrendering North Vietnam and granting independence to Cambodia, Laos, and South Vietnam. Bricker Amendment: On January 7, 1954, Senator John W. Bricker proposed a constitutional amendment to limit the executive power of the president. His proposal called for a limit on the power of the president to negotiate treaties and executive agreements. Rejected February 26, 1954. Dulles, John Foster: Became Secretary of State under Eisenhower in 1953. Cold Warrior who supported "massive retaliation," brinksmanship, and preemptive strike. In 1951 he was author of Japanese peace treaty. Politically influential during WWII, from 19491959.
"massive retaliation": January, 1940s. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles signed the Strategic Air Command as the primary deterrent for Soviet attack. Great Britain, Turkey, and Italy stationed intermediate-range nuclear weapons in their countries to provide for a capacity for "massive retaliation." brinksmanship: This is another of the policies of John Foster Dulles that caused considerable controversy during the Cold War. Dulles declared that the United States must be prepared to "go to the brink" of war in order to attain its objectives. This stance was labeled brinksmanship. preemptive strike: A plan of acting first with nuclear or conventional weapons as a defensive action. A preemptive strike would solve the problem before it became an issue by acting first and swiftly. A preemptive strike is another Cold War term that generated fear for the beginning of a nuclear war. Khrushchev, 1955 Geneva Summit: The meeting of "Four Powers," US, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union. Also present was Khrushchev, the 1st Secretary of the Communist Party. Decided to reunify Germany, and on disarmament, and how to improve relations between east and west. Hungarian revolt, 1956: Antigovernment demonstrations in Budapest on Oct. 23, 1956 as revolutionaries demanded the denunciation of the Warsaw Pact and liberation from Soviet troops. On Oct. 21, U.S. announced it wouldn’t give military aid to the revolutionaries. On Nov. 4, Soviets attacked Hungary. Nasser Suez Canal crisis: Dec 17, 1955, the U.S. offered Egypt a loan to build the Aswan High Dam, withdrawing its offer after Egypt accepted Soviet Union aid and Pres. Nasser nationalized the Suez canal to use tolls to build the dam. On Oct 31, Israel invaded Egypt with French and British aircraft. •PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE: A term applied to the actions of the US under Eisenhower and USSR under Khrushchev for maintaining peace and reducing the possibility of war between the two nations. The implementation of the phrase is seen in the Geneva Summit where the "spirit of Geneva" was one of peace and collaboration to create a secure and peaceful world. March 1959 the USSR and the U.S agreed to suspend atomic testing. Eisenhower Doctrine: January 5, 1957, Eisenhower made a speech to the joint House of Congress to limit communist expansion. Authorized March 7, the Eisenhower Doctrine allowed the president to extend economic and military aid to certain nations as well as use of $200 million mutual security funds. Common Market: Established 1958 by the Treaty of Rome to set up a wide customs union in 1968 and was joined by Great Britain in 1972. The EEC developed world wide trading relations between European nations providing for a more solidified Europe, another symbol of rearrangement of power after WWII.
May 11 Eisenhower admitted to authorization of U-2 flights. •SPUTNIK: The Soviet Union launched this first satellite into orbit on October 4. There was widespread recognition that the integration of society had not progressed as it was supposed to and that it was time for the African-American citizens to take a stand. Created by Congress. A. "military-industrial complex": The demands of national security had produced the symbiotic relationship of immense military establishment and industry.S. it brought a national aeronautics agency to administer nonmilitary space research and exploration. U-2 incident: May 3. The ICBM's with one or two nuclear warheads had the potential to destroy the USSR and the US. National Defense Education Act (NDEA Act) : Passed in 1958 to provide $300 million in loans to students of undergraduate and graduate status. the position of African-Americans in civilian society came under increasing scrutiny. Philip: President of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters who worked to build his March-on-Washington Committee into an all-black protest movement. Landmark decisions in the Supreme Court as well as civil rights laws foreshadowed the changes and upheaval that would come in this and following decades. ICBM: Intercontinental Ballistic missiles were developed in the 1950's in America. Civil Rights to 1960 After the army became desegregated in 1948. the U. a Consultative Conference of Foreign Ministers.Organization of American States (OAS): From the Charter of Bogotá regional association was established with US and Latin America states and formed a InterAmerican conference. funds for training teachers. a Council with a delegate from each state. These intertwined interests helped lead to leverage in government and threatened subordination of the military. Humiliated at being upstaged by the Russians. ICBM's were one of the many factors that gave the American people the sense that war was imminent. and a Secretariat and Commissions. NASA was created in 1958. reshaped the educational system in efforts to produce the large numbers of scientists and engineers that Russia had. Randolph. May 7. NASA released a cover story of a lost weather research plane. the USSR announced an American U-2 plane was shot down in Soviet territory. 1960. May 5. to better make scientific advancements. and for the development of new instructional material to ensure a higher level of national security. pilot Francis Gary Powers confessed to being a CIA spy. The . In addition. 1957.
Dr. and companies involved in war-related work for the purpose of enforcing an Executive Order and made possible the employment of 2 million blacks. He specifically noted that Black veterans returned with very high expectations from civilian life due to war. . direct action. An American Dilemma: A Swedish economist. Forty-three were found dead. and Communists. desegregation of the armed forces. resulting in the bloodiest riot in this half-century. He also conducted research on the preservation of blood and during WWII. rural and Southern to urban and Northern : Eisenhower sought to give low income farmers increased training and trade as well as to improve industry and the health of citizens of the rural South .N. it organized Freedom Rides that rode throughout the south to try to force desegregation of public facilities.Committee also engaged in civil disobedience to protest racial discrimination in all aspects of American life. thousands were wounded. Drew. It called for an end to racial discrimination and segregation. Detroit race riots. 1950. 1948: Truman ended segregation in the army to provide support during World War II to ensure victory. he developed blood-transfusion programs for the British and French." by President Truman. In the urban North. as well as the problems between the races in 1944. General Douglas MacArthur sought total victory. he developed techniques for the storing and processing of blood for transfusion in 1944. 1966: Erupted because of constant conflict between black citizens and white cops. a great emphasis was put upon renovation and the rehabilitation of the cities opposed to clearance and reconstruction. On June 27. Myrdal. Charles: As an African-American physician. and was called "an American charter of human freedom. unions. Led by James Farmer. Korean War: Seen as a Soviet-directed aggression to test American containment policy. and in 1953 a cease fire was issued after a truce agreement was signed by the U. Fair Employment Practices Committee: Roosevelt issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies. Truman ordered American troops to invade South Korea. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE): The Congress of Racial Equality was formed in 1942 to help combat discrimination through nonviolent. Gunnar wrote about anticipated changes in race relations. He was the first president to deal with the legislative civil rights since the implementation of Reconstruction and fought for many other civil rights acts but was denied. To Secure These Rights: The 1946 Committee on Civil Rights dramatized the inequities of life in the South and under the Jim Crow laws. Gunnar. and over $50 million in property was destroyed.
BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA: The Supreme Court reversed Plessy v. This led to massive bus boycotts in Montgomery. Resistance to desegregation of buses was finally overcome by the Supreme Court ruling that it was unconstitutional to segregate public transportation in November. 1956. Civil Rights Act.1957: Eisenhower passed this bill to establish a permanent commission on civil rights with investigative powers but it did not guarantee a ballot for blacks. and a mob of whites reacted by preventing the students from entering the school. ARK. The court held that "separate but equal" violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and was unconstitutional. . navy yards and veteran hospitals. CRISIS: Governor Orval E. Ferguson in 1954 by ruling in favor of the desegregation of schools." Marshall. The school was then shut down in 1958-59. Refusing to force the white south to accept the ruling.. and was therefore arrested. Alabama. Civil Rights Act. Neither act was able to empower federal officials to register the right to vote for African-Americans and was not effective. the death penalty. Many southerners saw it as "an abuse of judiciary power. it set forth an attempt to liberalize without losing control. •LITTLE ROCK. founder of the NAACP Legal Defense. Parks refused to get up from her seat on the bus to give it to a white man. Then The National Guard was sent to protect the students from the violence for the rest of the school year."separate but equal": Enacted because of the inferiority complex given to blacks. Faubus sent the National Guard to bar nine black students from entering Central High School in Arkansas in 1957. and his support of civil liberties and free speech. famous for his fight against discrimination. Because of her actions she is known as the "mother" of civil rights. On April 4. King Jr. Previously a lawyer with such key victories as in Brown v. The Supreme Court said that it had no place in schools. Rev. 1960: Eisenhower passed this bill to appease strong southern resistance and only slightly strengthened the first measures provisions. Martin Luther: An African-American leader who was the voice of his people. •BROWN V. so it ordered the desegregation of schools. It was the first civil-rights bill to be enacted after Reconstruction which was supported by most non-southern whites. •MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT. Eisenhower then enforced a new court order that forced the men to withdraw. His philosophy emphasized need for direct action by getting every AfricanAmerican involved in the pursuit of equality and to build a community of brotherhood in his "I have a dream" speech. Rosa Parks: In December of 1955. Thurgood: 1st African American justice of the Supreme Court. defiance toward the law sprang up. Board of Education.1968 he was assassinated.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference: In protest to Jim Crow. Sit-ins. including King. a method of protests that urges blacks to ignore all laws that they believe are unjust. The poll tax prevented AfricanAmericans from voting by requiring all voters to pay a tax. Black Power and the cry that "Black is Beautiful" resounded in the hearts of many African Americans.: One of the most prominent black civil rights leaders.literacy tests. • ROBINSON. White primaries were used to control everything even with disenfranchisement and was declared unconstitutional in 1944. Angered by the court decision. Rosa Park was arrested. He was able to break the color barrier and seemed to successfully overcome the racism so prevalent in his sport. This organization coordinated future protests and preached the need for civil rights activists. JACKIE: He was the first African-American baseball player to play professionally in 1947. Civil Rights to 1965 Frustrated by black disenfranchisement in the south and the blatant racism epitomized by segregated schools. He is famous for his "Letter from Birmingham Jail" which promotes the doctrine of civil disobedience. It was made up of a group of ministers that supported the Montgomery bus boycott. organized a massive boycott of the buses and took the case to a lower court where it was decided that bus seating would be based on a first-come-first-serve basis. In 1966. King organized the SCLC in 1957. and other signs of the explosive discontent ravaged the nation. black militancy grew. Black leaders. which blacks could not afford. Rev. Destroying the public’s complacency. freedom rides. the president refused to enforce it and blacks continued to attend segregated schools. grandfather clause. King Jr. Implementation of Brown v. especially in the south where such actions were met by fierce resistance. King called for black assertiveness and nonviolent resistance to oppression. white southerners refused to comply. 1955. and sneering racists shocked the nation. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP): The NAACP was created in 1909 in New York to raise the quality of living for inner city . poll tax: Literacy tests were given to blacks with the idea that they would be denied the right to vote since most could not read. white primaries: The grandfather clause was a provision used to exclude people who served in the war and their descendants from taking suffrage tests. Martin Luther. It was declared unconstitutional in 1915. Board of Education of Topeka: The Warren court decided in 1954 that the separate but equal concept that legalized segregation was unconstitutional. Montgomery bus boycott: After refusing to give up her seat for a white man in the front of a Montgomery bus in Dec. the poll tax was outlawed in all elections. nonviolent protest met by vicious dogs. Robinson was also was able to contribute to the winning of the pennant and Rookie of the Year in his first year of playing. blasting water hoses.
The group became more militant. Adam Clayton: Powell was a Black civil rights leader serving as a Democratic Congressman of New York and the Chairman of the House Committee on Education and Labor in 1960-1967. H. He also was one of the early recruiters for the NAACP and was the first field secretary for the state of Mississippi. It became a powerful legal force and argued cases in the Supreme Court which led to the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and Voting Rights Act of 1965. This type of action was used to expose the violations of the court decision to outlaw segregation in public areas and transit. When this happened another protestor took the place that had just been vacated. CORE also registered blacks to vote throughout the South. Under his direction the House Committee on Education and Labor passed the Minimum Wage Bill and Anti-Poverty Bill. FREEDOM RIDES: Utilized in the spring of 1961. "I have a dream" speech: King gave this speech during the historic civil rights March on Washington on August 28. Stokely Carmicheal. the League advocated more militant tactics. Protestors sat in a segregated section on a bus or restaurant until they were forced to move by racists. . Board of Education and formed the Urban League. Medgar: Evers was an American civil rights leader who conducted campaigns to register black voters and organized boycotts of firms that practiced racial discrimination. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE): CORE was a group of black rights protesters created in 1942.blacks. Urban League: Some southern blacks were not satisfied by the Brown v. March on Washington: King organized this massive civil protest march in Washington in August of 1963 as a result of the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. sit-ins and freedom rides were forms of protest organized by CORE and utilized in the spring of 1961. Evers. The speech was said to be inspiring and reaffirmed the need for civil rights legislation and nonviolent protesting. The march reaffirmed the need for civil rights legislation and nonviolent protest. Powell. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Rejecting the courtroom strategy utilized by the NAACP. They sought direct confrontation and violence with local governments. 1963. It organized freedom rides through the south to expose the violations of the 1960 Supreme Court decision outlawing segregation on interstate buses and trains. •SIT-INS. The speech reiterated the American ideals of democracy and equality. Rap Brown: SNCC was a organization of college students that utilized nonviolent forms of protest until Carmicheal and Brown rallied the members in favor of Black Power. It was also the site where King made the "I have a dream" speech. pushing for direct armed confrontation with the police.
Detroit race riots: A confrontation between police and blacks in Watts and Detroit took place after the voting rights bill was passed in 1965. It was originally a small community action group for defense against racism but later it began to urge black armament and direct confrontation with the police. He served as the Secretary of Housing and Department of Urban Development. Davis. •BLACK POWER: Black power was a slogan created by Malcolm X and widely used by Stokely Carmichael. she became the vice-presidential candidate of the Communist party in 1980. The group was known for its strict adherence to Islam. leader of the Congress of Racial Equality. Malcolm X: Malcolm X was an influential black leader who called for unity between blacks to combat oppressive forces in the United States. The slogan called for all blacks to organize together and overthrow the oppressive forces of racism in America. Black power became the basis for black militancy in the civil rights movement. In 1970.Weaver. He advocated Black Power. Angela: Angela Davis was an influential black leader and activist. but broke with them to form a black nationalist group. California in 1966 by Bobby G. she went into hiding after being accused of aiding an attempted courtroom escape that killed four persons. Marshall. It sparked a huge riot . Twenty-fourth Amendment: The 24th Amendment. World Community of Al-Islam in the West. Newton. He was a part of the Nation of Islam. Black Panthers: The Black Panthers was a black rights political organization created in Oakland. and was a root for black militancy in America. the Organization of AfroAmerican Unity (OAAU). Marshall was famous for pursuing cases that dealt with controversial issues of civil rights and the status of racism in America. Johnson in 1966. Robert: Weaver was the first black cabinet member appointed by President Lyndon B. The amendment gave Congress the power to enforce it with legislation. The slogan was used by a number of new civil rights activist groups such as the Black Panthers. regardless of their race or religion. Black Muslims: Formally called the Nation of Islam. adopted in 1964. It also prohibited the use of the poll tax or any tax that denied the vote. His presence in Supreme Court drew more attention to the area of civil and individual rights. Watts. Thurgood: Marshall was the first black residing under the Warren Court during the 1960s. Tried in 1972 and acquitted. a new office created to address the needs of those living in the inner city areas. the Black Muslims was a religious organization of the Islamic faith that was also called the American Muslim Mission. Seale and Huey P. gave voting rights to every American citizen.
JFK vigorously called on the American people to support his programs of domestic reform and foreign policy. de facto. this meant that segregation was accepted as long as it was not outlawed. De jure segregation referred to the system of segregation that was legal in the North such as New York and Chicago. giving the power of the vote to underrepresented minorities." Kerner Commission on Civil Disorders: Created to investigate reasons for the massive outbreaks of riots in 1965. Civil Rights Act. this act outlawed segregation in public areas and granted the federal government power to fight black disfranchisement.that lasted six days. self-confident. poor education and police brutality and recommended creating 2 million jobs and 6 million housing units to lower tensions. 1965: The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed as a Great Society program under the Johnson administration. The suggestion was ignored. The reaction slowed the civil rights movement because whites in power feared passing legislation and creating civil discontent and riots. and energetic. It prohibited the use of literacy tests as a part of the voter registration process which were initially used as a method to control immigration to the United States during the 1920s. •CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964. The act was a key piece of legislation which ensured blacks more equal rights." . The act also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to prevent discrimination in the work place. de jure segregation: De facto referred to the use of power and authority in the absence of an actual government or legal authority. He hoped for "more sacrifice instead of more security" in a nation on "the frontier of unknown opportunities and perils. •WHITE BACKLASH: White backlash referred to white reaction against the massive ghetto riots of thousands of young blacks across the nation. the commission concluded that white racism caused mounting violence. This act was the strongest civil rights legislation since Reconstruction and invalidated the Southern Caste System. •VOTING RIGHTS ACT. 1968: The Civil Rights Act of 1968 barred discrimination in housing sales or rentals. charming. public accommodations section of the act: Passed under the Johnson administration. The act enabled federal examiners to register anyone who qualified in the South. This violent growth of civil discontent was given the name "The Long Hot Summers. This act was a part of a series of new legislation that encouraged desegregation of blacks in America. In the 1960s. poverty. The National Guard was called to put down both riots. New Frontier Innovative.
VISTA: The Peacecorps and Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) were created by the Office of Economic Opportunity to work in poverty areas. thus closing the missile gap. Also. The wall was dismantled in August of 1989. The ruling reaffirmed the requirement that representation in legislative bodies would be based on the people’s vote. in which the skilled artisans of the population immigrated to West Germany. "impeach Earl Warren" in 1954 as a result of Chief Justice Earl Warren’s rulings which affirmed the rights of alleged communists and the desegregation of schools and public areas. It was erected by the government of East Germany in order to prevent a brain drain. this decision would prevent later voting frauds. •"Impeach Earl Warren": The ultra-reactionary John Birch Society created the phrase. Warren was branded a communist sympathizer by his enemies. Kennedy and the steel price rollback: In his attempt to lower business taxes and solve wage problems. The issues included which path of action to take against Russia to ensure an advantage of arms. Carr: In 1962. 1963: The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963 was negotiated by Harriman Averell. Richard M. Berlin Wall: The Berlin Wall was a concrete wire wall which divided East and West Germany after World War II. who promised a new and better future for the nation. Peacecorps. The treaty was the first treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union that called for a ban on atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. he lost the respect and admiration of the American public. Arizona which required police to read a suspect their constitutional right which included remaining silent and having legal council present during police questioning. one vote" needed to be maintained in all elections. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. the Warren court ruled that the principle of "one man. Miranda Decision. Steel raised their prices to $6 after JFK worked with the steel union for noninflationary contracts and minimal wage increases for workers. Baker v. Wainwright: The Warren Court ruled in the case of Gideon v.S. This was a part of President Johnson’s training programs and support services created during the 1960s. "missile gap": The election of 1960 was a race between Kennedy. He threatened to file antitrust suits and the prices fell. The Escobedo decision labeled the Warren Court as an intrusive presence. . and the "middle way" Republican candidate. a diplomat to the Soviet Union after World War II. Wainwright that the state was required to provide attorneys for defendants in felony cases at the public’s expense. Gideon v. Escobedo decision: The Miranda Decision referred to the 1966 case of Miranda v. Nixon. JFK was faced with a crisis when U. his political friends in congress.election of 1960: candidates. As a result. and the government. This ruling was a part of the effort to reform the criminal justice system and enable poor people legal council.
S. "flexible response": JFK’s policy of "flexible response" called for the preparation of more conventional weapons versus atomic weapons. Dominican Republic. The Cuban soldiers were secretly trained by the CIA and supplied by the U. Kennedy felt that U. Allende. Their return embarrassed the United States and the nation acquired a reputation as a belligerent imperial country.S. he turned to Soviet communism. 17. Panama Canal treaties: After gaining its independence in 1903.S and Russia in 1962 following the discovery of nuclear missile sites in Cuba. The U. but American businesses feared the nationalization of their industries. Kennedy placed a blockade on the island and Russia agreed to remove the missiles rather than provoke a nuclear war. In the 1950s the United Nations sent a peace keeping force to the Congo. When the U. He became the first elected Marxist leader in the Americas. The Cuban exiles were captured and traded back to the U. the current government regime.Castro Revolution: Fidel Castro led a nationalist uprising against the former despotic Cuban government. It was the most imminent threat of nuclear annihilation and thereafter. a group of Cuban exiles invaded the Bay of Pigs. Panama gave the rights to use the Panama Canal to the United States. a hot line was established between the White House and the Kremlin to prevent accidental missile launches. and the people. His socialist program led to inflation and strikes which resulted a military coup that overthrew his regime in 1973. removed nuclear weapons from Turkey. 1965: A civil war broke out in the Dominican Republic between the Bosch forces.S. refused to help. which is located in Africa. •Cuban missile crisis: The Cuban Missile Crisis was a major confrontation between the U. assistance. 1961. He reasoned conventional weapons were essential. Alliance for Progress: This was an economic assistance program proposed by President Kennedy in 1961.S. for atomic weapons were never used. in an attempt to overthrow the Communist government and capture Fidel Castro. Allende founded the Chilean Socialist party and was elected president of Chile in 1970.S. •Bay of Pigs: On Apr. The United States intervened with military forces and the Organization of American States restored peace by conducting elections where Joaquín Balaguer defeated Bosch. needed both a strong military program and atomic weapons to combat the forces of communism. UN in the Congo: During the 1950s the United Nations was called upon to act as a peace keeping force throughout the world such as in Kuwait and the Middle East. Another treaty was signed between the . Salvador: In 1933.S. government. The program to give Latin America $20 million in aid was protested after the fall of the democratic government in Haiti. It was to settle disputes between member nations and discourage foreign intervention in their internal affairs. He initially asked for U. for food.
Oswald was later killed by Jack Ruby on his way to a court hearing. and drugs. Reich. Carson. Flower children: Flower children referred to the counterculture of the 1960s. John F.United States and Panama stating that control over the canal was to be returned to the Panamanian government on December 31. •Election of 1964: LBJ. He stated that it was impossible to mix individual interests in large general tax bills. 1963 in Texas. Rachel. Main issues of the election of 1964 included serious debates over the continuation of Johnson’s Great Society plan. the Warren Commission was created to investigate the controversial issues concerning a possible conspiracy. future civil rights legislation and the status of the war in Vietnam. Lyndon Johnson attempted to continue his Great Society program after the election with small social legislation. The SDS organized massive Vietnam Protests. Oswald. this organization was created in 1962. Kennedy was shot and killed by Lee Havery Oswald. the elected Democratic party majority leader. defeated Barry Goldwater. rape. It addressed her concerns on the environmental hazards of pesticides. Charles. Silent Spring: Rachel Carson was a marine biologist that wrote and published Silent Spring. They led pilgrimages to San Francisco and New York. This social category consisted mainly of student protestors who envisioned a life of freedom and harmony. conservation. Goldwater: In the election of 1964 Lyndon Johnson. the idealism would later give way to virulent conservatism and a return to traditional values. and health programs. 22. They issued the Port Huron Statement which called for support of liberalism. the elected Republican majority leader. Warren Commission: On Nov. the Great Society was inspired by JFK and prompted by LBJ’s insecure need to win over the American people. Great Society An idealistic call for improved environmental. Lee Harvey. 1999. . The SDS became a focal point for activist students. Reich expressed his desire for courts to expand individual rights to protect nonconformists from social standards in 1971. The Greening of America: In his critical novel of the New Deal. Her writings coincided with many other novels which brought social issues to the surface such as Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS): As frustrations concerning government policies grew. racial. but the counterculture rise was stemmed as the idealism turned into thievery. As a result. educational. Largely successful in the first two years of the Johnson administration.
Election of the 1968: Lyndon Johnson did not run for reelection in 1968 due to his dissatisfaction with the Vietnam War and public discontent. to determine the amount of immigration from a certain area. this program gave health insurance for persons who were over the age of 65 or seriously disabled. Kennedy. Although some states refused to administer the insurance the Kerr-Mills Act of 1960 provided federal support for state medical programs. Abolition of immigration quotas: President Lyndon Johnson’s program of liberalism. New Left: The New Left encompassed the liberalism of college students during the 1960s. War on Poverty. but was assassinated in California during a campaign. Established by the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. Elementary and Secondary Act: As a part of his Great Society vision. He stressed that voting was the key to racial equality and pushed for the Civil Rights Act of 1964. the American Independent and Hubert H. It was used to describe Johnson’s Great Society package that created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Economic Opportunity Office. Kennedy. supported the election of John F. and heralded the campaign against nuclear testing that created the nuclear test ban treaty of 1963. They held idealistic views of civil rights movements. VISTA. referred to Lyndon Johnson’s statement describing his goal to create a better America. the office funded the Job Corps to train young people to work. Robert: Kennedy was the attorney general of the U. Medicare: A program of national health insurance created by the Social Security Amendments of 1965. It was also the root of protest over Vietnam. . in 1968 and senator from New York. Wallace.Office of Economic Opportunity: The Office of Economic Opportunity was created as a part of President Johnson’s Great Society. and Project Headstart. Richard Nixon captured the presidency for the Republican party after he defeated George C. These laws abolished the restrictions and the quota based system previously used by the U. The law gave over one billion dollars to public and parochial schools for books and special education programs.S. which included social legislation in 1965. Kennedy gained the Democratic presidential nomination in 1968. which began the first funding for education. War on Poverty: The term. the Democratic candidate. led to the liberalization of immigration laws. President Lyndon Johnson rallied for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 which gave federal aid to education. Humphrey.S. the Department of Housing and Urban Development passed bills allocating funds to housing development projects under the leadership of Robert Weaver. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Created in 1966 to give aid to needy families located in poor inner city areas.
He also appointed W. Governor: George Wallace was an American politician and three-time governor of Alabama. reeled under the triple blow of slumping exports. The Feminine Mystique: The Feminine Mystique elucidated to readers that they were not alone in their unhappiness. This amendment stated that "Equality of rights . and technological obsolescence. and my home" rang true to a growing number of middle class American women who found joys in motherhood. they filed lawsuits against gender discrimination and rallied public opinion "to bring American women to full participation. Nixon began his attack on radicalism in America. Democratic Party Convention riot: In August 1968.Czechoslovakia invaded: In Aug. Chicago. The Soviet Union replaced Dubcek with the staunchly pro-Soviet Communist regime. Neil Armstrong walked on the moon’s surface. Sunbelt verses Rustbelt: The leading work industries. 1969. of 1968. Richard’s Southern strategy: In 1965. •MOON RACE. Tensions rose as young SDS protestors against the Vietnam war arrived to voice their discontent." Equal Rights Amendment (ERA): By 1972 Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the Constitution. the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies invaded Czechoslovakia. a satellite. National Organization for Women (NOW): The National Organization for Women was formed in 1966. Friedan. About 11. my children. the Chicago convention was disrupted by violence due to the party split over the nomination of the majority leader. Nixon went on television to condemn the court that enforced bus desegregation. the Rustbelt and Sunbelt. Americans put fears of Soviet technological superiority to rest for the United States had been the first to launch a human out into space. aggressive foreign competition. Pouring vast amounts of money into the space program. with the installation of reformers Alexander Dubcek as party leader and Ludvik Svoboda as president.5 million American workers lost jobs as a result of plant closings or lack of work. NOW lobbied for equal opportunity. The riot destroyed Democratic unity and resulted in a loss of support. Wallace ran for the presidency in 1968 and 1972 and was shot and killed during a 1972 election campaign stop in Maryland. Kennedy promised the American people to put a man on the moon before the end of the decade. focusing on the failure of southern white efforts to destroy racial equality. Burger to counter liberalism in the Warren Court. Wallace. Defining themselves as a civil-rights group for women. Kennedy was determined not to allow Russia to win. He first came to national attention as an outspoken segregationist. Armstrong. On July 21. Nixon. Betty. Friedan’s personal demand for "something more than my husband. Neil: Frightened out of complacency by the Soviet launching of Sputnik. forcing the repeal of most of the reforms.
" National Women’s Political Caucus: The National Women’s Political Caucus (1971) endorsed candidates that promoted a feminist agenda in Washington and many other State capitals.S. Gulf of Tonkin: The Gulf of Tonkin is the northwestern arm of the South China Sea. they defeated the French garrison at the battle of Dien Bien Phu. Unsafe at Any Speed: Ralph Nader. The theory was . Laos. and Cambodia: The French empire condensed North and South Vietnam. By 1972. He led the Vietminh. North Vietnam.S. aided the French. but Vietnam became more staunchly communist after the war. Vietnam to 1968 As the French pulled out of an increasingly helpless situation. a graduate of Harvard Law School. a group of guerrillas. •Ho Chi Minh: Ho was the Vietnamese Communist leader and the principal force behind the Vietnamese struggle against French colonial rule. it drew the U. China and the island of Hainan border it on the west by Vietnam. into the fight against communism. assistance in Vietnam’s struggle for independence. many states had liberalized their abortion laws and banned sex discrimination in job hiring. Ralph. Not until the Têt offensive did massive opposition arise. bordering countries would follow like falling dominoes. First Indochina War: The French wanted Indochina back after losing control over the colony during the Vichy era of the Second World War. Hoping for U.S. •Domino theory: Eisenhower’s domino theory claimed that once one nation fell to communism. in Vietnam. Nader.under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on the basis of sex. The separate regions resented this and nationalist stirrings caused widespread discontent among the people of each nation. Laos. Thailand. the majority of the nation supported the war. the United States became more involved to fill the power vacuum. Thailand. He was a nationalist at heart and wanted Vietnamese independence far more than a communist government. Though many liberal college students mounted large protests against the conflict.S. he brought forth the movement of environmental concerns which would later launch major campaigns for federal regulations. which committed the U. South Vietnam. It is the site for the famous battle that led to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. exposed the danger of automobiles that were "unsafe at any speed". In 1954. and Cambodia into one colony called Indochina. Ho later turned to the Soviet Union when the U. Ho Chi Minh refused to give up sovereignty which resulted in the First Indochina War.
involvement in Vietnam. Eisenhower increased American involvement in Vietnam. National Liberation Front: The Viet Cong was the name given to the Vietnamese communist army. The nationalists successfully penetrated Saigon and took the United States embassy. . Demilitarized zone: A demilitarized zone (DMZ) refers to areas in which military weapons and other installations are prohibited." granting him full authority against North Vietnamese forces. In support of Ho Chi Minh. The parallel and the DMZ were created as a result of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolutions. This led to the increased U. The U. The delegates of the conference decided that Vietnam should be divided into North and South at the seventeenth parallel until national elections took place in 1954. which claimed that all communist countries were in a conspiracy to destroy democracy in the world. The National Liberation Front consisted mainly of guerilla fighters. The elections were never held. 1968. Fearful of Soviet expansion.S. The National Liberation Front was partly responsible for the fall of Dinh Bien Phu and organization of the Têt Offensive. Applied to Asia. The conference also created an area known as the demilitarized zone. It was passed by Congress and gave Johnson a "blank check. •GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION.S. the National Liberation Front was a part of this group. •GENEVA CONFERENCE. The demilitarized zone during the Vietnam War was surrounded the seventeenth parallel. forcing them to surrender. the offensive showed that the nationalists were still capable of fighting and that the government had lied. Facing this humiliating defeat. refused to give aid to the French for fear of condoning imperialism. an international conference was called in Geneva in 1954 to discuss the status of the war in Vietnam. the French decided to give up their futile attempt to fight nationalist stirrings in Vietnam. 1954.used in context of the monolithic view of communism. the group pushed to overthrow the South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem. could not let Vietnam fall after "losing" China to communism. which was also the first day of the Vietnamese New Year known as Têt. the U. Dien Bien Phu: On May 7. 1954: After the fall of the French garrison at Dien Bien Phu. •VIET CONG.S. Popularity for the war vastly declined. the Vietminh surrounded and laid siege to the French garrison. Johnson and his advisers drafted the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that committed the United States in Vietnam. •Têt Offensive: The NLF and the North Vietnamese arm mounted a massive offensive against the South Vietnamese and American armies on January 31. 1964: After North Vietnamese gun boats assaulted American ships that were organizing air strikes and military moves. After being told that the enemy was virtually defeated.
the president ordered massive bombings of Cambodia and Laos. The papers revealed government lies to Congress and the American people. •Vietnamization: Popular discontent forced Nixon to pull out of the Vietnam war. the invasion of Cambodia spread the war throughout Indochina which sparked massive American protests on college campuses. My Lai.S. to save its reputation and satisfy an American public weary with a futile struggle. Leaving Vietnam without honor would endanger U. It was located in the northern part of the country. global dominance and give a considerable advantage the Soviet Union. allowed the U. Haipong: Hanoi was the capital of Vietnam before the war. Fulbright. Senator: Senator Fulbright was an American senator of Arkansas. . Senator Fulbright also served as the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. This act established the exchange program for American and foreign educators and students. he sent Henry Kissinger to negotiate with the communists’ foreign minister. but he could not allow the United States to lose face. children. Pentagon Papers: Daniel Ellsberg was a analyst for the Department of Defense. In order to force a compromise. Kent State and Jackson State incidents: In 1972. Lt. Nixon gracefully pulled the United States out of Vietnam by turning over the conflict to the South Vietnamese. an organization of returning soldiers that renounced their war medals as a result. Vietnamization. and old men in 1968." Bombing of Laos and Cambodia: As Nixon began to withdraw American forces in Vietnam in 1972. Calley: Lt. the locations of communist supply lines. The Kent and Jackson State universities were sites of protest in which student protesters were killed. It was the largest port in Southeast Asia and site of the Indochina naval base. With a major Cold War conflict over. the president proceeded to lessen American-Soviet tensions through a call for "peaceful coexistence. the process of replacing the American armed forces with South Vietnamese troops trained by American advisors. Hanoi. He opposed the war. Daniel Ellsberg. who in 1971 released to the press the Pentagon Papers. an account of American involvement in Vietnam created by the department during the Johnson administration. Le Duc Tho.S. who proposed the Fulbright Act of 1964. Haiphong was located 10 miles from the Gulf of Tonkin. Calley was an inexperienced commander of an American army unit massacred 347 defenseless women. During the war it was heavily bombed in an attempt to force the North Vietnamese to negotiate a peace treaty.Vietnamization and Détente Skilled in foreign politics. The horrors of the massacre were revealed to the public and the Vietnam Veterans Against the War.
Kissinger negotiated the peace agreement with the aid of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to end the Yom Kippur war. Six Day War. the Israelis stopped the assault and counterattacked. Détente: The evacuation of American troops from Vietnam helped Nixon and Kissinger reduce Chinese-American tensions and achieve détente with the communist superpowers. shipments of highly sophisticated weaponry. Aided by massive U. • KISSINGER. the SALT I agreement allowed Ford and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev to make enormous progress towards the new arms-control treaty. His "shuttle diplomacy" ameliorated the hostility between the Middle Eastern countries and the United States. Siberia. Yom Kippur War: Syria and Egypt. This agreement was to limit each side to 2. backed by Russia. Nixon to Watergate .400 nuclear missiles which would reduce the rate of war to a mere fraction. 15 million men had been trained and equipped with armed forces ready for battle.Paris Accords. After the war. War Powers Act. This dramatic development marked a significant change in American foreign policy by developing a cordial attitude towards the communists. This war between the Israelis and their neighboring countries spanned several years. The Paris Accords ended the war between the North Vietnamese government and Thieu government of South Vietnam. The China visit sealed the new Chinese-American friendship. led an all out attack on Israel in 1973 on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. Nixon took advantage of the Sino-Soviet split to pit the former allies against each other by recognizing China. There were frequent bombings and raids amongst the countries for oil. He organized a cease-fire in November of 1973. the president was given unprecedented authority. 1973: As an act passed by Congress. It was also agreed that the future of North Vietnam would not be determined by war. recognition of China: On February 22.S. Part of his policy of détente. SALT I Agreement: At a meeting in Vladivostok. China visit. leaving Russia more isolated. 1973: In 1973. 1972. in 1974. 1972. Thousands of special wartime agencies suddenly regulated almost every of American life. 1967: Israel’s decisive triumph in the Six Day War had left the Arabs humiliated and eager to reclaim the militarily strategic Golan Heights which was taken from Syria. after Lyndon Johnson died of a heart attack. Nixon declared that a peace had been reached in Vietnam. "shuttle diplomacy": Henry Kissinger flew from capital to capital and bargained with the Israelis and the Egyptian people. the President’s plane landed in China. HENRY.
The term Imperial Presidency referred to Nixon’s efforts to acquire absolute control over his Presidency." The Imperial Presidency: Nixon’s "New Federalism" promised to bring back law and order to the United States by promoting conservatism and executive authority. Nixon actually broke from Republican tradition in environmental protection. wage and price controls: In response to the troubled American economy. his resignation: Vice President Agnew was charged with income-tax evasion and accepting bribes. The election federal judge. Congress passed it in 1972 in response to the failing economy caused by the inflation. Nixon verses Congress: On July 27th. prices. Watergate: The scandal exposed the connection between the White House and the accused Watergate burglars who had raided the Democrats’ headquarters during the 1972 campaign. Nixon. "New Federalism.. and rents which would be followed by federally imposed controls setting maximum annual increases of 5. 6 out of 17 Republicans voted with the 21 Democrats to charge Nixon with interruption of justice for controlling the Watergate investigation.5% for wages and 2. Agnew. the House Judiciary Committee took in the first article of impeachment. refused to accept the claim of those on trial that they had behaved on their own terms.Basing his support on the conservative New Right coalition. Sirica. "revenue sharing": As part of Nixon’s "New Federalism. Agnew left the government service with a three-year suspended sentence. The president had abused his power." according to the trial judge. He expected his southern strategy and law-and-order posture to attract the conservative Democrats. Spiro T. . He relied on his diplomatic successes with China and Russia and his strategy towards the winding down of the war in Vietnam to attract moderate voters. Committee for the Reelection of the President (CREEP): Nixon created CREEP to ensure every vote for the election of 1972. Nixon declared a ninety-day freeze on wages. CREEP financed many "dirty tricks" to spread dissension within Democratic ranks and paid for a special internal espionage unit to spy on the opposition. Dishonored and distrusted. welfare reform. trade deficit. Yet Nixon’s insecurity as president and his abuse of executive power led to his downfall. and finding solutions to economic problems such as the severe inflation.5% for prices and rents. and massive spending during the 1960s. Appointing attorney general John Mitchell as the head." "revenue sharing" was a five year plan to distribute $30 billion of federal revenues to the states. He pleaded no contest which was "the full equivalent to a plea of guilty. election of 1972: Nixon’s reelection was assured.
this Republican undercover team obtained approval by Mitchell to wire telephones at the Democractic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate apartment/office complex. Haldeman. They typically worked in the agricultural field as menial laborers and were unpaid and overcharged. but Nixon still feared him. John. Ehrlichman. Chicanos: Chicanos were segregated Mexican-Americans and also included Puerto Ricans. but Nixon was insecure about McGovern’s popularity. George: George McGovern of South Dakota rose to fame on the energetic support of antiwar activists rushing to the Democratic primaries.White House "plumbers": Led by Liddy and Hunt. But the Senate still lacked concrete evidence on the president’s criminality. the senator contributed to Nixon’s downfall.R. The amendment allowed the politicians to listen to the voices of younger people as voters. Both the Ervin committee and prosecutor Cox insisted to hear the tapes. Sen. Watergate Tapes: Another Presidential rumor shocked the committee and the nation by revealing that Nixon had put in a secret taping system in the White House that recorded all the conversations between his enemies in the Oval Office. they lacked all the civil liberties of citizenship. this amendment detailed the procedure by which the vice president was to take over the presidency if the current president could not uphold his status in office. Sen. He was seen as inept and radical. Assumed as inferiors. John Mitchell: All were involved in the Watergate scandal. Twenty-sixth Amendment: This amendment guaranteed the rights of those who were 18 years of age or older to vote as citizens of the United States. H. John Dean. Muskie’s campaign was never a threat to Nixon’s reelection. The operation was thwarted on June 17. All three and former Attorney General Mitchell were indicted on March 1974. Thus they could not impeach Nixon. McGovern. but Nixon refused. . Nixon fired Dean and Haldeman and Erlichman who headed the White House Staff resigned. Twenty-fifth Amendment: Ratified in 1967. Dean refused to cover up Nixon’s involvement in Watergate. It also limited the power given to the vice president from the incapacitated president.. it would bring about the downfall of Nixon. Edmund: The campaign of Senator Edmund Muskie of Maine collapsed when he started to cry in public while trying to respond to an accusation of prejudice against Canadian-Americans. Muskie. Impeachment proceeding: The most damaging to the President was when the hearings exposed the White House’s active involvement in the Watergate cover-up. 1992 by a security guard. It gave the power to Congress to enforce and protect by appropriate legislation.
Yasser Arafat: In June 1982. Chavez’s leadership brought guarantees of rights for the farmers. the western world which relied heavily on petroleum was forced to seek other resources of fuel and energy. . They advocated Red Power and demanded justice for past wrongs. Consequently. However. and Wounded Knee was their trading post site. Arab oil embargo: Furious at American intervention in the Middle Eastern conflicts. where transportation allows rapid communication and exportation of products. a nation-wide recession resulted which forced Jimmy Carter to seek new economic programs at the end of his term in office. Wounded Knee: Native-Americans occupied Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay in 1969. He was young and a new addition to the Nixon court. •ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC): In the 1970s.Cesar Chavez: As a Roman Catholic and a follower of King. 1969: Appointed in 1969. Burger. Nixon appointed him to moderate the liberalism of the Warren court and its controversial decisions. Chavez worked to win rights for migrant farmers. Multinational Corporations: In the modern era. As a result. (PLO). Warren Burger was to replace the old and retiring Chief Justice Earl Warren. Middle Eastern petroleum exporting countries formed a monopoly and agreed to raise the price of oil. The chaos and confusion escalated in Lebanon which was already plagued by its own Civil War. he could only do little to dispel the effects of the rising prices of oil. Yet more turbulent conflicts existed in the Middle East: religious issues and territorial disputes inflamed tensions between Israel and the Palestinians. The Middle East Crisis With a virtual monopoly on petroleum. OPEC drove up oil prices which caused severe economic problems for the United States. American Indian Movement (AIM). He is famous for a strike he organized with the help of grape pickers in California in 1965. William appointed. Palestinian Liberation Front. The reason they defiantly occupied Alcatraz Island was to protest their low status in America. Many took advantage of inexpensive labor in one country and depreciated taxes in another. He was an important figure in the Brown Power movement. there was great violence in the Middle East when Israel invaded Lebanon to extinguish the Palestinian Liberation Front from its headquarters. corporations could span several nations. the Arab nations began to downsize the exportation of petroleum products to western nations. the economy in the western world fell into inflation and unemployment.
the Cold War thaw slowed. The federal government could not repay the loan. trade deficits: A U. Ford. General Ford granted pardon for ex-President Nixon. There was no simple solution to "stagflation. the balance of trade was thrown off and the economic experts worried that the U. Nixon Pardon: On Aug. As a result. As a result." to lower interest rates to prevent stagnation would worsen the ongoing inflation. 1974. Carter defeated Gerald Ford in the 1976 election.S. They excluded nations which violated Carter’s humane standards through cruel business practices. Gerald. economy would not survive. and the U. When the government borrowed money to offset the drastic loss of tax revenue. economic report during the 1970s revealed that the nation imported more than it exported. Election of 1976: Jimmy Carter was elected President of the United States in 1976.The Energy Crisis and Carter Trying desperately to cope with the economic predicament spawned by OPEC. This treaty was met with staunch opposition by Republicans who felt that they "stole it fair and square. Nixon began such programs as "revenue sharing" and wage and price controls for regulation. The U. and it was forced to find other methods to collect revenue.S. SALT II: In June 1979. Carter was an advocate of human rights. 9.-Soviet relationship grew sour. Ford became the first vice president to inherit leadership of the nation after the president resigned. interest rates still increased. In foreign affairs. "stagflation" severely worsened the American economy.S. Panama Canal Treaty: The Carter administration put together bargains on a number of treaties to transfer the Panama Canal and the Canal Zone to the Panamanians by 1999. Carter presented it to the Senate and they ratified it. boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. Amnesty: Elected to the Presidency in 1976. Jimmy. Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev agreed and signed the SALT II treaty. He granted amnesty to countries who followed his foreign policy. Carter. Due to the invasion of Afghanistan by Russia.S. Climaxing a remarkable rise to national fame. both Ford and Carter dismally failed. many people were angry that the government could easily forgive corruption and dishonesty. Cold War tensions mounted as the Soviet Union became increasingly annoyed with Carter’s rigorous standard of human rights." . Carter had been governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975 and was little known elsewhere at the beginning of 1976. To put the nation forward. •"STAGFLATION": As a combination of business stagnation and inflation. Balance of trade.
John: He was a Republican congressman from Illinois.Camp David Accords: Camp David was a place where the Egyptian leader Anwar elSadat and the Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin came together with Jimmy Carter. Reagan proposed a 30% tax cut allowing the money supply to circulate. and fight economic problems. Anderson as the Independent candidate. and John B. He advocated a more laissez faire policy through a lessening of government activism. prominence and honor globally. When he announced his candidacy. WIN was to provide methods for conserving energy by creating the Department of Energy and regulating consumption of gas by automobiles. spending. inheritance taxes to encourage investments in a plunging economy. WIN: To compensate for the economic predicament caused by OPEC and the crisis of energy conservation. Economy Recovery Tax Act. and his running mate was Patrick J. Jimmy Carter proposed a innovative economic program. yet Reagan expanded his theory by advocating supply-side economics as a method to solve the economic hardships. Lucey from Wisconsin. He was known for his strong liberal statements and spoke well on complex issues. and restrictions on business. It went well and the bill for energy consumption came down in 1978. taxes. George Bush named this new economic strategy Reaganomics in the 1980 primary campaign. and Ronald Reagan had a greater hand in that issue. The biggest issue at the time was American foreign policy. •ELECTION OF 1980: The election of 1980 included candidates such as Republican Ronald Reagan. •REAGANOMICS: Also known as voodoo economics. He hoped that it would run by itself. Democratic nominee Jimmy Carter. House of Representatives. It represented peace and harmony in the modern world." Anderson. Reagan Revolution Reagan promulgated a program to restore U. It was a return to the laissez faire theory of Adam Smith. economy. They discussed certain negotiations and tried to hammer out a framework for a peace treaty for the Middle East. Ronald Reagan became the President of the United States in 1980 with the promise of ameliorating the American economy against the forces of "stagflation. tax credits for those who found methods on saving money and alternative-energy resources.S. .S. 1981: Following his promise of bettering the U. He liberalized business taxes and decreased capital gains. Department of Energy: Carter created the Department of Energy and created an energy bill including taxation on oil and gasoline. President Reagan believed that the government should leave the economy alone. he was serving his 10th term in the U. gifts.S.
. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was also created to enforce the hygiene. Three Mile Island: In 1979. Safety measures were taken so that a future incident would not occur. Consequently. He reasoned government must take its "hands off" from the economy to encourage investments and free enterprise. NY: In the 1970s and early 1980s. Deregulation-AT&T. airlines. Environmental Protection Agency. the public would purchase them. Reagan lowered income taxes to stimulate the economy by expanding the money supply. EPA. Watt. Many people supported Reagan’s decisions in favor of women’s rights. Reagan assumed that if the economy provided the products and services. "New Federalism" proposals. The people who had interceded with the Department of Housing and Urban Development were paid hundreds of thousands of dollars for federal subsides. trucking: To reverse the flow of federal power. Niagara Falls. Sandra Day: She was a feminist who generally deplored Reagan’s programs. she was delighted when he nominated her as the first woman justice on the U. Love Canal. NEH. O’Connor. The plants were placed far away to reduce the hazards of near fatal accidents. National Endowment for Humanities: The National Endowment for Humanities was created to further promote artistic and cultural development in the United States.S. This was targeted to foreigners. However. chemical wastes that had leaked from a former disposal site threatened the health of residents in that area. Both the New York state government and the federal government provided financial aid to help move families from the Love Canal to other areas. James Secretary of Interior: James Watt received more than $400.Supply side economics: In contrast to Adam Smith’s belief in supply-and-demand. Reagan began to deregulate governmental controls over such companies as AT&T.000 for making several calls to the Department of Housing and Urban Development officials. The president proposed a revenue sharing bill that transferred some federal revenues to the states and prominent cities. OHSA: It was created in 1969 by President Nixon to enforce government standards for water and the air quality for work safety. a near catastrophe occurred at Three Mile Island when there was an accident involving a nuclear power plant. The project revealed the full cultural spectrum of America. Supreme Court. 1982: New Federalism proposed to reverse the flow of power and resources from the states and communities to the state capital. and trucking companies. airlines.
In the 1970s it was found that Agent Orange was harmful to humans. In the 1960s. and school prayer. It also includes a statue of three soldiers. AIDS prompted a change from the "free love" attitude of the 1970s. Ferraro. Defeat of the ERA: As the argument over the ERA and abortion went on more women got jobs in the working industry. located nearby. backed by minority groups. Even though women had children. Friedan stresses the need to add family matters to the cause of women’s rights. 97. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome): First diagnosed in 1981. and influential. The Moral Majority was started in 1979 as a secular political group. and Gary Hart. Ferraro was chosen by Walter Mondale to be his Vice-Presidential candidate in 1984. and were finished as a political force by the late 1980s. Geraldine: The first woman ever to be on the ticket of a major party. her presence failed to win Mondale the election. They was strongly conservative. 51% of them were working from day to day.S. The explosion was caused by a faulty seal in the fuel tank. who appealed to the young. 1986: The space shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds into flight. •"MORAL MAJORITY": The Moral Majority was Jerry Falwell’s pro-Reagan followers who embraced the new evangelical revival of the late seventies. However. homosexuality. Reagan’s campaign revolved around the optimistic slogan "It’s Morning in America" and he rode the tide of prosperity to a decisive victory. In 1984. 35% of women held jobs. Election of 1984: Former Vice President Walter Mondale got the Democratic nomination over Jesse Jackson. 1982: Constructed in 1982.Friedan. Originally concentrated among homosexual men. pornography. .000 cases were reported in 1989. as a higher percentage of women voted republican in 1984 than in 1980. The shuttle program was halted while investigators and officials drew up new safety regulations. manufacturers agreed to pay veterans injured by the chemical. planes on the jungles of Vietnam during the war which caused the defoliation of trees and shrubs and made enemy positions more visible. to a "safe sex" attitude of the 1990s. 1981: In her novel The Second Stage. but was resumed in 1988 with the flight of the Discovery. but in 1988.C. On it are inscribed the names of all Americans who died or were missing in action. The Moral Majority was politically active in targeting such issues as abortion. The Challenger Disaster.’s National Mall. the disease soon spread. 60% of women worked. Betty The Second Stage. She reasons no person should ignore such a significant issue while focusing on female independence and advancement in society. Vietnam Veterans’s Memorial. killing all aboard. Agent Orange: Agent Orange was a chemical sprayed by U. needle-sharing drug users. and sex partners of high risk groups. anticommunist. the memorial is a black marble wall sunken below ground level in Washington D.
Air. Even with all the criticism. Heating and Cooling of the Cold War Ambiguous in his position towards the Soviet Union. and planes. ships. Lech. Israel moves into Southern Lebanon: President Reagan sent 2. Russia wanted to setup some sort of pro-Soviet Afghan regime.000 Marines to Lebanon in 1982 in order to gain control over the crippled PLO. the United States picked up an anti-Soviet relationship towards everything that had to do with Russia. Walesa’s negotiations with Poland’s government that year led to the government’s recognition of Solidarity. The "Teflon Presidency": Ronald Reagan’s popularity never seemed to change much despite the scandals and failures of his presidency. The tax reform helped reduce the deficit by 1987. Olympic boycott. Due to severe losses the Argentine forces surrendered in June 1982. but they wanted them to change religiously. insure . Reagan’s popularity was unaffected. sea and land battles broke out between Argentina and Britain. with the federal deficit exceeding $200 billion. Reagan proposed a new. Solidarity: He became the leader of Poland’s government in 1980. Reagan remained very popular and charismatic. Solidarity was a organization composed of about 50 Polish trade unions. 1979-1989: The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in an effort to acquire more land for Russia’s use. revelations surfaced that during Reagan’s administration. Not only did Russia try to take over Afghanistan. which unfortunately included the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. By the end of Reagan’s administration. Anti-Soviet rhetoric proved to be only rhetoric and the two nations resolved many of their differences. Afghanistan. 1980: When Carter and Brezhnev could not agree on the rules and regulations of the SALT II agreement. Walesa. simplified tax system that lowered the taxes of individuals and corporate incomes. the Cold War was unofficially over. Falkland Island War: In April 1982. Reagan verbally attacked the USSR as an "evil empire" yet his actions were friendly. but the stock market crash in October 1987 made higher taxes a necessity.Tax Reform Act. He was called the Teflon president by some because nothing would stick to him. Once again. prominent Republicans had been paid hundreds of thousands of dollars for interceding with the Department of Housing and Development on behalf of developers seeking federal subsidies. In Moscow’s attempt to take over Afghanistan. 1986: In 1986. Britain also responded by sending troops. Civil war in Lebanon. HUD scandals: In 1989. Argentine troops invaded and occupied the islands.
Fighting spread throughout the gulf region and the U." It was proposed by Reagan in 1983 in an effort to ward off the perceived threat of a Soviet strike as U. the U. either . Contras. Arias Peace Plan in Central America: Oscar Arias Sánchez.S. The system carried a huge price tag. El Salvador. Reagan later reversed the policy thinking that the Sandinistas were procommunist.S. Reagan secretly began sending illegal aid to the contras. and was fiercely debated until the end of the Reagan administration. support. intervention led to the American hostage situation held in Lebanon by pro-Iranian radical groups.-Soviet relations worsened. 2. the president of Costa Rica.S. Responding to pressure. and resolutions against nukes were passed. •NICARAGUA—Somoza Family. This exposure of U. the Shah. but his ineffective government was voted out in 1989. Carter backed the Sandinista revolutionaries in overthrowing dictator Anastasio Somoza in 1979. The new government that the United States had just installed was collaborating well with the local Grenadians.000 U. Fear of another Vietnam-like war prompted Congress in 1982 to halt aid to the contras. who was replaced by Daniel Ortega. Duarte: Fear of Soviet expansion helped shape policy towards third world revolutions. In 1986. The CIA organized an army of "contras" to oppose the Sandinistas. It was the first popular challenge to Reaganism. began talks on strategic-arms reductions with the Soviets.that they got out of Tunisia. and overthrew the disruptive radical government. 1983.S. was very influential in pushing for peace in Central America which was stalled because of civil wars in the region and the tensions between Nicaragua’s Sandinista government and the U. Ayatollah Khomeini: The Iranian crisis started when a Beirut newspaper reported that in 1985 the United States shipped 508 antitank missiles to the government of Iran.S. and put in a U. Protests. Iran-Iraq War: The war began in 1980 over territorial disputes.S. the U. was dragged into the conflict several times. Many argued it would escalate the conflict. In El Salvador. popularly dubbed "Star Wars.S. It proved difficult as fire broke out upon the U. Marine soldiers. the warring nations signed a peace agreement. nuclear freeze movement: The movement was a popular reaction to the military and nuclear buildup under Reagan. Ortega: First. The system was never used. Sandinistas.S. rallies. but was never held accountable.S. •SDI (STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE). The moderate Jose Napoleon Duarte was elected in 1984 with U. and help restore order to the war damaged country. 1983: On October 23. "Star Wars": SDI was a proposed system of space based lasers and other high-tech defenses against nuclear attack.-friendly regime. Iranian crisis. Marine soldiers invaded the island of Grenada. backed the military rulers in suppressing insurgents (leftists backed by Cuba).S. Grenada.
•GORBACHEV. Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union continued to improve which furthered the thaw in the Cold War. grand jury indicted Noriega on various drug charges. It is an example of the warming Soviet-American relations and renewed the arms control process. Criminal charges were filed against only North. Libya fired missiles at U. Hostilities continue in the region.S. Reagan admitted it and stated his aim had been to encourage "moderate elements" in Tehran and gain the release of American hostages. as Iraq began preparing to invade Kuwait. (or Irangate): Caught selling arms to the anti-American government of Iran.being attacked or attacking hostile targets. military planes and after an explosion at a German nightclub popular with American GI’s. glasnost. Philippines. This was followed by years of violent political turmoil in Haiti. F.S. . realized that the U. Many sought refuge in the United States. who sent millions of dollars from these sales to contras in Nicaragua when Congress had forbidden such aid. In 1986. Qaddafi. conviction: In 1987 the U. and John Poindexter. to end apartheid. Corazon led the surge after Marco’s fraudulent 1986 reelection and took control. Panama. Marcos. Marines were sent in and he was caught and convicted. Libya: Colonel Muammar Qaddafi was a pro-terrorist and anti-American leader of Libya.-supported ruler of Panama. •IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIR.S.S. used oppressive measures and a violent secret police force to control Haitian citizens. His wife. planes bombed five Libyan sites. De Klerk: When opposition to South Africa’s racist government grew in the U. Gen. who had been jailed for 27 years. Noriega. Duvalier. The area remained a volatile region. His program of economic and political reform was called perestroika or restructuring. Nelson Mandela. Key players included Oliver North.S.. Col. was profiting on the flow of drugs through his country. and the country was to face turbulent times. In 1986. U. dictator of Haiti from 1971-1986. Ferdinand Marcos intensified after the 1983 assassination of opposition leader Benito Aquino. Congress voted to boycott South Africa in 1986. apartheid. Gorbachev’s call for more openness in government was given the name glasnost. President De Klerk worked with Mandela. South Africa. Haitians staged a revolt against Duvalier and he fled the country. INF Treaty.W. Free elections were held in 1994 and Mandela became president. Haiti: Jean-Claude Duvalier. Corazon Aquino: Resistance to the corrupt government of Pres. who hid the affair from the president. drug-trafficking indictment. He ignored the actions. The war ended in 1988.S. 1987 (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty): The treaty was a 1987 agreement between Reagan and Gorbachev which banned INF’s but did little to end the nuclear threat as 95% of the world’s nuclear arsenal remained. perestroika: Mikhail Gorbachev welded influence in transforming the Soviet Union into a less rigidly communist regime. She was backed by the U. A U. Manuel Noriega.S.
The USSR reduced its military force in its eastern satellites and allowed more freedom of expression. holes in the "Iron Curtain": Due to Gorbachev’s more liberalized policies. the effects of the era of Reaganomics. having been divided into East and West Germany since World War II. but was not moderate enough to gain popular approval. The wall which separated the two countries fell.S. once an associate of King. East Germany. the volatility and uncertainty remained. Bush won fairly decisively on a negative campaign. Bush was successful in areas of foreign relations. The goal of the bill was to reduce the enormous debt of the Reagan years and to have a balanced budget by the year 1991. Non-Communist political movements soon developed in Poland. tried to build a "rainbow coalition" of blacks. • BUSH. Hungary. On October 19. and other political outsiders to try to gain nomination and election in 1984. the Cold War which shaped U. Germany. Jesse.Bush and the Post Cold War Era With the disintegration of the Soviet empire. Jackson. the bill required the automatic unilateral slashing of many budget items. Hispanics. unified in October 1990. policy for nearly a half-century finally died. Bush was defeated by Bill Clinton and Al Gore in the 1992 election. Stock Market crashes: The market had enjoyed incredible success for the past five years and had tripled in size. Rainbow Coalition: Jackson. resisted the Russian military’s attempted coup in 1991. issues: Bush got the Republican nomination while Michael Dukakis won the Democratic nomination over Jesse Jackson. Election of 1988--candidates. The threat of nuclear annihilation subsided and the American public breathed a sigh of relief. and fought Saddam Hussein in the Persian gulf. Rev. GEORGE: Bush was Vice President under Reagan. He was not as successful in domestic affairs as the economy dwindled and the deficit rose. Bush chose Quayle as his running mate for his good looks. Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act: Passed in 1986. 1987. displaced workers. As president. Germany reunited: The dismantling of the Berlin Wall began in 1989. Though it soon regained the loss and surged to new heights. These included many domestic and defense programs. Taxes. Jackson ran several times for the presidency. and citizens were once again permitted to travel between East and West Germany. and was president from 1989 to 1993. and Czechoslovakia. and personal appearance were the main issues in 1988. it fell 508 points in the largest single day drop in history. . Black Monday. He eased relations with Russia. Moscow began losing direct control over Eastern Europe. crime. Berlin Wall falls. 1987.
Nicaragua. Fearful of centralized power but mindful of the economic pitfalls of independence. Commonwealth of Independent States. called for Russians to resist the coup. The act was aimed at reducing the chemicals which cause acid rain. was a contributing factor. by far the largest and most endowed state. and his first target was the violent drug lords of Washington. Boris Yeltsin: In 1991. D. The debt skyrocketed during his term. The economy was in shambles after the lifting of economic restraints and a severe drought. The coup failed. 12 of the states formed the Commonwealth of Independent States and severed all ties to the old Soviet regime. Chamorro’s election signaled a more moderate turn for the Nicaraguans. though it is still considered a single country. Bennett. Reagan’s administration increased defense spending drastically while lowering taxes. 1990 (also one in 1970): President Bush sponsored the bill. The commonwealth was very weak. A wave of repression and executions followed. "drug czar"--Office of National Drug Control Policy: Bennett was chosen as "drug czar" by Bush in response to national concerns about drugs. but the political turmoil led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union into independent states. Hussein. This was the direct cause of the Persian Gulf War. supports Chamorro. smog.C. Violence erupted in some states. His job was to coordinate federal programs against drugs. 1991: After the failed coup in August of 1991.9 trillion: In an effort to restimulate the economy. Tiananmen Square. or heavy spending in the corporate sector. Ortega defeated in free election: President Daniel Ortega. which hampered political unity. though the transition has met resistance. The Commonwealth was a loose economic union. 1990. driving prices down. August 1991.S. was defeated in 1990 by Violeta Barrios de Chamorro in national elections. His philosophy of supplyside economics. Saddam. ozone damage and many airborne carcinogens. the leader of the Sandinista regime. Iraqi president Hussein ordered the invasion of Kuwait after oil negotiations between the two broke down. 908 billion to 2. Gorbachev. The act was a cornerstone in pollution regulation legislation. The U. Iraq invades Kuwait: On August 2. The U. difficulties between Russia and the new republics: The new republics were wary of losing power to Russia.. Yeltsin. the 15 Russian states declared independence. Pres. William J. attempted coup in Moscow. who wished to give more power to the states. Clean Air Act. Iraq had complained that Kuwait was exceeding its oil production quota and flooding the world market. responded with outrage and cut everything but diplomatic relations.national debt triples from 1980 to 1989. Beijing: 400-800 students were massacred by government troops during a pro-democracy demonstration in Beijing’s central square. which set stricter regulations on many airborne pollutants. the president-elect. .S. hardline communists seized power from Gorbachev. •END OF THE COLD WAR.
6. SCUD missiles. They were aimed at provoking Israelite retaliation to fracture the Allied-Arab alliance but were countered effectively by the U. the resolution imposed an embargo on Iraqi trade effectively halting oil shipments from Iraq and Kuwait. The U. MTV: MTV was part of the "cable revolution. Some of its provisions required women on welfare to work if they have no children under 3 years old. 1990. used force to protect the Kurds. leading to the rise of smaller networks. households. Operation Desert Storm. 1990. The UN created a safe zone for them. deaths. Collin Powell: In August 1990.000 lives and created massive refuge problems for bordering nations.UN Security Council Resolution 661 (trade embargo on Iraq): On Aug. Iraqi forces. were far behind technologically. The short ground war began on February 24 and ended two days later. now stations like CNN. Hussein responded by increasing his forces in Kuwait.S. It contained strict work and child support guidelines. The air raid utilized the most advanced missile technology such as smart bombs and cruise missiles to weaken the Iraqi defenses. The embargo had severe economic effects on surrounding countries who depended on Iraqi trade and oil. . The fighting claimed nearly 25. 1991. Patriots launched to destroy SCUD’s while still airborne. and religious minorities to collect punitive damages for intentional on-the-job discrimination. "work fare": This Act tried to reform the welfare system. Desert Shield became Desert Storm on January 17 with the beginning of the allied air assault. FOX. It authorized the use of force by the allies if Iraq did not withdraw from Kuwait by January 15. Kurds in North: Postwar uprisings by Shi’ite Muslims in southern Iraq and Kurds in the North were crushed by Hussein’s army. Desert Storm was directed by Gen. and MTV were legitimate contenders. who became so popular as to later contemplate a 1996 presidential run. issued November 29. An estimated 110. President Bush ordered a buildup of troops into Saudi Arabia called Desert Shield." Cable TV became a fixture in many U. Schwarzkopf. Patriot Missiles: SCUD’s were Soviet-made surface to surface missiles used by Iraq to bomb Israel during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. and CBS.S. 1991 Civil Rights Act: The act allowed women. Gen.S. people with handicaps. Gen. Once was dominated by ABC. NBC. 1988. though more numerous than the Allied force. revolts in Iraq--Shi’ites in South.S. UN Security Council Resolution 678: The allied operation shifted to a potentially offensive nature with this resolution. Desert Shield. Family Support Act. and parents without custody could have child support payments withheld from their paychecks.000 Iraqi soldiers died with about 300 U. It was led by General Collin Powell. MTV specifically became an important marketing tool for music and politics. Schwarzkopf: Beginning with a bombing raid on January 17. The resolution was evoked early on January 17 when Allied planes began the air offensive. •GULF WAR.
baby-boom generation hits middle age: Once called the "Me Generation. The issue of illegal immigration became a hot topic politically. and 30% have come from Asia. Clarence. His nomination was plagued with controversy due to sexual harassment allegations by Anita Hill. Jan.S. Many bills were passed in an attempt to limit immigration. the second black justice on the Court. the EEA. signaling a new pattern of immigration. The process often came at the expense of poorer and older residents. and personal computers were common. especially in the south west and west. was nominated and seated in 1991. Anita Hill: Thomas. yuppies bought run-down apartments and town houses in poorer districts and fixed them up. Ross Perot. This "gridlock" occurred midway through Clinton’s term. a former associate. including a great number of elderly citizens. The major issues were the state of the economy. 1993: The 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (except Switzerland) and the 12 European Community nations signed an accord to create an enlarged free-trade zone. VCRs. many government projects and parks were closed down for several weeks. Some nations have loosened border and currency restrictions to make political unity easier. •ELECTION OF 1992—candidates. Ross Perot: The election of 1992 was primarily between the Democrat Bill Clinton and the Republican incumbent George Bush. "gridlock. then returned near November with much less support. money. a bomb in a parking structure of the World Trade Center Building in New York killed six and injured nearly 1000 people. of the Independent party. and materialism. Thomas. European Economic Area. only racial minorities could claim damages. bombing of World Trade Center: In 1993." Congress vs. the President: Because a Democratic President and a Republican Congress were elected in 1992. Hispanic immigration: 45% of immigrants since 1960 have been from the Western Hemisphere. increased Asian. TV’s. both had the power to obstruct the other. The charges were dismissed in a series of highly public congressional hearings. Officials later arrested militant Muslim extremists who condemned American actions towards Israel and the U." people of the 1980s were interested with personal over public concerns. . It widened the definition of discrimination and forced businesses to respect citizens rights of equality. issues. involvement in the Persian Gulf War. Unable to resolve a dispute. did well in early polls.Previously. which had taken a turn for the worse at the end of the Bush administration. and Bush’s record of foreign diplomacy. 1. gentrification: Reversing the trend of the middle-class exodus from urban centers. The "yuppie" was a person preoccupied with physical fitness. dropped out of the running. the state of medical insurance. Supreme Court.
among other major changes." mass expulsions to promote a Serbian ethnic partition of Bosnia. Investigators began searching for incriminating evidence. Slovenia. disintegration of Yugoslavia: In 1991-1992. making the flow of commerce more efficient. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): After a fierce political struggle. and other economic issues. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: An international plan to reduce tariffs and establish laws governing trade of services. but the issue was dead by September 1994. It eliminated trade barriers between Canada. and Herzegovina. Violence erupted in Bosnia as Serbs and Croatians fought. The plan also established an agency to deal with international trade disputes. Macedonia.GATT. The bill would have required employers to pay 80% of their employees’ medical costs. Dole became the Senate majority leader. Soon. Rabin: A historic treaty was signed between Yasir Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin which would allow Palestinian self-rule in parts of Israel.S. Many of Bosnia’s Muslims were victims of "ethnic cleansing. gained a majority in Congress. was approved by the 117 members of GATT. Bosnia. Clinton’s health plan: Clinton’s dream of universal health care package died as the bill could not get approval by resistant Republicans. Gingrich authored the contract and became Speaker of the House. .S. and by 1994 the U. Carbon dioxide traps heat near the surface of the planet. "greenhouse effect": The large amount of fossil fuels burned by cars. raising its temperature. killing tens of thousands. investments. 1994 Congressional election: The Republican Party. the Whitewater Development Corp. homes. Somalia: A massive famine caused by warring factions of the government prompted George Bush to send troops (along with the UN) to protect relief efforts in December 1992. capitalizing on Clinton’s perceived inactivity. and a recognition of Israel and the PLO as legitimate entities. The problem is made worse by tropical deforestation. and Mexico..S. the U. Yugoslavia split into Croatia. the Whitewater affair revolves around the question if the Clinton’s benefitted improperly from their involvement in a real estate venture. Arafat. The effort succeeded in ending the famine. Whitewater: A scandal which has plagued Bill and Hillary Clinton while in the White House. was sustaining casualties. called the World Trade Organization. NAFTA was approved by Congress in 1993. Radical Israelis and Palestinians denounced the treaty and violence ensued. protect Israelis in Palestinian areas. Several compromises were attempted by Clinton. the U. and has become a major environmental concern. More than 300 GOP candidates signed a "Contract with America" pledging support of several popular initiates. PLO-Israel Peace Treaty (1993). but not the violence. The NAFTA victory for free trade set the stage for the GATT treaty. left leaving the UN in charge. and factories has led to a rise in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. 1995: Israeli Prime Minister Yitzak Rabin was shot and killed by a Jewish settler just after speaking at a mass peace rally. Minister Netehayu.000 black men came. Million Man March. 1995. He acted in protest to the signing of the PLO-Israeli Peace Accord of 1993. Clinton later withdrew his support. Oklahoma City bombing. Officials Terry Nicoles and Timothy McVeigh were right wing militant extremists angry at the government. 1995 a 2½ ton bomb exploded in front of the Alfred P. Rabin assassinated. The future is uncertain under newly elected P. Farrakhan preached the need for blacks to become active family and community members.intervention in Haiti: The term referred to Operation Restore Democracy. but Clinton resisted. 1995: On April 19. The blast destroyed the front section of the building. . the plan was designed to restore President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power. Farrakhan: Led by the radical Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. The agreed upon plan is a moderate compromise. but Aristide did little towards turning Haiti into a democracy. Supported by the Clinton administration. budget showdown between Congress and the President: Negotiations between President Clinton and Congress regarding balancing the budget wrapped up in May 1997. killing 68. of whom 19 were children. Officials estimated 400. a major rally for African-Americans was held in Washington DC. Women were discouraged from attending. The mission was successful. The man who shot him was arrested on the scene.000-837. Republicans had originally wanted a constitutional amendment specifying a balanced budget.