Exploration

Explorers in the late 15th, 16th, nad early 17th centuries began the European phase of American history. Their "discoveries" in the New dispelled rumors of a northwest passage and settled ancient questions of world geography. Contact between Europeans and Native Americans would have a dramatic effect on Europe, but a devastating impact on those who were wrongly called "Indians." Christopher Columbus: Spanish explorer who, with the backing of Ferdinand V and Isabella I, discovered the North American continent on October 12,1492. Though he was originally seeking a westward route to India, his fleet of ships consisting of the Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria reached the island of Hispanola, claiming it for Spain. Giovanni Verrazano: Mariner who explored the East coast of the United States and Nova Scotia under the commission of France in 1524. He was commissioned to claim new lands in the New World and find a route to China. He was the first European to enter New York Bay. His land claims were not colonized until the 17th century. Ferdinand Magellan: Portuguese explorer who was the first person to sail across the Pacific Ocean and to circumnavigate the globe. Sailing under a Spanish commission, he attempted to reach the Spice Islands. After crossing the Pacific, Magellan was killed battling natives in the Philippines but two of his ships returned to Spain. Francisco Pizarro: Spanish explorer and military leader who conquered Peru. Pizarro was part of many early explorations of the New World and was involved in the colonization of Panama. When he found the Inca empire in Peru he organized a expedition of 180 men and destroyed the empire in 1531. John Cabot: Explorer sent by Henry VII in 1497 who explored and claimed Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and the Grand Banks for England. Cabot was originally sent by Henry in violation of the treaty of Tordesillas to find a direct route to Asia. Cabot, like Columbus thought he had reached Asia, unaware he was exploring a new continent. Pedro Alvares Cabral: Portuguese navigator and explorer who explored what is now Brazil. While making a trip to India on April, 22, 1500 his fleet was forced off course by weather and he reached what is now the state of Bahia, Brazil. He claimed this land for Portugal. Vasco Nunez de Balboa: Spanish explorer who is best known for being the first to reach the Pacific Ocean in 1513. While attempting to escape debt he joined an expedition lead by Martin Fernandez de Enciso where he took control of the party and led it across the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean, which he claimed for the Spanish monarchs. Jacques Cartier: French explorer who explored the Saint Lawrence River. In 1534 Cartier lead a two ship party to find the northwest passage to Asia. He explored

Newfoundland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. While exploring, he claimed the lands for France which made up most of its claim to Canada. Juan Ponce de Leon: Spanish explorer who discovered the present day state of Florida on March 27, 1512. Following reports of a fountain of youth, he sailed from his colony in Puerto Rico to the eastern shore of Florida where, upon landing, his party was attacked by natives and where he was mortally wounded before retreating to Cuba. Hernando Cortez: Spanish conquistador who is best known for the destruction of the Aztec Empire in present day Mexico. On February 19,1519 Cortez left Cuba with a force of 600 men. Upon landing, Cortez was greeted by the Aztecs who he began to subjugate. He destroyed all resistance and destroyed the Aztec capital in present day Mexico City. encomiendas: Grants that give a person the right to take labor in the form of slaves or any type of homage form a designated group of Indians. Christopher Columbus who was sailing for Spain and who was one of the first conquistadors also began this practice in Hispanolia. Spanish Armada, 1588: Naval force launched by Phillip II of Spain to fight England. The Fleet was the largest of its time in the 16th century. The Armada was severely damaged when it was attacked off the coast of England on August 7,1588 and cut nearly in half by storms upon return to Spain, making Britain the dominant sea power. Colombian Exchange: The exchange of biological organisms between continents. The diseases brought to the American continent that helped to nearly destroy the native populations is one example of that exchange. Besides disease, many plants and animals have been brought to new environments with varying consequences.

•Order of Colonization: (colony, date, prominent figure) Virginia in 1607, John Smith;
Plymouth in 1620, William Bradford; New York in 1626, Peter Minuit; Massachusetts Bay in 1630, John Winthrop; Maryland in 1633, George Calvert; Rhode Island in 1636, Roger Williams; Connecticut in 1636, Thomas Hooker; New Hampshire in 1638; Delaware in 1638; North Carolina in 1653; South Carolina in 1663; New Jersey in 1664; Pennsylvania in 1682, William Penn; Georgia in 1732, James Oglethorpe.

Virginia Settlement
One of the New England colonies and chartered by James I in 1606, Virginia was founded to give the English territorial claims to America as well as to offer a colonial market for trade. Jamestown, became a prosperous shipping and tobacco producing colony and the colony developed the House of Burgesses, a bicameral legislature in 1619.

Joint Stock Company: A business owned by investors through control of stocks. Examples operated in England and dealt with colonial markets in America. Such companies organized and supported the colonies through charters from the British government and while they worked with the government they made private profits.

•Jamestown: The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May,
1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop. starving time: The period early in any settlements development when food and supplies are scarce due to lack of preparation, unfamiliarity with the surroundings, weather, and inability to successfully grow crops. The starving time usually cost a large percentage of the settlers lives and lasted for the first few years. John Smith: Colonial leader who brought structure and stability to Jamestown during its starting years. As a member of the governing council of Virginia he was chosen to replace the previous president in 1608. Smith is credited with organizing trade with the Powhatan Confederacy and leading the colony through its roughest years. John Rolfe: English colonist and farmer who greatly aided the colony. Rolfe is credited with introducing tobacco as a crop for export, which ensured the colony of profits as well as bringing eight years of peace between Indians and colonists through his marriage to Pocahontas. purpose of Virginia: Virginia was founded primarily for the purpose of profit by the joint-stock owned Virginia Company of London. It was also important in giving England territorial claims in America to match Spanish and French expansion, and to also give England markets and resources in the New World. indentured servants: People who promised their lives as servants in order to get to the colonies. The servants, who were usually white, worked for a certain amount of time so to pay off their debt. This practice led to social tensions with such eruptions as Bacon’s Rebellion and eventually was replaced by race slavery. problems and failures of Virginia: Included trouble with Indians and a "starving time" in the winter of 1609 which the colony barely survived. Virginia also suffered from debt, a high death rate, fraudulent local officials, and more Indian trouble. The problems eventually made the Virginia Company go bankrupt. headright system: System enacted first in Virginia then in Baltimore to attract people to the sparsely populated colonies. The system worked by granting large amount of land to anyone who brought over a certain amount of colonists. In Baltimore, anyone bringing five adults at their own expense would receive two thousand acres.

House of Burgesses: A regular assembly of elected representatives that developed in the Virginia colony in the 1630’s. The House of Burgesses was split into two chambers in 1650, creating the House of Burgesses and the Governors Council. The House was a bicameral legislature that was a model for our congress. successes of Virginia: Virginia succeeded politically in terms of creating the House of Burgesses as a semi-democratic assembly and forcing governors to cooperate with the legislature. They did this through the power of the purse as governors did not control money, and therefore depended on the legislature for they salaries. Cavalier: The group of supporters of Charles I in the English Civil War which lasted from 1642-1648. The term Cavalier continued to be used to mean any supporter of the British crown, especially Americans who were British sympathizers during the American Revolution.

•Bacon’s Rebellion: Colonial rebellion against the governor of Virginia in 1676.
Nathaniel Bacon was the leader of the uprising protesting Governor Berkeley’s neglect of calls for a stronger military presence in the frontier to end problems caused by Indian hostility. The revolt succeeded in driving away the governor and it appeared it would achieve success when Bacon died shortly after the initial success before any progress was made and the rebellion dissipated.

Puritans
The Puritans first came to America in 1620 on the Mayflower. The Pilgrims, as they were called, were separating from the Anglican church and escaping religious persecution in England by escaping to America. Other Puritans soon flocked to America hoping to "purify" the Anglican Church and develop a colony which would be a model to the world ("a city upon a hill") Calvinism: The teachings and doctrine of John Calvin, a leader in the Protestant reformation. Calvinism is unique in its rejection of consubstantiation, the Eucharist and in its doctrine of predestination, the belief that no actions taken during a persons life would effect their salvation. The Puritan colonies were based on Calvinist doctrine. Church of England: The established church in England that is also known as the Anglican church. The Church of England was founded in 1534 by Henry VIII after a dispute with the Roman Catholic church over the annulment of his marriage which culminated in the Act of Supremacy, declaring the King to be the head of the church. Mayflower Compact: Agreement made by the Pilgrims in 1620 when they landed at Plymouth. The compact created the Plymouth colony and made a civil government under James I based on the will of the colonists. The Compact was important in the early organization and success of the colony.

William Bradford: The second governor of the Plymouth colony in Massachusetts. Pilgrims: The original group of puritan separatists that fled religious persecution in England and found refuge in what is now Massachusetts. Puritans: Reform movement in the Anglican church in the 16th and 17th centuries and came to America in 1629. •City Upon a Hill: Name given to the Puritan society that was to be created in the New World. Non-Separatists sought to reform the Church from within. •PILGRIMS VS. He was important in the organization and success of the colony and kept a history of the development of the Plymouth colony that was published in 1856. Seeking religious freedom was a strong motivation for colonies in America. who wanted to end ties with the established church and nonseparatists. It was anticipated that once the world saw this great city it would follow it example. Following the restoration of James I to the throne Puritans in England . The agreement was based on the creation of a market for trade but instead developed a religiously based government. PURITANS: Pilgrims and Puritans were extremely similar in most practices and beliefs. The colony was created in 1630 and it was governed through a General Court selected by church members. Massachusetts Bay Colony: Colony created by the Massachusetts Bay Company. Under the leadership of John Winthrop. They included the Pilgrims who migrated to America. Puritan Migration: The term given to the migration of Puritans to America in the early 17th century. Cambridge agreement: Plan used in 1629 to colonize America by allowing immigration of puritan settlers who would control the government and the charter of the Massachusetts Bay company. but Pilgrims were a distinct group of puritans who were not only against the Anglican church but called for total separation from the church. Non-Separatists: Separatists were a group of Puritans who advocated total withdrawal from the Church of England and wanted the freedom to worship independently from English authority. For this reason they fled the town of Scrooby. the colony was created to provide the world with a model Christian society. where they originally had assembled and ended up in Plymouth with intentions of creating a community free of English control. The Pilgrims sailed across the Atlantic and reached America in 1620 where they founded the Plymouth colony and organized a government based on the Mayflower compact. John Winthrop planned to create a utopian society based on Puritanism that would have no class distinction and would stress the importance of community and church. The society was to be an example to all the world of what could be achieved. Separatists vs. England. The leader of the Puritan migration. The movement aimed at purifying the church of corruption split into separatists. he was elected over John Carver in 1621 and was reelected thirty times. a dangerous belief in religiously tense England.

to become a saint the person had to be a member of the congregation and have been chosen by the church council. and it established a government under the authority of the King of England. some that its is earned and others that it can be achieved by faith alone. conversion relation: Part of the Massachusetts Puritans practice. saints: High standing members of the church who gained recognition and were put on a council that governed the congregation. Puritans were guided by their religion and created a government and society tied to the church. Under Puritan doctrine. dissenters: People objected to the accepted doctrine of the established church. The puritans who migrated to America were dissenters from the Church of England who . An offshoot of the separatist. Congregationalism was part of the strong independence of the colonies. The Relation required that any member of the congregation must go through an examination before the congregation. Congregationalism: Protestant organizational system based on the freedom of each church to control its affairs. The platform was the source for the Puritans of the government and organization for their colony.became persecuted and with the accession of Charles I to the throne the situation became worse. some assert that salvation is granted to all. New England Way: The Puritan dominance of New England and their desire to create a utopian society based on their doctrine created a distinct society in New England. Cambridge Platform: Agreement and plan formed by Puritans before they landed in 1629. Unlike other colonies. The puritans fled England and came to America to have freedom of religion. Covenant Theology: Christian Theology that stressed that a agreement was made by God with humans with the death of Jesus for the salvation of mankind. puritan colonies had a special distinction from them. later generations did not go accept it and the half-way covenant was adopted. The puritans came to American seeking religious freedom and had a strong work ethic enabling them to achieve a success not seen in other colonies. He played a key role in the puritan migration and intended to create a utopian society in America. it was a requirement of new members. He was elected governor twelve times and pursued a conservative religious and governmental policy. it was continued by the pilgrims in America where it was adopted by the new churches as a way to maintain local independence. John Winthrop: The first governor and one of the founders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and a member of the Massachusetts Bay Company. The theology differs from sect to sect. Because of its unpleasantness. Contrast Puritan Colonies with others: Because most colonies were created with financial or political gains in mind.

Massachusetts School Law: Law also Known as the Old Deluder Act of 1647. This fear ended with the death of many innocent women. Brattle Street Church: Church located in Boston. Anne Hutchinson. The law was a step towards creating a universal education system. Mass. Thomas Brattle. such as town officers. The Salem Witch Trials pinpointed the underlying tension that was coming to head in many colonies due to religion and social standings.created a new church in the colonies. . The idea was furthered in 1644 when it adopted a bicameral court with elected delegates. he established a colony at Providence in 1636 that tolerated all dissenters and was in good relations with the Natives. Religious outcasts from the puritan church such as Ann Hutchinson and Roger Williams were also dissenters. Williams was banished from Massachusetts for his belief in religious freedom. Many implicated others for fear of their lives. The Church was strongly opposed to the Salem Witchcraft trials in 1692. and taxes for the following season. church membership was threatened and the compromise was made. a wealthy merchant and official of Harvard College organized the church against the will of Cotton Mather because of its closeness to the Church of England. Half Way Covenant: A modification in the Cambridge Platform in 1662 that enabled people who had not experienced the conversion relation to become part of the congregation. With the later generations of Protestant settlers unwilling to undergo the conversion relation. town meetings: The center of Colonial America political life especially in New England. Town Meetings were gatherings where all the voters in the town or nearby countryside would all congregate and go over issues that most interested them. the belief that the Gospel frees Christians from required obedience to laws. Most of the women were middle aged wives or widows. She was banished to Rhode Island in 1637 for her belief in antinomianism and her insistence on salvation by faith and not works. •SALEM WITCH TRIALS: The fear of witchcraft that came to a head in the 16911963. that replaced home education by creating a system in which small towns would have a person capable of teaching the children and every town of over one hundred homes would have a school. Voting Granted to Church Members: The New England puritans developed a more democratic system of government than in England that gave the power to elect the governor to all male saints. especially boiling over in Salem. Completed in 1699. Massachusetts in 1692. antinomianism: Early New England religious leader who founded the doctrine of antinomianism. Roger Williams. Rhode Island: Early colonial clergyman who founded the religiously tolerant colony of Rhode Island in 1636.

Massachusetts Bay Company: Company in 1628 to govern the Massachusetts Bay Colony on granted by the Council of New England in America. Thomas Hooker: Religious leader in colonial America and founder of Hartford. Hooker grew dissatisfied with the rigid practices and . To make up for the lack of farming. The Dominion was governed by New York governor Sir Edmund Andros. As a clergyman in Massachusetts. and the frontier. Sir Edmund Andros: Political leader appointment as governor of the Dominion of New England in 1686. Plymouth. Puritan settlers who founded their settlement at Boston first colonized the land. Part of the work ethic also resulted from a belief that wealth and success were a sign of saintliness and that idleness was a sin. The confederation was used most effectively advising during King Phillips War. had the most overpopulated towns. certain regions of America developed distinct characteristics and each had its own unique niche. town meetings and enforcement of the Navigation Acts. The distinct regions were New England . The Company was dissolved in 1684. Andros was extremely unpopular because of his suppression of colonial legislatures. and was ended by colonial insurrection. starting a trend of religiously independent settlements. and had the poorest soil. The contrasts between the different regions were involving crops. This work ethic also helped the Puritans find success in the colonies and translated to an American colonial work ethic. the middle colonies. 1643: A concord among the New England colonies of Massachusetts. and control. •NEW ENGLAND: Region of the colonies lying on the northeast Atlantic Coast. Connecticut and New Haven in the years from 1643-1684. The union was for the purpose of ensuring safety and peace between the colonies. this was one of the largest industries in the colonies. •The Dominion of New England: Centralized government imposed upon the New England colonies by England in 1686 as a result of the Restoration monarchy’s need for control and renewed colonial interest. the southern colonies. It started as a highly religious.the Chesapeake Bay area. Puritan society. but eventually became a commercialized "Yankee" society. the New Englanders prospered the least. religion. New England Confederation.Puritan Ethic: Term that characterizes the strong sense of purpose and discipline that Puritans had. and by 1700. The consolidation was strongly opposed by the colonists because of the elimination of all colonial legislatures. Regionalism As life in the colonies progressed. Boston colonists forcefully removed Andros from office in 1689. Of all the colonies. Conn. New Englanders turned to fishing and the merchant marine.

which were published as The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America. it contained a preamble and 11 orders. slowed growth as large settlement did not occur until after slavery was brought to Georgia. But although most southern cities were tiny. It can be said that Poor Richard’s Almanack helped define the American culture by giving them traditions and wisdom’s all their own. In 1635 he lead a group of followers to start a more liberal colony in Hartford. leading to an absence of large cities in the south. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: The constitution of the Connecticut colony that was established in 1639. Her poems. The Southern Colonies were also the only colonies with a large population of blacks and an ethnically stratified society. Phillis found her first fame while escorting one of the Wheatly’s in England. The Southern Colonies were distinct from other colonies mostly on their dependence for slave labor and for farming. Culpeper’s Rebellion: Rebellion against the colonial government in Carolina in 1677. such as bans on slavery and rum. The government was for the colony at Saybrook of which John Winthrop’s son was governor. •SOUTHERN COLONIES: Region consisting mainly of the Carolinas and Georgia. Written by Thomas Hooker and similar to the government of Massachusetts Bay. Georgia: Colony founded in 1733 by a charter granted to James Oglethorpe. asserted that women had the right to gain knowledge. Charleston became the fourth largest city in the colonies. The main crop in the South was rice. Following the puritan ideal. Saybrook Platform: A modified version of the Cambridge platform that was used by Connecticut Congregationalists and contained a more centralized church government. The high ideals of Oglethorpe. . One of her works is "To the University of Cambridge in New England. The rebellion succeeded in disposing the governor and placing Culpeper in his position. In 1767. but he was removed in 1679. Poor Richard’s Almanack: Publication written by Benjamin Franklin in 1732 that gained an immense following with its home remedies and practical wisdom. The colony started with a settlement in Savanna created by Oglethorpe as a debtor’s colony. She was born in 1612 as the daughter of the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. at the age of 8. Phillis Wheatly: African American poet who was brought to America by slave traders at the age of eight and was bought by the Wheatly family.government of the Puritan church. The rebellion was lead by John Culpeper and was directed against the government’s acceptance of English trade laws." Ann Bradstreet: The first woman to write poems in colonial America and receive acclaim for them. separate from Britain. it put the welfare of the community above that of individuals.

He wrote the charter for the colony but died before he got it. Tidewater vs. New England. Maryland: Proprietary colony originally intended to be a refuge for English Catholics. because of the religious wars with French Catholics. in 1632. Chesapeake society also revolved around fertile soil near navigable water because tobacco needed such an environment to be grown profitably. after the Act of Religious Toleration was passed. Maryland was created in 1632 when Lord Baltimore (Cecilius Calvert) was given a land grant and created a manor based state with a headright system. and the Caribbean. Huguenots: French Protestants. which the Catholics ruled. sugar colonies: Colonies that produced sugar for England. the Piedmont. It comprised the present-day states of Maryland and Delaware. The Tidewater was along the coast. Oglethorpe founded Georgia after a grant from King George II and settled with a small group on the Savanna River. however.James Oglethorpe: English soldier and founder of the colony of Georgia in 1733. the Protestant majority barred Catholics from voting and threw out the governor and repealed the act. . The Maryland Act of Toleration was passed in 1649 so all types of Christians could have equal political rights. Eventually. and during this time the French Protestants gradually regained many of their rights. Maryland’s Protestant Association: Group of Protestants in Maryland during late 1600s who controlled the lower house but not the upper. Lord Baltimore: Founder of Maryland who. Protestants formed a majority and the manors evolved into plantations. most farms were located along Chesapeake Bay. Maryland. This contrast represented an East-West dichotomy to accompany the North-South one. Sugar was produced because it could make people rich quickly because it was sold at very high prices. Sugar plantation owners liked to use black slaves because they were able to work harder and longer. Along with this equality Lord Calvert allowed a representative assembly for the Catholics. Slow urbanization also characterized society around the Chesapeake. Piedmont: Two regions of contrasting economic opportunity. was where farming took place. like New Netherlands. However. on the other hand. Virginia. Because of this. Maryland Act of Toleration: Act that resulted when the Catholics began feeling threatened by the overwhelming Protestant population. where most of the opportunity was in shipping and fishing. received a charter from King Charles I for a tract of land to the northeast of the colony of Virginia. The Huguenots slowed the colonization process for the French. was opposed to religious persecution. Oglethorpe’s ideals in creating a debtors colony free of vice were a distinction from other colonies. The enlightened and religiously skeptical spirit of the 18th century. Chesapeake society also had a powerful merchant class who controlled both export and import commerce. •CHESAPEAKE SOCIETY: Society characterized by few neighbors and isolated families whose lives depended on tobacco.

With the Restoration and the creation of Restoration Colonies. entail: The practice of passing on land to a son. Many whites were lured to Charleston in hopes of reducing the black majority. quitrents: Federal payments that the freeholders had to pay the people who were getting the land from proprietors. New York. Restoration Colonies: Colonies created following the Stuart restoration in 1660 when England again took interest in America. the dues were still enforced. Carolina. with the money no longer going to the proprietors but instead to the king or queen as royal revenue. the caciques in the middle.Carolinas: Colonies created when Charles II rewarded eight of the noblemen who had helped him regain the throne from the Puritan rule in 1663 by giving them land. meant to stabilize the government of Carolina by basing the social rank on one’s "landed wealth. when no will was left for the land. New York. SPG. Primogeniture. Pennsylvania was built on the basis of being a religious haven for Quakers. wood. All of these products were exported to Europe and the west Indies. This practice became came over with the colonists and was introduced into common law. The colonies enabled England to control the East Coast. These colonies had governments that made a social hierarchy geared toward a dominant wealthy class. After a visit to Maryland. New Jersey. It was seen as a conspiracy. and New Jersey. Europe and the West Indies. North Carolina originated as an extension of Virginia and South Carolina came from planters from Barbados. wood. and skins. Fundamental Constitution: Intricate constitution written by Cooper and John Locke in 1670. New York was built upon the rule of James Duke of York who sent out John Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret to be the first two proprietors of New Jersey. all of which produced iron. indigo. various grains. John Locke. . which was picked by African-American planters who were imported by the Dutch in 1616. and Pennsylvania. Charleston: City that became the fourth largest city in North America. usually the eldest." It formed the three orders of nobility with the proprietors at the top. staple crops of the South: The major staple crop of the south was rice. •Middle Colonies: The middle colonies were Pennsylvania. who founded Charleston in 1670. and the landgraves at the bottom. These job seekers usually ended up competing for jobs with the black slaves. Most of the colonists’ profit came from farming. flour. grain. but it did not take long for the practice to die out in the colonies. Other crops were tobacco. and tobacco which were exported to Britain. It was a place where the upper class could pass their time so they could stay away from the heat of their plantations. thus showing a fear of tyranny of the church and state. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel: An organization founded in 1701 to serve the spiritual welfare of the colonists. Thomas Bray received a royal charter from King William for overseas missionary work.

. so in 1692 he joined the Church of England. With his heresy conviction the Quaker population in Pennsylvania dropped. and believed that all human actions should be directed by inner contemplation and a social conscience inspired by God. and advocated divine communion as he practiced it. George Keith: Member of the Quaker church who told the Quakers that they needed a formal doctrine. mainly Presbyterianism. They rejected a formal creed and regarded every participant as a potential vessel for the word of God. 1664 English: Charles II gave his brother James title to all the Dutch lands in America in 1664. opposed war and slavery. and believed that all human actions must be directed by inner contemplation. and the Anglican population and political power rose. George Fox: Preacher of the "inner-light" doctrine who spoke against formalized religion. In his constitutional type document Penn preached "that the will of one man may not hinder the good of the whole company. English settlers resisted the original proprietors’ authority. East Jersey then became dominated by Scottish Quakers whereas West Jersey became the home to many English Quakers. His ideas were not accepted among the Quaker majority. They started with a strong government. so in 1674 Berkeley sold his half to a union of Quakers. They were based in Pennsylvania. James became King in 1685 and appointed Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret as the first proprietors of New Jersey. East/ West Jersey: They were colonies that resulted from the sale of the Jersey territory to Quakers. 1701 Frame of Government: The first set of laws set up in Pennsylvania which were written by William Penn. Quakers: Religious movement founded in 1600 by a religious belief that divine revelation is immediate and individual and that all persons may perceive the word of God in their soul. The Quakers believed that an "inner-light" allowed them to be on a personal level with God. For years to come there were conflicting claims to the territory and finally in 1702 it became a royal colony. Penn and his people did not experience a starving time which was very common for starting colonies. The 1701 Frame of Government stated that the proprietors had no power to do mischief. and a limited lower legislative chamber.Pennsylvania. Penn himself carefully oversaw land sales in the colonies to avoid improper disputes. New York: Dutch. opposed war and slavery. He objected to political and religious authority. He objected to political and religious authority." The document was revised seven times and held a strong executive. liberal land laws in PA: Laws that were set up by William Penn which were very liberal because that was his nature. This liberal planning ensured no starving time. Holy Experiment: The main part of this theology that George Fox taught was that people had an inner light that could spiritually inspire their souls. William Penn: Pennsylvania was founded as a refuge for Quakers by William Penn in 1681.

He first published Poor Richard’s Almanack in 1732 and played a crucial role in the American Revolution and community. the middle colonies as a religious haven: William Penn founded Pennsylvania originally as a religious haven for Quakers who were not accepted elsewhere in 1681. Struyvesant. his contributions epitomized the Enlightenment. The frontier also offered limitless land. and tobacco which were shipped to Europe and the West Indies. Benjamin Franklin: A notable American printer. He performed important experiments involving plant hybridization and in 1728 he founded the first botanical garden in America near Philadelphia. Similarly. grain. Peter Struyvesant: Dutch governor who was attacked by Charles II in 1664 so that the British could control North America. which democratized America by elimating the significance of voting property requirements. wood. and making maps. The estates were created in order to raise revenue by collecting tenant rents. Bartram traveled extensively through the colonies. In 1691. crops in the middle colonies: The middle colonies rich level lands produced lengthy growing seasons and gave good bumper crops. author. by about 1750. writing. In 1731 he founded what was probably the first public library in America. almost like the British landed aristocracy. leading to his arrest and death when his enemies gained control of the government. peacefully surrendered and gave New Netherlands to Charles II. the patroon owners emerged as a class of landed elite. flour. Leisler’s Rebellion: Anti-Stuart rebellion in which Captain Jacob Leisler took command over New York in hopes of protecting it from Andros and other supporters of James II. •FRONTIER: Area of land important in the development of a distinctly American culture and political life. as explained by Fredrick Turner’s Frontier Thesis. High population and bad sanitation allowed many of the people to catch viruses and diseases. observing wildlife. and scientist. John Bartram: Botanist who was known as the father of American Botany. Leisler denied the passing of English troops to important forts. the frontier represented a raw environment that . Finally. collecting plants.patroon system: The system of feudal estates created by large New York landowners in the early 1700s. philosopher. whose army was already hurt from Indian attacks. Recessions hit frequently and the job force was very unstable. Their exports were rice. Maryland was founded by George Calvert in 1632 and served as a refuge for English Catholics. Later. diplomat. Rhode Island was founded by Roger Williams in 1644 for dissenting Puritans. iron. The middle colonies were major exporting colonies because of their accessible sea ports. forming the New York and Jersey colonies with a large remaining Dutch population. New York City and Philadelphia as urban centers: Both cities were the two biggest exporting cities in America thus making them rapidly growing urban centers.

and plantations. The war tipped the balance of military power to the English. the growers and farmers eventually began to rely on African-Americans and Native Americans as a free source of labor. Red. Tuscaroras and Yamasees: Two opposing Indians tribes whose disunity lead both to destruction. Cayuga. By the 1700s. Mohawk. was founded in 1651. King Phillips War: War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. Native American Relations in the first settlements: Relations characterized by resistance to the expansion of English settlement. In contrast. the North had more towns. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. strength. and the Yamasees were themselves defeated around 1715. acuteness. the first of which. and inventiveness. Natick. King Philip lead the natives. cities. assimilation as "Praying Indians" became the only option besides retreating farther west." and devastation through war and disease. praying towns: Towns set up by puritan missionaries for Indian converts to spread puritan Christianity. The colonists eventually won the alliance of rival tribes and waged a ruthless campaign. pragmatism. . The chief of the Wampanoags. an aristocracy. Originally using AfricanAmericans only as indentured servants. and ports. As the Indian population in the east waned. the tribes in the confederacy were the Onondaga. and industry whereas the South was based on an agricultural society. and Tuscarors. Pequot War: So-called war consisting of clumsy plundering by Massachusetts troops and raids by Pequots in 1637. Iroquois Confederacy: The joining of six sects of the Iroquoian family and of the Eastern Woodlands area. North-South economic differences: The North was much more concerned with shipping.helped mold American civilization by giving it coarseness. submission into "praying towns. White. The Tuscaroran people were defeated by the colonists with the help of the Yamasees in 1713. opening the way to New England’s settlement. Many of the Massachusetts Indians sought protection from Winthrop by selling their land and surrendering their independence. Also. By combining they were a stronger force against the colonists. Both tribes were scattered and soon disappeared. Oneida. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites. fishing. the South was characterized by cash crops. Seneca. and Black With the colonization of certain regions in America came conflicts with the Native Americans and the earliest traces of slavery in America.

17th. and 18th centuries under which governmental control was exercised over industry and trade in accordance with the theory that national strength is increased by a majority of exports over imports. Out of the Maryland Slave Code of 1661 came the establishing of other slave codes that set up strict legal codes. racial status." It was issued by Maryland in 1661 in order to set up a distinct place for the slaves in the society. The Overhunting of Beavers sent prices so high in 1742 that the Dutch armed the Iroquois and what resulted was bloody battles against Pro-French tribes. During this time they flourished and developed a British origin. It was often noted as an inhumane code but the society revolved around slaves. The colonies adopted mercantilism as business in which the mother country could benefit. however because it was not yet profitable for slavery under the conditions. The slave trade then moved in to America as the development of a plantation system in Virginia offered a market for slavery and the first slaves arrived there in 1619. impact on Great Britain. White owners relied on force and fear to control the growing black majority in the Carolinas. mercantilism: features. Officials suppressed the rebellion and stopped any more chaos and damage. As trade and agriculture grew and a plantation system grew so did slavery. Slavery remained small among the colonies.Beaver Wars: Wars that resulted from furious trading and hunting of Beaver pelts by the Dutch. inheritable. It was a significant encounter because it caused white apprehension and led to a new slave code. rationale. and the New Netherlands. 1661: The first actual definition by the colonies of slavery as a "lifelong. It was because of this absence that the colonies became more self sufficient and eventually it led them to a feeling of individuality that they feared losing. Barbados Code: Code adopted by Carolina in 1696 to control slaves at the will of their masters. so laws like this were created in order to keep control in the society. the French. thus bringing forth the Declaration of Independence after a series of events. Stono Rebellion: Slave uprising in South Carolina in 1739. in which twenty slaves robbed guns and ammunition from the Stono River Bridge along with killing civilians. •SLAVERY BEGINS: Followed the exploration of the African coast and the establishment of a slave trade Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. Maryland Slave Code. Salutary Neglect Britain’s absence in colonial America due to pressing issues in England left the colonies alone for the most part to govern themselves. yet with a distinctly American flavor. . impact on the different colonies: Economic policy prevailing in Europe during the 16th.

This occurred partially because Charles was trying to pay off his war debt. It was meant to create profitable trade as a protective tariff. consignment systems: A system of drafting sailors into the British navy. However. that exactly established the relationship between the kings and barons and guaranteed ideas of free commerce. and indigo—that the colonists could export only to another English colony or to England. rice. 1628: Petition given to Charles I by parliament. Hat Act. This idea was adopted into our Constitution in Article 1. They put this into effect to help stop innocent people from being thrown into jail with no specific reason why. 1764: Another Act passed by the British Parliament that affected the colonies and was meant to raise revenue for Great Britain. Currency Act. the right to a fair trial. Petition of Right. stop taxing without its consent and stop declaring martial law in a time of peace. 1750: Act specifying certain enumerated goods—principally tobacco. It was very similar to the other previous Currency Act but this act was targeted towards the people and raising the taxes so that the Parliament could make more money. Molasses Act. It was a clear example of how Salutary Neglect was coming to an end with the French and Indian War. asking him to stop sending soldiers to live in private citizens homes. Woolens Act. Currency Act. It can only be revoked in time of rebellion. The British could freely use the soldiers at their convenience by the rules of this draft. The point of this attack was to raise revenue for Great Britain. Habeas Corpus Act: Act saying that a person can not be held in prison without being charged and tried. Many of the base rights in the United States Constitution are included in it. These were attempts to prevent manufacturing in the British colonies that might threaten the economy of England. Magna Carta. but it was never meant to raise revenue. the Americans still managed to smuggle goods with the French Caribbean and India. and the right to a trial by your peers. 1733: Legislation by the British Parliament for taxing and imposing shipment restrictions on sugar and molasses imported into the profitable colonies from the West Indies. Colonial trade was not very triangular because the Navigation Acts forced American merchants to trade only with Britain. . 1732: Iron Act. The draft caused many problems in the life of young American men.triangular trade: Trade that takes place between three places is called triangular trade. 1751: Act passed by British Parliament that affected the colonies by adjusting the currency. 1215: A charter granted by King John. 1699. Section 9. Many teenagers tried to avoid the draft by giving false information about themselves.

Among these goods were tobacco. the courts awarded judges money for every conviction. the Enlightenment: A period in the 1700s when a new method of thought was employed. Also. Navigation Act. provided more penalties for evasion. It was a time when great minds awoke and started thinking. Along with the 1660 act. •BOARD OF TRADE. 1660: This Parliamentary act renewed the 1651 act and specified certain innumerable articles which could be exported only to the English or to another English colony in 1660. 1651: Parliament passed this legislation in 1651 in order to protect English trade from foreign competition. American shipbuilding thus prospered and there was a stable protected market for producers. which caused division in his party (Whigs) for support for him in elections. affecting the . He entered the English Parliament in 1701 and became a well known speaker for the Whig Party. and introduced use of vice-admiralty courts. capitalism. It was felt much more harshly by the colonists and led to hostility admiralty courts: These were courts that were created to bring sailors to trial for going against the navigation acts. The Navigation Acts opened up British markets to American merchants. It allowed for methods of enforcing the acts. Navigation Act.S. (of the Privy Council): This board was part of the Privy Council which was one of the committees formed by the British Parliament In 1793 Britain’s Privy Council sent out orders that any foreign ships caught trading with the French Islands located in the Caribbean to be automatically captured and taken away.Navigation Act. Navigation Act. rice. It was passed in 1696 in an effort to strengthen its effect on colonists. causing over 250 ships were captured. and indigo. 1663: This Parliamentary act disallowed colonial merchants from exporting products like sugar and tobacco anywhere except to England and from importing goods in ships not made and produced by the English. They were often held away from the colonies. It also helped U.S. it was passed to help English commercial interests in 1663 but helped the U. thus judges became more apt to find people guilty. Robert Walpole: Statesman who is considered Britain’s first prime minister. In 1708 he was named Secretary of War. 1696: This was the fifth and final Parliamentary Navigation Act. merchants/markets: People and places involved in the trading system of the colonies were merchants and the markets with which they traded. a fact that the colonies viewed as being unconstitutional. In 1739 he declared war on Spain. They deliberately waited to publish these instructions so that American ships would be seized. and the number of merchants increased during the 1750’s as well. It was only temporary and it stated that goods imported or exported by the colonies in Africa and Asia must be shipped out or imported only by English vessels and the crews must be 75% British.

All of these ideas helped shape America’s way of government life. Bill of Rights. Kings and Queens could also give away land as well as people having property passed on to them. . More common people could get into government than before and make a difference which helped build the foundations of America. His ideas can be seen in the Constitution.colonies as well as Europe. He criticized the "divine right" kings had and believed that the people should have a say and that the supreme power should be state power. Often. Glorious Revolution: When Mary and William over run James II in England in 1688. The house had the power of the purse which led them to being the more dominant house. Moderate uprising that came out of the Colonial America during this time ended with William and Mary taking apart the Dominion of New England. 1689: Bill that said no Roman Catholics could hold a position of king or queen in England. Because of low voter participation and indifference toward politics. his success paving the way for freedom of the press. One such way was for a company to give out land so an area would become populated. or levy taxes without the okay of the British Parliament. They would observe the colonies and then send the information back to England. law. therefore having an influence on decisions the new powers would make. these were dominated by the colonial elite despite liberal qualifications for male voters. and deism. John Peter Zenger Trial: Trial involving the founder of the New York Weekly Journal . He was announced not guilty. British citizens saw this as a win in liberty for parliament would have more control than ever. colonial government only truly flourished in the major seaports. optimism. •PROPRIETARY. Its ideas lead to revolutionary ideas. •COLONIAL GOVERNMENT: Characterized by regular assemblies and appointed militia. It also made it illegal for a monarch to postpone laws. who received money from influential town members. The problem is by the time it got back to England the information that had once been true was now old and wrong. The most significant development of colonial government was the rise of the assembly and the limiting of the power of governors. John Locke’s Ideas: John Locke was a philosopher that supported Colonial America. So when Zenger published articles by his contributors that criticized Colonial government he was arrested and put on trial. ROYAL COLONIES: These are three ways one could come upon owning land in Colonial America. Rise of the lower house: In Colonial America the lower house had increasingly equal if not more power than the upper house. Some beliefs brought to the forefront were the laws of nature. have a standing army. but only if they were governed by "natural" law. CHARTER. colonial agents: Representatives sent by Great Britain to the colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries. The colonies then interpreted the law and used it against the British (levy tax). and local administration. confidence in human reason.

denomenationalism. The Old Lights rejected the Great Awakening and the New Lights. His presence helped raise the population by about 3000 people. and Congregationalists as the Presbyterians and Baptists increased. It also caused an emergence in black Protestantism. He involved himself in the Great Awakening in 1739 preaching his belief in gaining salvation. religious toleration. A Careful and Strict Enquiry into. George Whitefield: English clergyman who was known for his ability to convince many people through his sermons." led by Tennent. Coming from Connecticut. Harvard University: University located in Cambridge. The school was originally organized to educate ministers because of the scarcity of clergy and lack of an educational institution in the new colony. and George Whitefield. Through the awakening emerged the decline of Quakers. Mass. Another one of his significant projects was the founding of his influential Log College which had teachers educated in all areas of study. The result was a schism (1741) in the Presbyterian church between the "Old Lights" and the "New Lights.Great Awakening A series of religious revivals swept through the colonies in the 1730s. . an increase of Presbyterians. Jonathan Edwards . in 1740 delivered a harsh sermon. and religious toleration. "The Dangers of Unconverted Ministry. That freedom of Will: Sermon about how one must have a personal faith and relationship with Jesus Christ to gain salvation instead of an afterlife in hell. Anglicans. The university eventually developed a more secular format effects of the Great Awakening on religion in America: Long term effects of the Great Awakening were the decline of Quakers. Old Lights. Key players were Theodore Frelinghuysen. Bay Colony." in which he criticized conservative ministers who opposed the fervor of the Great Awakening. Gilbert Tennent: American Presbyterian minister. . and denominationalism. William Tennent: Presbyterian minister who played a chief role in the Great Awakening in Central New Jersey by calling prayer meetings known as the Refreshings around the 1730’s.Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. most of his speeches were based there. Jonathan Edwards. founding of colleges. William and Gilbert Tenant. New lights: Two groups of ministries who frequently had heated debates on the issue of God during the Great Awakening. an emphasis on inner experience. who accepted it and sometimes suffered persecution because of their religious fervor. Great Britain Versus France . The sermon also used the fury of the divine wrath to arouse religious fervor. that was founded in 1636 on a grant from the Mass.

With America as a new prospect for both France and Great Britain, tensions grew between the two countries. The result was a series of wars like King William’s War, Queen Anne’s War, the War of Jenkin’s Ear, King George’s War, and the French and Indian War. Changes in land Claims of 1689, 1713, 1763: Before 1689 almost all of the land belonged to Spain, and France with Britain only starting. Then by 1713 France was dominating the North America and Britain was spreading up and down the coast. In 1763 with the Treaty of Paris, Britain became the overwhelming power. Differences between French and British colonization: The French mostly had fur traders and posts in North America so they could get goods, they were more inland and made friends with the Indians. While the English were settling for good on the shore, making homes and government- they were all there to start a new life. Why Great Britain eventually won: When William Pitt joined the British leaders he turned things around. He began to treat the Americans like equals or allies instead of subordinates. This lead Americans to feel a sense of pride and a renewed sense of spirit that sent them into several victories that made France eventually concede. King William’s War: In Europe a war fought between the Grand Alliance and France which also embroiled the colonies. The entire war was battled over who would reign in England. In the colonies the Indians were fighting for the French. In 1697 fighting ceased due to the Peace of Ryswick which restored Port Royal to the French. Queen Anne’s War: The second of the four imperial wars that were fought between Britain, France and Spain. It took place from 1702-1713. Though many Spanish colonial towns were captured and burned by English forces, American colonists met with military failure creating a feeling of dependence on Britain. The war ended with Peace of Utrecht. Peace of Utrecht: Treaty that ended Queen Anne's War in 1713. Due to this treaty France had to give up Acadia, Newfoundland and the Hudson Bay territory to England but got to keep Cape Breton Island. The treaty also introduced a period of peace in which the American colonists experienced growth economically and politically. War of Jenkin’s Ear: This war was British versus Spain. It was fought in Georgia and North Carolina. Lieutenant Governor William Gooch led Virginia’s 400 men into the whole 3000 men colonial army and after their Colonel died Gooch succeeded him. When they attacked Cartagena it proved disastrous, though Gooch wouldn’t report it that way. King George’s War: War fought between Britain and France and Spain. It took place not only in Europe but also in North America with American colonists supporting the British with thousands of troops. In the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle Britain gained lands in India but lost Louisburg, which embittered Anglo-American relations.

•FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR: The French and Indian war was fought between Britain and France. It lasted from 1754-1760, with the colonies supporting Britain and the Indians supporting France. This war spanned three different continents and it was the main factor in the ending of "salutary neglect." This war planted the seeds of misunderstanding between Britain and the colonies and indirectly was one of the causes of the Revolutionary War. Britain came out victoriously with the Treaty of Paris. Coureurs de Bois- Unlicensed trader who traded illegally with Indians. Many young men seeing only the prospective wealth left their families and traded illegally with Indians, some even married into the tribes. They also enlisted Indians in the French Army. These Coureurs de Bois were important in setting up fur trade in Canada. Francis Parkman: Francis Parkman was one of the prominent historians of his time (1823-1893). Most of his work concerned the conflict that arose between France and Britain for land in Colonial America. Later on in his career he went west and traveled with tribes, such as the Sioux, which ended with the book, The Oregon Trail. Albany Plan of Union, Benjamin Franklin: Colonial confederation based on the ideas of Franklin calling for each town to have independence in a large whole, known as a Grand Council. It was used for military defense and Indian policies and set a precedent for later American unity. Edward Braddock: Braddock was the General of all the British Troops (French and Indian War), he led an attack against Fort Duquesne, never reaching his destination for they were attacked by the Monongahela River where 900 of his 1200 men were wounded or killed. Braddock was wounded at this battle and died soon afterwards. William Pitt: Prime minister for Britain, who helped Britain bounce back after the Revolutionary War and who lead the war effort against France. Pitt had two terms, 1783 to 1801 and 1804 to 1806. He was considered a moderate, with the backing of the king and the parliament. Pitt’s time in office became a foundation for future prime ministers. Fort Duquesne: This was the fort that General Braddock tried to take during the French and Indian War but him and his troops were slaughtered in an ambush at the Monongahela, where 900 of the 1200 troops were wounded or killed. Later General Amherst captured the fort. Wolfe, Montecalm, Quebec- the Plains of Abraham: The battle of the French and Indian War, between General Wolfe and General Montecalm in which both were killed . It ended with the capturing of Quebec and was one of the final steps that lead Montreal to surrender, thus making Canada no longer a threat. Land squabbles in North America, where, why and what over: Any of the imperial wars that were fought in North America, for if when Britain won they would usually gain territory they had wanted before. Also various battles with Indians over pieces of land because colonists pushed their way onto Indian land, not caring if it belonged to them.

Treaty of Paris (1763): Treaty that ended the French and Indian War was ended by the Treaty of Paris. This treaty ended French reign in Canada. The treaty also called for Spain to give Florida to Britain, and for France to give all lands east of the Mississippi River to Britain. It also was a precursor, for colonial politics would follow Britain. Proclamation of 1763: This proclamation stated that no white settlers could go past the crest of the Appalachians. While this upset many colonists who had claims that far west, Britain explained it was only temporary, for it was meant to calm the Indians, sure enough five years later the boundary was moved further west. Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763: After France had to give up the territory they had near and around the Appalachian Mountains the Indians were afraid that the British would come in and start to settle down permanently, to make sure this didn’t happen Chief Pontiac launched an offensive at Bushy Run and Pontiac’s forces won for the time being. Proclamation of 1763: The British issued this in 1763 in hopes of conciliating the Indians and to lessen white expansion. It banned colonists from settling west if the Appalachian mountains. Though it was supposedly a temporary measure, colonists were angered and the line was moved further west five years later for speculators.

New British Policy and Colonial Resistance
In order to tighten control over the colonies, Great Britain instated many acts and taxes which enraged colonists who argued that it was unfair to tax them when they had no direct representation in Parliament. This resistance was the beginning of America’s revolt against its mother country. writs of assistance: The royal governor of Massachusetts allowed British revenue officers to use this in 1760 in order to capture goods imported illegally in: It was a search warrant allowing officials to enter buildings in which smuggled goods may be. It required no cause for suspicion and homes were often ransacked. It also contributed to the Revolution. James Otis: He was a colonial leader who was also advocate general of the Boston Vice Admiralty Court in 1756. His opposition to the writs of assistance and Townshend Acts led him to declare that Parliament did not have the right to violate natural rights of colonists. He thus published The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proven. Pontiac’s Rebellion: Ottawa chief Pontiac attacked and besieged ten British forts in May, 1763, in order to keep British out of the Appalachians. An uneasy truce was negotiated by 1764, and as a result, the Proclamation of 1763 was put forth in order for Britain to maintain 10,000 soldiers in the U.S. to occupy French ceded territories.

Paxton Boys: This group of Rangers from Pennsylvania Paxton in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, killed some Sasquehannock Indians in 1764. The conflict arose as a result of the desire to expand westward. Governor John Penn in 1764 attempted to punish them, but the people of the area were so upset that a revolt ensued; Benjamin Franklin solved it. Grenville’s Program: British Prime Minister George Grenville was the principal architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament, even though Americans didn’t elect members. •SUGAR ACT, 1764: George Grenville introduced this act which amended the Molasses Act that had taxed all foreign molasses entering the U.S. at sixpence a gallon in 1764. The new act ended the previous British policy of keeping Americans out of all revenueraising measures. It stated that colonists exported certain items to foreign countries only if they passed through Britain first. Parliament hoped that Americans would buy more British items and it increased British sale of European wine. Currency Act, 1764: extended currency Act, 1751: A Parliamentary act, which was originally applicable only in Massachusetts in 1751, but in 1764, it was applied to all the colonies as a means of raising revenue. It increased colonial resentment toward Britain because it disallowed the issuance of colonial money. vice-admiralty courts: Parliament was responsible for this new form of juryless court in Nova Scotia. From 1763 to 1765, when Americans were caught smuggling in violation of the Acts of Trade, they were tried by corrupt judges who received a percentage of the confiscated goods if they found the defendants guilty. A Democracy or not?: Colonial America was a place with more liberal voting qualification, no aristocracy and rise of the assembly. But the ruling class was still the wealthy, they had the power, also voters turn out wasn’t large. One had a better chance in becoming part of the "system" but it wasn’t democratic. Deism: most of the religious thinkers during the Enlightenment were deist. The deists believed that God was a clockmaker who created the world but now just watches it work. They believed that we lived in a perfect universe and that we are laws that we created were natural. Non-consumption: The Sons of Liberty began the idea of non-consumption in 1774 with their vow of non-importation of British goods. When the Boston Port Bill was passed, colonists once again agreed to ban all British goods in order to boycott the British until demands were met. Because of this, state or individual opposition was despised. virtual, actual representation: Parliament felt colonists had virtual representation because every member of Parliament considered the rights of all subjects; the House of

due mostly to regional and bipartisan differences. It was said that no tax that was issued in order to produce revenue for Great Britain was constitutional because American representatives had not voted to allow the tax. It infuriated colonists because it was an internal tax that few could escape. It stated that all legal documents. contracts. Federalists were those who advocated a strong central government." Virginia Resolves: American leader Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to state their opposition to taxation in 1765. in 1768. Depending on size. Hence. and newspapers must carry a stamp that is taxed.Commons was responsible for protecting the rights of all British and colonists. pamphlets. by the end of the year. through violence. Opposition to the Stamp Act led to formation of the Stamp Act Congress. no taxation without representation: John Adams. but the group’s demand for no taxation without representation was refused by the House of Commons. Patrick Henry: He was an orator and statesman who played a key role in igniting patriotism and leading the colonists toward the American Revolution. licenses. but colonists had none. In 1763 he became a member of the House of Burgesses where he introduced seven resolutions against the Stamp Act. states wanted different types of representation. It further led to the doctrine of States Rights. •STAMP ACT: British prime minister George Grenville’s most detested act. openly criticized Parliament’s practice of taxation without proper colonial representation. It was intended to raise money for keeping up defense in colonies. they enjoyed actual representation. They adopted several resolutions which refuted the power of Parliament to tax the colonies. colonial view of the constitution: Colonial views toward the Constitution varied greatly in 1781. and was passed by Parliament. it declared that each state comprised the national government through a compact whose provisions were established in the Constitution. in his Circular Letter. to force the distributors to resign before taxes were due. at state’s expense. . 1765: This was an assembly of delegates from nine of the original thirteen colonies in 1765 which was intended to protest the Stamp Act. the states could decide when the compact was broken. Because the British elected members. He is famous for his comment "Give me liberty or give me death. Stamp Act Congress. They met in New York City and presented the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. stamp distributors: These were the men who had the job of accepting money from the special water-marked paper put into circulation with the passage of the Stamp Act in 1765. They were a target for such associations as the Loyal Nine and Sons of Liberty who attempted. Compact theory: First expressed by Jefferson and Madison in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves of 1798. Antifederalists demanded more state power. the Stamp Act was introduced in 1765 as a means of raising revenue in the colonies. Henry’s fiery orations caused. eight other colonies to also denounce taxation and declare rights.

In celebration of his failure. The Loyal Nine: A group of middle class workers joined this association in the summer of 1765 in order to resist the Stamp Act. Revenue Act: Parliament passed the Revenue taxes in 1767. it was just like the Stamp Act in that. public opposition to the tax was minute. though it was said to be an external tax. They realized that if they could intimidate stamp distributors with house-wrecking and tar-and-feathers. however. They also participated in terrorizing the stamp distributors through house-wrecking and tar-and-feathering in order to achieve respect. mobs gathered in the streets of Boston to protest and to set fire to figures of the Pope. . Daughters of Liberty: Upper class female patriots who formed a union in 1765 in order to give aid to the cause of defeating the reviled Stamp Act. paper. it is stated that "It is a state of perfect freedom [for man] to do as they wish and dispose of themselves and their possessions. The day was named for the anniversary of the day Catholic Guy Fawkes attempted to blow up Parliament and King James I. the Stamp Act was an internal tax which few colonists could escape. Guy Fawkes Day: Thousands of ardent Bostonians gathered to celebrate this day on November 5. When nonimportation collapsed. internal/external taxes: Introduced by the British Parliament in 1765. It further angered colonial resentment to Charles Townshend. it was a secret society of patriots which was organized in 1765 in the colonies. Right of revolution: In John Lock’s Two Treatises of Government. all of the colonists were drastically affected by this tax. The Act taxed glass. Declaratory Act. Because the Stamp Act was so opposed by the colonists as well as the British business community. They proved their value to the cause both by attending political rallies and protests and also by refusing association with men who were Loyalists. but only with the passage of this confirmation. and tea. it was repealed." He claims that any person has the right to revolt if the government does not fulfill its duties. •SONS OF LIBERTY: Members included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere. 1765. An example of an external tax is the Sugar Act passed in 1764 which raised costs only for a select group of people. written in 1690. they could bully them into resigning before the act could be put into effect. In colonial opinion. making it impracticable. 1766: This was a Parliamentary act which was issued in 1766 in order to confirm the British government’s right to pass acts which were legally binding to the colonists. paint. They formed a Committee of Correspondence to defend themselves against British actions. an agreement to not import any British goods until the Townshend acts were repealed. they were unsure whether or not to keep the boycott going. between many of the colonial merchants. it was still put into effect solely to raise revenue for the British treasury. His ideas led to the Declaration of Independence. they ultimately played a small role. When the tea tax was kept. the Sons of Liberty agreed not to consume British tea in protest.Non-importation: There existed. lead. paint. One of the actions they took was to adopt a policy of non-importation in which merchants refused to import goods sent from Great Britain.

•TOWNSHEND ACTS. private buildings." which was a simple sort of agreement in 1774. The Revenue Act called for customs duties on imports of glass. lead. John Dickinson. However. paint.Quartering Act (called the Mutiny Act by the British): Passed by Congress. Massachusetts Circular Letter: The Massachusetts legislature sent the other 12 colonies a letter in 1767 in response to the Townshend Acts and asked for a united response from the colonies. "Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania": He was a lawyer in Philadelphia and a leader in the movement against taxation on the colonies in the 1760s. They refused and were dismissed. it allowed for much-hated British officers to be permitted to requisition empty. and served on the General Court of Massachusetts in 1765. Moreover. •SAM ADAMS: He was an outspoken advocate of the Sugar Act. The British threatened to dissolve the Massachusetts court unless it was withdrawn. The other assemblies defiantly signed. This led to increased hostility toward the colonists. repeal of the Townshend Acts exept tax on tea: Lord North. in a Parliamentary act in 1770. or consume products of Britain unless their demands were met. Colonial reaction was that of further discontent toward their motherland. As a result of unrest over these acts. he still recommended they maintain the tea tax. Parliament passed these measures in 1767. REACTION: Under the control of British Prime Minister Charles Townshend. They were created because Townshend wanted to crack down on colonial smuggling. Members pledged not to import. he argued against the duties of the Townshend acts in this publication. this was one of the Intolerable Acts in 1774. Due to his literary agitation. He sought appeasement of the British. Basically. serving to create an American Board of Customs Commissioners whose sole job would be to enforce the Navigation Acts . Starting a movement for an uprising against the Boston Massacre. export. because it was profitable for the Royal Treasury in Great Britain. It effectively served to further punish the colonists. Formulating a declaration of rights at the Stamp Act Congress. Adams contributed to the movement for revolution. All resistance was repressed by this blatant attempt to force troops in. wanted to eliminate the Townshend duties due to increased hostility against the British and to keep the boycott from gaining momentum. he led several other angry colonists in the Boston Tea Party of 1773. The Association: The First Continental Congress agreed to this "association. and tea. the Massachusetts legislature was dissolved. It was formed in response to anger over the recently passed Tea Act. •AMERICAN BOARD OF CUSTOMS COMMISSIONERS: Townshend introduced legislation in 1767. The first called for suspension of the New York Assembly because it would not abide by the Quartering Act. The corrupt members of the . he was a main proponent of opposition to the Townshend Acts and a key figure in the formation of the Sons of Liberty. paper.

opened fire upon the innocent. RI. committees of correspondence: They were colonial groups in 1772 which were organized to form resistance to British tyranny. and 300 casualties were inflicted. He additionally denounced the Stamp Act. Though he was the first man to be shot. he refused to allow British ships to be returned without unloading and the Boston Tea party resulted. Boston Massacre.Board practiced customs racketeering. The North Carolina Regulators threatened to rebel and not pay taxes. (which were resumed in the city in 1770 in order to discourage opposition to the Townshend Acts). five men were killed. it was burned down by local inhabitants. He successfully defended his clients in defense that they were trying to protect their own lives. This led to a major movement between colonists of anger and violence toward the Board members.S. When told that a customs official had been locked up. trade. This led to further discontent towards Britain. The South Carolina Regulators. Gaspee Incident: A customs schooner was beached in Providence. In 1888 a monument of him was erected in his honor in Boston. in 1767. wanted to protect the rights of their community. Eight soldiers were tried for murder. when hit by hecklers within the crowd. Battle of the Alamance: The North Carolina Regulators found their movement peak in this battle on May 16. their attorney was John Adams. Many were acquitted and anti-British feelings rose.: A colonial governor. these Regulators fought a band of eastern militia started up by the governor of North Carolina. 1768. in 1764. With an army of 2500. but still supported Britain’s right to impose taxes. they failed. 1770: British troops. while John Hancock unloaded without paying the duty. 1771. Crispus Attucks: He was the leader of a group of colonists who were killed in the 1770 Boston Massacre. his home was ransacked in 1765. John Hancock’s Liberty: Customs commissioners in Boston requested an armed force for protection and the government dispatched the Romney to Boston in June. opposed corrupt government and cleared their homeland of outlaw bands of terrorists. which was a legalized form of piracy. In 1773. Carolina Regulators: This name applies to several groups of insurgents who. The Boston town meeting made up a 21 . he opposed taxes that harmed U. This upset Americans because it was one of the last of the customs racketeering ships. 1772. the Liberty was seized. The Regulator uprising fell apart and colonies found it harder to resist British. the suspects would have faced trial without jury. and was a member of both Continental Congresses. When investigators were sent to find the initiators. he was only one of five colonists. on June 9. He was either African-American or Native American and he may have been a runaway slave. Stuck in the mud. Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Mass. John Adams: He was the lawyer for the soldiers who were tried for murder in the Boston Massacre in 1770. analyzed the demands facing the colonists. When the Stamp Act controversy was in effect.

to consider the situation resulting from the Intolerable Acts. hurting middlemen. making Protestants angry. Massachusetts Government Act: Parliament passed this act in 1774 as the second of the Townshend Acts which revoked the Massachusetts charter and restructured the government. Led by Samuel Adams and members of the Sons of Liberty. who. the port would be subject to permanent closure. The American government later refused to pay for the tea and was punished through closure of the port.member committee "To state the Rights of Colonists and of this Province in Particular. The act provided savings for Britain. further angering colonists. disguised as Indians boarded the ships and dumped all the tea into Boston Harbor in protest. Colonial smuggling was very harmful to the East India Company which had held a monopoly on tea. though he found it morally wrong to do so. the Quartering Act. given no legislature. The law also extended Quebec’s 1774 land claims.S. gained control over jurymen. By 1776. the Massachusetts Government Act. 1773. which was against the British tax on tea imported to the colonies The citizens were angry and disallowed three British ships to unload their cargo in Boston. it ordered the U. Lord North: He was a British member of the House of Commons during the 1770s. in turn. The Governor gained control over naming sheriffs. he demanded an early peace with the Americans hoping to put an end to the Revolutionary War. and . Unless they paid for the ruined tea. Americans united in sympathy for Massachusetts. 1774. navy to close Boston Harbor. They imposed a deliberately short deadline to ensure that the harbor would close. he taxed Americans. •BOSTON TEA PARTY: A group of Boston citizens organized a protest on December 16. They issued the Declaration of Rights and Grievances to George III. Also. •FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS. Tea Act: The Parliamentary Tea Act eliminated import duties entering England. but was in turn. The Boston Tea Party was the last straw leading to the passage of these harsh acts as measures against the colony of Massachusetts. By 1779. the group. he realized the war was a lost cause. which would lead to economic difficulties. several laws were composed in 1774 in response to colonial rebellion. 1774: The First Continental Congress convened in Philidelphia in September. 1774. Under the orders of King George III. Quebec Act: Parliament passed this greatly detested law which established RomanCatholicism as the official religion in Quebec. lowering the selling price to consumers. also allowing selling directly to consumers. The four measures passed were to serve as warnings to the rest of the colonies. The number of Massachusetts town meetings were also reduced. and the Administration of Justice Act." This committee became a major political force responsible for the Boston Tea Party. Boston Port Act: Parliament passed this act on April 1. •COERCIVE ACTS: Passed by the British Parliament. Canada’s government was awarded an abundance of powers. They included the Boston Port Act. as one of the Intolerable Acts.

it was an agreement to boycott trade with Britain. and news was dispatched throughout the countryside by Paul Revere and William Dawes." America’s revolt against Great Britain became a revolution. Revolt to Revolution With such events as Lexington and Concord as well as the actions of the Second Continental Congress and America’s faith held in the Declaration of Independence and Thomas Paine’s "Common Sense. 1775 if the situation still hadn’t been resolved. "country ideology": The plain farmer had this mind set in the 1770s due to the corruption of rulers and "court" hangers-on. It warned against the natural tendency of all governments to enfringe on the natural rights to liberty for all its people. Most delegates felt that such a mild measure would not help. 1775. The passage of these resolves marked the willingness of the colonies to defend their rights militarily. They called for non-importation and preparation of local soldiers in the event that the British should have restorted to military force. Galloway Plan: Joseph Galloway called for a union of the colonies and a rearrangement of relations with Parliament. but a shot from an unknown source was fired. the British continued on the Concord only to find that almost all of the weapons and supplies had been moved. APRIL 19. However. This honest wisdom further led to the Quid’s mind set during the time of Jeffersonian Democracy. designed to pressure Britain’s economy. While retreating to Boston. A British officer ordered the Minutemen to lay down their arms. committees of Safety were in charge of enforcing the Continental Association. or non-importation. 1775: American Captain John Parker and seventy Minutemen waited for the British at Lexington. By taking these drastic measures. since matters had already gone too far. were sent to find and destroy a cache of colonial weapons and supplies at Concord. Suffolk Resolves: The first Continental Congress passed this in 1774 in response to the Intolerable Acts. on the night of April 18. Before it was adjourned. William Dawes: Seven hundred British troops. they were fired on by Minutemen from local cities.called for the Continental Association. Paul Revere. on April 19. Afterwards. and agreement to boycott trade with Britain. the delegates agreed to meet in May. Continental Association: Issued by the First Continental Congress. The British then opened fire and charged. they were detected by Americans. Any colony that did not follow those provisions was to be boycotted. . but it was refected by Congress by a narrow margin. the colonies moved away from reconciliation towards war. •LEXINGTON AND CONCORD.

and adopted a Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking up Arms. and had to be dissolved and replaced with legitimate government or just laws. which called for immediate independence. . Combined with the Prohibitory Act. John Locke.•SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS: The Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia on May 10. Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution: Colonial leader Richard Henry Lee presented several formal resolutions to Congress on June 7. then they were not legitimate.S. However. there had been a great deal of affection between the U. Thomas Paine. which declared all colonies in a state of rebellion no longer under his protection. it convinced many Americans that the British had every intention to carry out a full scale war. leading to opposition against taxation. and made their ships liable to seizure. Common Sense: Thomas Paine published this in January 1776. and self-fulfillment. liberty. In the writing of the Declaration of Independence. on August 23. He emphasized the equality of all people and their natural right to justice. They drew up the Olive Branch Petition. and its mother country. he draw upon some of the ideas of natural rights. Americans prepared for an all out war with Britain. •"FIRST AMERICAN REVOLUTION" (POSSITER THESIS): This thesis is the idea that the real American Revolution could not have been made possible had not a First American Revolution paved the way. The Second Continental Congress later evolved into the revolutionary government. Although its arguments were extreme. the Committee on Independence was formed to further accommodate his proposal. colonists were enjoying democracy. natural rights philosophy: Thomas Jefferson was influenced by the natural rights philosophy. due to the protection colonists enjoyed. If the government and laws lacked the consent. George III: After the Battle of Bunker Hill. These resolutions called for independence and a national government. it had much influence in favor of independence. Congress was divided into two main factions: the delegates that were ready to go to war and declare independence. which begged George III to restore peace. After he ignored it. 1775. Second Treatise of Government: John Locke stressed that governments were legitimate only if they rested on the consent of the governed and protected basic rights of their people. As a result. Olive Branch Petition: The Second Continental Congress issued this petition to King George III on July 5. Previously. In December Parliament declared all colonies in a state of rebellion. with colonial governments. pleading with him to intercede with Parliament to restore peace. and those that weren’t ready to go that far. Thus. 1776. the people of Britain wanted retaliation. proclaimed New England in a state of rebellion. The First Revolution consists of the first sparks of discontent. and King George III. he issued a Prohibitory act.

it is believed that this is a statement of faith displays wisdom. guard . Benjamin Franklin. Jennison defended himself on the grounds that Walker was his slave. John Adams. the Superior Court rejected his defense because it was unconstitutional in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The first passage was an exorbitant reference to the English people. well trained. Moreover. Granville Sharp defended several blacks in the case Somerset v. he Declaration of Independence contained a list of grievances placing the blame on George III. 1776 AND THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: Written by the Committee on Independence. •JULY 4. The decision reached was regarded as the end of slavery in England. 1776. the Committee on Independence was formed.Committee on Independence: After Richard Henry Lee’s resolution on June 7. the Preamble to the Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal." and are furthermore allotted unalienable rights by God. America entered a war for independence with Great Britain: the Revolutionary War. a negro. transport troops. War for Independence With the Declaration of Independence as its fuel. Quock Walker case. and Roger Sherman. slavery clause in the Declaration of Independence: Two passages in Jefferson’s original draft were rejected by the Second Continental Congress in 1775. Preamble of the Declaration of Independence: Written by the Committee on Independence in 1776. Advantages/Disadvantages for Britain: The British were well equipped. it asserted certain natural rights: "Life. liberty. The English Revolution of 1688 and Enlightenment writers inspired some of the ideas in the Declaration of independence. sugar produced by black slaves was considered of utmost importance. it’s not a fact revealing truth. and well disciplined. Additionally. They had a strong navy to land troops.Mass: Nathaniel Jennison was accused of assaulting Quock Walker. Although slavery wasn’t forbidden by the constitution of Massachusetts. Members included Thomas Jefferson. Stewart. Somerset Case (in Great Britain): Despite the Enlightenment’s condemnation of black slavery. Its purpose was to draft a statement of reasons for independence which led to the Declaration of Independence. and the pursuit of happiness" and the "Consent of the governed" to revolt against tyrannical governments. Throughout the war. and the second passage was an attack on the slave trade. America developed its first real feelings of nationalism and ended up being victorious in its fight for freedom. Robert Livingston.

he served on the Committee for Independence in 1776.S. TORIES: They were Anglican clergymen. The subordination of women. he served the patriot cause. ethnic and religious minorities. he served on the Committee on Independence. particularly as a leader of fashion and social mediator. "On American Taxation" and "Conciliation with America". and mother of John Quincy Adams. and in two speeches. she was known for her nonpolitical poetry.communication and supply lines. he along . were supporters of the revolution. and also helped persuade the Second Continental Congress to adopt the Declaration of Independence. Also. Advantages/Disadvantages for U.: Many colonists knew how to use firearms. Washington was a highly respected. their naval power was less than that of Britain. which was taken for granted. John Adams: He was one of the first men to propose American independence when the Revolution began. Abigail Adams: Even though she had a scarce formal education. but soon began writing political satires in the early 1770s. •GEORGE WASHINGTON AND THE REVOLUTION: George Washington created the Continental Army that had fought against the British. she challenged the assumption that women were naturally dependent on men. In Congress and in diplomatic missions abroad. In doing so. government officials. Benjamin Franklin and the Revolution: From. they were outnumbered by the U. she challenged the lack of equality for women and was a strong advocate of the Revolutionary War. and they were fighting in their own territory. The majority of ethnic and religious minorities. Moreover. they had a large sum of money which could be used to hire foreign mercenaries. Eighty thousand Loyalists left. she was among the most influential women of her day. Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents. Edmund Burke: In 1766 he was elected to Parliament. and some wealthy merchants comprised the Loyalists.S. leaving their positions for others. However. They felt that war was unnecessary to preserve the rights of the colonists. Moreover. later became the subject of debate. and maintained a respect for the monarchy. He earned a good reputation from the French and Indian War in 1763. experienced commander-in-chief. They had a superior rifle range and accuracy over the smoothbore British muskets. His early military experience taught him the dangers of overconfidence and the necessity of determination when faced with defeat. •LOYALISTS. and he used his prestige to help gain ratification of the Constitution. He urged justice and conciliation towards the American colonies in a pamphlet. however. Mercy Otis Warren: Before the imperial crisis. Also. as a prime minister to Britain. Almost immediately Burke sought repeal of the Stamp Act. However. Pennsylvania. He was a strong influence in persuading the states to partake in the Constitutional Convention. She was the wife of John Adams. About one-fifth to one-third of the population remained loyal to Britain.

he attacked Fort Ticonderoga in April of 1775. John Paul Jones: United States Captain John Paul Jones attacked the British territory.000 men living in the colonies. leaving all but the Tuscaroras and most Oneidas on the side of the British. Hoping to panic the country into creating a regular source of national revenue. mostly New England freemen. he engineered the Newburgh conspiracy along with Alexander Hamilton. the Iroquois in New York were neutral until 1777. Bonhomme Richard. Lafayette: The Marquis de Lafayette’s close connections with the French court in 1778 indicated that Louis XVI might recognize U. boosting American morale and credibility. A fervent patriot. Despite Britain’s naval advantage.000 men prepared for duty at one time. Jones engaged the British frigate. Black Americans in the Revolutionary War: About 5.S. and fought in every major battle of the war. He also led the famous ship. Led by George Washington. the Serapis.with John Adams and John Jay. this army fought in various battles such as Valley Forge. The War at Sea: American captains such as John Paul Jones fought in this War at Sea during the War for Independence against Britain. he later turned into a traitor. Robert Morris: When the United States.000 blacks served in the army and navy. under the Articles of Confederation. Congress turned to him. Continental Army: Composed of colonial men. who raised an army for the same purpose. the Continental Army was quite diminutive at the dawn of the war. was unable to prevent national bankruptcy. He was a surveyor and a frontiersmen who also led successful military operations against Indians allied to the British on the western frontier. along with Ethan Allen. on November 30. This was the most famous naval battle in the war. independence and declare war on Britain. the Serapis. on September 23. but without command. in the North Sea. In the East. 1779. which raised American morale and prestige. when the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy split. signed a peace treaty between the U. After France and the United States entered into an alliance against Great Britain. George Rogers Clark: George Rogers Clark led 175 militia and French volunteers down the Ohio River and took several British forts along the northwestern Ohio Valley in the spring of 1778. 1782. and England. which concerned new American borders. Lafayette returned to France to further the granting of financial and military aid to the Americans. Benedict Arnold: He led one of the Continental Armies into Canada but was defeated. With 400 men. Native Americans in the Revolutionary War: The colonists’ expansion into the Ohio Valley drove the western Indians into allying with the British. Out of the potential 250.S. the Continental Army consisted of less than 10. . in which the war was brought to England’s shores. against Britain’s ship.

1777. Invasion of Canada: U.000 soldiers in the British army during the Revolutionary War. the Serapis.However. and was replaced by Friedrich von Steuben. Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill): Three British generals arrived in Boston in May. The first was a treaty of goodwill and commerce. and granted most favored nation status to one another. Governor Dunmore offered freedom to slaves who joined the British army. in the North Sea. it was a failure in that Montgomery was killed. Because sermons were such a . The second treaty was the French Alliance of 1778. which aimed at the removal of Washington as the leader of the Continental Army.000 troops of the Continental Army.S.S. 1775 to assist General Gage. deserved diplomatic recognition. and surrendered on October 17. Bonhomme Richard. REASONS FOR IT: France entered into two treaties with America. Benedict was shot. which inhibited use of blacks in the South. Conway Cabal: United States Major General Thomas Conway wrote a letter to General Horatio Gates that revealed a military side of the Conway Cabal. Saratoga: British General John Burgoyne felt overwhelmed by a force three times larger than his own. This forced the British to consider whether or not to continue the war. or to accept the rule of the British. in February. A second force led by Benedict Arnold invaded the land by combining an attack on Quebec. The Continental Army marched through Valley Forge while the British army rested miles away in Philadelphia.S. however. he engaged the British frigate. the South feared possible slave revolts.S. After the arrival of Baron Friedrich von Steuben. •FRENCH ALLIANCE OF 1778. 1777. The U. the Continental army emerged from Valley Forge.S. Hessians: They were German mercenaries who were comprised of approximately 30. Valley Forge: American survivors from the Battle at Brandywine Creek marched through Valley Forge in early December. Conway later resigned after subsequent public revelations.000 other Britons and loyalists but were outnumbered by the 220. to be effective if war broke out between Britain and France. and the British succeeded. "Bonhomme Richard" and the "Serapis": John Paul Jones took command of a rebuilt French merchant ship and renamed it the U. On September 23. 1779. After two failed British attacks on Breed’s Hill. victory at the Battle of Saratoga convinced the French that the U. the "black" regiment: They were a group of dignified clergymen who preached against British tyranny and resistance to British authority in 1765. and one-third of the colonial troops were killed or captured. The colonists now had two choices: to commit to a full-scale revolution. This was the most famous naval battle in the American Revolution. General Richard Montgomery forced the British to evacuate Montreal in 1775 and invade Canada. 1778. They fought among 162. the colonists ran out of ammunition.

boundaries (in Treaty of Paris): France and Britain shared much interest in American territory following the War for Independence. She also secured the freedom of the navigation of neutral nations. British Generals: Henry Clinton. could not join because it was fighting in the Revolutionary war. The U. on September 3. inflation became widespread. he was appointed as the new governor of Massachussetts. During his career as commander in chief. John Burgoyne: General Howe planned to set up headquarters in New York in 1776 but was delayed by Washington’s escape to Long Island. In April 1775. •HOW REVOLUTIONARY? : Even though the former colonies were joined under a central government provided by the Articles of Confederation. industry was stimulated. which brought an end to the American Revolution. Treaty of Paris. 1783: Great Britain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris. The French wanted to further continue their residence in Virginia. Though the Revolution was fought in the name of liberty. French and British intrigue over U. On the other hand. The Siege of Yorktown began in September of 1781.S. and ended when Cornwallis realized that he lost three key points around Yorktown and surrendered. which led to further dispute between them and the colonists. restricting the category of contrabands to munitions and essential instruments of war. Lord Cornwallis: Washington. Catherine II. League of Armed Neutrality: The empress of Russia. Yorktown. along with Admiral de Grasse’s French fleet. General Burgoyne was trapped at Saratoga in 1777 and was forced to surrender. nearly every colonist saw public fasting and communication and were infected with the idea that it was a sin not to reject Britain. . slavery still existed. and trade with foreign nations increased.S. Some state constitutions were identical to the English charters that had governed them. social impact of the war: Women did not receive the status implied by the American Revolution’s ideals. General Clinton succeeded Howe as commander in chief in 1778. the idea of the separation of church and state grew stronger. even to ports of belligerents. made a declaration in 1780. he issued the order for British troops to march on to concord and seize American weapons stored up there. However. trapped British General Cornwallis on the Yorktown peninsula.common form of communication. creating a paradox between the slavery and the freedom. slavery virtually ended in the North during the Revolutionary era. General Thomas Gage: He was the commander in chief of Britain’s military forces in America from 1763 to 1775. William Howe. they still acted independently in various areas. toleration of religious minorities became more prevalent. Great Britain recognized the former 13 colonies as the free and self-governing United States of America.

The Articles protected against an oppressive central government. Amending the Articles was a difficult and tedious process.Disestablishment. by placing power within the fragmented states. Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom: Thomas Jefferson worked on the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom after independence was declared. The federal government lacked the power to tax and form a militia without the approval of all the states. •NEW STATE CONSTITUTIONS: It was necessary for the former colonies to assemble new state governments after the fall of British authority in 1775. uniting all the colonies during the war. However. Separation of church and state became more popular. was a confederation. Massachusetts voters insisted that a constitution were made by a convention rather than the legislature. VA) to grow and dominate the new nation. mediate disputes between states. These Articles notably left out both and executive and judicial branch. and provided Congress no power to tax or regulate commerce. Maryland. because the amendment would have to be accepted by each state in order to be passed. •STRENGTHS OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION: The thirteen states established a permanent government in 1781 in the form of a confederation which included a congress that represented the states and had the power to conduct Indian and foreign affairs. •WEAKNESSES OF THE ARTCILES OF CONFEDERATION: The government established in 1781. which was engineered by Alexander Hamilton and Robert Morris. . such as a monarchy or oligarchy. instead equalizing the power of the states and opening the union up for expansion. whose pay was overdue. making it harder for interstate commerce to occur. and establish a standard for weights and measures. the army. the Articles of Confederation established a singlechamber national Congress elected by state legislatures. Articles of Confederation Drafted in 1796 by John Dickinson. It became a law in 1786. the Articles established states’ rights and also provided for American independence. although the constitutions ranged from extremely democratic models to unicameral legislatures. in which each state held only one vote. each state was its own powerful entity and had its own tariffs and currencies. Newburgh conspiracy: The new nation under the Articles of Confederation was in a financial crisis. Maryland did not want big states (NY. Through the Newburgh Conspiracy. cession of western land claims: Maryland waited to agree to the new government until lands north of the Ohio River were turned over to the United States in 1779. and was the model for the clause in the First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of religion. in hopes of implicitly making it superior to the legislatures. Most state constitutions included a bill of rights. threatened to force the states into surrendering more power to the national government.

forced the farmers to revolt. setting a precedent for the public education system in the United States. Proposed Jay-Gardoqui Treaty. The existence of slavery could be determined by popular sovereignty in these territories. Northwest Ordinance.S. The result was an increase in tension between the North and South. 1785: John Jay tried to negotiate with Spain for trading rights in New Orleans in 1785. and a short growing season that kept crop yields low. the U. thus fueling the North-South conflict. It established that the settlement of a town would be six square miles and would contain land set aside for schools. the delegates decided that a convention of all states should be held the year after in order to amend the Articles of Confederation. Shays’ Rebellion: A group of Massachusetts farmers led by Daniel Shays protested after taxes were raised to pay for Revolutionary debts in 1786. Maryland in 1786. The high taxes. Shays’ rebellion occurred ultimately because of this depression The Constitution . In exchange. Protesting in front of Independence Hall. the tightening of credit. It applied to the lands north of the Ohio River which had been established as the Northwest Territory. 1783. the rebels were successful in moving the government away from Philadelphia. Because there was little representation. Annapolis Convention. in an effort to solve the problems of interstate commerce. 1783: Eighty soldiers marched from Lancaster to Philadelphia to obtain justice from the state government and Congress on June 17. Land Ordinance of 1785: Congress enacted this law to set a uniform procedure for surveying land in 1785. the British did not leave their posts in an effort to preserve both the flourishing fur trade and the improving relations with the Native Americans. which housed Congress and the state government. The causes included high taxes imposed to finance the war debt. Northwest Posts: After the Revolutionary war. but returned with a treaty that renounced Spanish claims to southwestern lands and opened Spanish markets to eastern merchants. gave up Mississippi trading rights. problems which culminated in the War of 1812.Pennsylvania militia routs Congress. combined with the depression that hit after British markets were lost. This showed Britain’s unwillingness to give up and the weakness of the American government. 1786: A group of delegates from five states met in Annapolis. 1787: Congress passed this law to define the steps for the formation and admission of states into the Union in 1787. 1780’s depression: The first major depression of the American states occurred after the Revolutionary War in New England.

The convention ultimately scrapped the Articles and came up with the much more effective Constitution.After the Revolutionary War. He also assisted in the writing of the "Federalist Papers" in order to persuade delegates who were fearful of centralized power. unifying all the states under a powerful federal government. this compromise was introduced by the Connecticut delegation in 1788. The Spirit of Laws: Montesquieu was a French writer whose writings helped bring about the French Revolution. Benjamin Franklin: At the Philadelphia Convention in 1788. and a House of Representatives with representation according to population. His book "The Spirit of the Laws. examines types of government and how each evolves through factors such as location and climate. and contained both the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan." written in 1748. whose purpose was to rewrite the Articles. the delegates decided to begin again. resulting in the Philadelphia Convention. Hamilton wrote the "Federalist Papers. However. •GREAT COMPROMISE: Also called the Connecticut compromise. George Washington. Delegates: Alexander Hamilton. The delegates." along with John Jay. "Father of the Constitution": Madison drafted the Virginia Plan of national government that became the basis for its bicameral structure in 1788. He believed in separate and balanced branches of government. instead of submitting the Articles for revision. in which various compromises were made to pacify sectional differences. in defense of the Constitution. NJ Plan: The Virginia Plan called for an executive branch with two houses of Congress which were both based on population. Montesquieu. These ideas generally stated that all men should submit to absolute supremacy. Hamilton. George Washington presided over the convention while he and Franklin helped in mediating heated debates. VA Plan. called for a legislature with equal representation and increased powers for the national government. influencing the idea of sovereignty in the United States. The plan resolved the dilemma of using only one of the two self serving documents in the Constitution. the problems with the Articles of Confederation became increasingly obvious. •PHILADELPHIA CONVENTION: A congressional convention met in Philadelphia to amend the Articles of Confederation in 1788. as a commentary on his doctrine of sovereignty. His philosophies represented a reaction against the chaotic Reformation of the seventeenth century. and Franklin. which included Madison. a document that compromised conflicting interests. The New Jersey Plan. . It provided for a presidency. believed that there should be checks and balances in the government to give each branch equal amounts of power. introduced by William Patterson. James Madison. a senate with states represented with two senators each. resulting in the drafting of a new frame of government outlined in the Constitution. Hobbes: Thomas Hobbes wrote Leviathan in 1651.

which lessened the power of the voting south by making the votes of three slaves equal that of five white votes. procedures for amendments: To amend the Constitution. his critics: Beard criticized the Constitution in his "Economic Interpretation of the Constitution" in 1913. One dealt with the structure of Congress. after 1808. For the amendment to be ratified. They thought that a balance would be impossible to reach and that the new government would ultimately ruin the states. three-fourths have to approve the bill. Fiske argues that the Constitution had saved the nation from imminent interstate conflict. who believed in the Constitution’s democratic purpose. Beard thesis. the opponents thought that the new government would ultimately ruin the states. . they opposed it because it failed to balance power between the national and state governments. an American historian and philosopher. the Great Compromise. This system helps to keep all three branches of the government in check and maintain equal amounts of power.Checks and balances—examples: Examples of checks and balances in the Constitution are the congressional power to impeach the president and the presidential power to appoint his cabinet. In the book. and lastly Congress’ option to ban the slave trade in Washington D. the other dealt with slavery and the three-fifths clause. Both aided in easing the problems that arose because of the imbalance of power between states in the Articles of Confederation. and Madison. the idea surfaces in three places in the Constitution: the three-fifths clause. •Slavery and the constitution: slave trade. the Federalist Papers. North-South Compromises: There are two main North-South compromises in the Constitution. who called themselves the Federalists. supporters of the Constitution: The supporters of the Constitution. they persuaded many of its opponents to ratify it through their speeches. Fugitive Slave law: Although the word "slavery" was not used in the Constitution. Unlike his opponents. These men became important in the ratification process of the Constitution. Jay. wrote The Critical Period of American History. Beard argues that it was written to give them economic advantages that would stem from the stability of the economy. opponents of the Constitution: The opponents of the Constitution were called the Antifederalists. Antifederalists: Antifederalists were opponents of the Constitution who thought that it failed to balance power between the national and state governments. three-fifths clause. In order to protect the United States and its citizens. The Critical Period of American History: John Fiske. Fiske. including Hamilton. which captured and returned runaway slaves who fled into free territories. Believing that a balance was impossible to reach. a bill must first be proposed by either two-thirds of both houses or each state conventions. this process made it difficult to alter the Constitution without valid reason. the Fugitive Slave Law. C. 1783-1789 in 1788. and other propaganda.

in the Federalist number ten. These reserved powers were the result of flexibility in the Constitution to adapt over time.George Mason. The delegated powers of Congress included the ability to tax. strict interpretation of the Constitution: The strict interpretation of the constitution meant that it was to be followed exactly to the word. Hamilton believed in a loose interpretation. such as Sam Adams. or that powers implied within the Constitution should be included in the new government to fit changes over time. He also argued that the Constitution would prevent the formation of national factions and parties. Madison: The Federalist papers were written by Jay. and shaped the American philosophy of the government. the Constitution was written to the advantage of the elite in the United States. Some states refused to ratify the Constitution until 1791. Jay. and Madison in 1788. They explained that the Constitution would protect the minority’s rights but would not make them too powerful." •The Federalist Papers. implied powers. during the Philadelphia Convention as a response to Antifederalist objections to the Constitution. The founding fathers did not believe in total democracy. declare war and sustain an army. Hamilton. a philosophy adopted by Jefferson. and so used state legislatures and the electoral college to elect senators and the president. he would not sign it. The eighty-five newspaper essays offered a glimpse of the framers’ intentions in designing the Constitution. Our founding fathers . rejected the Antifederalist argument that establishing a republic in United States would lead to a struggle for power. •RESERVED AND DELEGATED POWERS: Delegated powers were specifically enumerated rights granted to Congress and the President. Troubled by its power and its failure to limit slavery or contain a bill of rights. loose. Undemocratic Elements in the Constitution: According to Charles Beard. Flexibility in the Constitution: The flexibility in the Constitution enabled it to adapt over time. and affected the decision in New York. necessary and proper clause: An implied power is one not granted in a job description. The Federalist. respectively. Hamilton. yet is meant to be taken. where Hamilton won the fight using the "Federalist Papers. Bill of Rights: Mason was a delegate at the Constitutional Convention and helped draft the Constitution. there have only been sixteen amendments since 1791. or mob rule. issue currency. The elastic clause was included into the Constitution to allow flexibility. elastic clause. defeating Mason and Henry. when a bill of rights was added to the Constitution. The ratification fights: Critics. were successfully won over by the Federalists in Massachusetts. All powers not stated specifically in the Constitution were reserved to the states as stated in the Tenth Amendment. Congress was granted the right to make all laws which they deemed necessary and proper thus expanding their power. borrow money. number 10: Madison. The fight in Virginia ended after the addition of the Bill of Rights.

and to beware of impending bipartisanship. the age requirement was higher. the British imposed new embargoes and tariffs on the United States. attempted to restore American credit by advocating a perpetual debt. Post Revolutionary America—West: In the late eighteenth century. and. suggesting few laws to Congress. As a result the Senate was seen as more of an elitist institution while the House was viewed as reflective of the common people. George Washington played a largely passive role. electors could elect a presidential candidate without considering the popular vote and elections could be won without a majority in the popular vote.used vague language. •President George Washington: George Washington was elected president in 1788 and again in 1792. despite the risk of violence presented by Indians and the British in their Northwest posts. and rebellion. . as secretary of the treasury. the North’s efforts at postwar recovery was impeded by the depression of the 1780s. and so Supreme Court interpretations of the Constitution changed over time. Washington’s two terms set the precedent for being President of the United States. land owning class. Washington and Hamilton As the first president of the newly formed United States. It had diversified its crops and exported them at prewar levels. took advantage of Washington’s reluctance to be involved with domestic issues. the Elastic clause and the reserved powers are examples of this ambiguity. attempting to reassure the public he was above favoritism and sectional interests. and the term limits were six years as opposed to two for the House of Representatives. Electoral College: In order to protect the interests of the elite. Congress aided the expansion with the Land and Northwest Ordinances Post Revolutionary America—South: Many of the southern citizens had bought land in the west and watched the price of land eagerly. masses of people had moved into the trans-Appalachian frontier to escape post-revolutionary depression. overpopulation. appointing two of the ablest men into high positions of responsibility into his cabinet. on the other hand. negatively affected by independence. the framers of the Constitution added the electoral college as a safeguard against the majority opinion. the south had recovered from the war. He tended to shy away from the affairs of Congress and also formed the first Presidential cabinet. Manufacturing and merchant marine industries were also. Aside from the unstable land speculation. Upper and Lower House: The senate was seen as the upper house because there were less delegates. As a result. remain isolationist. His farewell address cautioned the American people to stay out of international affairs. Alexander Hamilton. Post Revolutionary America—North: Plagued by high taxes.

and was the Secretary of War under the Articles of Confederation. They were burdened with filling in the holes of the judiciary system left by the Constitution. Secretary of State Jefferson: As Secretary of State for Washington’s first term. . proposals. in which the courts varied from state to state. He humbly served two terms and appointed the first cabinet. and South Carolina from harsh taxes. New Jersey. In 1790. reasons for it: Alexander Hamilton wrote to Congress a Report on Public Credit which proposed a way in which the national and foreign debts could be funded and how the federal government would take charge of the debts left by states from the resolution in 1790. Secretary of War Knox: Henry Knox was the Secretary of War from 1789-1794. and the Dutch Republic. was in command of the West Point fortress in New York. Prior to his term as Vice President. and others working in the port cities. before which he was the head of the Virginia delegation at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and submitted the Virginia Plan. Washington stayed out of Congress’ way and supported the United States’ isolationist stance in world affairs. He wanted a national bank and encouraged manufacturing through financial government protection. •Hamilton’s program: ideas. Attorney General Randolph: Edmund Jennings Randolph was the Attorney General under the Washington Administration from 1789-1794. The plans attempted to end wartime debt problems. This plan. should immediately repay its foreign debt.Washington’s Definition of the Presidency: George Washington set the precedent for being the President of the United States. Vice President John Adams: Because he ran second to George Washington in the elections of 1788 and 1792. along with his other plans to try to manipulate the European countries. in an effort to create a federal-court system and replace the old system. 1789: The Congress passed the Judiciary Act in 1789. when the nation’s economy was in shambles. limiting himself to presiding over the senate. the first one under the United States Constitution. he became the nation’s first Vice President. in 1783. Thomas Jefferson wanted to establish reciprocal trade agreements with European nations and deny it to the British. he fought in major Revolutionary battles. Judiciary Act. He resigned after the Citizen Genet scandal. he submitted to Congress a Report of the Public Credit that provided for the payments of all debts assumed during the war. Britain. Hamilton’s Legacy: Hamilton’s devices for restoring the credit of the nation led to great monetary gains for merchants. Prior to this. he was a diplomat to European nations such as France.S. and also believed that the U. The government’s takeover of state debts freed those of New England. Hamilton believed that constant deficit was necessary to stimulate the nation’s economy. speculators. Secretary of Treasury Hamilton: Hamilton was appointed in 1789. died in Congress.

Indian Decline: The frontier warfare during the post-revolutionary era combined with the continuing penetration of western ways into Indian culture caused severe reductions in Indian population and territory. The area was to be named the District of Columbia. thus building national wealth and attracting foreigners. for economic and political reasons. and masterfully architecture buildings. to manufacture earthenware. location of the capital: logrolling. the bank was established in Philadelphia in 1791. he estimated that the states held debts of over 25 million dollars. D.: The nation’s capital was originally located in New York. after Christopher Columbus.5%. Residence Act: Determined that a ten mile square area for the capital of the United States would be chosen along the Potomac River along the Virginia-Maryland boarder. and other products in their home in order to avoid importation.C. the city consisted of beautiful walkways. An increasing amount of hatred towards the "redskins" further encouraged the violence towards Indians. by Parliament was one which taxed all domestic distilled spirits. excise taxes: A fixed charge on items of consumption. Report on Public Credit: Hamilton submitted his report to Congress in 1790. the tariff succeeded in raising much needed funds for Congress Bank of the U. but later was transferred to Washington D. in his Report on Public Credit.S. Originally planned by Charles L’Enfant. glass. With a duty of 8. tree lined streets.C. Anger towards this excise tax led directly to the Whiskey Rebellion. The bank successfully established a national currency. state debt.. .Tariff of 1789: A revenue raising tariff enacted by Congress. national debt. the report suggested that protective tariffs on imports from foreign lands would lead Americans to produce more in their homelands. it encouraged the people of the U. On top of that. and the rest to Americans.: Chartered by the newly formed federal government. and was selected by George Washington. and was permitted by the government to issue legal tender bank notes that could be exchanged for gold. The states were also in debt after borrowing heavily from the government. The first excise tax placed upon the United States in 1791.S. by Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton. usually used for revenue raising. but the charter ended in 1811. hoping to seize it as an opportunity to rebuild the country’s credit base. foreign debt: National debt accumulated by the US during the Revolutionary war continued to plague Americans. wanted to pay off foreign debt immediately and then through tariffs repay the national debt. Report on Manufacturers: Presented to Congress in 1791. He reported that the US was 54 million dollars in debt: 12 million to foreigners.

the undeclared conflict between the two nations lasted from 1798 to 1800. would only negotiate for a lend of $10 million to the French government. and mobs burned homes of excise inspectors. undeclared naval war with France: Otherwise known as the Quasi-War. 1793. French Alliance of 1778: Alliance made between France and the United Sates during America’s civil war in 1778. Citizen Genet: Sent to the United States by the French in 1793 to find soldiers to attack British ships and conquer the territories held by the Spanish. on which the city is now based. riots were conducted. In the conflict. in 1791.S. British seizure of American ships: The Privy Council issued a secret order on November 6. Benjamin Banneker: Pierre Charles L’Enfant was the French architect who. the Neutrality Proclamation stated that the United States would remain a neutral faction in the war with France against Britain and Spain despite heavy French pressures to join their forces. they seized over 250 American ships which were conducting trade with the islands. Neutrality Proclamation: Issued by President George Washington on April 22. Edmund Genet founded the American Foreign Legion despite Washington’s April 22 proclamation of American neutrality. Y. the United States managed to capture ninety-three French ships while France captured just one U. Whiskey Rebellion: An organized resistance in 1794. the hunger of the workers. by President Washington to assist L’Enfant in surveying the land where the capital city was to be built. but most were released. they were told by the French foreign minister Talleyrand that the agents X. to the excise tax on whiskey in which federal revenue officials were tarred and feathered. 1793. In this decision. Caused by the inability of the ruling class and clergy to solve the states problems. Many Americans felt the war to be a violation of their neutrality. Talleyrand: When a commission was sent to France in 1797 in order to negotiate problems between the two countries. Benjamin Banneker was appointed in 1791. three officials who did not take the process seriously. The federal militia captured many of the protesters. and therefore to bear arms or participate in the war.. Z. The alliance was used to convince French citizens living in United States territory to become citizens of American. the taxation of the poor. XYZ Affair. and the American Revolution. . to confiscate any foreign ships trading with French Caribbean islands.C. drew the plans for the nations capital in Washington D. French Revolution: The revolution was a period consisting of social and political upheaval from 1789-1799. it led to the establishment of the First Republic and the end of the monarchy. ship.Major L’Enfant.

Anthony Wayne defeated a coalition of Native American tribes as the major general and commander in chief of the troops. Spanish intrigue in the Southwest: Spain attempted. camps. who they then forcibly placed back into their own navy.S. right of deposit at New Orleans: Ratified in 1796. It did not resolve the British West Indies trade dispute.-French boundary. appointed a committee to set up the U.Royal Navy: They navy of the British empire.S. The battle took place around present day Toledo and led to the Treaty of Greenville which opened up the Northwest to American settlers. Wayne was a General during the American Revolution. The territory had formerly only been inhabited by Indians. Pinckney’s Treaty. who were a neutral party. British prize courts. He began his service with the Pennsylvania militia. so therefore the treaty between the two races was an important one. James Wilkinson: An American soldier who participated in the American Revolution and the War of 1812. . in many cases. and named a commission to determine how much the British should pay for illegally seizing American ships. The treaty served to end white-Indian hostilities for sixteen years. Treaty of Greenville. to detach the West from the United States. stated that neutrals could not engage in wartime trade with a country if they were not permitted to trade with that country at times of peace. which was drafted in 1795. Battle of Fallen Timbers: At the Battle of Fallen Timbers. to end U. the Royal Navy began to inspect American ships in 1793 for suspected defects of the British Navy. Wilkinson was the man who reported Burr’s conspiracy to access Louisiana to President Jefferson. These bold actions commonly referred to as impressment. and to discourage Indian attacks on western settlers. Spain promised to recognize the thirty-first parallel. Washington’s attempts at a failed alliance with the Creek Indians to expand into their lands only led to further conflicts between America and Spain. 1795: This treaty. the treaty evacuated British posts in the West. hoping to further expand their territory into the vast land. the treaty gave westerners the right to access the world markets duty-free through the Mississippi River. further strengthened hostilities between the two countries. "Rule of 1756": The French opened colonial trade to the Dutch. in 1794. Jay’s Treaty: Negotiated between the United States and France in 1794. He served as Secretary to the Board of War and was a brigadier general under Anthony Wayne. "Mad" Anthony Wayne: Known as Mad Anthony due to his quick temper and his bravery. He participated in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown and distinguished himself in the Battle of Monmouth. opened the Northwest Territory to settlement by white United States citizens. in response.

Jefferson was made Vice-president. as they had not been before. Adams was victorious in the election. whose ideology claimed that the Federalists had become a party geared toward enriching the wealthy at the expense of the poor. The Tripolitans had seized U. Their admission was spurred by the hope that they would then become completely loyal to the Union. Its leaders included Alexander Hamilton. Ky. paid $60. Washington’s farewell address asked the citizens of the United States to avoid involvement in political problems between foreign nations. as European nations already had. the DemocraticRepublican party was created by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in opposition to . the United States political system had become bipartisan.000 to free Americans caught captive. Tripolitan War: From 1801-1805. It urged for a stronger national government to take shape after 1781. The split in the Federalist party became official with Jefferson’s resignation from Washington’s cabinet in 1793. James Madison. refusal to pay in increase in the tribute paid to the pasha of Tripoli. Vice-president Jefferson: Jefferson was supported by the Republicans. that gave them immunity from these attacks. •Federalists: The Federalist party was the starting point of the movement to draft and later ratify the new Constitution. the Barbary pirates began to raid the ships of the United States. the war was a battle between the North African state Tripoli and the United States. created Jay’s Treaty and also the Alien and Sedition Acts. John Jay. Kentucky. Washington’s Farewell Address: In his realization of the important role that he had take in developing the role of the president of the United States. upon which he formed the Republicans. Federalists and Republicans By the election of 1796.Barbary Pirates: Following the American Revolution. while Adams was supported by the Federalists. Under Hamilton. new states: Vt. and Tennessee were all admitted into the United States between 1791 and 1796 by the federal government. as a constitutional law stated that the candidate with the second highest number of electoral votes got that position.S. The United States therefore formed treaties with Morocco. largely a result of the disagreements over Hamilton’s programs and foreign policies. ships in the U. the demand for payment was ended and the U. Tripoli.S.S. and George Washington rose to power between 1789-1801. •Democratic-Republicans: The first political party in the United States. In the end. and Tunis. election of 1796: President Adams. the Federalists solved the problem of revolutionary debt. Tenn: Vermont.

as it gave membership to descendants. while the "High Federalists. The Federalists wanted to nominate Adams. the Doctrine of Nullification stated that any federal laws considered by the people to be "objectionable" may be nullified by the states. in which Republicans were united by wealth rather then by status. rebelled against the government after it released debtors and citizens who did not pay taxes. denounced his candidacy. •Second Great Awakening: Occurring mainly in the frontier states. The Alien Enemies Act allowed the President to export aliens during times of war and the Sedition Act made it a criminal offense to plot against government. Society of the Cincinnati: A post-war organization of veteran officers from the Continental Army. Convention of 1800: The Federalist party split into two factions during the Convention of 1800. It arose to power in the 1790s and opposed the Federalist party. and the Kentucky Resolution stated that federal government could not extend powers outside of constitutionally granted powers." or open air revivals which lasted for weeks at a time where revivalists spoke of the second coming of . while advocating states rights and an agricultural society. as the party was undecided as to who their presidential candidate should be. in 1799. doctrine of nullification: A group of Kentucky Resolutions adopted in 1799. Fries Rebellion: Pennsylvanian German farmers. the Society of the Cincinnati was feared by many because its charter had the possibility of becoming a hereditary aristocracy. This rebellion alerted those in power to the general disgruntlement of much of the nation. as well as believed that those with talent and ambition should not forget their dreams. the Second Great Awakening began in the 1790s and was characterized by "camp meetings. the Neutralization Act said residence must remain in the United States for five years before becoming naturalized while the Alien Act allowed the exportation of any alien believed to be a threat to national security. These acts were criticized because they oppressed the people’s First Amendment rights. This is best exemplified by the Philadelphia Democratic Society. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: Written by Jefferson and Madison in protest to the Alien and Sedition Acts. •Alien and Sedition Acts: In 1798. The party expressed sympathy towards the French Revolution but opposed close ties with the British." led by Alexander Hamilton. the Virginia Resolution stated that states possessed the right to intervene in unconstitutional acts in government. Democratic Societies: An organization in which the wealthy are on a level of equality with the poor.the views of Alexander Hamilton. This action infuriated the farmers because the money was needed to fund the expansion of the nation’s army. The passage of these resolutions proved the probability of upcoming violent disagreements of how the law should be interpreted.

when states dropped restrictions on freedom of movement. Logan Act: Enacted in 1795 by the legislative assembly. By 1796. but also the gospel of free will. Legal equality for free blacks: These measures first appeared in the 1780s and 1790s. This act led to the establishment of school systems throughout the U. Fugitive Slave Law: Enacted by congress in 1793. Thirty five slaves were executed by a swift state militia. a system consisting schools for the general public. who in 1790 signed a peace treaty with the United States that allowed whites to occupy lands in the Georgia piedmont. all but three states allowed blacks voting rights. In 1786. but spared the rest of the Creek lands from white settlement. . an especially prominent preacher of the time. Charles Wilson Peale: As a portrait painter of the Federalist period. the Logan Act allowed city councils the power to establish. Jeffersonian Democracy Jefersonian Democracy refers to the term of office of Thomas Jefferson which marks the end of Federalist control of American politics. A milder agrarian aristocracy replaced a commercial aristocracy. and allowed them to enroll in the state militia. the law required judges to give a slave back to its owner or his representative if caught after running away. Gabriel’s Rebellion: Led by Gabriel Prosser in August 1800. Philadelphia of portraits and helped to found the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1805. the rebellion broke out near Richmond.S. Alexander McGillivray: The leader of the Creek Indians. His three styles of portrait painting: the "Vaughan" half-length. The rebellion increased tensions between the North and the South. Peale is best known for his fourteen portraits of George Washington. the "Lansdowne" full-length. Virginia when 1. Peale began a museum of parts of nature in Independence Hall. and the "Athenaeum" head have often been mimicked. but whites still feared what many occur in the future with slave uprisings.000 slaves marched to the capital. as well as to support and to regulate. preached not only the second coming of Jesus. Charles Finney. as well as stripped slaves of the right to trial by jury or presentation of evidence of freedom. which lead to a greater democratic power commonly seen in the ideals of Jacksonian democracy. This law indicated tightening racial tensions. thereby setting an example of democratic simplicity. Gilbert Stuart: An American painter who is particularly well known for his many portraits of wartime hero and President George Washington. protected the property of blacks.Jesus. He received a large bribe for signing the treaty.

70 percent of the national revenue was applied to reducing the national debt as well. Stephen Decatur in 1805. but with the election of 1800. for shipping access. of the Constitution. though purchasing the territory . not for expansionism. Jefferson was elected as president. Gallatin was the genius behind the public debt cut and creating a large surplus of funds. though a Constitutional violation. in agreement to Article II. thus creating a tie and throwing the presidential election into the House of Representatives. to which the US had been paying tribute. where some of the problems needed to be fixed. Midnight judges: Federalists dominated the government. and was later acquitted by the Senate. Treaty of San Ildefonso: Treaty on October 1. seeing it as detrimental to the national economy. in which he sought to restore the country to the liberty and tranquillity it had known before Alexander Hamilton’s economic program and John Adams’s Alien and Sedition Acts. Jefferson obtained the territory for $15 million. 1800). Jefferson’s goal to purchase the territory was the great port of New Orleans. led by Lieut. Justice Samuel Chase: Associate justice of the Supreme Court and signer of the Declaration of Independence. 1800.) Revolution of 1800: Described by Jefferson in the his election of 1800. •Election of 1800: Jefferson and fellow Republican Aaron Burr. and the navy. Threat of French expansion was the result of Jefferson’s goal to obtain the territory. Jefferson purchased the Louisiana territory from the French. as well as the threat of French invasion. With Hamilton’s coercion. •JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY: Jefferson’s administration severely cut naval and military operations. which resulted in US ships being captured. The national debt. Chase was defended strongly. who ran for Vicepresidency in the same year. He opposed war. (The Constitution was amended to require separate votes for each position. land West of the Mississippi. which was becoming a foremost military power. On this date he appointed last-minute judges to keep the judiciary in the Federalists hands. with Burr as Vice-president. and was impeached for his criticism of President Jefferson. Jefferson drove them out. in which Spain ceded the Louisiana territory to France. but the opportunities of trade by New Orleans as a sea port. since 1784. received an equal number of electoral votes.Jeffersonian placed more emphasis in the common man and brought moreidealism into the government. Most importantly. The US refused to pay in 1801. but the US captured the town of Derna. and was ratified as a treaty by the Senate. Tripolitan War: (1802-5) War between the United States and the North African state of Tripoli. •LOUISIANA PURCHASE: When France obtained the territory from Spain. to end the war. resulting in Adams’s last day in office (December 12. by using the Judiciary Act of 1801. he was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1791 by Washington. most internal taxes. Section 2.

over the Continental Divide. which was to tighten his so-called Continental System. Napoleon sent troops to crush the Haitians. again. had turned to the House of Representatives for the decision of the next president Burr’s election in 1804. was subject to seizure by France. Toussaint L’Ouverture: Haitian general on the island of Santo-Domingo. Lewis and Clark: They explored the vast territory west of the Mississippi River by the US. and any ship attempting to enter or leave a British port would be seized by France. The Decree was answered with another Orders in Council. •LOUISIANA PURCHASE: Most Federalists opposed the Louisiana Purchase on the grounds that it would decrease the relative importance of their strongholds on the eastern seaboard. impressment: Arbitrary seizure of goods or individuals by a government or its agents for public services. the British followed the Essex decision with the first of several trade regulations. Berlin Decree. and Toussaint was defeated. and was acquitted on Sept. which established a blockade of part of the continent of Europe and prohibited trade with France. and established relations with Indian inhabitants. 1807. Orders in Council: In May 1806.was Constitutionally illegal and going beyond his presidential rights. From this territory became 14 new state governments. saw no reason to hand the Federalists an issue by dallying over ratification of the treaty made to obtain the territory. where Hamilton was killed. where he was imprisoned and died in France. in which the French proclaimed a blockade of the British isles. with the Milan Decree. who succeeded in liberating the island from France in 1801. where Hamilton opposed him. and intended to invade the Spanish territory and establish a separate republic in the Southwest. and reached the Pacific in November 1805. and accused of conspiracy. The decree proclaimed that any vessel that submitted to British regulations or allowed itself to be searched by the Royal Navy. when they where commissioned by Jefferson. a Republican. after a six-month trial in Richmond. 1807: Napoleon replied to the continuous British opposition. unless American vessels went to British ports for licenses for trade. Milan Decree. He was arrested and indicted for treason. They cataloged plants and animals. Used by British to regain deserters from the Royal Navy to American . They reached the Rockies. and becoming president for life of the country. 1806: Was created in response to the Orders in Council by the British. Hamilton-Burr duel: Election of 1800 Between Jefferson and Burr. 1802. in which all ships must come to England for licenses of trade. for the governor of NY State. or seize land in Spanish America. Virginia. Dueled Hamilton on July 11. 1804. Jefferson. Burr treason trial: Burr purchased land in the newly acquired Louisiana territory. known as the Orders in Council. 1.

He opposed any surrender of Native American land to whites. especially liquor. Barron relented and the men were seized. and tried with his brother. by bribing either the England or France in repealing their restrictions on neutral shipping. Non-Intercourse Act: The Non-Intercourse Act of March 1. Jefferson imposed the embargo instead of open warfare. James Barron. and reactivated American commerce with all countries except the warring French and the British. who ever obliged. He was defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. 2. when British vessels boarded and obtained their crew from the high paying American ships. Thus creating a war spirit by several young congressman elected in 1810. This group in the House of Representatives. who fought against the United States expansion into the Midwest. The Embargo Act was in response to the restrictive measure imposed on American neutrality by France and Britain. who where at war with each other. the US would halt all commerce with the other nation. and the French accepted the United States merchant marine neutrality by the . Chesapeake-Leopard affair: In 1807 the US Chesapeake was stopped in the midAtlantic by the British Leopard. pressuring the needs for American goods. who wanted more aggressive policies toward the hostile British and French. which was designed to discourage the British and the French from interfering with US commerce. and prohibited United States vessels from trading with European nations during the Napoleonic War. •EMBARGO OF 1807: This law was passed in December 1807 over Federalist opposition. This was one of the reasons for the War of 1812. Macon’s Bill No. To pressure the nations to respect the neutral rights of the US and to demonstrate the value of trade with the US." War against Great Britain: For the most part. refused. in which the Chesapeake’s commanding officer. The British demanded the return and surrender of four deserters from the royal navy.vessels during 1790 to 1812." in uniting the tribes from American customs. The US also agreed to resume trade with the first nation of the two. 2: Nathaniel Macon created the Macon’s Bill No. led by Henry Clay preferred war to the "ignominious peace. the Napoleon Wars were played out in Europe. War Hawks: A group of militants in Madison’s Democratic-Republican party. repealed the Embargo Act. The young congressman known as War Hawks pushed Madison into a struggle for which the country was not prepared and which ended without victory. War of 1812 The war of 1812 was one which the Americans were not prepared to fight. Tenskwatawa the "Prophet. in May 1810. Tecumseh: A Shawnee leader. 1809. who would cease violating neutral rights. resulting in British attack.

continuing British blockade. Essex Junto: The Essex Junto was a name given to the extreme nationalist wing. Hatred of the British persisted. with the constant violations of neutrality on the seas and in the Great Lakes. led by Timothy Pickering. encounters were with single-ship battles. Gallatin also was a part in the negotiations of the Treaty of Ghent. and in the same year.Berlin and Milan Decrees. as well as Clay. The convention on December 14. However. Francis Scott Key: During the War of 1812 on September 13-14. and there was an increased sense of national purpose and awareness. the British wanted neutral Indian buffer states in the American Northwest and wanted to revise both the AmericanCanadian boundary. Even more so. for their lack of support for commercial and diplomatic policies of Jefferson and Madison. Rising Indian opposition to American expansion in the Northwest and Southwest was broken. Theophilus Parsons. was their opposition to Jefferson and Madison’s trade programs of neutrality and trade. This victory on January 8. Naval Battles in the War of 1812: The beginning of the War of 1812. The frigate Constitution defeated the Guerriere in August 1812. Fort McHenry withstood a 25-hour bombardment by the British Vice-Admiral Alexander Cochane and his fleet. 1814 was to oppose the war. leaving an idea of disloyalty to use against them. and several of the Lowell family of merchants and industrialists in New England. which was hurting American industries and commerce. •Results of the War of 1812: After the treaty of Ghent. 1815 occurred after the peace treaty that ended the war. Henry Clay. •HARTFORD CONVENTION: The Hartford Convention of 1814 damaged the Federalists with its resolutions to the idea o secession. Jackson’s victory at New Orleans: Jackson. •FEDERALIST OPPOSITION TO THE WAR OF 1812: The Federalist party were deeply opposed to the war. It opposed the Embargo act and the War of 1812. with hope of ending the war of 1812. which was composed mainly of veterans." by Francis Scott Key when he saw the flag still standing. Fort McHenry. during the War of 1812. for example the Non-intercourse act. Senator George Cabot. captured New Orleans with a small army against the British army. the Chesapeake lost to the Shannon. and prohibit congress from the embargo. . The recommendation of the convention was to have an amendment to the Constitution that would grant taxation and representation in each state. the Untied States seized the British frigate Macedonian. Gallatin. and treaty negotiations: Adams drafted the Monroe Doctrine and arranged for the Treaty of Ghent that ended the War of 1812. The Treaty of Ghent secured US maritime rights and peace around Europe and the Americas. which prompted the famous "Star-spangled Banner.

steamships: Fulton was an artist turned inventor. beginning in the 1830s. railroads. The first true clipper ship. he and his partner. National Road( Cumberland Road ): The National Road was a highway across America. and increase productivity. roads. but this was . Stretching 363 miles from Albany to Buffalo. was built by New York beginning 1817. Griffiths. transportation revolution: The transportation revolution was the period in which steam power. the first major canal project America. advancing father west with each year. Construction began in 1811. In 1807. improve transportation and communication. between England and America. Erie Canal: The Erie Canal. Although this decision made strikes legal. clipper ships: Clipper ships were sailing ships built for great speed. Steamships created an efficient means of transporting goods upstream. Great controversy occurred over fishing rights and the Northwest Boundary. on the Hudson River and obtained a monopoly on ferry service there until 1824. introduced a steamship. and it later sparked artistic interest in the Hudson River when its use peaked in the 1880s. Its crushed-stone surface helped and encouraged many settlers to travel into the frontier west. Hunt. Hunt: In the case of Commonwealth v. 1814. it was longest canal in western world at the time. Economic Growth Industrialization and the transportation revolution were a considerable force in American history. It was a symbol of progress when it was opened in 1825. Commonwealth v. launched in 1845. and clipper ships emerged as new forms of transportation. Robert Fulton. This period was distinguished by the establishment of factories and the creation of many new inventions to save time. Robert Livingston. the road progressed west during early 1800s. on December 24. was designed by John W. and urbanization. This treaty ended the War of 1812. in Belgium. the Rainbow. the Massachusetts Supreme Court in 1842 ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies in restraint of trade. bridges. and provided that all territory captured would be returned to the rightful owner. changing the character of life in America by facilitation westward expansion. and this led to an increase in the building of canals. canals. it did not bring significant changes in the rights of laborers because many Massachusetts judges still considered unions illegal. This allowed Americans to travel across the country and transport goods into new markets that weren’t previously available.Treaty of Ghent: This was an agreement between the United States and Great Britain. the Clermont.

unmarried women. factory girls (Lowell factory): "Factory girls" were young. Boston Associates: The Boston Associates were a group of merchants in Boston who created Boston Manufacturing Company in 1813.modeled after earlier ships developed on the Chesapeake Bay. . During the Gold Rush. contributing to the transition from handmade garments to inexpensive. they hired young. Most of these girls left their families’ farms in order to gain independence or to help their families financially. in 1793. interchangeable parts: Whitney was an inventor who introduced the concept of interchangeable parts in 1798. Also. Lowell factory: The Lowell factory was a factory established in 1813 by the Boston Manufacturing Company on the Merrimack River in Massachusetts. He patented his reaper in 1834 and built a factory to mass produce it in 1847. eliminating the need for cottage industries. they built textile factories in the towns of Waltham and Lowell which produced finished products. It was a cotton textile mill that produced finished clothing. Cyrus McCormick. Eli Whitney. Samuel Slater: Slater was the supervisor of machinery in a textile factory in England. from the 12 or 14 hour days that were not uncommon. In the factories. The sewing machine allowed clothing to be stitched in factories very quickly. mechanical reaper: McCormick was an inventor who improved upon previous designs for the mechanical reaper. challenging cottage industries. After a difficult battle defending his patent. separating these girls from their families. from 1849 to 1857. Capitalizing on new technology. so that the whole gun no longer had to be replaced if a single part malfunctioned or broke. They wanted to limit the day to 10 hours. where. The tools and machines he invented allowed unskilled workers to build absolutely uniform parts for guns. usually between 15 and 30 years old. unmarried women. rather than entire families. He left England illegally in 1790 to come to Rhode Island. This was the beginning of mass production. mass-produced clothing. he founded the first permanent mill in America for spinning cotton into yarn. the Lowell factory hired mainly young girls. Also. he made a fortune on his invention. Elias Howe: Howe invented the sewing machine in 1845 and patented it in 1846. Slater founded the cotton textile industry in America. ten-hour movement: The ten-hour movement was the attempt by workers to obtain restrictions on the number of hours they worked per day. This invention lessened the work of western farmers by mechanizing the process of harvesting wheat. they found poor working conditions and strict discipline. clipper ships were a popular means to travel to California quickly. In doing this. The movement was supported by Lowell Female Reform Association and other reform associations. working in textile factories such as the Lowell factory.

aristocratic parasites. telegraph companies were formed and lines erected quickly. Economic Independence after War of 1812: The War of 1812 was in part responsible for creating a great sense of national purpose and awareness.Samuel F. There was a large dependency on trade. which was a blow against monopoly. This treaty fixed the 49th . Field laid a cable between Irealand and Newfoundland in 1866. After four failed attempts. In 1841. The decision was that there would be a disarmament of the US-Canadian frontier. Field founded a company. This invention was enthusiastically accepted by the American people. A revision was made in 1824 to clear problems that aroused. telegraph: Morse invented the telegraph in 1844. Great Britain’s Prime minister. a ship. usually transmitting political and commercial messages. Tariff of 1816 (protective): This was a protective tariff that was principally intended to hold the production of textiles and goods. Bonus Bill Veto: In 1817.000 miles long and laid from the Great Eastern. Second Bank of the US: Andrew Jackson vetoed the recharter bill of the Second Bank of the United States on July 10. and the government took considerable actions to piece it together. as well as great victory for labor. by Richard Rush. Rush-Bagot Treaty: Rush-Bagot was an agreement between the US and Great Britain concerning the Canadian border in 1817.B. Nationalism The nationalistic movement was one which brought the nation together. the development of America was creating a need for a well made transportation facilities to link the outlying agricultural regions with the trade eaters in the Eastern sea ports. which he vetoed the bill on constitutional ground. This cable was 2. The telegraph allowed rapid communication across great distances. The economy of the nation was a large force in the merging of the nation. and that there would be a precedent for the amicable settlement of peace between the US and Canada. and foreign domination. This allowed for rapid transatlantic communication. Convention of 1818: Signed at London. This was an economic blow that had repercussions. promoting new industries. Field and Co. Morse. Albert Gallatin. Instead. This was Madison’s last act. and the French prime minister. evident to merchants when the Embargo of 1807 and the War of 1812 suspended trade to Europe. Cyrus W. Jackson created pet banks and destabilized the national currency and aid. This tariff was made in order to defend the industries that were established during the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. 1832. Cyrus Field: Field was a financier who promoted the first transatlantic telegraph cable.

Most Northerners were suspicious of the influence of southern slaveholders in Congress. Before George Fitzhugh in 1854. British exports unloaded textiles. and Southerners were becoming more united in their defense of slavery as an institution. Sociology for the South. and Texas. and the invention of the cotton gin made it practical to grow cotton throughout the South. or the Failure of Free Society: In 1854. Northerners were becoming more opposed to slavery. George Fitzhugh. Slave Power: The term Slave Power refers to the belief that pro-slavery southerners were united an attempt to spread slavery throughout the United States. The British textile industry created a huge demand for cotton. Tennessee. Louisiana. rather than the United States as a whole.parallel to divide the US and Canadian boundary. Panic of 1819 : Occurred when the Second Bank of the United States tightened its loan policy. southerners did not assert that slavery was a boon to society. Fitzhugh wrote Sociology for the South. whether for moral or economic reasons. Sectionalism and Slavery In the early 1800s. Essentially. and the "Cotton Kingdom" spread west into Alabama. southerners supported slavery and northerners opposed it. defending slavery. they merely protested that it could not be eliminated without destroying the South. that caused distress throughout the country. the entire Southern economy became dependent on the success of cotton as a crop." . This was the first description of slavery as a "positive the farmer groups good. Arkansas. especially western farmers. causing a great depression for farmers. cotton became the principal cash crop in the South. the Kansas-Nebraska Act. It was so profitable that the vast majority of southern farms and plantations grew cotton. slavery was becoming an increasingly sectional issue. •"KING COTTON": In the 1800s. and also established fishing privileges for the United States off the coast of Labrador and Newfoundland. for the most part. triggering a depression. and that free laborers in the North were not treated any better than slaves. especially because of the Fugitive Slave Act. dividing the country into North and South to the extent that it led to the Civil War. slavery was considered necessary in order to maintain the agricultural economy of the entire region. Mississippi. sectionalism: Sectionalism is loyalty or support of a particular region or section of the nation. Even more so. meaning that it was increasingly dividing the nation along regional lines. He argued that slavery benefited the slave by providing him with food and shelter. Slavery was particularly sectional issue. "necessary evil": In the South. and the repeal of the Missouri Compromise.

and often Christian religion. pine barrens: The poorest class of whites in the Lower South tended to cluster in the mountains and pine-barrens. Austria. They were considered lazy and shiftless. Hinton Helper. 1811 and authorized as an extenuation of US rule over East Florida. •MONROE DOCTRINE: origins. West Florida. and becoming another reason for Indian hatred of the white man. and proclaimed on September 26.S. It was adopted as a resolution on January 15. Russia. 1810: Annexed when southern expansionists went into the Spanish Dominion. 2. Purchase of Florida: Spain surrendered Florida to the United States in 1819 by the Adams-Onis Treaty. where they survived by grazing hogs and cattle on land that the usually didn’t own. policy was to abstain from European wars unless U. he supported nationalist movements throughout Latin America and dissuaded foreign intervention in American affairs. 1823. Helper wrote The Impending Crisis of the South in an attempt to persuade non-slaveholders that slavery harmed the Southern economy. He proposed that the US and Britain issue a joint statement opposing European interference in South America and guaranteed that neither would annex Spain’s old empire. mountain whites in the South. George Canning: The British foreign minister. and Prussia. It provided for the cession of Florida to the United States in return for American settlement of claims of her citzens against Spain. provisions. and were often cited by northerners as proof that slavery degraded nonslaveholding whites. starting the Seminole War (1835-42). it consisted of 3 principles: U. impact: President Monroe’s message to Congress on Dec. with a sum of five million dollars. using the poor whites of the pine-barrens as an illustration of how the institution of slavery degrades non-slaveowning southerners. Fitzhugh argued that free laborers in northern factories were not treated any better than slaves. Also. shelter. European powers could not colonize the American continents and shouldn’t attempt to colonize newly independent Spanish . and it regulated European politics after the fall of Napoleon. George Fizhugh established the philosophy that slavery was "positive good. The Holy Alliance was an organization of European states that advanced the principles of the Christian faith. Quadruple Alliance: Formed in 1815.positive good: In the South. The Impending Crisis of the South: In 1857. interests were involved. This however began a rebellion by the Indians. Adams-Onis Treaty: It was the treaty in 1819 that purchased eastern Florida to establish the boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana territory.S. captured the fort at Baton Rouge." It was believed that slavery benefited slaves by providing them with food. the independent State of republic of West Florida. the Quadruple Alliance consisted of England.

Era of good feelings: This phrase exemplifies both of Monroe’s presidencies. in the Transcontinental (Adams-Onis) Treaty.S. internal improvements such as federal aid to local road and canal projects. It passed in the House but not the Senate due to sectionalism. Congress had a right to prohibit slavery in some territories. Ridiculed in Europe. •MISSOURI COMPROMISE: Congress admitted Maine as a free state in 1820 so that Missouri would become a slave state and prohibited slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase territory north of 36 30. . at age 25. the Roosevelt Corollary was introduced. from 1816-1824. it was reduced to $1. In 1904. Monroe made an effort to avoid political controversies.25.31. In the federal land law passed in 1804. the southern boundary of Missouri. It was unconstitutional to change it. Woodward (1819) The question was whether New Hampshire could change a private corporation. Spain consented to a southern border of the US that ran from the Miss. expansion by presidents John Tyler and James Polk. the minimum purchase was decreased to 160 acres. John Quincy Adams as Secretary of State: Fla: With Monroe’s support. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. but soon sectionalism divided the nation. Adams forced Spain to cede Florida and make an agreeable settlement of the Louisiana boundary. Webster advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. and Republicans embraced the Federalist’s issues. After a state charters a college or business. Dartmouth College into a state university. federal land policy: The federal land law passed in 1796 established a minimum purchase of 640 acres at a minimum price of $2 an acre and a year for full payment. In 1820. drafted in 1819. The War of 1812 eliminated some divisive issues. Henry Clay proposed the second Missouri Compromise in 1821. River to the Rocky Mountains. 1824. Clay proposed a protective tariff in support of home manufactures. Tallmadge Amendment: The Tallmadge Amendment (1819) restricted further importation of slaves into Missouri and freed slave descendants born after Missouri’s admission as a state. it can no longer alter the charter nor regulate the beneficiary. In the debate over the renewal of the charter of the US Bank. In 1820. Daniel Webster: Supporting the tariff of 1828. the minimum purchase was reduced to 80 acres. Clay’s American System: In his tariff speech to Congress on March 30.American republics. he was a protector of northern industrial interests. a strong national bank. and distribution of the profits of federal land sales to the states. Chief Justice John Marshall: decisions: Dartmouth College v. it was used to justify U. which forbade discrimination against citizens from other states in Missouri but did not resolve whether free blacks were citizens.

due to rival sectional components. within their borders. Jacksonian Revolution of 1828: Jackson won more than twice the electoral vote of John Quincy Adams.S. the law. or override. practices. However the popular vote was much closer. Crawford. participation would insinuate recognition of Haiti. Adversely affected states had the right to nullify. Jacksonian Democracy Jackson personified the desireable and undesireable qualities of Westerners. In 1832. and popular attitudes gave rise to Jacksonian Democracy and were in turn accelerated by the new equilitarian spirit. Jackson’s supporters called the action a "corrupt bargain" because they thought that Jackson was cheated of the presidency. He stood for the right of the common people to have a greater voice in government. flax. House vote: Jackson. In the South. with a political base in the South. showing that the Republican party was splintering. he appointed Clay as secretary of state. •VICE-PRESIDENT CALHOUN: South Carolina Exposition and Protest. He acknowledged that he wrote the SC Exposition and Protest in 1831. The South had few plans to build canals and roads. wool. this bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp. Southerners worried that U. Adams. 1825. Calhoun withdrew and ran for the vice presidency. New England manufacturing interests were favored because it raised the tariff on imported textiles. in which he made his argument that the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional. Clay: All five candidates. Jackson won more popular and electoral votes than the other candidates but didn’t manage to gain the majority needed Because Clay supported Adams. he convinced the South Carolina legislature to nullify the federal tariff acts of 1828 and 1832. Although there is no evidence to link Clay’s support to his appointment of the secretary of state. which gained independence through a slave revolution. strict Jeffersonians claimed it to be unconstitutional. Adams became president. Tariff of Abominations: Named by southerners. Distinct changes in laws. Jackson. the allegation was widely believed. "corrupt bargain": After Adams won the presidency. including Calhoun were Republicans. and liquor in 1828. Panama Conference: President Adams angered southerners by proposing to send American delegates to a conference of newly independent Latin American nations in Panama in 1826. these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods. Adams had strong support in . fur. nullification: He anonymously wrote the widely read South Carolina Exposition and Protest.•ELECTION OF 1824: popular vote. electoral vote. internal improvements: President Adams proposed a program of federal support for internal improvements in Dec. felt that federal support meant a possibly corrupt giveaway program for the North.

Georgia. They were united by their opposition of Jackson’s policies. along with numerous former Federalists who believed that the national government should advocate economic development. kitchen cabinets: During his first term. Whigs: The National Republican party altered its name to the Whig party during Jackson’s second term. committed to Clay’s American System and believed in active intervention by the government to change society. Cherokee Nation v. He wanted to give as many individuals as possible a chance to work for the government and to prevent the development of an elite bureaucracy. Maysville Road veto: President Jackson vetoed a bill to grant federal aid for a road in Kentucky between Maysville and Lexington in 1830. but were also members of the official cabinet. Most Cherokees condemned the treaty. 1832: Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokees were not a state nor a foreign nation and therefore lacked standing to bring suit. In the middle states and the Northwest. Trail of Tears: A pro-removal chief signed the Treaty of New Echota in 1835 which ceded all Cherokee land to the United States for $5. they met in the White House kitchen. The National Republicans ran Henry Clay whose platform consisted of his . Worcester v. spoils system: Jackson defended the principle of "rotation in office. a strong defender of states’ rights and Unionism won the presidency. It increased Jackson’s popularity in the South. 2. His supporters described his simple and true morals and fierce and resolute will. an illiterate backwoodsman. They were the Jeffersonian Republicans. age of the common man: All white males had access to the polls. They became a national party with appeal by 1836. He was depicted as being uncorrupt." the removal of officeholders of the rival party on democratic grounds. natural. Supposedly. Jackson was portrayed by the opposition as a common man.000 Cherokees died. National Republicans: They became the Whig party during Jackson’s second term. John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay guided this party in the 1830s.000 Cherokees migrated west to the Mississippi along the Trail of Tears. the popular vote was close. 1831: Marshall ruled that the Cherokees were a "domestic dependent nation" entitled to federal protection from mistreatment by Georgia.000 to 4. Eaton belonged to this group. He believed that internal improvements violated the principle that Congress could appropriate money for objectives only shared by all Americans. election of 1832: Jackson.6 million. Between 1835 and 1838. during the election of 1828. and plain. Martin Van Buren and John H. Jackson repeatedly relied on an informal group of partisan supporters for advice while ignoring his appointed cabinet officers. Georgia.New England while Jackson swept the South and Southwest. 16.

John H. Martin Van Buren: The accepted name for a group of Democratic party politicians. Webster contended that the Union was indissoluble and sovereign over the individual states. when South Carolina." not a league of states. hoping for a retraction by Jackson. •NULLIFICATION CRISIS: Calhoun introduced the idea in his SC Exposition and Protest. Peggy Eaton affair: Jackson’s secretary of war. which never occurred. The Anti-Masonic Party ran William Wirt who received 7 electoral votes. He went back to South Carolina and composed an Ordinance of Nullification which was approved by a special convention. he believed that the Force Bill would produce a civil war. Jackson believed that the Eaton affair was Calhoun’s plot to discredit him and advance Calhoun’s presidential ambitions. Taney implemented the policy." Biddle tightened up on credit and called in loans. Jackson proclaimed that nullification was unconstitutional and that the Constitution established "a single nation. Calhoun resigns: When Jackson favored the higher rates for the Tariff of 1832. Roger B. their activities were centered in Albany. States that suffered from the tariff of 1828 had the right to nullify or override the law within their borders. NY. Secretary of treasury Roger B. Many opposed the Bank because it was big and powerful. They were socially disregarded by Calhoun’s wife and Calhoun’s friends in the cabinet. Calhoun resigned in the same year. Jackson tried to destroy the Bank by vetoing a bill to recharter the Bank. Eaton. Without the compromise. They took a leading role in national and NY . Clay Compromise: He devised the Compromise Tariff which provided for a gradual lowering of duties between 1833-1842. Critics called the state-bank depositories pet banks because they were chosen for their loyalty to the Democratic party. Webster-Hayne Debate: Senator Robert Hayne of South Carolina made a speech in favor of cheap land in 1830. accompanied by other southern states. He used Calhoun’s anti-tariff arguments to support his position and referred to the plausibility of nullification. The Force Bill authorized the president to use arms to collect customs duties in South Carolina. Some disputed its constitutionality. He removed the federal government’s deposits from the Bank and put them into various state and local banks or "pet banks. seceded from the Union and started the Civil War. Taney: Jackson’s policy was to remove federal deposits form the Bank of US and put them in state banks. A final resolution of the question of nullification was postponed until 1861. and the customs officials were ordered to stop collecting the duties at Charleston. married Peggy Eaton in 1829.American System. •BANK WAR: Nicholas Biddle operated the Bank of the United States since 1823. A financial recession resulted.

The Bank of the United States also failed. but by abandoning distribution. Van Buren persuaded Congress to establish an Independent Treasury in which the federal government would keep the revenue itself and thereby withhold public money from the grasp of business cooperation. Tariff of 1842: In August of 1842. due to the need of revenue to run the government. Taney: The Charles River Bridge Company sued to prevent Mass. This satisfied northern manufacturers. "Tippecanoe and Tyler too" Harrison won 80% of the electoral vote but died a moth later. election of 1840: Van Buren was nominated but no vice president was put up. so did much violence and serious disturbances. The basic goals emphasised were to transced the bounds of intellect and to strive for emotional . panic of 1837: Prices began to fall in May 1837 and bank after bank refused specie payments. Tyler signed a bill which maintained some tariffs above 20%. The origins of the depression included Jackson’s Specie Circular.State politics between 1820 and 1850. Chief Justice Roger B. interests in politic erupted among the people. but abandoned distribution to the states. strong contrasts. Britain controlled the flow of specie from its shores to the US in an attempt to hinder the outflow of British investments in 1836. it infuriated many southerners and westerners Reform: Social & Intellectual European Romanticism branched into American mainstream society. Taney ruled that no charter given to a private corporation forever vested rights that might hurt the public interest. and simple choices began to appeal to the ordinary people. from permitting the construction of a new bridge across the Charles River. Also. Dorr’s Rebellion: As a popular movement emerged in Rhode Island to abolish the limitations set forth by the charter granted by Charles II in 1663. rise of the second party system: Because of the gradual hardening of the line between the two parties. Independent Treasury Plan: Instead of depositing its revenue in state banks. One of the earliest. William Henry Harrison was ridiculed as "Old Granny" by the Democrats. The protesters sought to do away with the state constitution which restricted suffrage to freeholders led the reform to grant suffrage to non-property owners. prominent members included Van Buren. and was given the most successful campaign slogans in history. His opponent. competent political machines in the US. New things such as rousing campaign techniques.

Margaret Fuller. To fiction. and that truth was inborn and universal. uniqueness. and a ten-hour workday. poets lecturers and essayists. The Dial: A feminist. which was a Transcendalist journal with Ralph Waldo Emerson and George Ripley.A member of the Transcendentalist movement. Ralph Waldo Emerson: Serving briefly as a Unitarian minister. focuses on the human mind instead of the social relationships. He. These included such intellectuals as Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau. he was a popular essayist and lecturer. writers.Hawthorne turned to his Puritan past in order to examine the psychological and moral effects of the adultery. which contains much pessimism. Herman Melville. The Last of the Mohicans. He was also a Transcendalist who believed that one could satisfy their material purposes with only a few weeks work each year and have more time to ponder life’s purpose. His book. He changed literature by freeing it from its . he introduced characters like frontiersmen. Transcendentalists-Transcendalists included many brilliant philosophers. The Pioneers: He wrote historical novels under Sir Walter Scott’s influence. The Spy." He was a Transcendalist who believed that knowledge reflected the voice of God. and the authority of the individual apprehension experience. The topics of his essays were broad and general. critic. After writing Summer on the Lakes. He was particularly active with the founding of the Workingman’s and Loco-Focos parties in New York. wrote with concern for the human mind because of their pessimism about the human condition. the abolition of imprisonment for debt. James Fenimore Cooper. she was offered a job and wrote significant literature as a critic of the Tribune from 1844 to 1846. and Walt Whitman. Edgar Allen Poe: Poe. On Civil Disobedience: He was considered to be a "doer. with Melville and Hawthorne saw man as a group of conflicting forces that might not ever be balanced. They believed in emphasis of the spontaneous and vivid expression of personal feeling over learned analysis. Nathanial Hawthorne. Moby Dick: Drawing ideas and theme from his own experiences in life. He. and journalist. Orestes Brownson. were concerned with analyzing the mental states of their characters. The Scarlet Letter. Melville wrote with much pessimism.understranding. It agreed on the scaredness. He wrote on subjects such as "Beauty. she edited The Dial. along with Poe and Melville. along with Poe and Hawthorne. These Locos-Focos called for free public education. Brownson was a flexible theologian and writer." and "Power. and developed a distinctly American theme with conflict of between the customs of primitive life on the frontier and the advance of civilization." "Nature." He wrote OCD to defend the right to disobey unjust laws. philosopher. Henry David Thoreau.

" and "Rip Van Winkle. His poems of Evalgeline and Hiawatha preached of the value of tradition and the impact of the past on the present. he traveled to this country in the early 1930s to study the prison system. Democracy in America: A French Civil servant. which contained "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Following him were the Millerites. William Miller claimed the Second coming of Christ would occur in 1843. These movements were generally more active in the Northern states. After the failure of his prophecies. It reflected the broad interest in the entire spectrum of the American democratic process and the society which it had developed.determination to preach a moral and established the idea that literature should be judged by the positive effect they had on the reader. a poet. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Coming from New England. Not only did he write in free verse. he left the US and lived in Europe until 1832. the painter realized that the American landscape lacked the "poetry of decay" of Europe. they began to paint the awesomeness of nature in America. Flourishing between the 1829s and 1870s." which continued to give the him the support of Americans who were proud of their best known writer. the area from which literature was most prominent. Longfellow. wrote Evalgeline which was widely read by schoolchildren in America. DiA was a result of his observations. and misfortunes of mankind. Washington Irving: Residing in New York and serving in the war of 1812. Alexis de Tocqueville. Walt Whitman: By writing Leaves of Grass. He wrote Sketch Book. evils. Whitman broke the conventions of rhyme and meter to bring new vitality to poetry. Realizing this. being energetic and candid at a time when humility were accepted in the literary world. Antebellum Reform Americans after 1815 embraced many religios and social movements in pursuit of solutions for the problems. his disciples divided into smaller Adventist groups of which the two largest are the Advent Christian Church and the Seventh-Day Adventists . millenialism: In the 1830s. Hudson River school of art-Americans painters also sought to achieve a sense of nationality in art. but his poems took on a different style.

physiology. Founded by Mary Lyon in 1836. Mt Holyoke College in Massachusetts is the oldest U. 1833. National Trade Union: Organized in 1834. were formed. Amana Community: Attempting to improve man’s life during industrialism. New Harmony. then to Nauvoo. who was elected to Congress on the Tammany ticket. lyceum movement: Began by Josiah Holbrok in the 1820." he was a pioneer of cooperation among Protestant denominations.. 1836. Howe. Mt. it in fact did not open a new era for labor unions. The early unions strove for higher wages. they moved to Missouri. Dorothea Dix: In 1843. Holyoke.S. Brook Farm. presented a memorial to the state legislature which described the abhor conditions in which the insane were kept. along with help from Horace Mann and Samuel G. Commonwealth vs. These communities often condemned social isolation. conversation. union control of apprenticeship and a closed shop. She. Most judges still believed unions were illegal. His "Social Gospel" offered salvation to all. biology. Hunt: This decision deemed that the trade union and their strike techniques were legal. Brigham Young: Joseph Smith organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints after receiving "Sacred writings" in New York Unpopular because of their polygamy. Illinois. these cooperative communities. this association was created after the New York Trades Union called a convention of delegates from numerous city centrals. Headed by Ely Moore. known as Utopian communities.After it was established in 1833. They were then led to the Great Salt Lake by Brigham young after Smith was killed. trade unions were persecuted for their strikes because they were construed as illegal conspiracies under the common law. religion. shorter hours. geology. Mormons. college devoted to women’s education.Charles G. The spread of these lecture revealed the widespread hunger for knowledge and refinement. contradicting the traditional idea of unions being illegal under the conspiracy laws of the English common law. Lectures were held on such topics as astronomy. and that people’s destinies were in their own hands. Oberlin. . marriage. Finney: Known as the "father of modern revivalism. criminal conspiracy laws: Initially. He believed that conversions were human creations instead of the divine works of God. Although this was a milestone. after discovering the maltreatment of the insane in 1841. led the fight for asylums and more humane treatment for the insane. the institution of private property. lyceums were local organizations that sponsored public lectures. this union disintegrated along with a number of other national conventions with the Panic of 1837. Oberlin College was converted into the center of western abolition by Theodore Dwight Weld. Onieda.

not receiving the opportunities that men possessed. Man became the secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education.The most influential of reformers. it was created by evangelical Protestants. . Emma Willard: In 1814. Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a women’s rights convention at Seneca Falls. They were also discriminated in the areas of education and employment. The Irish was the largest source of immigration with the German immigrants ranking second in number. This spurred new sentiment for nativism and a new anti-Catholic fervor. they successfully worked for the passage of the New York Married Women’s Property Act which recognized women’s right to her separate property. For the next ten years. they followed Lyman Beecher in demanding total abstinence from alcohol. This encouraged the development of educational institutions for women.public education. grade the schools. They denounced the evil of drinking and promoted the expulsion of drinkers from church. Nativism: The Irish immigration surge during the second quarter of the nineteenth century revived anti-Catholic fever . Lucretia Mott: 1848. She provided instruction in math and philosophy in which women could not take earlier. Seneca Falls. standardize textbooks. Created in 1826. She was also active in the fight for abolition and temperance. Among those adopted were a demand for women’s suffrage and a diminution of sexual discrimination in education and employment.The first national temperance organization. She also established the Troy Female Seminary in 1821. and compel attendance. in 1835 Morse warned that the governments of Europe were filling the US with Catholic immigrants as part of a conspiracy to undermine and destroy republican institutions.1845-1854: In this single decade. Elizabeth Cady Stanton: She along with Lucretia Mott planned a women’s right convention at the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Seneca Falls which sparked the women’s movement. Horace Mann. along with Stanton. proclaiming a Declaration of Sentiments Months earlier. 1848: Under the eye of Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.Extremely anti-Catholic. German immigration. Willard established the Middlebury Female Seminary where she devised new innovations in female education. Irish. She led the fight for educational equality among sexes. American Temperance Union. Mann wanted to put the burden of cost on the state. Women’s rights : Women could not vote and if married. New York. but was devoted to women’s rights. they had no right to own property or retain their own earnings. the largest immigration proportionate to the American population occurred. Mann promoted a wholistic change in public education. this convention adopted resolutions for women’s rights.

its division did not greatly damage abolitionism. However. she fought for a profession in which females could be appreciated. uncompensated emancipation of all slaves. William Lloyd Garrison: William Lloyd Garrison was a radical who founded The Liberator. Almost all abolitionists advocated legal. In 1840. and as sectional tension mounted. this slowed the advance of feminism. Many abolitionists. This was generally considered radical. issues such as the role of women in the abolitionist movement. With this. they became more prominent and influential. often demanding immediate. American Antislavery Society: The American Antislavery Society was an organization in opposition to slavery founded in 1833. The Auburn System allowed prisoners to work together but never make contact and remain confined at night in a windowless cell. Because it sanctioned numerous activities in reform such as temperance and education. He was joined in the peace movement by Elihu Burritt who founded the League of Universal Brotherhood in 1846 and promoted the 2d Universal Peace Conference held in Brussels in 1848 prison reform: Prison were meant to rehabilitate as well as punish.Catherine Beecher: Lyman Beecher’s daughter and a militant opponent of female equality. . they were prominent and vocal. American Peace Society: In a social reform movement. William Ladd led the peace movement by establishing the American Peace Society in 1828. In this profession. In the North before the Civil War. and role of abolitionists as a political party led to the division of the organization into the American Antislavery Society and Foreign Antislavery Society. Abolitionism Abolitionism is support for a complete. it provided women with worthwhile pursuits beyond the family. and there were only a few adamant abolitionists prior to the Civil War. women became the main source of teachers. "Cult of True Womanhood": The alternate ideal of domesticity. and uncompensated end to slavery. but not social equality for blacks. He advocated immediate. in Boston in 1831. an abolitionist newspaper. The Pennsylvania system made each prisoner spend of his/her time in a single cell with no outside contact. •ABOLITIONISM: Abolitionism was the movement in opposition to slavery. creating sectional tension because most abolitionists were from the North. she discovered the institution of education in which women could play an important part in. Because the organization never had control over the many local antislavery societies. there were only a few abolitionists and these were generally considered radicals. immediate. such as William Lloyd Garrison were extremely vocal and helped to make slavery a national issue.

supported New England Emigrant Society. Beecher. and reformer. as well as its articles and speeches using arguments based on morality to advocate immediate emancipation made it one of the most persuasive periodicals in the United States at the time. Turner led about 70 blacks into a revolt against their masters. 55 whites were killed by Turner and his followers and many blacks were lynched by white mobs.. He led an antislavery demonstration on campus and a mass withdrawal of students from the school. •NAT TURNER’S INSURRECTION: Turner was a slave who became convinced that he was chosen by God to lead his people to freedom. abolitionist. Theodore Weld: Weld was an abolitionist student at the Lane Theological Seminary. Lovejoy was killed by an mob in 1837. in 1834. in 1837. Its bitter attacks on slavery and slaveowners. lecturing against slavery. These students then centered their activities at Oberlin College. Turner and fifteen of his companions were hanged. Theodore Parker: Parker was a clergyman. Grimké sisters: Angelina and Sarah Grimké were sisters who toured New England. temperance. He was dismissed when. and his death stimulated the growth of abolitionist movement. Sarah wrote Letters on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes and Angelina wrote Letters to Catherine E. He was also an active opponent of slavery who aided in the escape of slaves and the rescue of Anthony Burns. In 1838 both sisters wrote classics of American feminism. They became controversial by lecturing to both men and women. Wendell Phillips: Phillips was an American orator. and participated in John Brown’s raid in 1859. where he established the Alton Observer. He also spoke publicly in favor of women’s rights. and the author of A Letter to the People and A Discourse of Matters Pertaining to Religion. His most famous speech. In Virginia in 1831. The Liberator: The Liberator was an anti-slavery newspaper published by William Lloyd Garrison and Isaac Knapp beginning in 1831. Elijah Lovejoy: Lovejoy was American abolitionist and the editor of the an antislavery periodical. The Murder of Lovejoy speech protested the murder of Elijah Lovejoy and gained him recognition from the public. the trustees of the seminary tried to suppress abolitionism. Before the uprising was brought to a halt by white militiamen. abolition and elimination of capital punishment. The rebellion convinced white southerners that a successful slave insurrection was an constant threat. This made Garrison a famous and highly controversial abolitionist whose main tactic was to stir up emotions on the slavery issue. Violent opposition from slaveholders in 1836 forced him to move his presses from Missouri to Illinois.uncompensated emancipation and even civil equality for blacks. . The Observer. theologian.

made 19 journeys back into the South to help as many as 300 other slaves escape. Creole affair: The Creole Affair was an uprising by a group of slaves who were in the process of being transported in the ship. and slavery which attracted large audiences.500 that he won in a lottery. They intended to sieze the federal arsenal at Richmond. He captured his audiences with descriptions of his life as a slave. In 1822.Gabriel Prosser: Prosser a Virginia slave who planned a slave uprising in 1800 with the intent of creating a free black state. However. the Creole. Incidents such as this contributed to the intensification of sectional conflict in the United States. Expansion to 1840 . Harriet Tubman: Tubman was a black woman who. Douglass’ influential speeches encouraged slaves to escape as he did and motivated northerners to oppose slavery. he planned to lead a group of slaves in an attacking Charleston and stealing the city’s arms. took control of ship and sailed for Bahamas. Walker’s Appeal: David Walker was a free black from Boston who published his Appeal in 1829. where they became free under British. the North Star. David Walker. They killed the captain. in the early 1830s. making eloquent speeches against sex discrimination. after escaping from slavery in 1849. Tubman was known as "Moses" among blacks. The system had no formal organization. Prosser and his comrades were captured by the state militia and executed. Denmark Vesey: Vessy was a slave from South Carolina who bought his freedom with $1. the plan was betrayed by other slaves. Sojourner Truth: Sojourner Truth was a runaway slave who became an influential figure in both women’s societies and the abolitionist movement. advocating a black rebellion to crush slavery. who became a powerful aboltionist orator. resulting in the hanging of Vessy and his followers. Frederick Douglass: Douglass was an escaped slave. The purpose of Walker’s Appeal was to remind his people that they were Americans and should be treated fairly. In spite of her illiteracy. but the plan was betrayed by other slaves. but it helped thousands of slaves escape and contributed to the hostility between the North and South. Godlessness. underground railroad: The underground railroad was a secret network of antislavery northerners who illegally helped fugitive slaves escape to free states or Canada during the period before the American Civil War. She was the most famous leader of the underground railroad. Because of her efforts to lead her people to freedom. He also published a newspaper. she traveled widely through New England and the Midwest.

became colonel in Texas Revolution. He was killed while defending the Alamo in 1836. Texan General Sam Houston and 800 of his men ambushed Santa Anna and the Mexican army. Santa Anna: Santa Anna was elected president of Mexico in 1833. •TEXAN WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE: In 1836. San Jacinto: The battle of San Jacinto was the last battle of Texan war for independence. Travis and all of his men died in battle. so when the Mexican government tried to restrict the rights of these settlers. From 1827 to 1835 Crockett represented Tennessee in Congress. When Santa Anna and his men attacked. he was a highly successful empresario. In 1836. during which after Santa Anna was captured and forced to signed a treaty granting Texans their independence. the Texans killed half of Santa Anna’s men in 15 minutes and Houstan captured Santa Anna and forced him to sign a treaty recognizing Texan independence. a great majority of Americans lived east of the Appalachian Mountains. a frontiersman. he overthrew government and named himself dictator. Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged San Antonio and the city’s 200 Texan defenders retreated into the abandoned mission.1n 1790. All of the Texans were killed in their attempt to fight the Mexican army. retaliated at the battle of San Jacinto. he was forced into . they mainly settled the areas east of the Mississippi River and avoided the arid Great Plains region. However. He invaded Texas in 1835. and a soldier. Texas. William Barrett Travis: Travis was a lawyer before he moved to Texas in 1831. In the 1820s. Before. In 1835. Sam Houston. but many began moving west intermittently. especially southern planters with slaves. However. The Mexican government never recognized this treaty. the leader to the Texans. so Texas became the Lone Star Republic. The battle lasted less than 20 minutes. Austin became one of the leaders of the Texas Revolution. Alamo: The Alamo was a mission in San Antonio. Stephen Austin: Austin was a prominant leader of Americans in Texas. Texas was a popular destination for American settlers. but got captured at the battle of San Jacinto in 1836. who had contracted 300 American families to move to Texas by 1825. that became the setting for and important episode in Texan war for independence from Mexico. In 1836. Travis became a war hero when he was ordered to defend San Antonio and the Alamo. Davy Crockett: Davy Crockett was a politician. In he 1835 went to Texas and joined the revolution against Mexico. in 1834. After Mexican president Santa Anna invaded Texas in1835. the Texas War for Independence resulted. At San Jacinto. 1840. After this defeat. but could no longer afford to fight. Exaggerated stories written after his death made Crockett an American folk hero. Mexican president Santa Anna invaded Texas and brutally crushed the rebels at the battle of the Alamo. greatly outnumbering Travis’ 200 troops.

He opposed slavery. Because of these features. and other such ethnocentric acts. . he was the Liberal Republican nominee for president. and lack of trees. However. He was overthrown in 1845. Great American Desert: The "Great American Desert" was a nickname for the Great Plains. Horace Greeley: Greeley was a journalist and political leader. including the Mexican War. They drafted a constitution modeled after the United States Constitution and chose Sam Houston as their president. In order to accomplish this destiny. Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny is the belief that Americans had the right. he founded the New York Tribune. was characterized by its arid climate. or even the duty. •"MANIFEST DESTINY": "Manifest Destiny" was the term used. In 1836. Republic of Texas: Texan rebels declared their independence from Mexico in 1836. This sense of duty created a sense of unity among the nation and stimulated westward expansion. This would spread the glorious institutions of civilization and democracy to the barbaric Native Americans. but called back in 1846 to fight in the Mexican War. to expand westward across the North American continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Texas was an autonomous nation from the time Santa Anna recognized Texan independence at the battle of San Jacinto until it was annexed by the United States in 1845. such as the Mexican cession. to describe Americans’ belief that they were destined by God to spread their beliefs across the continent. lands gained by force. throughout the 1840s. The term itself was coined by John O’Sullivan in an 1845 magazine article. Americans did not flinch at atrocities such as provoking war with Mexico or slaughtering Indians.retirement until 1838. are considered imperialistic conquests. Was it Imperialism?: American annexation of territories such as Oregon are generally not considered imperialistic because these lands were obtained by negotiation between two equal powers and the people there were not opposed to joining the Union. a flat topography. it was considered inhospitable and early settlers chose to cross it on the way to the Willamette Valley of Oregon rather than settling there. Sam Houston: Houston was a military commander and an American statesman who served in House of Representatives from 1823 to 1827. the persecution of the Indians. This area. He was editor of the New Yorker and a Whig associated with Governor Seward of New York. The concept justified westward expansion in all its forms and ramifications. the present -day Midwest. but he was not an abolitionist. Houston was chosen as president of the Texan rebels. where he captured Santa Anna and achieved Texan independence. In 1841. He led them in the battle of San Jacinto. In 1872.

separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. a treaty was signed in 1846 giving the United States all of Oregon south of the 49th parallel. and he won by a small margin. the Whigs nominated Henry Clay. The Democrats. The Liberty party. Polk favored American expansion. In compromise. Polk believed that the land was part of the Louisiana Purchase. •ELECTION OF 1844: In the election of 1844. nominated James G. Disputed Territory: A dispute over the southern boundary of Texas contributed to the Mexican War. America and Great Britain had jointly occupied the Oregon Country. POLK: Polk was a slaveowning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. he was a "dark horse" candidate for president. Polk used "54° 40’ or Fight!" as a campaign slogan. were divided between Martin Van Buren and Lewis Cass. instead advocating lower tariff. and he won the election. In response. he was not received by the Mexican government because the threat of military revolt left the Mexican president to weak to negotiate. In 1844. and therefore it belonged to the United States. in early 1845. large numbers of Irish immigrants turned out to vote for Polk. Joint Resolution under President Tyler: In 1843. Tyler started a campaign to annex Texas. Reannexation of Oregon: Prior to 1846. A deadlock at the Democratic national convention resulted in the nomination of dark-horse candidate James K. However. However. . but Polk insisted that the Rio Grande River was the boundary line. consisting of a small group of northern antislavery Whigs who were alienated by Clay’s indecisiveness. •JAMES K. Mexico claimed that the Nueces River was boundary of Texas. and in 1844 he succeeded in sending a treaty to Congress for the annexation. and the two countries divided Oregon at the 49th parallel. the line 54° 40’ N. Slidell Mission to Mexico: Slidell was a negotiator sent to Mexico by James Polk with orders to gain Mexico’s recognition of the independence of Texas and to purchase California and New Mexico. but later.Annexation of Texas. However. California. and Oregon. Polk began to demand that America obtain the entire territory. implying that the he would declare war if Britain did not give the United States all the Oregon territory up to its northern boundary. Birney. Polk. He opposed Clay’s American System. Also. Congress passed a joint resolution to annex Texas because of the growing popularity of annexation. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. latitude. however. the Mexican governmen began war preparations when Texans accepted annexation. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny. Rio Grande. in 1844. Polk sent troops to occupy Texas and the disputed territory south of the Nueces River. especially advocating the annexation of Texas. in 1846 Polk agreed to negotiate. Reoccupation of Texas: After Congress voted to annex Texas. 54° 40’ or Fight!: In the election of 1844. Nueces River. This treaty was defeated in the Senate.

John C. especially Texas and California. Taylor was put in control of all of northern Mexico. The main cause of the war was American desire for territory. Jessie Benton. Cerro Gordo. General Zachary Taylor: Taylor was an American major general who became a war hero during the Mexican War. and Buena Vista. He was sent to Mexico by Polk to negotiate with Mexican president Herrera. Partially because of disorganization and instability in the Mexican government. Fremont: Fremont was an explorer. He represented Missouri in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. and Benton used his influence to have records of Fremont’s explorations published as government documents. ending the war." In 1846. he assisted in the annexation of California by capturing insurgents. •MEXICAN WAR: The Mexican war lasted from 1846 to 1848. and managed to send a detachment of his army south into Mexico in time to join Taylor in the Battle of Buena Vista. and his resulting popularity helped him win the presidential election in 1848. and gave $15 million to Mexico in compensation. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Five thousand American troops commanded by General Taylor defeated three times as many Mexican troops under Santa Anna. he led an army to Santa Fe and took the New Mexico territory without firing a shot. Senator Thomas Hart Benton: Senator Benton was an American statesman. His troops won important victories in northern Mexico at Matamoros. As a result of this battle. seizing the city of Sonoma. gave California and New Mexico to the United States. and Chapultepec. He ran for president of United States in 1852. the war resulted in and American victory. soldier. This American victory also hastened end of the War. Battle of Buena Vista: The battle of Buena Vista was a battle during Mexican War. They wanted Trist to convince Herrera to lower the price he was asking for California and to give . Monterrey. The war took place mainly on Mexican soil. In 1846. His daughter. Kearny then suppressed a rebellion of both Indians and Mexicans." In 1856. He also led the final defeat of Santa Anna when he captured Mexico City in 1847. Stephen Kearney: Kearney was an American colonel in the Mexican War. General Winfield Scott: General Scott commanded American troops during the Mexican War.The land between these two rivers was uninhabited. but it was a significant slice of Mexican territory. and politician known as "the Great Pathfinder. Fremont. Fremont became the first presidential candidate for the Republican party. married adventurer John C. made the southern boundary of Texas the Rio Grande. and declaring the independence of the "Bear Flag Republic. Nicholas Trist: Trist was the chief clerk of state department and a peace officer. and led those troops victory at Vera Cruz.

stretching almost 2. Nevada. but this tension was soon eased. He became involved in the fur business and organized a fur trading empire from the Great Lakes to the Pacific Ocean and to China and Japan. This territory included California. and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. People in the East heard exaggerated.Americans the right of movement over the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Texas. In 1846.000 miles from Independence. and the issue was settled by Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842. Caroline Affair: The American steamboat. The treaty was very popular in the North because the United States got more than half of the disputed territory. Arizona. Missouri to the Willamette Valley." Many settlers traveled to Oregon overland by way of the Oregon Trail or around Cape Horn in the newly invented clipper ships. the Caroline. this movement failed because the acquisition of California and her ports satisfied Polk. The fertile farmland available in the Willamette Valley attracted many farmers. The addition of so much land to the United States exacerbated conflict over the expansion of slavery because some Northerners feared that the extension of slavery into California and New Mexico would deter free laborers from settling there. New Mexico. Herrera rejected the offer. •OREGON FEVER: During the 1830s and 1840s. Aroostook War: The Aroostook War was a boundary dispute between settlers in Maine and New Brunswick from 1838 to 1839. convincing them that Oregon was a "pioneer’s paradise. However. It settled a dispute over the boundary between Maine and New Brunswick. enthusiastic reports from missionaries and pioneers. Webster-Ashburton Treaty: The Webster-Ashburton Treaty was a treaty negotiated by Lord Ashburton of Great Britain and Daniel Webster of the United States in 1842. was being used by Canadian rebels when it was attacked by the government of Canada in late 1837 in American waters. The pioneers . In 1842 Daniel Webster asked for an apology from British government. John Jacob Astor: Astor was a wealthy New York merchant who invested in real estate. This was an important part of westward expansion. because they believed that to have control of all of Mexico would give the United States more power. Utah. The event heightened tensions between the United States and Britain. All Mexico Movement: Many Senators in Congress wanted the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to include all of Mexico. Full-scale war was avoided through an agreement in 1839. the first major fur trading post in Oregon. He created the American Fur Company and established Astoria. many Americans traveled to the Oregon Territory in order to start a new life. •MEXICAN CESSION: The Mexican Cession was the land that Mexico ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo in 1848. Oregon Trail: The Oregon Trail was an overland route to the Oregon territory.

subsequently. Joseph Smith: Joseph Smith was the founder of the Mormon church. Willamette Valley: The Willamette Valley was an area of fertile farmland in the Oregon Territory which attracted large numbers of farmers in the 1830s and 1840s. Taylor won election on his popularity. especially those from the Mississippi River Valley. Taylor: Zachary Taylor was the Whig candidate in the election of 1848. Land squatters disputed over Sutter’s land claims and. apparent in their views. where they prospered. After being charged with treason and jailed. Election of 1848: Cass. In 1848. The Mormons are characterized by their preference to be set apart from the rest of the community. Prior to 1846. Their church is based in Utah and they believe that the Book of Mormon is the supplement for the Bible. Young has been criticized for both his support of polygamy and his intolerance towards opposition.500 emigrants used overland trails like the Oregon Trail to reach Oregon between 1840 and1848. the Oregon Territory had been jointly occupied by Great Britain and the United States with its northern boundary the line 54°40’. It is estimated that about 11. after which. 49th Parallel: The 49th parallel was the line of latitude dividing the United States’ and Great Britain’s portions of the Oregon Territory after 1846. Illinois. Lewis Cass was the Democratic candidate. Brigham Young: Brigham Young was the patriarch of the Mormon church who took control of the church after Joseph Smith was killed. He translated the Book of Mormon in 1827. Originally they had jointly occupied the entire territory. Sutter’s holdings were found invalid by the Supreme Court. In a 1846 treaty. and his platform was based solely on personal popularity because he was a war hero. Both parties avoided making the issue of slavery a campaign issue.000 acres of land by the Mexican government in 1834 and established a sawmill on the land in 1846. Mormons: The Mormon religion was founded in 1827 by Joseph Smith. . Oregon Territory: Congress made the Oregon Territory an official territory of the United States in 1848. After the Mormons were forced out of Illinois. Reports of the abundance of this land sparked the movement of many pioneers to the West Coast. he was killed by a mob in 1844.who traveled this trail in wagon trains faced many dangers.. Young led them to Utah in 1846. dividing it at the 49th parallel. he discovered gold. the two countries split the territory. which were antebellum in the time the religion was born. Smith saw himself as a prophet. This discovery led to the onset of the California Gold Rush. but a compromise was forged in 1846 because president Polk demanded title to this territory and neither side wanted to go to war over it. increasing the negative sentiment towards Mormonism. John Sutter: John Sutter was granted 49. he and his followers set up a model city and temple in Nauvoo.

forty-niners: In 1849. Free Men. when Polk was elected in 1844. he brought back the Independent Treasury System. Competition led to violence and greed. Van Buren: The system was introduced by Martin Van Buren in 1837 and it passed through Congress in 1840. in 1846. along with immigrants from Europe. but passed the House. the Independent Treasury System was repealed. They believed slavery should not be extended into the newly acquired U. Polk’s secretary of the treasury. Independent Treasury System. The proviso was given to Congress in August 1846. and a break in the flow of European capital to American investments as a result of the Crimean War. Wilmot Proviso: David Wilmot. Asia and South America rushed to California in search of easy riches. 10. false banking practices. The South’s less industrial economy suffered less than the North. As a result of inadequate shelter and food and the lack of medical supplies. territory and were pro-Wilmot Proviso. 1846. a Congressman from Pennsylvania. Independent Treasury System. 100. The bill slashed all duties to the minimum necessary for revenue. Southerners fought to assert their rights while many Northerners wished to prevent the expansion of slave labor into new states. panic of 1857: The causes of the panic were overspeculation in railroads and lands. They left in 1848 to form the Free Soil Party but rejoined after the election of 1848. Free Labor.S. Free Speech.000 died the first year and few even benefited from the expedition. Walker. Walker Tariff. Their party slogan was "Free Trade. The tariff was signed July 30. 1846: The Walker tariff was created by Robert J. This also kept the government’s money out of state banks. Expansion and Slavery The expansion of slavery into new territories and onto the western frontier became a major issue after the Mexican-American War. Polk: After Van Buren was defeated in the election of 1840 by William Henry Harrison. This intensified the divisions between the Whigs and Democrats. and by doing this. It was taken out of the War Appropriations bill in order for Senate to pass the actual bill. proposed that slavery be banned in land acquired from the Mexican War. It also reversed the trend of replacing certain specifics for ad value duties and dropped the minimum valuation principle. Through the treaty. It never passed the Senate. The bill had the federal government keep their revenue. who viewed this as a proof of superiority in both Southern economy and slavery. Barnburners: The Barnburners were a part of the Democratic party in New York." •TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO: This was the peace treaty between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican War.000 Americans. However. Mexico gave . kept public money from private business corporations.

but through the Compromise of 1850. . for president six times and devised the "American System" that favored a protective tariff and federal support of internal improvements. the treaty worked to expand the U. unsuccessfully. and the former Liberty party members in the election of 1844.S. California . Utah. though. most states do nor allow omnibus bills. •COMPROMISE OF 1850: The Compromise of 1850 was an eight part compromise devised by Henry Clay in order to settle the land disputes between the North and South. territory to include parts of Arizona. California applies for admission as a state: Because the population grew during the gold rush and they were in need of a better government. California was admitted a free state. Free Soil Party: The Free Soil Party created by the Barnburners. California decided to petition to become a state in September of 1849. The U. In the end. The bill most commonly known for being omnibus is the Compromise of 1850. Colorado. Slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia. and New Mexico to the United States. He supported the Compromise of 1850 on the basis of the theory of nullification. Henry Clay introduced the bill as a whole. they had enough influence in North to convey their point. Webster’s 7th of March speech: Webster’s speech was an eloquent one presented in favor of the Compromise of 1850. Webster argued that years of tension built up from the North’s growing power would be relieved by the compromise and that the North would make the South its equal. while slavery itself was not abolished and sectional peace returned to the northern and southern states for a few years. As part of the compromise. while a stricter Fugitive Slave Law was enforced. Although they were unable to carry any state. but it was later pushed through Congress as separate measures. John C.Texas with Rio Grande boundary. They nominated Martin Van Buren on a platform of opposition to any kind of slavery. The issue of slavery eventually did lead to future conflicts. assumed all claims of the American people against the Mexican government and also paid Mexico 15 million dollars. Calhoun: Calhoun is most known for the "nullification crisis" in 1828 between he and president Jackson over the tariff of 1828 (tariff of abominations). and Nevada. Omnibus bill: The omnibus bill is a term used to describe a bill that has many unrelated and separate topics within it. Conscience Whigs. thus saving the Union. 1848. He was a senator during the debates over the compromise. Wyoming.S. Calhoun was also a war hawk. The treaty was signed on February 2. He ran. There was controversy on the issue of it being a free or slave state. Today. Henry Clay: Henry Clay was an influential American politician who earned the title of "The Great Pacificator" with his development of three compromises. California was admitted as a free state. the speech made few converts. Despite his efforts.

to rescue Burns. in 1853. section 2 of the Constitution deems the return of fugitive slaves a federal power. President Pierce. unsuccessfully. commerce. He was arrested on charges of theft and violation of the Fugitive Slave Law. Ableman v. but habeas corpus was not valid as a result of Chief Justice Taney’s decision that a court or judge has certain limits of power. opened Japanese ports of to U. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad. the state law was declared unconstitutional. President Pierce sent him back to his master. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement. .Fugitive Slave Law: Unlike the previous 1793 slave law.. the 1850 slave law was more strictly enforced. and ended Japan’s isolation. a country closed to the rest of the world for 2 centuries. 1842: This case resulted when Pennsylvania attempted to ban the capture and return of runaway slaves within its territory. The Wisconsin Supreme Court issued a writ of habeas corpus to release him. a mob of Boston abolitionists stormed into the courthouse to attempt. During the trial. The results of the law were that the North became a hunting ground for slaves and slaves were denied a trial by jury and other protections they were entitled to. rejected the manifesto. In turn. Prigg v. a challenge to the fugitive slave law of 1793. Northern resistance demonstrated that the slavery issue could not be ignored. •PERSONAL LIBERTY LAWS: Discontent with the injustice of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. Ostend Manifesto: American ambassadors to Great Britain. The anger of the slaves led to riots and other acts of violence. France. Because article IV. Anthony Burns: Burns was an American slave who escaped in 1834. permitted American ships to buy coal in Japan. The laws included the prohibition of the use of state jails to confine alleged fugitives. Southern states objected to the laws because they violated sectional equity and reciprocal trust. the battle for federal supremacy commenced. Gadsden Purchase: The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Pa. Belgium in 1854 to issue an unofficial document that gave the United States permission to attain Cuba by any necessary means. northern states passed "personal liberty laws" in order to strengthen the use of the habeas corpus writs and prohibit state officials from accepting jurisdiction under federal law. and Spain met in Ostend. even force. however. but Burns was resold to friends who freed him.S. Booth: Booth was arrested for aiding the escape of a fugitive slave in 1859. Perry and Japan: Commodore Perry opened relations with Japan. The treaty he forged protected the rights of sailors shipwrecked in Japanese territory from inhumane treatment. and include the island in the Union.

The purpose of the bill was to facilitate the building of the transcontinental railroad on a central route. also led a retaliation two days later . thus armed themselves and commenced guerilla warfare. He was also a strong supporter of the Compromise of 1850. The retaliation was preceded by a pro-slavery posse’s armed raid through Kansas. •KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT." those who supported slavery. Douglas was an advocate of the annexation of Mexico. Missouri "border ruffians. Each claimed to be the lawful one. Buchanan disapproved of it. however. because President Pierce supported it. sacked the town of Lawrence. "Bleeding Kansas" and Lawrence: Topeka and Lecompton were the two rival governments of Kansas. 1854: The Kansas-Nebraska Act ended the peace established between the North and South by the Compromise of 1850. The Wilmot Proviso sought to extend the boundary line westward. Douglas: American politician known for his debates with Abraham Lincoln prior to the election of 1860. a part of the Compromise of 1850 and Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. an abolitionist. John Brown. they dubbed their guns "Beecher’s Bibles. who aroused the question of slavery in territories with the development of the KansasNebraska Act in 1854. Lecompton Constitution: This constitution was devised by the anti-slavery delegates of Congress in 1857 to protect the rights of the slaveholders in Kansas and advocate popular sovereignty. but their attempt . Pottawatomie Massacre: John Brown led a small group of abolitionists into a proslavery settlement in 1856 to kill unarmed men and boys at Pottawatomie Creek in retaliation to the border ruffians’ invasion and sacking of the abolitionists’ town of Lawrence. Douglas of Illinois and repealed the Missouri Compromise. popular sovereignty: this compromise solution was first proposed during the time of the Wilmot Proviso: the residents of each territory had the option of determining whether it would be a free or slave state. Polk supported the idea of expansion to end the discussion of whether the new territory acquired was slave or free. Northerners sent antislavery settlers into this area in 1854. It was proposed by Stephen A. blocking slavery and territory north of that line. It was passed. Ridiculing the free staters. but supported it so that Kansas could be admitted as a state. a pro-slavery posse armed with guns mobbed through the town." following the advice of an antislavery minister that rifles would do no more than Bibles to enforce morality in Kansas. 36° 30’ line: The 36° 30’ line was established by the Missouri Compromise and drew on parts of California and New Mexico. New England Emigrant Aid Company: Aiming to prevent the expansion of slavery into Kansas.Stephen Douglas a strong advocator. The act enforced popular sovereignty upon the new territories but was opposed by Northern Democrats and Whigs.Stephen A. In 1856. "Beecher’s Bibles": Because the abolitionist government in Kansas was organized in 1856.

Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 during Illinois senatorial campaign: The LincolnDouglas debates were a series of seven.S. Lincoln’s "house divided" speech: The "house divided" speech was a speech presented before the Republican party’s state convention in 1858 in Springfield. They walked out on the Nashville convention in 1850. 500. Illinois. a Northern abolitionist outraged by the Fugitive Slave Law.was unsuccessful. and others were translated into 20 languages. The novel stimulated Northern action against slavery. Lincoln predicted in his speech that there would mean eventual freedom for the slaves. wrote this novel to illustrate the evils of slavery. Fire-eaters discussed southern rights. a reaction that hurt him in the election. They were labeled "fire-eaters" due to their recklessness and by making their presence strongly felt by all those around. Northerners began to increasingly support free soil and even abolition. Lincoln condemned Douglas for not taking a moral stand against slavery. Douglas’ "Freeport Doctrine" stated that exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. while suspicion of their secession rose amongst the northerners. so tensions between the two-sided mounted until Southerners became convinced that nothing short of secession could protect them Northern persecution.000 copies were sold in the U. Freeport Doctrine: Stephen A. Though the South denounced the novel. The 1850s: The Road to Secession During the 1850s. The issue of slaver polarized people. Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Harriet Stowe. where Douglas argued on the basis of his opposition to the Lecompton Constitution and depicted Lincoln as a radical abolitionist. The meeting itself led to the ultimate decision on the compromise. and whipped and lynched slaves in the 1860s. southerners rejected the doctrine because it did not insure the rights of slaves. In 1858. sectional issues such as slavery became very divisive. raided a mass of Irish canal workers. It warned the people that a "house divided against itself cannot stand. Nashville Convention: Delegates of the northern and southern states assembled in the summer of 1850 to decide on the issue of the Compromise of 1850. Settlers were mixed in their views on slavery. Settlers from New England arrived slowly. fire-eaters: The fire-eaters were extreme advocates of southern rights. though the majority of settlers originated from Missouri and the Midwest. and Southern slaveowners felt that their rights and interests were no longer being fairly represented. ." referring to the slavery issue. contributing to the Civil War.

At his death. The novels are rambled in structure. made a speech titled. Butler’s nephew came into the Senate chamber and hit him on the head. He is well-known for handing down the Dred Scott decision. She also wrote short stories and poetry.Harriet Beecher Stowe: Stowe was an abolitionist writer who wrote powerful novels attacking slavery both before and after the Civil War in such novels as Dred. and was conducted by an abolitionist to raid the federal arsenal and start a slave uprising. Preston Brooks. and James Buchanan of Democratic Party. It was determined that temporary residence in an area did not make one free." denouncing slavery. except those states where slavery already existed. Taney: Taney was a Southerner appointed by Jackson as the 5th justice of the Supreme Court. yet rich in pathos and dramatic incident. Fremont of the Republican Party. Charles Butler. Chief Justice Roger B. ridiculing the South Carolina senator. and. •DRED SCOTT DECISION: Chief Justice Roger B. Know-Nothing Party: This election was between John C. Former Whigs and KnowNothings were party members. therefore. Taney ruled that Scott was not a citizen because he was a slave in 1856. and that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because it violated the fifth amendment. Millard Fillmore of the Know-Nothing Party. birth of the Republican Party: The party was formed in 1854 by northern Democrats who left the party because of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. he did not have the right to sue in federal court. which did not allow Congress or territorial governments to exclude slavery from any area. a senator from Massachusetts. Franklin Pierce of the Democratic party won the election with 27 of 31 states. election of 1856: Republican Party. Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act split the Whig Party. It failed and Brown was convicted of treason and hanged because he had ties with the northern abolitionists. making Brooks a hero in the South. Buchanan won the election. in 1856. Under his leadership. southern fear of future slave uprisings increased. Fillmore’s inexperience weakened his party. "The Crime Against Kansas. The loss of votes from the South was the result of Scott’s campaign. leading to the cruel treatment slaves. election of 1852: The election of 1852 was the end of the Whig Party. All opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act and believed that slavery should be banned from all territories of the nation. John Brown’s raid: The raid took place at Harper’s Ferry in 1859. at the same time. the federal government had increased power over foreign . Sumner-Brooks affair: Charles Sumner. also. Republicans became more suspicious of Slave Power in Congress. increasing the popularity of the Republicans. and the nomination of General Winfield Scott exacerbated the sectional split. A Tale of Great Dismal Swamp (1856) and The Minister’s Wooing (1859).

John Breckenridge: A division in the Democratic Party led to the nomination of two candidates for the 1860 election. •ELECTION OF 1860: candidates. He was the leader of John Brown’s raid and the Pottawatomie massacre. Buchanan and the secession crisis: Buchanan declared secession of states illegal. Taney ruled in 1861 that Lincoln exceeded his authority in suspending habeas corpus. who had the desire to preserve the Union. parties. issues: A united republican party attempted to appeal more to the North in order to win the campaign and developed an economic program to amend the damages of the 1857 depression. Compact Theory of Government: This theory involves the idea that the United States of America was founded by the union of thirteen individual states creating a federation of states. An unsuccessful second attempt to reach a consensus in Baltimore led them to nominate two candidates. yet he had no power to prevent it. Douglas and Breckenridge. Democratic Party conventions: The first assembly of delegates in Charleston in 1860 resulted in the split of the Democratic party as the Southern "fire-eaters" left the convention. This plays a major role in justifying the secession of the Southern states by stating that a state had the right to withdraw from the political entity it created. which had a platform based on the preservation of the Union. Bell created the new Constitutional Union party. was nominated by secessionists on a platform based on protection of slavery in territories.relations. an economic system based on protective tariffs. His nomination completed the split of the Democratic party. The constitutional party. They nominated Abraham Lincoln. Republican Party of 1860: In order to lure votes from Northern states to their party. and not on the controversial slavery issue. who held a moderate view on slavery. created by Whigs. was organized in favor of the Northerners. Breckenridge. His life ended when he was hanged for murder and treason. Buchanan’s vice president. He is regarded a martyr to the cause of human freedom. The democrats nominated two candidates. John Brown: John Brown was an American abolitionist who attempted to end slavery through the use of violence. John Bell: Opposed to both Lincoln and Douglas. Whigs nominated Bell in 1860. They were unable to agree on a platform based on the protection of slavery. each with opposing viewpoints on the slavery issue. federal aid for internal improvements and the distributing of 160-acre homesteads to settlers in order. This increased the tension between the North and South. nominated John Bell. He refused Southern demands to remove troops from Fort . an opposer of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Lecompton constitution. Lincoln’s nonchalant views towards slavery led them to victory.

but it also had advantages buried deep within its much stronger military tradition. The Civil War The Civil War was a terrible. Alabama. Florida. Lincoln’s innauguration South Carolina. eventually won. and to guarantee protection of slavery below this line. Because his efforts to supply the fort failed and due to failure of a constitutional plan. homes. the Union had more advantages in terms of material goods such as money and credit. The Union. •North’s advantages in the Civil War: The Union clearly had more military potential with its larger population of 22 million. The North in comparison with the South in these areas makes the North seem more advantageous. Crittenden Compromise proposal: The compromise was proposed by John Crittenden in an attempt to preserve the Union. Mississippi. It became the nation’s fourth largest producer of iron products. In addition to that. It divided the nation and resulted in the death of more Americans than all other wars combined. This allowed the Confederacy to produce a more able corps of officers. •South’s advantages in the Civil War: The Confederate States of America had a strong advantage in the fact that they were fighting a defensive war in familiar territory. The amendments were to bar the federal government from intervening in southern states’ decision of slavery. By March 1861. bloody war fought mainly over the issue of slavery. with advantages such as greater organization and prosperity. secession: Slavery fueling the states’ rights issue along with the loss of Congress and Northern opposition to the new Fugitive Slave Law made the election of 1860 the straw that broke up the union. . such as Robert E. Lee. Georgia. Louisiana. he left the office disappointed and discredited. and Texas had seceded. mineral resources. to restore the Missouri Compromise.Sumter. and an established railroad system to transport these material resources. food production. factories for manufacturing war goods. Southerners came from a rural rather than urban environments and therefore had more men experienced in the use of firearms and horses. but not before 620. During the Civil War the company contributed to the Confederacy cause. and entire towns were destroyed.000 Americans died and thousands of fields. Tredegar Iron Works: guided by Joseph Reid to success during a time when the economy in the North and South began to plunge because of their increased divergence. It also repealed personal liberty laws.

The Confederate ironclad frigate Merrimac had sunk the Cumberland and defeated the Congress in Hampton Roads but was forced to withdraw March 9 after an engagement with the Union’s ironclad Monitor. he took the offensive in the 7 Days Battle and beat the Union army at the 2nd battle of Bull Run. he thoroughly defeated Bragg at Chattanooga. McClellan: He was criticized for overcaution in the unsuccessful Peninsular Campaign and removed from command. Called on again in 1862. McDowell attacked Beauregard’s soldiers. but he allowed the Confederates to withdraw across the Potomac and was again removed. 1862 was the date of first naval battle between ironclad ships. but Jackson checked the advance and routed the raw Union troops. . on his famous march to the sea. Monitor and the Merrimac: March 8.000. Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomatox Courthouse. and received the surrender of General Johnston. but he was criticized for not following up his victory. 1861. Jackson: At the 1st battle of Bull Run Jackson earned his nick name when he and his brigade stood "like a stone wall. South Carolina and it was the site of the first conflict of the Civil War on Apr. He directed the Union army in the Wilderness Campaign and he received Lee’s surrender. barely escaped defeat at the Battle of Shiloh and ended Confederate control of the Mississippi in Vicksburg. built by John Ericsson. but the fort was eventually retaken by Union forces in 1865. He would run for president in 1864. Carolina. The Confederates under Beauregard bombarded the fort and were eventually victorious. he turned north through S. Antietam. with aid from the forces of Johnston. Lee: Commanding the Army of N. Commanding in the West. He commanded of the Army of the Potomac from 1863. Sherman: He fought in the Vicksburg and Chatanooga campaigns and ge undertook the Atlanta Campaign. General McDowell began to move on Confederate General Beauregard at Manassas Junction. with a force of 60. 12. Meade: He made himself known in 1862 at Seven Days Battle and the battles of Bull Run. Bull Run: On July 16. near the bridge over Bull Run River and drove them to the Henry House Hill. and later at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. After capturing Savannah. At Chancellorsville Jackson again flanked the Union army but was mortally wounded by his own troops. He burned Atlanta and set off. Lee repulsed Union advances at the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville and Grant’s assaults in the Wilderness Campaign." Serving under Lee. and won the battle of Gettysburg. devastating the country. he checked Lee in the Antietam Campaign. Virginia. Jackson flanked the Union army to set up the Confederate victory at the second battle of Bull Run.Fort Sumter: Fort Sumter is a fort in Charleston harbor. Grant: In 1862 he captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in Tennessee.

Then the South took the Peach Orchard but were repulsed. The 1864 Democratic platform reflected his pro-Southern views. who attacked him at Antietam Creek.Vicksburg: It was a battle fought for control of the Mississippi River. congressman from Georgia and was opposed to secession but he remained loyal to Georgia when the state seceded. and Ohio. Appomattox: Confederate Gen. Copperheads: Copperheads were Northerners who sympathized with the South during the Civil War.S. on September 17.. many clung to the belief that cotton would never fail them. Congressman Clement L. He was elected vice president of the Confederacy. It was a Union victory only in that Lee’s advance was stopped. First. the Union controlled all of the river except for the 200 miles south of Vicksburg. the so-called bloodiest day of the war. He was briefly imprisoned in 1863 for maintaining in a speech that the war was being fought to free African-American and enslave whites. Vallandigham and was especially strong in the states of Illinois. The surrender at Appomattox virtually ended the Civil War. After the war he was interned for several months. he assumed strong centralized power. but the rest of the Confederate forces did not surrender until May 26 at Shreveport. By late 1862. Louisiana. Grant opened siege. Pickett’s division forward in its infamous disastrous charge against the Union center. Gettysburg: It was Lee’s second invasion of the North. U. the Union was pushed to Cemetery Hill. As a result. Vallandigham: Vallandigham was the leader of the Copperheads during the Civil War.S. Antietam: In September 1862. and after 6 weeks the Confederates surrendered. On July 3 Lee ordered George E. He had many disputes with Confederate generals. Jefferson Davis: He left Washington after the secession of Mississippi. Maryland. In May of 1863 U. and Lee surrendered without his approval. Indiana. As president of the Confederacy. cotton versus wheat: Efforts by the Confederate government during the Civil War to convince planters to grow to wheat instead of cotton received little success.S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9. Vicksburg’s fall completed the encirclement of the Confederacy. Alexander Stephens: He was a U. 1865. While some planters heeded the government’s pleas. trying to invade Maryland and Pennsylvania. . Robert E. The term Copperheads was also used to label all Democratic opponents of Lincoln. and weakened the states’ rights policy for which the South had seceded. Meade and Lee met just west of Gettysburg. but Lee’s own advance was halted by McClellan. food shortages plagued the Confederacy. The group was led by Clement L. and he was against many of the policies of President Davis. Lee surrendered to Union Gen. Lee sent Jackson to capture Harpers Ferry.

but it was the most effective of early models. so at first the blockade was not as effective as northerners had hoped it would be and blockade-running was a common way for Southerners to obtain supplies Anaconda Plan: The Anaconda Plan was a Union strategy in the Civil War calling for the establishment of a naval blockade around the Confederacy to prevent the importation of supplies from Europe. Acts such as these had been blocked by southerners. The Union navy was fairly weak. Rifle: An improved rifle was one of the important technological advancements that transformed the Civil War. This basic civil liberty was suspended by both Lincoln and Davis during the war to deal with dissent. they suffered a far higher mortality rate than white troops. on the condition that the homesteader cultivate the land for 5 years. This weapon contributed to the high number of casualties in the Civil War. Black Soldiers: It was not until late in the Civil War that African American soldiers were allowed to participate in combat. northerners in Congress enacted legislation such as the Pacific Railroad Act authorizing a transcontinental railroad and the Homestead Act granting free land in the west. and they were far from perfected. Gatling Gun: The Gatling gun was one of the earliest machine guns. who intended to make war so horrible that it would make peace. but sunk itself as well. Despite the many hardships that it entailed. military service was a source of pride for blacks because it symbolized their freedom. railroad: After the South seceded. Submarines were used only to a limited degree in the Civil War. tariff. Lincoln used it to intimidate border states into rejecting secession. Republican legislation passed in Congress after Southerners left: banking. One of these submarines successfully dragged a mine through the water to sink a northern ship. the north attempted to establish a blockade of all Southern ports in order to stop the flow of essential supplies to the Confederacy.suspension of habeas corpus: Writs of habeas corpus are court orders requiring that the a cause of imprisonment be demonstrated before a person is jailed. Homestead Laws: The Homestead laws were laws passed in Congress in 1862. Submarine: Four submersible vessels were built during the American Civil War by the Confederates for use against the federal fleet. They were able to hit targets more accurately at large . homestead. It was slowly implemented and only partially successful. The Gatling gun was created created a man by the name Gatling. This allowed poor farmers to obtain land in the west and increased westward expansion. They permitted almost any American citizen to acquire a homestead of up to 160 acres of land in the West. but the blockade did contribute to the Northern victory. Northern blockade: During the Civil War. and when they were.

Trent Affair: In Nov. Charles Francis Adams: Adams was an American diplomat who. The United States threatened war if these ships were released to the South. so that trench warfare became a necessity. Laird rams: The Laird rams were two double-turreted. Alabama claims: There were a series of claims for indemnity made by the United States upon Great Britain in 1862. 1861. but the establishment of a draft prompted volunteering. a number of Republicans sought to prevent Lincoln’s renomination. This also contributed to the high number of casualties during the war. making open fields a hazard. draft riots: The Federal Militia Act of 1862 and the Confederate Conscription Act of 1862 allowed for conscription. a raider built in Great Britain for the Confederacy. but the issue increased tension between the Union and Britain. Riots in 1863 by anti-conscription protesters and impeded the process of drafting soldiers. although he failed to stop the sailing of the Alabama. The claims were for compensation for damages inflicted on Union property by a Confederate steamship built by the British. The claims were not resolved until the Treaty of Washington in 1871.. but contained many loopholes. During the Civil War the Union embraced this idea. contains contraband. the Trent. ironclad steamers. regardless of the number of stops made before arrival in the port. In the Trent affair. Lincoln was . President Lincoln released Mason and Slidell. the Republicans nominated Andrew Jackson for vice president. two Confederate emissaries who were on board and he interned them in Boston. This proclamation had the dual purpose of injuring the Confederacy and preventing Great Britain from entering the war in support of the Confederacy. seizing ships traveling from England to the West Indies with the final destination of Confederate ports. as ambassador during the Civil War. •Emancipation Proclamation: The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order ending slavery in the Confederacy. This was another source of diplomatic tension during the Civil War. The Emancipation Proclamation only freed slaves residing in the territories in rebellion against the government of the United States. helped to keep the British from recognizing the Confederacy. and removed Mason and Slidell. "continuous voyage": The concept of "continuous voyage" involves the idea that a voyage intended for an enemy port. he was instrumental in averting hostilities between the two nations.distances than previous guns. the Alabama. It was issued by President Lincoln after the battle of Antietam. built by a company in England for the Confederate navy. so the British purchased them for the royal navy. It also pushed the border states toward abolishing slavery. conscription. In order to balance Abraham Lincoln’s Union ticket with a Southern Democrat. election of 1864: In 1864. A Union captain stopped and boarded a British vessel.

•Lincoln’s ten percent plan: In it all southerners. but he was shot later. Andrew Johnson. citizens could vote in elections that would create new state governments and new state constitutions. The assassin. but was later shot and killed. Reconstruction Reconstruction was the process of bringing the southern states that had seceded during the Civil War back into the Union. On Apr. except high-ranking Confederate officials. 1865. a Union nurse during the Civil War. Barton worked for the International Red Cross in the Franco-Prussian War. He escaped. When ten percent of the 1860 voting population had taken this oath. Reconstruction lasted from the end of the Civil War in 1865 until the Tilden-Hays Compromise in 1877 restored the Democrats to power in the South. Lincoln was succeeded by his vice president.C. Ex parte Milligan: Ex parte Milligan was an 1866 Supreme Court limiting the authority of martial law and the suspension of habeas corpus in times of war. Clara Barton: Clara Barton. was known as "the Angel of the Battlefield. After the War. both the Confederate and Union governments were forced to sell public lands and tax." . 14. the court declared that "martial law can never exist where the courts are open in the proper and unobstructed exercise of their jurisdiction.. John Wilkes Booth. pledging loyalty to the Union and accepting the end of slavery. who plotted with six fellow-conspirators to assassinate Union leaders. D. escaped with a broken leg. D. he shot President Lincoln during a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theater in Washington. The fear that heavy taxation would cause unrest and corrode support of their cause. assassination of April 14. and organized the American Red Cross. could get a full pardon and restoration of rights after taking an oath. In this case.C. This led to high inflation. greenbacks. financing of the war effort by the North and the South: In order to pay for the Civil War. John Wilkes Booth: Booth was a Southern sympathizer during the Civil War. which she headed until 1904. 1865: President Lincoln wass assassinated while attending a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theater in Washington. There were many disagreements about the best way to accomplish this and many important pieces of legislation emerged as a result." She not only helped the war effort by nursing. After that the state would once again be eligible for representation in Congress and readmitted to the Union.able to overcome Democratic candidate George McClellan and win a second term in office. in the North. she also helped the Union obtain medical supplies. the governments issued bonds and.

Even after Republicans withdrew. calling for a stricter form of Reconstruction than that proposed by Lincoln. which declared the primacy of Congress in matters of the Reconstruction. the unreconstructed South: This term refers to failure of Reconstruction to permanently reform the South. which had left the Union. so Grant won reelection despite the corruption within his administration and his poor leadership. in July 1864. radicals sought to displace him. Among their leaders were Carl Schurz. Military commanders in the districts were appointed to oversee constitutional conventions in the districts and the creation of state constitutions. They issued Wade-Davis Manifest. there was corruption in the states. When the states were readmitted into the Union. This committee would exist until after Hayes was elected president. passed the Wade-Davis Bill. . civil rights legislation was practically overturned with open discrimination. White in 1868. Scalawags were considered traitors to the Southern cause and were condemned by Southern Democrats. Wade Davis Manifesto: Congress. Joint Committee on Reconstruction: The Joint Committee on Reconstruction was the Congressional committee consisting of leaders of both houses of Congress which led Congressional Reconstruction after the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 were passed. This military occupation would last until the states created new constitutions that included black suffrage. Greely was a choice acceptable to the Democrats. The decision also declared secession unconstitutional. White. •Reconstruction acts. veto.•Radical Republicans: The Radical Republicans were a group of Republicans unhappy with the corruption and policies of Grant’s administration. scalawags: A scalawag was a white Southerner who joined the Republican party during the Reconstruction period. Texas v. but unpopular with many of the leaders of his party. 1867: The Reconstruction Acts divided the Confederate states except Tennessee into five military districts. conquered territory theory: The conquered territory theory was a popular theory held by many Reconstruction policy makers after the Civil War that the southern states which seceded from the Union to form the Confederate States of America should be treated as if they were territories conquered from a foreign nation. After Lincoln pocket vetoed this bill. The party nominated Greeley for president. the permanent disfranchisement of Confederate leaders. Wade-Davis bill. and exploitation of African-Americans was common. Horace Greely. The term scalawag was applied both to entrepreneurs who supported Republican economic policies and Whig planters who had opposed secession. 1869: The trial of Texas v. and Charles Sumner. and ratification of the 14th Amendment. was a case which involved the disposition of Civil War bonds used by Texas. It was held that states in rebellion did not lose their existence or identity.

They imposed prohibitive taxes. Members used disguises. the maintenance of schools for illiterate former slaves. It was founded in the South in 1866 in opposition to Reconstruction. Essentially.carpetbaggers: Carpetbaggers were Northerners who went to the South during Reconstruction. to terrorize AfricanAmericans and their supporters. and the distribution of lands abandoned by or confiscated from Southern proprietors." He sincerely desired the betterment of the lives African-Americans. they condemned the newly-freed slaves to conditions not unlike slavery. Andrew Johnson: As president he was denounced by the radical Republicans for his Reconstruction program. Gettysburg. The African-American vote won them important posts in Republican state governments. . and to needy whites as well. black codes: The black codes were local laws intended to force African-Americans to continue working as plantation laborers. whippings and lynchings. Freedmen’s Bureau: The Freedmen’s Bureau furnished food and medical supplies to blacks. harsh vagrancy laws meant to intimidate the freedmen. "forty acres and a mule": "Forty acres and a mule" refers to the desire of Radical Republicans such as Thaddeus Stevens to carry out land redistribution in the South. Stevens saw the Southern states as "conquered provinces. Thaddeus Stevens: As a leader of the radical Republicans’ Reconstruction program after the Civil War. rituals. Ku Klux Klan: The KKK was an organization formed by ex-Confederates and led by Nathan B. Charles Sumner: Sumner was the aggressive abolitionist who was physically assaulted by Preston Brooks after making a strong antislavery speech. and most intended to settle in the South and make money there. Forrest disbanded the Klan in 1869. and Chattanooga campaigns. Forrest. He was one of the leaders of the radical Republicans’ Reconstruction program and was also an active participant in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. When Johnson tried to force Stanton out of office. He wanted to subdivide confiscated land and distribute it among the freedmen. he was unable to prevent many abuses to freedmen. guaranteeing civil rights and was a leader in the impeachment of President Johnson. He proposed the Fourteenth Amendment. As commissioner of the Freedmen’s Bureau after the war. restrictions on blacks’ ability to own property. but managed to provided needed food and medical and employment aid to many people. Proposals such as these failed in Congress and state legislatures. Antietam. Chancellorsville. Howard: Howard was a Civil War general who took part in the Bull Run. They carried their belongings in carpetbags. but the Senate failed to convict him by one vote. General Oliver O. It was also concerned with the regulation of wages and working conditions. the radical Republicans passed a resolution of impeachment against him for violation of the Tenure of Office Act.

and inherit property. hold. It said that no state can make or enforce any law which "deprives any person of life. by removing Secretary of War Stanton faced impeachment. but his dismissal by President Andrew Johnson and his subsequent refusal to leave office act precipitated the impeachment of President Johnson in 1868. and it attempted to redress the issue of slavery by defining all persons born in the nation as citizens. convey.Civil Rights Act: This act was passed in Congress with nearly unanimous Republican support in March 1866. 1870. make contracts. Fourteenth Amendment: The Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868. Secretary of War Stanton: Edwin Stanton served as the secretary of war under Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. or property. states could not "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. liberty. The formal accusation of Johnson went through the House on Feb. It also specified the rights of citizens. and the trial that may follow. to remove him from office. •IMPEACHMENT: Impeachment is the formal accusation by a legislature against a public official. Chief Justice Chase: Salmon Chase was the sixth chief justice of the Supreme Court and an abolitionist. This is the only instance of impeachment of an American president." Tenure of Office Act: The Tenure of Office Act was a measure passed by Congress in 1867. but the Senate failed to convict him. however. This amendment explicitly forbid denial of the right to vote for citizens "on account of race. when he created a national bank system. 1868. was as secretary of the treasury. They were both . The term includes both the bringing of charges. he presided over the impeachment trial of President Johnson. Revels. Johnson’s violation of this act caused the impeachment crisis. Bruce: Revels and Bruce were the first two AfricanAmerican politicians to serve a full term in the United States Senate." Fifteenth Amendment: Secretary of State Hamilton Fish ratified the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution of United States on March 30. or previous condition of servitude. or articles. Hiram R. the right to sue." This amendment guaranteed freedom for African Americans." Also. As chief justice. after violating the Tenure of Office Act. It prohibited the president from dismissing any cabinet member or other federal officeholder whose appointment had required the consent of the Senate unless the Senate agreed to the dismissal. color. It prohibited "slavery or involuntary servitude except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. President Andrew Johnson. give evidence in court. without due process of law. Blanche K. Thirteenth Amendment: The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution was ratified in 1865. His greatest achievement. 24.

the South became solidly Democratic. Once they gained control. •Compromise of 1877: As a result of the electoral vote from the election of 1876. crop lien system: Through this system. These white southerners remained a major force in national politics well into the 20th century. and Gone With the Wind. to resolve the dispute concerning the electoral votes between Tilden and Hayes. wiped out social programs. but former slaves were still relegated to inferior and submissive positions through economic. sharecropping: It was the farm tenancy system that arose from the cotton plantation system after the Civil War. The Legacy of Reconstruction Reconstruction changed the lives of southerners. and credit. . seed. 1877. segregation: Segregation was the practice held in the South after legislation made explicit discrimination in law illegal. the white southern landowners possessed a tight hold over African American farm production during much of the Reconstruction periond.. Radical Republicans intended to exploit the South by forcing it into economic and political submission. and social restrictions of their rights. the Democrats cut back expenses. especially those of the many slaves who first tasted freedom during this period. lowered taxes. In response to that legislation the concept of "separate but equal" dominated the policies Southern policy makers. five Republicans. Landlords provided land. Such beliefs were promoted by movies such as Birth of a Nation. The committee consisted of five Democrats. Black economic rights were eroded away with this crop lien system and along with sharecropping. minus their debt to the landlord. and five Supreme Court justices. and were the only two African-American Senators during Reconstruction. political. A cycle of dependency and debt would be the result of these systems. on January 29. The croppers contributed labor and received a share of the crop’s value. Reconstruction Myth: The Reconstruction Myth is the false belief that during Reconstruction. Congress created a 15-member bipartisan commission. This practice of keeping the races separate would not officially broken up until the mid-twentieth century. The social and political atmosphere of the postwar South would endure long into the 20th century. Solid South: After Reconstruction. Southern society changed in order to adjust to emancipation. and limited the rights of tenants and sharecroppers.representatives from Mississippi. This along with the crop lien system held back African Americans economically. Hayes was unanimously awarded the electoral votes from Oregon and South Carolina and the ones from Louisiana by a commission vote of 8 to 7.

Grant was admired throughout the North and was endorsed by Union veterans. but his cabinet was riddled with corruption. but it added a significant amount of territory to the United States.9¢ per acre. he prevented American filibustering expeditions against Cuba from escalating into war with Spain. Grant: Grant was an American general and the 18th president of the United States. which had arisen during the U. which settled disputes with Britain over the Alabama claims the and Canadian-American boundary. Napoleon III: After his election in 1848. Maximilian’s empire disintegrated when French troops withdrew. 1871: The Treaty of Washington was a treaty arranged by Hamilton Fish. Civil War. In it.S. created chaos in national politics. but his ability to cope with domestic controversy. Ulysses S. and Great Britain settled many minor disputes such as the Alabama claims. instituted reforms. Secretary of State Hamilton Fish: Fish served as Grant’s secretary of state. A war hero. Secretary of State William Seward: Seward was the American Secretary of State who handled diplomatic issues during and after the Civil War. . He was involved in the Trent Affair and his most notable act was the purchase of Alaska. Critics ridiculed this purchase as "Seward’s icebox. the U. Although the French drove Juárez’s army from the capital. The treaty also provided for arbitration of disagreements over the Canadian-American boundary and fishing rights. but the Mexicans were hostile to Maximilian and loyal to President Juárez." but it expanded American territory at a reasonable price. Maximilian in Mexico: Maximilian was instructed by Napoleon III in 1864 to establish a French empire in Mexico. Although he was a strong military leader. Also. especially the economic issues which began to arise. Grant did manage to make some important accomplishments in the area of foreign policy. 1867.2 million purchase at 1. The United States invoked the Monroe Doctrine as justification for their demand for French nonintervention. Grant proved to be a passive president with little skill at politics. Secretary of State William Henry Seward arranged the $7.Grantism and Postwar Politics Ulysses S. which resulted in his deposition. Grant was elected president of the United States in 1868 because he was a war hero. This purchase was denounced at the time as "Seward’s folly. Napoleon III proclaimed himself the Emperor of France. and rebuilt Paris. Treaty of Washington. His successful imperialist ventures were overshadowed by a failed campaign in Mexico to create a French-Mexican Empire and the Franco-Prussian War. purchase of Alaska: Alaska was ceded to the United States by the Russian Czar Alexander II in a treaty signed on March 30. He arranged the Treaty of Washington.S.

and Chicago were captured. "Salary Grab Act": In the Salary Grab Act of 1873. steel furnaces stood idle. Milwaukee. a politician named Sanborn was given a contract collect $427. was linked to this scandal. Republicans unhappy with the reelection of President Ulysses S. Belknap was Grant’s secretary of war.S. demand rose. he loyally defended his subordinates. Liberal Republicans: The Liberals Republicans’ revolt marked a turning point in Reconstruction history. Greeley was defeated. election of 1872: In 1872. Orville Babcock. Sanborn Grab Fraud: In the Sanborn Grab Fraud."Whiskey Ring": Grant’s private secretary. Credit Mobilier: Officials of the Union Pacific Railroad created a fake construction company. Although he was also endorsed by the Democrats. gold market.000 in unpaid taxes. called the Credit Mobilier. However. receiving a 50% commission for all money collected. 1869. Grant formed the Liberal Republican party and nominated as their candidate the journalist Horace Greeley. He took a bribe to sell lucrative Indian trading posts in Oklahoma. Although Grant was not personally involved. Banks closed. in order to cheat the government out of money allotted to the construction of the Union Pacific Railroads. attempted to corner the U. The panic was precipitated when two financial speculators. On May 10. Congress voted a 100% pay raise and a 50% increase for itself. The act was later repealed. James Fisk and Jay Gould. Colfax. Fisk and Gould probably made a profit of about $11 million through their manipulations. was unmasked in 1875 after taking money from the "whiskey ring. allowing the candidate to focus on his campaign rather than fundraising. but it was another example of the corruption of the postwar government. once the depression began. Bribing of Belknap: William E. He then used this commission as Republican campaign funds. September 24. the Panic of 1873 triggered a five-year depression. farm prices plummeted. Both raises were made retroactive two years back. Black Friday: Scandal caused a short-lived financial crisis in the United States that occurred on Friday." a group of distillers who bribed federal agents to avoid paying millions in whiskey taxes. This issue divided both major parties and was compounded by the repayment of federal debt. 16 distillers in areas of Saint Louis. depression: Transforming the northern economy. 1875. and one out of four railroads failed. They split the Republican party. leading to a Democratic victory in the next congressional election. The public was shocked. Grant’s vice-president. . Belknap resigned in 1876 when voters learned of his corruption. and the new party collapsed. Panic of 1873. supporting the Republican southern policy while attacking regular republicans on several key issues and denouncing Grantism and the spoils system.

Gilded Age Politics As America modernized." Debtors favored the Greenbacks because they could repay debts easier with this inflated currency. the era referred to the decades from the 1870s to the 1890s where Americans struggled to battle corruption in a morally deteriorating society. he had the courage to endorse the act which reformed the spoils system. election of 1876: The presidential election of 1876 resulted in neither Democrat Samuel Tilden nor Republican Rutherford Hayes receiving the 185 electoral votes necessary to become president."Waving the bloody shirt": During the election of 1876. he ended military rule of the South. the Republicans backed Rutherford Hayes against the Democratic candidate. making him president. the Greenbacks faded. politics played an increasingly important role in the lives of the common men." which was used in the last two elections. Greenback-Labor Party: The Greenback party was formed in 1876 with James Weaver as its presidential candidate. known as Greenbacks. The Gilded Age. • PENDLETON CIVIL SERVICE ACT: Because of the Pendleton Civil Service Act. to private citizens. Samuel Tilden. Greenbacks. They resorted to a tactic known as "waving the bloody shirt. Taking its name from the novel. This act also set up a civil service commission to prepare competitive exams and establish standards of merit for a variety of federal jobs. Senator John Sherman of Ohio and other Republican leaders obtained passage of the Public Credit Act of 1869. In 1883. Ohio Ideas: During the Civil War the Union had borrowed money through the sale of war bonds. . The party elected 14 members to Congress . and promoted the inflation of farm prices. The party adopted the debtors’ cause. which promised to pay the war debt in "coin. fought to keep greenbacks in circulation. and a Congressional committee gave all of these to Hays. The tactic emphasized wartime animosities by urging northern voters to vote the way they shot. There were 20 disputed votes. robber barrons schemed to corner the gold market. As prosperity returned. political and economical problems of the newly industrial nation. Specie Resumption Act: The Sherman Specie Resumption Act promised to put the nation effectively on the gold standard in 1879. political candidates were forbidden from soliciting contributions from government workers. Congress enacted a civil service law introduced by Senator George Pendleton of Ohio. it changed the minds of the Republican voters who also wanted to continue Greenbacks for the sake of "easy money." Grant signed this act. With some convincing. Diverse groups participated in the political arena as they attempted to reform the social. Unfortunately. In exchange. Although President Arthur was a Stalwart.

a clergyman denounced the Democrats as the party of "Rum. Half-breeds: They argued with the Stalwarts on the issues of who would control the party of machine and would distribute patronage jobs. the Sun. High Tariffs: Republicans preferred high tariffs. secretary of state under Garfield. The battle over patronage split the Republican party into two factions: the Half-breeds and the Stalwarts.Chester A. Blaine was considered one of the most popular Republicans of his time. they supported the Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland. who favored the spoils system of political patronage. Blaine’s mistake allowed Cleveland to obtain New York’s electoral votes. drinkers and patriotic Democrats. The two differed mainly over who would control the party machinery. The Democrats controlled the House. civil service legislation. The term was first used derisively in a New York City newspaper. who was later elected. The Wilson-Gorman Protective Tariff also unsuccessfully attempted to create an income tax. This 21st president.S. Romanism. He supported the passage of the Pendleton Act in 1883. Roscoe Conkling: The Stalwarts. Blaine. were lead by New York Senator Roscoe Conkling. This surplus stood as a continual temptation to distribute it in the form of veterans . Treasury surplus: The high tariffs were feeding a large and growing budget surplus." supported Cleveland. Election of 1884: James G Blaine was nominated by the Republicans. who served from 1881 to 1885. known as "Mugwumps. "Rum. Mugwumps: This term designated dissident members of the Republican party. while Democrats preferred low ones.S. Blaine: Blaine was a Republican Congressman. and a presidential candidate under the Republican Half-Breeds. The Dingley tariff of 1879 increased rates to an all-time high levels while the Currency Act of 1900 officially changed the U. The Half-breeds supported civil service reform and merit appointments to government posts. who ran against Conkling. which cost Blaine the election. in the presidential election of 1884. James G. They were joined together as the Republican party. Stalwarts. rose above the political corruption prevalent during the times and headed a reform-oriented administration that enacted the first comprehensive U. while the Republicans dominated the Senate. and was elemental in his party’s success in elections. Instead. gold standard. senator. Romanism." Blaine failed to repudiate the remark and the Democrats widely publicized this insult to Catholics. James G. The Independent Republicans. Cleveland supported low tariffs. and Rebellion. while Grover Cleveland was the Democratic nominee. who. refused to support the nominee of their party. but disputes over patronage split it into two: Stalwarts and Halfbreeds. Arthur: He became president after the assassination of Garfield. and Rebellion": At a rally on election eve.

Veterans disability pensions cost the government millions dollars a year. Election of 1888. 90% of all the states were convinced to adopt a new ballot like the one in Australia. . His tariff message upset many corporate boardrooms who thought that lowering the tariff would hurt their prosperity. and the Republicans became identified with economic prosperity. Harrison won in the electoral college by defeating Grover Cleveland. candidates. Presidential Succession Act of 1886: This act determined that if both the President of the United States and the Vice President both died or if they were both disqualified. known as pork barrel projects. Cleveland was convinced that surplus constituted a corrupting influence. Billion dollar congress. rather than Harrison. issues: Because Blaine decided not to run. secretary of treasury.pension or expensive public-work programs. Czar Reed: Harrison quickly rewarded his supporters. Secret ballot: Between 1888 and 1896. secretary of defense. and continued. McKinley Tariff: His administration enacted a higher tariff in 1897 and committed the country to the gold standard in 1900. He argued that lower tariffs would not only cut the federal surplus but also reduce prices and slow the development of trusts. secretary of state. The paper ballot emerged as a dominant voting method. bowing to GAR pressure. This was a Populist goal articulated in the Omaha Platform. veterans formed the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) to lobby for pensions. It generally promoted business confidence. there would be a line of succession. "Murchinson letter": Charles Murchinson wrote a letter to the British Ambassador to ask how he should vote during the election of 1888. In 1890. The GAR actively encouraged veterans to file claims. Benjamin Harrison. The Republicans falsely portrayed the Democrats as advocates of "free trade. Harrison signed the pension bill that Cleveland had earlier vetoed. the Republicans turned to Benjamin Harrison. Republican focused on the tariff issue. He appointed a past GAR commander as commissioner of pension. The ambassador fell into the trap and advised Murchinson to vote for Cleveland. Probably in part because of these policies. The secret ballot is also known as the Australian ballot. but in 1879. Congress had eased the rules for securing them. the economy recovered from a severe depression. Cleveland’s 1887 annual address: Cleveland focused his entire annual address message to Congress on the tariff issue. The line started with first the president pro tempore. which was a method of voting that listed voter options. Pension GAR: After the Civil War. The Republican Congress of 1890 became known as the Billion-dollar Congress." which many felt would have horrible consequences. The Republicans gracefully publicized the "Murchinson Letter" as a foreign attempt to meddle in an American election.

Pan Americanism. and he won the election.S. which restored confidence in the government. Alaska: Secretary of state William H. 1900: This act officially put the United States on the gold standard. Subsequent to this act. Morgan and August Belmont agreed to lend the government $62 million in exchange for U. to the gold standard." it was generally thought to be useless. "New Imperialism" Growing into a leading nation.2 million was paid to Russia for Alaska. did expand its influence in other countries. Blaine advocated the creation of an International Bureau of American Republics to promote a customs . It was passed by William McKinley’s administration during a time when both the House of Representatives and the Senate were dominated by Republicans. "new imperialism" was directed towards finding access to resources.S. which increased rates to all-time high levels. It did have a modest income tax of 12% on all income over $4000. $7. it preferred market expansion to the traditional European territorial colonialsim.S. the U. and opportunities for overseas investments. bonds at a special discount. Voters generally reacted against the high McKinley Tariff. there was little protest against the Dingley tariff. Morgan bond transaction: During the depression of 1893 to 1897. Seward negotiated the purchase of Alaska in 1867. James Blaine: In 1881 Secretary of State James G. and it was highly contested by Congress. Cleveland’s conservative economic policies brought him support. this tariff became a law without the signature of approval from Cleveland. the gold reserve dwindled to $41 million. Dingley tariff: The McKinley administration furthered its conservative platform through the Dingley Tariff of 1897.Election of 1892: The Republicans re-nominated Harrison. The Populists nominated James B Weaver who did not did better than expected.P. but later proved to be an excellent addition. Cleveland turned to Wall Street bankers J. markets for surplus production.S. while the Democrats turned to Grover Cleveland who was a Conservative. the United States hoped to further its international standing by emulating European nations that were expanding their influence throughout the world. the U. went on and off the gold standard several times and abandoned it in 1971. Due to the discovery of gold in Alaska and the prosperity of farms prices. Wilson-Gorman Tariff: In order to increase the sight of the governments role in an age of towering fortunes. The Currency Act of 1900 officially changed the U.S. but the supreme court declared it unconstitutional in 1895. The government then bought gold. Gold Standard Act. Although the U. During the 1870s. Also known as "Seward’s Icebox" or "Seward’s folly.

Even the common man shared in the American desire to gain wealth through the new industrial economy. Hawaii was claimed as an American territory in 1898. A Union naval officer during the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865.major industrial empires that drastically changed the face of American business. Emperor Meiji took it upon himself to enact tariffs. the Japanese army in Manchuria moved troops into the area. Mahan served in the navy for nearly 40 years. received international recognition as a comprehensive of naval strategy. proclaimed the independent Republic of Hawaii. Using the incident as a pretext to begin hostilities. Captain Mahan. annexation. The U. The United States also worked to bring an end to the War of the Pacific which was fought between Chile and the alliance of Peru and Bolivia. Facing ruin.S. and requested U. The assassination of Garfield kept Blaine from his organization until 1889. The title of The Influence of Sea Power upon History. Industrial America During the late 19th century. Tariff autonomy to Japan: During the Meiji period following the collapse of the shogunate. He was promoted to the rank of captain in 1885.union of trade and political stability for the Western Hemisphere. Japan transformed. from its traditionally isolationist feudal society into a world power. Although many opposed the large businesses when they hurt individuals. the industrial sectors of society rapidly expanded. 1937. and thus. Japan controlled its own tariffs. Sino-Japanese War: A Chinese patrol clashed with Japanese troops on the Marco Polo Bridge near Beijing on July 7. taking on imperialistic quailites.S. The U. US mediation of border disputes: The United States offered its aid to promote the peaceful resolution of border conflict between a number of states. and the captains of industry created .S. Hawaiian Revolution: Hawaii’s wholesale sugar prices plummeted as a result of the elimination of the duty-free status enjoyed by Hawaiian sugar. Although the war was never actually declared. Corporations emerged. Americans generally favored industrialization. precipitating another SinoJapanese war. navy sought access to the Port of Pago Pago as a refueling station. ratified a treaty with Samoa in 1878 which gave America trading rights and a naval base at Pago Pago. Port of Pago Pago: Restless stirrings in America were felt in the far-off Samoan Island in the South Pacific. The Influence of Sea Power: . . the planters deposed Queen Liliuokalani in Jan 1893.

and several associates. Adam Smith.000. competition." At the age of 33." • UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD. Rockefeller integrated the petroleum industry horizontally by merging the competing oil companies into one giant system. and he arranged with the railroads to obtain substantial rebates on shipments by members of the association. Utah in order to connect the two. It had slashed the number of refineries in half. The Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads were joined together to form the first transcontinental railroad in May 1869 when railroad executives drove a golden spike into the ground at Promontory Point. Adam Smith believed that self-interest was an "invisible hand in the marketplace. CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD: The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 had authorized the construction of the transcontinental railroad. Rockefeller helped form the South Improvement Company in early 1872. automatically regulating the supply of and demand for goods and services. His philosophy was simple: "watch the costs and the profit will take care of themselves. "beyond this never earn. It allowed Americans to travel from coast to coast in a week. Hill. he said. Some of these Robber Barrons were Jay Gould. Rockefeller: He is famous for his Standard Oil Company. which was an association of the largest oil refiners in Cleveland. it had previously taken several months to do so. The Wealth of Nations: In The Wealth of Nations. "Robber Barrons": Known as the great captains of industy and as robber barons who lined their pockets. It began in the late 18th century as a strong liberal reaction to trade taxation and nationalist governmental control known as mercantilism. but spend the surplus each year for benevolent purposes. Rockefeller. John D. Andrew Carnegie: Carnegie decided to build his own steel mill in 1870. the Standard Oil Trust had consolidated crude oil by buying throughout its member firms. was declared an illegal monopoly and ordered dissolved by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1892. the first corporate trust. of industry made their money by manipulating the stock markets and company policies. when he had an annual income of $50. or villains. The doctrine favors capitalist self-interest. This." He endorsed a laissez-faire approach to economics and was the first to define the system of capitalism. Horizontal consolidation: Within three years. these captains. his brother William. Rockefeller integrated the petroleum industry vertically by controlling every function from . Standard Oil Company: The Standard Oil Company was organized in 1870 by Rockefeller.Laissez-faire: It meant non-governmental interference in business. In 1882 Rockefeller formed the Standard Oil Trust. He had a desire for cost cutting and efficiency. and natural consumer preferences as forces leading to optimal prosperity and freedom. and John D. Vertical consolidation: The Standard Oil Trust had consolidated crude-oil buying throughout it members firms and slashed the number of refineries in half. published in 1776. make no effort to increase fortune.

Bell had been working on the idea of transmitting speech. and improving efficiency. Edison: He epitomized the inventive impulse.S. He founded the Vanderbilt University. The bessemer invention offered a means of driving up profits. and in 1870. he founded the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. With Hill. Cornelius Vanderbilt: An American industrialist and philanthropist. and motion picture projector had advanced the life of modern society. This became the first business to capitalize at more than $1 billion dollars. his development of a practical electric light bulb. Alexander Graham Bell: An American inventor and teacher of the deaf. Since the age of 18. and he served as its president from 1896 to 1904. Paul and Pacific Railroad. Carnegie’s steel mill profits rose every year despite labor troubles and a national depression. senator from California. Bessemer process: The process consisted of a shot of air blasted through an enormous crucible of molten iron to burn off carbon and impurities. He and three other partners bought the St. and became president in 1886. Therefore. he started the Central Pacific Railroad Company. combined with cost analysis. Hill. He was one of the cofounders of the National Geographic Society. Morgan set up the U. He also founded the journal Science in 1883. This new technology. audiometer. With Frick’s great leadership. lowering cost. After the agreement. Steel corporation. he served as the Republican governor of California and the U. provided a learning railroad experience for Carnegie. and the first was recording cylinder introduced in 1885. he became associated with the New York and Harlem Railroad in 1867. electric generating system. He shared the same dream as Carnegie to interconnect industry system with technology. James G. His other inventions includes the induction balance. He controlled all aspects of manufacturing from mining to selling. Great Northern Railroad: He reorganized and expanded the railroad industry in the 1870s and 1880s. he was most famous for his invention of the telephone. sound-recording device. Thomas A.production to local retailing. An American inventor.S. He was exemplified as a robber baron who manipulated stock markets and company policies. Charles Schwab: He became president of Carnegie Steel when he bought half of the company for half a billion dollars. Leland Stanford: An American Railroad magnate and a politician. With Henry’s help. Henry Clay Frick: Frick’s job was to manage the daily operations of Carnegie’s company. Carnegie was free to pursue philanthropic activities. he combined Carnegie’s company with Federal Steel. At the same time he began to act as head of the Vanderbilt family. .

but he introduced profit sharing and encouraged higher wages and better working conditions. Iron production began there in the late 19th century. and steaks. They also developed the technique of refrigerating food in order to ship food across seas. and made a profit while ruining the business of other investors. Some who "stock watered" persuaded the populace to buy up stock. and Philip Armour turned pigs and cattle into bacon. his vault was full of bonds that he could no longer sell. but then sold the stock when prices rose. Jay Gould and Jim Fiske: They attempted to corner the gold market in 1869 with the help of Grant’s brother-in-law. In September of that year. He later became a partner and the president. pork chops.United States Steel Corporation. and statesman. which was the largest in the nation. This was during 1890 when the stock market was at an all time high. J. The family concentrated on cigarette production in 1881. James. . along with four partners. Mesabi Range: Andrew Carnegie bought an ore company in the newly opened Mesabi Range in Minnesota in 1892. The Mesabi Range is one of the chief iron-producing regions in the world. and educated at the University of Pennsylvania. Grant’s reputation was tarnished and could not be restored. merged to form the American Tobacco Company in 1890. Indiana. Unfortunately. The city of Gary. industrialist. Duke: An American tobacco industrialist and philanthropist whose career originated with a small family business. Gary: Gary was a lawyer who later became president of the Federal Steel Company in 1898. "Stock watering": This term referred to the act of issuing stock certificates far in excess of the actual value of the assets.S. When gold prices tumbled. was shut down. is named after him. The hills contained large deposits of iron ore. the Northern Pacific. of the firm that developed into the Mellon National Bank. he started his career in the banking firm of Thomas Mellon and Sons of Pittsburgh. Andrew Mellon: An American financier.: He was a Philadelphia banker who had taken over the new transcontinental line. Elbert H. government securities on a massive scale. They both won a large share of the eastern urban market for meat. James B. Gould and Fiske salvaged their own fortunes. Within few years. a Chicago meatpacker. James lead and dominated the national market.. Gary was a strong foe of unions. Pierpont Morgan: When national depression struck a number of railroads in 1893. Cook fail to meet obligation and his bank. He also marketed U. Phillip Armour: Swift. Morgan refinanced their debts and built an intersystem alliance by purchasing blocks of stock in the world of competing railroads. in 1869. Gustavus Swift. in 1902. Jay Cook Co. originally a steel company town. investors were ruined.

end discriminatory practices. short haul: It was cheaper to ship a long haul on the railroads than it was to ship a short haul. Small farmers were angered that they. and require annual reports and financial statements. INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION: The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 was passed to provide that a commission be established to oversee fair and just railway rates. the government prosecuted only eighteen antitrust suits. This Act was passed in 1887 with the Interstate Commerce Commission. Rebates: A rebate is a partial monetary return of an amount paid. Depression of 1873: Early in Grant’s second term. Holding Companies: A holding company is a corporation that owns a controlling share of the stock of one or more other firms. Violators were fined up to five thousand dollars and one year in prison. The act established a new agncy. Brought on by over expansive tendencies of railroad builders and businessmen during the immediate postwar boom. The Interstate Commerce Act prohibited rebates for railway rates because they discriminated between different groups. who made many short hauls. In the 1870s. • INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT. The pool lacked legal status. As a result. and it was instead used to hinder the efforts of labor unions who acted "in restraint of trade. the Panic was triggered by economic downturns in Europe and by the failure of Jay Cooke’s bank. lawyers invoked New Jersey law that allowed permitted corporations to own property in other states by simply reorganizing the trust as an enormous holding company. Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890. which allowed the government to investigate and oversee railroad activities. Long haul. many state legislatures." . the country was hit by an economic depression known as the panic of 1873. the Interstate Commerce Commission. which outlawed trusts and other restraints of trade. When Standard Oil faced the problem of antitrust suits in 1892. while the trust was a legal device that centralized control over a number of different companies by setting up a board of trustees to run all of them. prohibit rebates. Fourteenth Amendment’s "due process clause": The fourteenth amendment declared in its first clause that all person born or naturalized in the United States were recognized as citizens of the nation and as citizens of their states and that no state could abridge their rights without due process of law or deny them equal protection of the law. The Sherman Antitrust act failed to define either trust or restraint of trade clearly.Pool. outlawed rate discrimination as a result of protests led by the Grangers. 1890: Fearing that the trusts would stamp out all competition. Trust: Competition became so vicious that railroads tried to end it by establishing pools in order to divide the traffic equally and to charge similar rates. Small farmers were angered that they were required to pay more than other interests were. between 1890 and 1904. • SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT. were discriminated against.

until his death in 1924. Sylvis called a convention in Baltimore that formed the National Labor Union (NLU). he. and liquor dealers. The Octopus. Georgia. acting on his dream of a nationwide association to represent all workers. as a means of obtaining labor demands. was a noted pioneer of naturalism in literature. workers organized themselves to protect their welfare. • KNIGHTS OF LABOR. TERRENCE POWDERLY: The Knights of labor dreamed of a national labor movement. William Sylvis: In 1866. His best-known works. they excluded bankers. Labor Unions. . such as the National Labor Union and the Knights of Labor. and The Pit . and was led by Uriah Stephens. This organization was founded in Philadelphia in 1869. URIAH STEPHENS. professional gambler.S. hours. lawyers. In their organization. stressed cooperation between management and labor instead of strike actions. New South. They did not intend to have a violent revolution nor political radicalism. They demanded bargaining in labor contracts with large corporations such as railroads. and manufacturing. The Growth Of Labor Reacting to the emergence of big business. workers collectivized to gain power through their numbers. published in 1903. and safety precautions. His novels portray the demoralizing effects of modern technology on the human fate. novelist Frank Norris. he did much to restore friendly relations between the North and South during a period of bitter hatred and conflict. and demanded equal pay for women. Samuel Gompers and Adolph Strasser put together a combination of national crafts unions to represent the material interests of labor in the matter of wages. Samuel Gompers: An American labor leader. but also embraced banking reform and an end to conviction labor. as president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Henry Grady: Henry Grady was a U. The organization supported the eight-hour day movement. The Octopus:The U. were created in order to establish forums for workers to express discontent.S. attack the railroad and wheat industries in the United States. • AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR (AFL): Confronted by big business. They welcomed all wage earners." which referred to a rejuvenated south. Feeling that they were helpless against the practices of the large corporations. As editor. published in 1901. an end to child and convict labor. who was also the head of the Garment Cutters of Philadelphia.Frank Norris. National Labor Union. He bought share in Atlantic Constitution in 1879. and cooperative employer-employee ownership. journalist and orator born in Athens. He led the AFL for forty years. mining. He often lectured on the concept of "The New South.

Many police and civilians were injured as well. requiring a defendant to refrain from committing a specific act. Great Railroad Strike. Pinkertons: They were a group in Allan Pinkerton’s organization. The police were attempting to break up the meeting when a bomb was thrown by a protester. It provides that employees in the bargaining unit shall be union members and remain in good standing in the union as a condition of employment. Many of these shops were banned by the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947. or prohibitory in nature. This spread up and down the railroad line across the nation. Company Union: First adapted by the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company in 1915. the National Detective Agency. Yellow Dog Contracts: With the formation of labor unions. The AFL demanded collective bargaining in labor contracts with large corporations. In 1877. 100 people died in the strike. He was criticized for pardoning the anarchists who threw the bomb in the Haymarket Square . It is an order or decree in the law of equity. Railroad roadhouse were torched. injurious to the plaintiff. the Pinkertons fired on the strikers. • haymarket square riot: Strikers and police had a confrontation while a strike was in progress on May 4. which which made getting another job later much harder. so the company had the final word on the labor policy. It was generally used against strikers. which forced the employee to agree not to strike or join a union. Several protesters were shot by police the day before. restraining. In the Homestead Strike. when a railroad strike broke out. Injunctions are generally preventive. killing many of them. workers began to strike to obtain better conditions. Injunction: An injuntion is a court order. and they got them. 1886. President Rutherford B. The terms are set forth in a written agreement that the union and the employer promise to enforce. A violent gun battle ensuedin which seven police were killed. Hayes sent in troops to stop the strike. However. The workers wanted unions. employers blacklisted employees that went on strike. but they were controlled by the management. a process by which unions and employers negotiate terms of employment. They also made employees sign yellow dog contracts.Collective bargaining: The major function of unions is collective bargaining. and a protest against police violence was called. at the McCormick reaper works in Chicago. 1877: A group of railroad workers on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad rose up and began to strike due to wage cuts. John Peter Altgeld: He served as the liberal governor of Illinois from 1893 to 1897. They often spied on the unions for the companies. they were called in as strikebreakers. Closed Shop: The closed shop is an agreement between a trade union and an employer which is a collective bargain. either in process or threatened. Blacklist. it was a company-sponsored labor union that was dominated by the management.

He also sat on the board of directors of three major networks of railroads. 1904. Homestead Strike: Called in 1892 by the Amalgamated Association of Iron. Steel.S. and many cities became impersonal metropolises that were divided into business. history. . He was the party’s presidential candidate five times: in 1900. He was arrested for these actions. after a strike by workers in Danbury. after meeting socialist Victor Berger. Debs was arrested and the strike was broken up. residential. Debs. He later became a lecturer and organizer for the Socialist movement. Danbury Hatters Strike:. company guards and Pinkertons opened fire on the strikers after four months of striking. and 1912. These urban centers quickly crowded. This union was a precursor of the union movement that followed in the 1930s. that unions were prohibited from setting up boycotts in support of strikes. It was against the Homestead Steel Works.Riot and for objecting to the use of federal troops in the Pullman strike. which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company. killing and wounding many strikers. Debs led a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads. and Tin Workers. On July 6. It was said that a boycott was a "conspiracy in restraint of trade. in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. he helped bring about the shut down of western railroads with the 1894 Pullman Strike. The Supreme Court declared in 1908. because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers." Urbanization Rapid urbanization began in the 1870s as people flocked to the cities. it was a union created in a short-lived attempt to bring all of the railroad workers into one organization. The union was involved in the 1894 Pullman Strike. The state militia dispersed the strikers. which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894.S. Richard Olney: He was the United States Attorney General from 1893 to 1897. Connecticut. American Railway Union: Created by Eugene V. Pullman Strike: The American Railway Union and Eugene V. social and ethnic centers. Eugene V. He also helped organize the Social Democrat party in 1897. Debs: As the president and the organizer of the American Railway Union. it was one of the most violent strikes in U. President Grover Cleveland interfered and stopped the strike by saying that they had interfered with the right of the government to maintain the uninterrupted transport of mail. which was known for its hat industry. Amidst this chaos. The General Manager’s Association attempted to get an federal injunction from Olney against the strikers for refusing to move cars carrying U. mail. His action was considered dangerously radical by the American public. 1908.

or to get him to the position of a sergeant. also known as the Tammany Society. There was a lack of fresh air and light in these housing units. tenements were small housing units that were extremely overcrowded. . In addition. he became an illustrator for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper in 1855. and that contained filth. This facilitated the move away from the city’s center. He was best known for his cartoons slandering the corrupt Tammany ring of New York during the period from 1869 to 1872. whose supposed goal was to preserve democratic institutions. Boss George B. had a reputation for being one of the most honest bosses. Cox: Cox. He held New York City and state political posts where he increased his power. it is the name for the New York Democratic party machine. and encouraged judicial corruption. he controlled New York politics. and was opposed by reform groups. However. referred to the police corruption that took place in the Tammany Hall political machine. they were inhabited mainly by new immigrants. created by George Washington Plunkitt. ran for president of the United States. Streetcar Suburbs: The creation of electric streetcar systems allowed families to move farther from the city’s center. and he received generous rewards. He later worked for Harper’s Weekly. George Washington Plunkitt: A minor boss in Tammany Hall and a member of the New York State Assembly. Streetcar companies purchased land on the city’s periphery and made tremendous profits on the sale of the real estate. to get him a promotion. The streetcar system allowed people to live farther away from their work. Thomas Nast: A political cartoonist and caricaturist. the Tammany Society. It began to gain power with the rise of Boss Tweed in 1868.corruption thrived as political bosses ran the city for their own personal gain. and in addition. The practices included paying bribes to make an individual a police officer. Alfred E. Boss Tweed: He was an important figure in New York’s political machine. the boss of Cincinnati’s Republican political machine. he was skilled in winning numerous votes for party candidates by associating with and being kind to the people in New York. He worked his way up the ladder from being a newspaper boy to being the head of the political machine. The worst tenements became known as slums. Smith. poorly built. Its leader. Tammany Hall gained a great reputation for its corrupt practices. Forming the Tweed Ring. Tenements: Built by a landlord. which bought votes. He was paid by these candidates. he helped with many public works in the city. "Honest Graft": This term. • TAMMANY HALL: Founded by anti-federalist William Mooney. It appeared as if the nation was modernizing quicker than it could deal with problems of urbanization.

the Ashcan School focused on more contemporary subjects. . He served as the ambassador to the United States from 1907 to 1913. and early social documentaries in American history. including double-glass windows. which is one of the most discerning studies ever written on U. popular. of which he became secretary. Armory Show: It was an art exhibition that took place in New York between February 17 and March 15. political institutions. Frank Lloyd Wright: Wright was one of the greatest twentieth-century architect and is cosidered a pioneer of the modern style. rather than on the academic and impressionist styles of the 19th century. he was influential in bringing about parks and playgrounds in overcrowded neighborhoods. who exhibited their style together as a group in 1908. 1913 at the 69th Regiment Armory. he produced over 100 buildings. he formed the Workingman’s Party of California. How the Other Half Lives: Riis was a social reformer and writer who wrote one of the most influential. Jacob Riis. James Bryce: He was a British historian and statesman who became the leader of the Liberal Party.Denis Kearney: He was a labor leader who protested the increasing numbers of Chinese laborers when California had an economic depression in 1877. who later became a famous architect. Together with his partner Dankmar Adler. mails." Ashcan School: This school contained a group of painters. and air conditioning. It was an international exhibition in which modern art was first shown in the United States.S. Roebling: Roebling was one of the creators of the suspension bridges. in his construction. Anthony Comstock: Comstock was a reformer. known as The Eight. He began as a designer for the Adler Sullivan firm. He was also the founder of what is now the Chicago School of Architects. He also created and manufactured steel-wire ropes which he used.S. With his support. He wanted to reform tenement housing and schools. who helped organize the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice in 1873. It became known as the Comstock Law. Louis Sullivan: Sullivan was an American architect who used steel frames to design skyscrappers. which later became associated with the Grange movement. He was also influential in the passage by Congress of the 1873 law concerned with obscenity in the U. Led by Robert Henri. His most famous pupil was Frank Lloyd Wright. In addition. John A. A quarter of a million paid to see the show. along with steel cables. and he introduced many innovations. He was also the author of The American Commonwealth (1888). He created the philosophy of "Organic Architecture. metal furniture. One of his most famous works was the Brooklyn Bridge which he completed shortly before his death.

it was one of three laws that attempted to solve the increasing immigration problem. Bowers. polygamists. There had also been increasing labor violence against the Chinese. "New Immigration": They were a new group of immigrants coming into the United States that consisted of Italians. In the 1890s. this was a secret antiCatholic society founded in 1887. 1882: Passed by Congress. prostitutes. arriving from Southern and Eastern Europe. Slavs. which was published in 1899. and Armenians. during the 1870s. anarchists. Jews. The Theory of The Leisure Class. gushed into the already overcrowded metropolises. Chinese Exclusion Law. In addition. The largest group of approximately three million. Literacy tests were imposed on all immigrants. and the numbers continued to increase for the next three decades. They came from both Southern and Eastern Europe. In addition to these difficulties. . Scottish. Most of the immigrants came from peasant and poor backgrounds and boosted America’s foreign-born population by 18 million. All of these immigrants came over in search of jobs and of new economic opportunities. They were the largest group of immigrants that migrated to the United States. Introducing the concept of "conspicuous consumption. The Theory of the Leisure Class: Thorstein Bunde Veblen was best known for his book. Literacy tests: Passed by Congress in 1917in order to restrict immigration. one and a half million traveled over from Ireland. Many immigrants faced the dual problems of changing cultures and migrating from a rural life to an urban one. and all convicts. "Old Immigration": This Term applies to those migrating from Western and Eastern Europe. From Melting Pot To Salad Bowl The earlier immigrants to American consisted mainly of Northern Europeans. Greeks. and any immigrant who could not pass the tests was not allowed entry into the U. their numbers first began to increase. the law enlarged the group of immigrants that could be excluded from the United States. They were often discriminated against. persons suffering from loathsome or contagious diseases. It died in 1911. American Protective Association: Founded by Henry F. in Clinton Iowa. immigrants had to be examined. By this law. However. came from Germany in the 1840s and 1850s. the new immigrants often faced prejudice from nativist Americans.Thorstein Veblen.S. which totaled 2 million. Next came the British.S. and Welsh immigrants. and also from the Middle East. The panic of 1893 greatly increased its membership." his writing was an assault on the values and lifestyles of the Gilded Age businessmen. and persons liable to become public disturbances and problems were all excluded form the U. a flood of immigrants. and it supported the Republican Party until it split over the question of whether or not to support William McKinley.

• SOCIAL GOSPEL: It was a Protestant liberal movement led by Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch that applied Christian principles to the numerous social problems that affected the late 19th century United States as a result of industrialization. many people united in this league in the fight against saloons. In addition. the laws regulating many aspects of saloons were either reduced or eliminated. By 1916 they enacted anti-saloon laws in 23 states and in 1917 they passed the 18th amendment beginning prohibition. Geological Survey. he wrote 38 books. With the help of Ellen Star. in 1912. which include Working People and their Employers. He linked theological liberalism with strong social concern.The Middle Class Reform Impulse As Americans viewed the poverty throughout their cities. she created the Hull House in 1889 in Chicago. He also helped found the Society of Jesus to publish periodicals for the working class. He argued against William Graham Sumner in his Dynamic Sociology and stated that the laws of nature could be changed by mankind through government experts regulating big business. Lester Frank Ward: Ward worked with the U. As a result. Washington Gladden: He was a Congregationalist minister who became known for his pragmatic social theology. there was a prevalent feeling of condecension towards the poorer classes. Salvation Army: Founded by Methodist William Booth. Jane Addams.S. it is a religious and charitable organization dedicated to spreading the Christian faith and giving assistance to those in . Walter Rauschenbusch: He was a clergyman who was one of the leaders of the Social Gospel movement. and it also served to combat juvenile delinquency and to assist the recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. and preventing the destruction of natural resources. He worked with Walter Rauschenbusch as a leader of the Social Gospel movement. which was the first settlement house in the U. The movement preached and taught religion and human dignity to the working class in order to correct the effects of capitalism. Addams played a large role in the formation of the National Progressive Party and the Women’s Peace Party. in many cases. He sought to solve social problems caused by the industrialized society by applying Christian principles. protecting society’s weaker classes. Anti-Saloon League: During and after the American Civil War. In addition.S. In 1908 the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America adopted a social creed that called for many improvements in society. Groups were formed to aid the less fortunate Americans who inhabited the slums of the cities. Although these citizens strove to aid their fellow man. It was a welfare agency for needy families. Hull House: She was a social worker and a Nobel laureate. middle class Americans strove to enact reform measures that would aid their society.

He created a system of philosophy that included his own theory of evolution. • Edward Bellamy. and these people reap the benefits of the rise in value of the land. Progress and Poverty: George was an economist and social philosopher. This novel led to the formation of many socialistic clubs. • SOCIAL DARWINISM: It is a theory developed in the late 19th century by which individuals and societies believed that people. Herbert Spencer: Spencer was a British philosopher. Bellamy created the journal. YMCA: British Sir George Williams founded this organization in response to unsanitary social conditions in large cities at the end of the Industrial Revolution. like all other organisms compete for survival and success in life. Looking Backward. control all social order and they can not be changed by man. and A System of Synthetic Philosophy. in 1891. but also incorporated all existing fields of knowledge.S. 2000-1887: He was an essayist and journalist who founded the Springfield Daily News. . This novel was a depiction of an ideal society in the year 2000. they misinterpreted his words. and then turned toward literature. libraries. and the less fit in society would be poor and the lower classes. William Graham Sumner. and to stop the young workers from gambling and engaging in other disreputable. whose goal was to give aid to the London slums. Josiah Strong: Strong was the secretary of the American Home Missionary Society and the minister of Cincinnati's Central Congregational Church. What Social Classes Owe Each Other: Sumner was a sociologist and author of What Social Classes Owe Each Other. Those who were best fit for survival would become rich and powerful. Also. In the U. he wrote his book Our Country. Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis in 1885. but in reality. He published his most famous work in 1888. In this book. Many felt that this theory was expounded by Charles Darwin.. He was also editor in chief of the religious and political periodicals Independent and The Christian Union. Rev. he was an effective champion of women's rights and suffrage. It was founded in 1865 in England as the Christian Mission. who was regarded as one of the first sociologists. and summer camps. Principles of Psychology. which was entitled Looking Backward.need of both spiritual and material aid. His works include Social Statics. he stated that unchangeable laws of nature. where he stated that cities were centers of anarchy and destruction. Henry Ward Beecher: Beecher was the pastor of the Plymouth Church of the Pilgrims in Brooklyn. New Nation. who was also one of the earliest and best known abolitionists. it began constructing gyms. such as survival of the fittest. In his book Progress and Poverty. Afraid that poverty was escalating. New York. 2000-1887. He recommended a shift to what he called a single tax. It was believed that human progress depended highly on competition. To further publicize his views. he stated that land ownership is concentrated in the hands of a few. Henry George.

and it found fault with capitalism for the poverty and insecurity that it left the working class in. The doctrine was described in his book Progress and Poverty. immigration. 1891: Formulated by Pope Leo XIII. In his theory. Many Catholic socialism movements are derived from this. and the growth of business. It emphasized social problems which tied it into the Social Gospel Movement. He was also the author of the book In His Steps . This was the message in his "Acres of Diamonds" lecture. Together with Ira Sankey. In His Steps: He was a Congregational clergyman and a social reformer.The Single Tax: Developed by social philosopher and economist Henry George. came a fervor of cultural display. Mary Baker Eddy: She was the founder of the Christian Science Association and the Church of Christ. Rerum Novarum. Moody: Moody was the creator of the Illinois Street Church which was later renamed the Moody Memorial Church. It held private property as a natural right. which is the story of people who tried to pattern their lives after the life of Jesus. The Flowering Of American Culture Along with the new social currents of the day caused by rapid urbanization. Henry James: James was a writer and brother of philosopher William James. He wrote about the impact of European culture on Americans who traveled or lived abroad. and The Golden Bowl. it was a doctrine of social reform where all taxation should be reduced to a single tax on land. Dwight L. Scientist. "Acres of Diamonds": Conwell was a Baptist minister who preached about ordinary man's and capitalist's materialistic longings. The Wings of the Dove. He also founded the Bible Institute in Chicago in 1889. causing them to strive to express their views through various forms." His theories were presented in his novel The Origin of Species. she published . which is often called "survival of the fittest. Russell Conwell. the development of organisms came through a process called natural selection. After a remarkable recovery from sickness. and it was influenced by 17th century philosopher John Locke and British economist David Ricardo. it was the Catholic social doctrine. he began a series of revival meetings and opened the Northfield Seminary for Young Women and the Mount Hermon School for Boys. Charles Sheldon. American culture diversified as Americans saw the society around them drastically changing. He used religious virtue to justify the quest for wealth as a Christian endeavor. Charles Darwin: Darwin was a British Scientist who created the theory of modern evolution. Rev. Some of his famous writings include The Ambassadors. which he gave over 6000 times.

and those who got rich in the postwar boom. 1862: Introduced to Congress by Republican Justin Morrill. she founded the international daily newspaper Christian Science Monitor. which combined daily Bible studies with healthful recreation. It later expanded to include concerts. depressions. Maryland. 1869. which the government in order to promte the teaching of agriculture. in political science here. He created a set of books containing 50 volumes known as Harvard Classics. The movement was imitated numerous times in the United States. as well as strikes. It was founded in 1876. and urban growth. • "gilded age": Given its name by the novel by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley. swindlers. it is a time period which criticized the lobbyists. despair and bitterness. who remodeled the curriculum on a liberal basis. It was a supplement to the land grant colleges. This class . He laid the foundations of the modern understanding of electromagnetic phenomenon and thermodynamics. he was an assistant professor of mathematics and chemistry there for five years. politicians who took bribes. he was a professor of mathematical physics for 34 years. Morrill Land Act. In 1869. This act gave each state $15. lectures. The period was characterized by industrial production.000 a year to help establish and maintain agricultural experiment stations. Johns Hopkins University: Financed by John Hopkins. and Purdue profited from its provisions. 1887: It was an act written by Representative William Henry Hatch of Missouri. Charles W. The real importance of his studies and theoretical descriptions of the behavior of subatomic particles have only been recently recognized. Hatch Act. Chautauqua Movement: Methodists John Heyl Vincent and Lewis Miller founded this movement. The span of this era ranges from the end of the Civil War. buoyancy and free-spending.D. In addition. Former President Woodrow Wilson received his Ph. the act introduced a bill to establish state colleges of agriculture and to bring higher education within the reach of the common people. Josiah Willard Gibbs: At Yale. about the fundamentals of her metaphysical system of healing. Proceeds from the sale of public lands were given to states to fund the establishment of these universities of agriculture and mechanics. They were called land grant colleges and were located in the Midwest and West. to the turn of the century. It is world renowned for its medical school and its applied physics laboratory. immigration. Nouveau riche: It was the new class of people which was created by the wealth and prosperity generated from the industrial capitalism and the big businesses. Harvard: Educated at Harvard University. Eliot. Many universities such as Michigan. he became the president of Harvard. westward expansion. and courses in science and humanities. it is an institution of higher learning in Baltimore.Science and Health. Iowa State.

was influential in the reform movement. Stephen Crane: Cranes was a writer and poet who began the use of the naturalistic style of writing.L. The Black Riders and Other Lines. He was also a former mugwump and anti-imperialist. It was written by Twain. He and others codified the standards in the Victorian era in both literature and the fine arts. and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. Hamlin Garland: Garland was a short story writer who used his experiences working on farms in Iowa and South Dakota as central themes for his countless short stories that denounced American farm life. These stories included "The Luck of Roaring Camp" and "The Outcasts of Poker Flat. whose criticism in his book The Nation and New York's Evening Post. As a psychologist.grew during the Gilded Age. William Dean Howells: Howells was a novelist. Mark Twain and Charles Dudley: It is a novel written in a time when materialism and corruption controlled the lives of Americans. Frank Norris. who used Mark Twain as his pseudonym. His most famous novels include The Red Badge of Courage. and Henry James. and the purpose of thought is to guide action. who championed authors such as Stephen Crane. He also wrote for Atlantic Monthly." He published a collection of his works called The Luck of Roaring Camp and Other Short Stories. William James: James was a philosopher and psychologist. He is characterized by his humor and sharp social satire. He was also president of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. Maggie. which is summed up in his lectures entitled Pragmatism: A New Name for Old Ways of Thinking. and The Rise of Silas Lapham. Tom Sawyer. which he edited. Bret Harte: Harte was a writer who was also the editor of the Overland Monthly. which published many of his famous works. editor of The Nation: Godkin was an editor. who came up with the philosophy of pragmatism. . and The Open Boats and Other Stories. critic. it is a philosophical doctrine stating that the test of the truth of a proposition is its practical utility. His many famous novels include The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn. Pragmatism: Developed by William James and Charles Sanders Pierce. he wrote his famous Principles of Psychology which established him as one of the most influential thinkers of the time. including A Fearful Responsibility. The Gilded Age. the effect of an idea is more important than its origin. Robber barons were included in this class. Most of these people were self-made and showed their importance through ostentatious displays. Godkin. Mark Twain: Twain was a writer named Samuel Langhorne Clemens. a Girl of the Streets. In his life he wrote many works. He published these stories under the titles MainTravelled Roads and Other Main-Travelled Roads. Mark Twain. and War is Kind and Other Poems are two volumes of his poems. and editor of the Atlantic. E.

As millions of women began to work outside the home. Anthony: For more than half a century Susan B. His novels held a theme of rags to riches. Hearst was quite willing to take credit for this. In the newspaper circulation wars of the 1890s. publisher Joseph Pulitzer was one of the leading combatants. Anthony fought for women's suffrage. Along with their male counterparts. These paintings often have great dramatic effect because of the way they show man's powerlessness in the face of the unfeeling and mysterious forces of nature. his more than 100 novels had a major impact on the youth of that time. and began to demand certain rights. She traveled from county to county in New York and other states making speeches and organizing clubs for women's rights. Among his collection are Luck and Pluck. William Randolph Hearst: Through dishonest and exaggerated reporting. Winslow Homer: One of the greatest American painters. and his most famous Ragged Dick. Many of the characters in the novel were recognized by readers of the book as figures in society. where poor youth would win fame and money by having virtues of honesty. . William Randolph Hearst's newspapers whipped up public sentiment against Spain. His chief opponent was William Randolph Hearst. James McNeill Whistler: Whistler was an etcher and painter who was a champion of modern art. He is also well known for his portraits. including sensational yellow journalism. and perseverance. He also incorporated Japanese styles of art and made many technical innovations in art. • HORATIO ALGER’S BOOKS FOR YOUTH: Alger was a writer of juvenile fiction. Tattered Tom. The two used every tactic. diligence. as his New York City newspaper testified in an 1898 headline: "How Do You Like the Journal’s War?" The Emergence Of Modern Woman The new urban environment fostered the growth of feminism. She pleaded her cause with every president from Abraham Lincoln to Theodore Roosevelt.and Dudley was the coauthor. they crusaded for pressing reforms. Susan B. The White Girl and Twelve Etchings from Nature are his most famous etchings. to encourage people to buy their papers. actually helping to cause the Spanish-American War. By emphasizing merit rather than focusing on social status as the way to determine success. such abolition and prohibition. Joseph Pulitzer: Joseph Pulitzer was a large newspaper publisher. Winslow Homer is best known for his watercolors and oil paintings of the sea. they saw themselves in a new light. Many women asserted their independence by participating in social reform movements.

Nation would appear at a saloon. middle and upper-class women turned to bicycle riding as a source of exercise. She led the Congressional Union for Women's Suffrage. For 23 years she directed Red Cross work in every great disaster. Carrie Chapman Catt: When Susan B. Alice Paul: Alice Paul was a U. she remained active in NAWSA and in 1915 became its president. Nation: A vehement foe of alcoholic beverages. Though Catt was forced to resign in 1904 due to her husbands illness. Stanton helped to organize a political movement that demanded voting rights for women. Women’s Christian Temperance Union: The Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was founded in 1874. Fearful of waning vitality. Anthony retired in 1900 from the NAWSA.S. Partly through their efforts. and a way to escape the restrictive Victorian attitudes towards female physical activity. N. Carry A. Frances Willard. Colleges admitting women: By the end of the 19th century the number of women students had increased greatly. for activities in woman suffrage movement. Carry A. she organized supply depots to serve Civil War soldiers. Clara Barton: Single-handedly. recreation. For four years after the war. She soon became the president of the newly formed union. berate the customers. She was a prominent leader in the campaign for what became the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution which guaranteed female suffrage. . Francis Willard: In 1874 a temperance crusade swept the United States. six states adopted Prohibition by 1890.S.Elizabeth Cady Stanton: A pioneer in the modern quest for women's rights. She succeeded in 1881. Willard stressed religion and morality in her work. became famous for building the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). as well as in many other states. After this.S. she headed the search for missing soldiers. By 1900 this had increased to more than one third. She was imprisoned three times in England and three times in the U. joined the movement. woman suffragist who was born in Moorestown. later called the National Woman's party. Bicycling emerges as a hobby for women: Constraints on women were loosened toward the end of the nineteenth century when bicycling swept the U. Higher education was broadened by the rise of women's colleges and the admission of women to regular colleges and universities. In 1870 an estimated one fifth of resident college students were women.J. prison reform. A young lecturer and educator. She was the scourge of tavern owners and drinkers alike in Kansas. Catt continued to play a large role in the fight for Women's rights. she chose Carrie Chapman Catt to take her place. It became the nation’s first mass organization of women. In 1872 she campaigned to organize a branch of the Red Cross in the United States. and proceed to damage as much of the place as she could with her hatchet. Its activities included welfare work. in lobbying for the right to vote during World War I. labor arbitration and public health.

This was due to more opportunities for women which made them less economically dependent on their husbands. It was originally started by Andrew Johnson as the first homestead bill but met strong opposition by Southern Representatives and therefore could not be passed until the secession of the Southern States during the Civil War. An increased number of people living in the cities also contributed to the fact that cities had higher divorce rates than rural areas.S. Colorado in 1864. Barbed wire. America expanded across the continent. Maps published prior to the Civil War often called the Great Plains area the "Great American Desert. clothing. but violations continued to occur.Divorce rate: By the turn of the twentieth century divorce rate in the United States had started to steadily grow. Chivington." It was a region deemed unfit for settlement. The Frontier West As America expanded. Their perceptions of western regions were drawn from descriptions left by early travelers. When war would break out. Indian Appropriations Act. This lead to many conflicts. attacked and massacred the Cheyenne Indians that were settled along Sand Creek. many Americans desired to move westward and cultivate new lands. or a treaty would be made in which they lost part of their lands. At the time. Joseph Glidden: Barbed wire was invented and patented by Joseph Glidden in 1874 and had a major impact on the cattle industry of the Western U. including that between the Sioux and the U. led by Colonel John M. the Cheyenne were being led by Chief Black Kettle. . though. were still to be considered valid. and were attacked despite a previous agreement made with the governor. 1871: By this act Congress decided that Indian tribes were no longer recognized as sovereign powers with whom treaties must be made. the geography of the U. at Little Big Horn.S. many farmers objected to barbed wire. Chivington Massacre: The United States Army. Federal government policies intended to facilitate the move westward. They had been angered by settlers who drove away the buffalo herds they depended on for food. was unknown to most Americans. the Indians would either be defeated and transported. Existing treaties. Accustomed to allowing their cattle to roam the open range. Others used it to fence in land or cattle that did not belong to them. Great American Desert: For years.S. 1862: This act cut up Western public lands into many small holdings for the free farmers. Homestead Act. but it was often at the expense of the Native Americans who already occupied the land. Plains Indians: Great Plains tribes began attacking wagon trains carrying settlers during the 1850s. As Americans continued to move the frontier farther and farther west. and shelter.

It was designed to reform what well-meaning but ignorant whites perceived to be the weaknesses of Indian life-. they engaged in ritual dances that they believed would protect them from harm. was a discourse concerning the plight of American Indians published in 1881. the United States Army massacred more than 200 Indians at Wounded Knee. shaped the American character and institutions.In this battle the main body of Indians. wiped out General Custer's men in 1876. Turner decisively rejected the then common belief that the European background had been primarily responsible for the characteristics of the United States. 29. the absence of a Christian based religion. and the general instability in their way of life -. Wearing the Ghost Shirts. This event ended the conquest of the American Indian. She gathered information regarding American Indians and their lives while serving on a federal commission investigating the treatment of Indians. 1887: It was proposed by Henry L. . • DAWES SEVERALTY ACT. under Sioux leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse. and refused to leave the area to inhabit reservations. they turned to the Ghost Dance to restore their original dominance on the Plains. Chief Joseph: When he became chief of the Nez Perce Indian tribe in the American Northwest in 1871. Col. was sent to enforce the order. Dawes. He also justified overseas economic expansion as a means to secure political power at a time when America began focusing on expanding its influence throughout the world. 1890. South Dakota. Ghost Dance Movement: As the Sioux population dwindled as a result of the federal government policies.the lack of private property. The main point of the law was to emphasize treating Indians as individuals as opposed to members in a tribe.Battle of Little Big Horn: The Sioux refused to sell the land to the government in 1875. Joseph agreed.by turning Indians into farmers. After the incident. When the Sioux refused. or severalty. and was passed in 1887. The ritual allowed them to reaffirm their culture amidst the chaos. on Dec. • FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER. Battle of Wounded Knee: Convinced that Sitting Bull was going to lead an uprising. A Century of Dishonor: This book. moving from east to west. Jackson also wrote Ramona concerning the same topic. he attempted to escape to Canada with his followers. by Jackson. FRONTIER THESIS: In his analysis of how the frontier. the Ghost Dance movement which had been recently revived by Indians rapidly died out. the nomadic traditions of the Indians. but when three of his tribe killed a group of settlers. the army under Lieut. The tribe was ordered to move. Helen Hunt Jackson. Joseph led his people in an unsuccessful resistance to white settlers who were confiscating land. Custer.

Creating the Populist Party with James Weaver as their presidential candidate. Only in 1877 did the Supreme Court rule that states could regulate businesses of a public nature. and Nevada granted statehood in 1864. It called for government regulation of the economy in order to redress their greivanes. • POPULIST PARTY PLATFORM. and consisted of the Northwest Farmers' Alliance in the north and the National Farmers' Alliance and Independent Union in the south. and stores. enacting immigration restriction. would have the West as a "safety valve" to which they could go in order to revitalize their pure Americanism. Instead. and small profits. the farmers were urged to start cooperatives such as grain elevators. . however. citizens of the U. the Court ruled against the railroad’s objections in Munn v. debts. Membership peaked in the mid-1870s. Comstock Lode: One of the richest silver mines in the United States was discovered in 1859 at the Comstock Lode in Nevada. the farmers made their grievances known through the Granger Movement. the Populists strove to bring their reforms into the political limelight. U. The Omaha platform of 1892 nominated James Weaver of Iowa for president. To counteract unjust business practices. farmers were beset with problems of high costs. • GRANGER MOVEMENT: During the decade of the 1870s. many of their reforms were later enacted. or people's party.S.Safety Valve Thesis: This assertion stated that as immigrants came to the eastern United States during the late nineteenth century and "polluted" American culture. Nevada was built. Some of their goals included creating postal savings banks.S. The Populist platform represented views of farmers in the West. There was little the farmers could do concerning prices. setting a graduated income tax and limiting the presidency to a single six-year term. An influx of settlers came to Nevada." It was created towards the end of the nineteenth century. and in 1892 gave way to the Populist party. 1892: The Populist party. The railroads appealed to the Supreme Court to declare the "Granger laws" unconstitutional. This discovery contributed to the speed by which Virginia City. creameries. was a party that represented the "common man. It was founded in New York in 1873. Reform Populism In The 1890s Populism emerged in the 19th century in order to reform the system from within. They failed to unite. Although they did not succeed in electing their candidate to the presidency. OMAHA PLATFORM. Granger Laws: The Grangers in various states lobbied state legislatures in 1874 to pass maximum rate laws for freight shipment. Illinois. Farmers’ Alliance: This alliance was a political organization created to help fight railroad abuses and to lower interest rates.

"Crime of 1873": This is the term given to a federal law of 1873, which adopted the gold standard over the silver standard. This dropped silver coinage in favor of gold coinage, by advocating free silver. This "Crime of 1873" was one of the motivating forces behind the beginning of the Free Silver movement. Bland-Allison Act: This act was passed over the presidential veto in 1878 and required the secretary of the treasury to buy at least 2 million dollars of silver each month and coin it into dollars. Because of its weight and bulk and the fact that it had not been coined since 1806, most of the silver did not circulate; rather, remained in the treasury. Sherman Silver Purchase Act: This act forced the treasury to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver each month.. However, the price of silver did not rise and precious gold was being drained away from the treasury while cheap silver piled up. This act, therefore, helped to precipitate the panic of 1893, and it caused a decrease in foreign investments in the U.S. economy. Bimetallism: Bimetallism is the use of both silver and gold as the basis of an economy as opposed to the use of one or the other or none. During the gold and free silver campaigns of the early 1900s, the Republicans believed in a money system based on the single gold standard, while the democrats believed in bimetallism. "Coin" Harvey: The silverites’ most influential piece of propaganda was William H. Harvey's Coin’s Financial School, published in 1894. It explained the monetary issue in simplified partisan terms, denounced "the conspiracy of the Goldbugs," and insisted that the free coinage of silver would eliminate the debt. Free silver: This was a chiefly unsuccessful campaign in the late 19th-century U.S. for the unlimited coinage of silver. Major supporters of this movement were owners of silver mines, farmers, and debtors, for whom silver production would be economically favorable. William Jennings Bryan led the democratic party to support free silver during the 1890s. 16 to 1: During the Panic of 1873 the world market ratio of silver to gold fell below the ratio of 16:1 for the first time in world history. This coincided with the opening of rich silver mines in the Western united States and also with post-Civil War deflation. It resulted in the movement in favor of free silver and bimetallism of the populists Depression of 1893: This panic swept the country two months after the second inauguration of President Grover Cleveland. Banks closed their doors, railroads went bankrupt, and farm mortgages were foreclosed. People hoarded gold, and the treasury’s gold reserve was depleting. A notable cause was the struggle between the free silver and gold advocates. Coxey's Army, 1894: This was actually a band of unemployed people who marched to Washington DC during the depression of 1894 under the leadership of Jacob S. Coxey, a

quarry operator. They urged the enactment of laws which would provide money without interest for public improvements, which would create work for the unemployed. Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, 1893: In 1893 President Grover Cleveland, who stood for the gold standard, succeeded in having the Sherman Silver Purchase Act repealed over the strong objections of William Jennings Bryan. However, little gold was in the treasury; thus, the panic of 1893 could not be avoided and the crisis remained until 1896. Ocala Demands, 1890: These demands were essentially a platform of the Democratic/ Populist party for the 1892 election created at a gathering in Ocala, Florida in 1890. Northern leaders generally favored a third party candidate, while Southerners feared that it would weaken the southern Democratic Party. Tom Watson: An U.S. journalist, legislator, and a southern alliance leader from Georgia, he urged southern farmers to recognize their common plight and act together. He was also the Populist party’s presidential candidate in 1904 and 1908, served as a senator from 1921 to 1922, and edited The Weekly Jeffersonian, a populist magazine. James B. Weaver: An United States legislator and prominent figure during the Populist movement, he served as a congressman from 1879 to 1781 and 1885 to 1889. He was the presidential candidate of the Greenback and People’s parties in 1892. Weaver was also a former civil war general. "Pitchfork" Ben Tillman: An U.S. Populist party leader born in South Carolina, he was elected governor of South Carolina in 1890 and 1892, and he served on the U.S. Senate from 1894 to 1912. Very progressively minded, Tillman promoted many reform programs in South Carolina, including better public education. Mary Ellen Lease: She was a fiery lawyer from Wichita, Kansas who was very active in the movements for agrarian and labor reform. She burst out on to the scene in the 1890's as a spellbinding Southern alliance orator vehemently crying that the farmers needed to "raise less corn and more hell." "Sockless" Jerry Simpson: He was an intelligent rancher from Kansas who lost his stock in the hard winter of 1886 to 1887, and he became a major Southern Alliance leader. When he mentioned the expensive silk stockings of a conservative politician and remarked that he could afford no such fineries a hostile newspaper editor named him "Sockless Jerry." Ignatius Donnelly: A noted United States writer and a champion of the Populist Party, Donnelly served as an U.S. Congressman from Minnesota from 1863 to 1869. He also wrote Great Cryptogram in an attempt to prove that Francis Bacon wrote William Shakespeare's works.

• WILLIAM

JENNINGS BRYAN: Despite the fact that he was defeated three times for the presidency of the United States, William Jennings Bryan, the principal figure of the Populist party, molded public opinion as few leaders have done. A surprise to the public, he polled many votes during the 1896 election, which may have been a direct result of his "Cross of Gold Speech." For many years he was the leader of the Democratic party, and it was his influence that won the Democratic presidential nomination for Wilson in 1912. "Cross of Gold Speech": William Jennings Bryan won the national Democratic convention's nomination for the presidency in 1896 through a vigorous appeal for free coinage of silver known as the "Cross of Gold" speech. Turning to those who wanted only gold as the monetary standard, he exclaimed: "You shall not crucify mankind upon this cross of gold." As a Populist, he did not support the gold standard since it would deflate the currency, which would make it more difficult for citizens to repay debts.
• ELECTION

OF 1896, CANDIDATES, ISSUES: The presidential candidates were the Republican William McKinley from Pennsylvania, and the Democrat William J. Bryan. The Populists also supported Bryan for the presidency, but chose Tom Watson for the vice presidency. The Republicans believed in the gold standard, while the Democrats believed in bimetallism and the unlimited coinage of silver. McKinley won the election. The Populism collapsed after 1896, but Progressivism emerged in its wake. Marcus Hanna: He was an industrialist who became convinced that the welfare of industry, and therefore the nation, was bound by the fortunes of the Republican party. To further his goals he waged the most expensive political campaign the nation had ever seen to get William McKinley elected president in 1896. He also served in the Senate.

Imperialism
As the 19th century came to a close, many voices cried for American expansionism to match the imperialistic ambitions of Europe and Japan. The dream for global destiny was justified by such logic as the expansion of overseas markets, desire for a stronger navy, and the spreading of Christianity to uncivilized peoples around the globe. Eventually, this expansionism translated into conflict, climaxing in 1898 with the Spanish-American War. James G. Blaine, Pan-Americanism: As Secretary of State, Blaine fostered closer U.S.Latin American relations and brought about the first Pan-American Congress in order to forge commercial, social, economic, military, and political cooperation among the 21 republics of North, Central, and South America. Venezuelan boundary dispute: Venezuela had a dispute over its boundary with the British Colony of Guiana. In 1895, while the British refused to resolve the issue, United States Secretary of State Richard Olney sent a message to London declaring that the US would be "practically sovereign on this content."

Bering Sea seal controversy: When the US purchased Alaska in 1867, it included some small Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea. Congress leased the island to a US company which killed seals with the understanding that they would not kill more than 10,000 male seals per year. This led to the regulation of pelagic sealing in 1893. "Yellow journalism": Two rival newspapers in New York City, William Randolph Hearst’s Journal, and Joseph Pulitzer’s World, sensationalized editorializing on the issues to increase circulation. One of Hearst’s gimmicks was "The Yellow Kid," which gave the name of Yellow Journalism to this tactic. Josiah Strong, Our Country: Reverend Josiah Strong wrote the book Our Country: Its Possible Future and Present Crisis expressing his fears of the inability of relief organizations to cope with the explosive growth of the urban poor in the 1870’s and 1880’s.

•Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890)
helped create and develop the expansionist movement. Mahan, former head of the Navy War College at Newport, Rhode Island wanted to expand United States Navy to build an isthmusian canal, and to establish strategic colonies as cooling stations, and to protect US political and economic interests. Samoa, Pago Pago: America’s Navy wanted to establish a port in the Samoan Islands, so their ships could refuel in the island of Pago Pago. This was an example of the United States Navy’s expansion efforts in the pacific. Their goal was to obtain more ports so they could have more ships out on the ocean to control the seas. Virginius: In 1873 a Spanish gunboat captured the Virginius, a ship fraudulently flying the American flag, in Cuba. Secretary of State Fish and the Spanish minister came together in Washington and signed a protocol bringing the end to the Virginius affairs. Spain paid the US $80,000. de Lôme letter: On February 8, 1898, Hearst’s Journal published a private letter written by Spanish minister to the United States Depuy de Lôme regarding his reservations for Cuban independence and disparaging President McKinley. Many Americans would have agreed, but they resented hearing it from a Spanish diplomat. Maine explodes: When an explosion rocked the Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898, killing 266 American crewmen, irritation turned to outrage. A review of the evidence later concluded that a ship-board ammunition explosion caused the blast. Still, a navy inquiry blamed the blast on a "Spanish mine."

•Teller Amendment: The U.S. had been motivated o war in part by the desire to aid the
Cubans in their attempt to liberate themselves from the colonial rule of Spain. To this end the Teller Ammendment was added to the Declaration of War. It speciffically prohibited the annexation of Cuba, as a cause of the war.

under the command of General Kent. Queen Liluokalani was overthrown when Hawaii’s sugar prices dropped 40% and planters wanted the independent Republic of Hawaii. captured the hill. The Filipinos celebrated their freedom from four hundred years of Spanish rule on July 4. Commodore Dewey. had the same rights under the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence.S. Treaty of Paris. they believed that every country captured by the U. once their queen was overthrown. Annexation of Hawaii: In 1890 under the McKinley Tariff. . placing the American army on high ground overlooking Santiago. One American and 381 Spanish men died in the attempt. Roosevelt resigned to become second in command of the Rough Riders. Rough Riders. Assistant Secretary of Navy Theodore Roosevelt: Theodore Roosevelt was appointed as Assistant Secretary of the Navy by President William McKinley in 1897. Roosevelt was an impatient disciple in the Spanish-American War. domestic sugar growers ended the duty-free status of Hawaiian sugar. Action started on May 1. Manila Bay: The first action of the Spanish-American War came in 1898 when Commodore George Dewey’s fleet steamed into Manila Bay in the Philippines.• SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR: The Spanish-American War lasted just three months with only a few days of actual combat. However. 1898. Forming the Anti-Imperialist League. Guam and the Philippines to America for $20 million. The war ended after Spanish Admiral Pascual Cervera attempted to break through American forces losing 474 men. 1898 during the American advance on Santiago during the Spanish-American War. the Hawaiians decided to request United States annexation. In 1898. This fleet destroyed and captured all ten Spanish ships that were assigned in Manila Bay. The treaty gave the United States a new imperialistic reputation. A division including the Rough Riders. San Juan Hill: The battle of San Juan Hill was fought on July 1. when George Dewey’s fleet steamed into Manila Bay in the Philippines and seized or destroyed all ten Spanish ships anchored there.1898. In the treaty. Spain agreed to abandon Cuba and exchange Puerto Rico. acting largely on his own. President Grover Cleveland was troubled with the crisis in Hawaii since Hawaiians claimed to want annexation. Hawaiians were uncertain if they wanted annexation at all. After Hawaii’s sugar prices dropped 40% and Queen Liluokalani was overthrown. Cleveland and Hawaii: In 1887 the United States gained the right to establish a naval port in Pearl Harbor. American Anti-Imperialist League: The critics of imperialism were many and influential. Queen Liluokalani: Liluokalani was the Queen of Hawaii who did not like Americans since they built their port in Pearl Harbor. 1898: The Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American War and developed an American empire overseas.

Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico: By the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain recognized Cuba’s independence and ceded the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific Island of Guam to the United States in exchange for $20 million. As 1899 dawned Americans possessed an island empire from the Caribbean to the Pacific. Walter Reed: In 1900 Walter Reed was appointed to the Yellow Fever Commission as a result of his investigation of the disease. After being sent to Cuba to find out more about Yellow Fever, he discovered that the disease was carried by a mosquito. He later became a curator at Army Medical Museum and a professor at Army Medical College. Insular Cases: The decisions regarding whether the Constitution applies to Puerto Rico and the Philippines are known as the Insular Cases. They ruled that the residents are inhabitants but not citizens of the United States. Because of this ruling, these countries were not honored by the Constitution and were treated as colonies.
• Platt

Amendment: Senator Orville Platt, at the request of the War department, made a revised bill to remove some of the restrictions stated in the Teller Amendment. The Platt Amendment stated that the United States would withdraw from Cuba if they did not sign a treaty with any other foreign power. It also gave the United States the right to interfere with Cuba if they believed that it was not a fit enough country to take care of itself. Also, they established the right to hold a naval base in Cuba. Protectorate: When a more powerful state controls the economy, foreign affairs, or police power of another state, it is considered a protectorate. In the case of the United States, Cuba was a protectorate as a result of the Platt Amendment. Other examples might include Nicuaragua, the Dominican Republic, Hawaii, and other Pacific islands.
• Aguinaldo,

Philippine insurrection: In 1896 Emilio Aguinaldo started a Filipino movement for independence to get out of Spain’s control. When Spain surrendered, Aguinaldo drew up a constitution and proclaimed the Philippines’s independence. When the Treaty of Paris gave the United States power over the Philippines, Aguinaldo became angry and tried to fight. He soon realized that he would lose and gave up. Secretary of State John Hay, Open Door Notes: John Hay’s Open Door Notes was a policy that explained the importance of American commercial influence on foreign policies. The Open Door Notes stated that the pre-thought "informal empire" was correct as opposed to overseas colonies being favored by imperial power. Boxer Rebellion: The Boxers, a secret group of Chinese men known as I Ho Ch’uan, opposed Christianity in their country. Numbering 140,000, the Boxers killed thousands of foreigners as well as Chinese suspected of being Christian. British, American, Russian, Japanese and French soldiers were sent to China to end the "Boxer Rebellion." Extraterritoriality: Extraterritoriality is a principle in international law that allows certain visiting foreign citizens or their property to be exempt from the laws of a host nation. Foreign heads of states traveling abroad and diplomats representing their home countries are examples of people benefiting from extraterritoriality.

Most favored nation clause: The most favored nation clause is a commercial treaty that regulates special low tariffs on goods imported to the United States. All countries awarded the Special Nation Status must be treated equally. Duties for the same group of goods should be the same low regardless from which country signatory of the status they are imported.

Roosevelt & Progressivism
Many intellectuals increasingly challenged the foundations of the social order. Voices of reform thundered over the nation calling for democratic government, better cities, and the curbing of corporate power. This movement, labeled progressivism, found its first national leader in Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt actively pursued many of his goals: labor mediation, consumer protection, conservation, business virtue, and activism abroad. His successor, Taft, continued in Roosevelt’s aims but lacked his political genius. Election of 1900: candidates and issues: William McKinley, the Republican candidate, beat William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic candidate, for President. The Republican campaign theme of prosperity, summed up in the slogan "A Full Dinner Pail," easily won him a second term. McKinley had 284 electoral votes where as Bryan had 115.
• Roosevelt’s

Big Stick diplomacy: One of Roosevelt’s most famous statements was "speak softly and carry a big stick." An example of his meaning in this statement was when Canada wanted the Alaskan land that America owned. They were fighting over the boundaries because of gold found in the area. Roosevelt simply stated that if the boundaries would change, there would be serious consequences. Because of his problem solving method, Roosevelt was known to use "Big Stick" diplomacy. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty: The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 stated that both the United States and Britain promised not to claim control over any canal built between the oceans that separated their countries. This included the Panama Canal which America later took over anyway. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty: In 1901, the United States planned to construct the Panama Canal. This meant they would be in need of a new treaty. Secretary of State John Hay and British Ambassador Sir Julian Pauncefote agreed on a new treaty that would drop England’s claim on the canal. Panama Revolution: Financed by Philippe Bunau-Varilla, chief agent of the New Panama Canal Company, the Panama Revolution was a planned revolt by Panamanians against Colombian occupation of the Isthmus of Panama. The United States did not encourage the revolution, but it did make clear that it would not allow it to fail.
• The Panama

Canal: When a French company supposed to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama went bankrupt, it offered to sell its assets to the United States. The Hay-Herrán agreement, which would have granted the US a ninety-nine-year lease on a

strip of land for canal construction, was rejected by the Colombian senate. Determined to have a canal, Roosevelt found a collaborator in Philippe Bunau-Varilla, who organized a "revolution." After Panama was recognized, the canal building commenced. Virgin Islands purchased: Denmark, in 1917, sold to the United States its West Indian territories for $25 million, including the Virgin Islands. These islands, located at the perimeters of the Caribbean, were of great military importance during the Second World War. They mainly served to protect the US mainland as well as the Panama Canal. Goethals and Gorgas: George Goethel was a civil engineer who directed a completion of the Panama Canal. William Gorgas helped to make it possible to construct Panama Canal by killing mosquitoes carrying yellow fever and malaria. Theodore Roosevelt later appointed these men important positions in The Panama Canal Zone. Venezuela Crisis, 1902: In 1902 the country's debts became so large that European creditor nations blockaded Venezuela; the United States intervened to obtain arbitration of the dispute. Castro's departure for Europe in 1908 opened the way for his deputy, Juan Vicente Gomez, to seize power. Drago Doctrine: Luis Maria Drago was an Argentine diplomat who formulated a supplement to the Monroe Doctrine known as the Drago Doctrine. In 1902, Great Britain, Germany, and Italy imposed a joint naval blockade on Venezuela in order to coerce that country into paying its debts.
• Roosevelt

Corollary: In 1904, Roosevelt created the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. This doctrine justified U.S. intervention in the affairs of Latin American nations if their weakness or wrongdoing warranted such action. An example of this interference was the American intervention in Haiti when it was not wanted. The document was primarily a pass for the US to interfere with other countries’ business when it was not wanted nor needed. U.S. intervention in Haiti: In 1915, President Woodrow Wilson sent the United States Marines into Haiti. The purpose was to calm the anarchy that the US claimed existed in the country. In 1916, Congress ratified a treaty that would allow the US ten years of control over Haiti to maintain order and give political and economic assistance. Dominican Republic: In 1915, after bloody upheavals in Haiti and the Dominican Republic, Wilson ordered the marines. A Haitian constitution favorable to U.S. commercial interests was ratified in 1918. The marines remained in the Dominican Republic until 1924, and in Haiti until 1934. Revolution in Nicaragua: In 1911 a US-supported revolution in Nicaragua brought to power Adolfo Díaz, an officer of the American-owned Nicaraguan mining property. American bankers loaned the Díaz government $15 million in exchange for control of most of Nicaragua. When a revolt broke out, Roosevelt ordered in the marines.

Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth: The Russo-Japanese war (1904-05) was the first conflict in which an Asian power defeated a European country. Fighting began when the Japanese attacked the Russian fleet at Port Arthur after Russia, which had occupied Manchuria during the Boxer Uprising in China, refused to withdraw its troops. San Francisco School Board Incident: American relations with Japan suffered when the San Francisco school board, in 1906, ordered all Asian children to attend segregated schools. Summoning the school-board members to Washington, Roosevelt persuaded them to reverse this discriminatory policy. Elihu Root: As secretary of war in the cabinets of William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, Root reorganized the army and established the Army War College. As Roosevelt's secretary of state from 1905 to 1909, he reformed the consular service, improving US relations with Latin America, and sponsoring a series of arbitration treaties. Taft-Katsura Memo: By the Taft-Katsura Memo of 1905, the United States and Japan pledged to maintain the Open Door principles in China. Japan recognized American control over the Philippines and the United States granted a Japanese protectorate over Korea.
• Gentleman’s

Agreement: In the 1890’s, workers feared their jobs would be taken by the Japanese immigrants and they wanted a law preventing any more immigrants to move to the United States. In 1907 Japan proposed the Gentlemen’s Agreement which promised that they would halt the unrestricted immigration if President Roosevelt promised to discourage any laws being made that would restrict Japanese immigration to the US. Great White Fleet: This was a naval fleet that went on a voyage around the world. After 15 months, when the fleet returned, President Roosevelt met all the crew members personally. The two objects of this voyage were being friendly with the nation’s allies but also to show other nations the naval power of the United States. Lodge Corollary: When a Japanese syndicate moved to purchase a large tract of land in Mexico’s Lower California, Senator Lodge introduced a resolution to block the Japanese investment. The Corollary went further to exclude non-European powers from the Western Hemisphere under the Monroe Doctrine. Root-Takahira Agreement: In 1908, Japan and the United States signed the RootTakahira Agreement. Through this document the two nations promised not to seek territorial gain in the Pacific. These two nations also promised to honor an open door policy in China. Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917: Robert Lansing, Secretary of State under President Wilson, negotiated the Lansing-Ishii agreement on November 2, 1917 with Japan,

Pershing was sent with 12. In effect. efficiency. Jones Act.S. ABC Powers: The ABC powers consisted of Argentina. overthrew Porfirio Díaz. the ABC powers called a conference to prevent a war between the United States and Mexico caused by the Veracruz Incident. a bill was finally passed to actually grant the Filipinos their independence. Congress passed the Jones Act which provided for a government for the Philippines and committed the United States to granting Filipino independence. The government created was based on the Constitutional model. In 1913. "watchful waiting": "Watchful waiting" refers to Wilson’s policy towards the events unfolding in Europe. Allied forces landed in the port of Archangel.000 troops to catch Villa with no avail. General John J. pragmatism: Democracy is a form of government in which a substantial proportion of the citizenry directly or indirectly participates in ruling the state.S. Carranza: Rebels. It established the Sea Land service to prevent carriers and shippers from using unfair pricing practices. When president Carranza rejected the proposal for a new Mexican government. Democracy. The US refused to recognize Huerta’s government because it had come to power violently. By 1914 more than 100. Huerta. Pancho Villa. Eventually. bandit Pancho Villa murdered 16 Americans. Its establishment encouraged parallel pricing for all carriers. General Pershing: During the political turmoil of Mexico in 1916.000 Mexicans had migrated to the United States. the US still felt they had a right to China. then burned down Columbus in New Mexico. the conference came to an end. 1917 (Puerto Rico): The Jones Act of 1917 was passed by the United States to regulate trade in Puerto Rico. United States involvement in this campaign compromised American neutrality.: In the period from 1877 to 1910 economic conditions were worsening in Mexico. Díaz. Brazil. 1916 (Philippines): In 1916. and Chile. Massive US response angered some Mexicans and led to hostilities. Jones Act. Madero was overthrown by a military regime led by Victoriano Huerta. These new immigrants found mainly in railroad industries and agriculture where jobs were vacated by the war. led by Francisco Madero in 1911. Allies favored the Whites during the period of Russia’s civil war. In 1934. This policy was taken although it was clear that the United States had obvious ties to Britain and would likely favor it. Russia to defend Allied military stockpiles from German attack. Archangel expedition: In 1918. outraged. Mexican migration to the U. . it was America’s policy of neutrality throughout most of the First World War. Mexican Revolution. However. In 1914.whereby the United States recognized Japan's special interests in China. With the U. this led to Mexican-American hostilities. Allied forces later became antiBolshevik and seized the port. They filled partly the US need for labor during war.

Phillips was also a prominent journalist. He developed his antimonopoly theme as financial writer and editor at the Chicago Tribune. articles. and reformer. Lincoln Steffens. "Muckrakers": Those American writers who early in the 20th century wrote both fiction and nonfiction to expose corruption in business and politics were called the muckrakers. They were highly honored internationally and a monument to them was built at Kitty Hawk. attacked the railroad and wheat industries in the United States. The Shame of the Cities: An eminent American reformer and journalist. His "Treason of . The Octopus: The U. His photographs. which holds that both the meaning and the truth of any idea is a function of its practical outcome. After over 200 calculations and tests at Kitty Hawk they built the first practical airplane. asserting that some cities were run by political bosses who remained in power with the help of powerful businessmen. The Treason of the Senate: Author of many popular problem novels of the early 20th century." Henry Demarest Lloyd.S. David Graham Phillips. Wealth Against Commonwealth: A leading opponent of business monopolies. He wrote a series of articles that documented corruption in American cities. was a leader of the muckrakers. editor. developed in the United States. marking the beginning of the individual progressive spirit." Veblen continued to write other books dealing with the same general theories. History of the Standard Oil Company: As a Pennsylvania journalist. Muckraker was a term first used by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906. Joseph Lincoln Steffens. They were given this name because of their tendency to "spread the muck around. Tarbell became famous as a muckraker through her well-documented articles on political and corporate corruption in McClure's Magazine and American Magazine. Henry Demarest Lloyd was one of the pioneer muckrakers of the late 19th century. Wright Brothers. photographer. The Octopus (1901) and The Pit (1903). Frank Norris. novelist Frank Norris was a noted pioneer of naturalism in literature. Jacob Riis.Pragmatism is a philosophical movement. Thorstein Veblen. His best-known works. His novels portray the demoralizing effects of modern technology on human fate. Ida Tarbell. Jacob August Riis publicized the plight of immigrants in New York City slum tenements. How the Other Half Lives: A journalist. and books focused on the squalid living conditions of the city's poor and spurred legislation to improve those conditions. Kitty Hawk: Wilbur and Orville Wright created the modern field of aeronautics. The Theory of the Leisure Class: Thorstein Veblen is best known for his book The Theory of The Leisure Class (1899). and biographer. Veblen’s book is a classic of social theory that introduced the concept of "conspicuous consumption.

the Senate" series of articles (1906) in Cosmopolitan magazine were an important contribution to the muckraking movement in American journalism. Woman and Economics: Gilman was a leading American feminist writer known for Woman and Economics (1898). heavily embody Dewey’s concept of "learn by doing. Initiative allowed voters to enact laws directly. John Dewey. recall: These were three types of progressive electoral reforms passed by some western states. Oliver Wendell Holmes. not the leadership. of each party nominate the party’s nominees for public office. The School and Society. a school in which students learned of life by actively doing things rather than following a strict curriculum." "learn by doing": Dewey’s ideas of progressive education. Boy Scouts. a feminist classic she wrote. It provided that the members. Richard Ely: Ely. The referendum allowed voters to express their opinions of specific issues. was an economics research professor at Northwestern University. He founded the Laboratory School. His ideas conflicted with McDougall’s." They focused on teaching children of their proper patriotic role in society and working to broaden the horizons of their members though a number of varied activities. Girl Scouts: The Boy and Girl Scouts. It attacked the commonly accepted idea that women should be economically dependent on men while suggesting alternatives such as cooperative kitchens and day-care programs. earning him the name "the Great Dissenter" among his colleagues. Supreme Court: Holmes was a professor of law at Harvard who resigned to become a member of the Supreme Court. Charlotte Perkins Gilman.. another psychologist who believed that the process of evolution created instinctive sociological behavior. especially at the ballot boxes where voters could be easily swayed. a progressive economist. As a jurist he interpreted the Constitution in a very liberal manner. described in The School and Society. referendum. greatly affected educational techniques. Australian ballot (secret ballot): Many electoral reforms gave voters greater control over the government. He analyzed the transmission of social behavior through society by its transmission from one person to another. It originated in Wisconsin (1903) and rapidly spread throughout the rest of the United States. Jr. He founded the American Economic Association in 1899 and was the first economist to suggest that government interference in regulation of the national economic was not harmful but even sometimes helpful. Initiative. formed to educate the youth of America. Through recall voters were able to directly remove public officials from office. Edward Ross: Ross wrote one of the first books dealing with social psychology. . Direct primary: The direct primary was another progressive municipal reform. "progressive education.

Newlands Reclamation Act. Through this act Roosevelt also enlarged Pinchot’s forest staff from 123 to 1. Anti-Saloon League: During and after the American Civil War the laws regulating many aspects of saloons were either reduced or eliminated. and union recognition. created a system of national forests. George F. 1902: Roosevelt drafted the Newlands Reclamation Act when he noticed that decades of rapid industrial growth had destroyed much of the limited natural resources of the land. he began to create several groups to raise public awareness of nature and the necessity of conservation. 1902. fire: An accidental fire at the Traingle Shirtwaist Company killed 141 workers.By 1910 all states had replaced the corrupt system of preprinted ballots with a new secret ballot. followed by the National Conservation Commission. many people united in this league in their fight against saloons. on a speaking tour against the Northern Securities Company.500 people. Forest Reserve Act. 1908: As Roosevelt’s conservative trend began to permeate through the public mind. were killed by brutal working conditions. consisting of approximately 200 million acres. By 1916 they enacted anti-saloon laws in 23 states and in 1917 they passed the 18th amendment beginning prohibition. Roosevelt instead mediated a series of negotiations between the strikers and the owners over issues of wages. safety conditions. It insured that all natural resources would be managed by experts. These concerns raised new questions of human and immigrant rights and of existing labor laws. strongly supported by Roosevelt and Pinchot. which were protected from the short-sighted greed Roosevelt saw in many large companies. It prodded the concerns of many progressive reformers since the workers. It is remembered for the militancy of its early organizational drives and its fight against sweatshops. Conservation conference. As a result. 1891: The Forest Reserve Act. and raise working rates. Anthracite coal strike. locked in the factory and unable to escape. International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU): This union of American needle-trade workers launched drives to improve working conditions. . The first meeting was of the White House Conservation Conference. Square Deal: Roosevelt. Baer: The Anthracite coal strike was the first strike in which the government became involved but did not side with the management. which was much more difficult to rig. called for a "square deal. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good. Triangle Shirtwaist Co. end the practice of workers paying for their own equipment. begun in Australia." This progressive concept denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trustbusting attitude. Funding came from public-land sales and was used to build irrigation projects.

1906: The Hepburn Act.B. but he broke up many other large. a black editor. DuBois and other black leaders who shared his views founded the Niagara Movement. Members of the Niagara group joined with concerned liberal and radical whites to organize the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.E. many officials used this immunity plea to avoid testifying in any way concerning their actions. Niagara movement: At a meeting in Niagara Falls. did not want to destroy the big corporations that he saw necessary to American life. He left many of the larger companies serving the public good alone. in an attempt to reduce the corruption in the railroad industry.E.. Ont. DuBois. DuBois: For more than 50 years W. and sociologist. . W. It created strict sanitary requirements for meat. passed in 1906. Northern Securities Co. He did. He helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and was its outstanding spokesman in the first decades of its existence. monopolistic companies in the interests of American welfare and economy. granted the Interstate Commerce Commission enough power to regulate the economy. Meat Inspection Act: The Meat Inspection Act was passed by Roosevelt as a strong response to Sinclair's book describing the conditions of food as well as wartime scandals in 1898 concerning spoiled canned meats.B. 1910: The Mann-Elkins Act further extended the regulatory ability of the ICC. The ICC was also given greater rate-setting power as well as the ability to begin court proceedings against companies disputing the new rates. He earned the "trustbuster" name when he filed suit against the Northern Securities Company. 1903. prevented corporate officials from pleading immunity in cases concerning their own corporation’s illegal activities. W. began a quality rating system. however. was a leader of the civil rights movement in the United States. • "trustbuster": Teddy Roosevelt. Immunity of Witness Act: The Immunity of Witness Act. to require a uniform system of accounting by regulated transportation companies. In 1902 Roosevelt "trustbusted" them by claiming they violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in holding money against the public good. in conjunction with the Elkins Act. deeply conservative at heart.E. and provisioned for a federal department to inspect meat. historian. The Elkins Act strengthened the ICC by stiffening penalties against secret railroad rebates to favored shippers. The company was dissolved. It was a large holding company formed by railroad and banking interests.Elkins Act. Previously. rebates: The Interstate Commerce Commission was initially created to regulate the economy for the federal government. Hepburn Act. It allowed them to regulate cable and wireless companies dealing with telephone and telegraph lines.B. followed by 43 other cases. It allowed the ICC to set freight rates and. It was not originally given enough power to regulate the monopolized railroad system. in 1905. case: This was the first company Roosevelt filed suit against in his trustbusting stage. Mann-Elkins Act. believe that they must be held to strict moral standards.

It eventually led to the enactment of the Pure Food Act. human. and political rights of black Americans. and mass public segregation. The large anti-black riot in Springfield in 1908 was representative of the peak of a period of harsh discrimination. and increased international trade. Taft easily won. Upton Sinclair. Mark Hanna: Hanna was a successful American politician and businessman. In 1906 he discharged an entire regiment of blacks accused of rioting in Brownsville. Washington represented a period of increasing anti-black violence. did not have a perfect record. white resentment of black advances. This panic brought the need for banking reform to the forefront of political activity.Springfield Ill riot. This book exposed the unsanitary working conditions in the stockyards of Chicago. sponsored educational programs. issues: The Republican platform consisted of Taft and Sherman.E. Panic of 1907: Roosevelt’s constant trustbusting of large corporations caused questionable bank speculations. The Socialist Party was represented by Eugene Debs. It generally reflected the views of the blacks and whites who headed the NAACP. The Crisis: The Crisis was the magazine of the NAACP. Pure Food and Drug Act: The Pure Food and Drug Act. eventually leading to the Panic of 1907. DuBois was editor of The Crisis from 1910 to 1934. legal. W. gave consumers protection from dangerous and impure foods. It lobbied for legislation. conservation. enacted through the efforts of Harvey Wiley and Sinclair in 1906. a conservative gold standard. They ran for continued anti-trust enforcement. All products must be clearly labeled and must explain a product which cannot be seen or judged by a consumer. William Jennings Bryan ran for the Democratic Party on a similar anti-trust platform. and strict credit policies. and engaged in protest actions. economic. This act solved problems concerning fraudulently labeled items. DuBois to safeguard civil. 1908: The period of Booker T. eventually leading to an investigation of both working conditions and the conditions of food. He helped manage several campaigns including the Republican presidential nomination of . Election of 1908: candidates. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP): The NAACP was an organization founded in 1909 by blacks and whites under such leaders as W. though not as racist a president as those before him.E. He often wrote that Blacks should develop industry and business separate from the white economy in order prove their non-dependence on white society Brownsville Incident: Roosevelt. finally culminating in the Federal Reserve Act.B. The Jungle: Sinclair was an American writer and reformer who wrote The Jungle.B. This unfair and illegal action was later reversed by Congress once all involved parties had died.

broke from this party in 1924 when he realized big business was dangerously out of control. Wisconsin. • Robert M. They locally ran the county rather than allowing the state to handle affairs. the state. and passed other progressive reform legislation. initially a Republican in Congress.McKinley. In 1899 she was selected general secretary of the National Consumers’ League. He adopted a direct primary system. He became foreman of the Midvale Steel Company in 1878 and used mathematics to determine maximum industrial productivity. Hanna was later selected chairman of the Republican National Committee. Florence Kelley. Scientific management. Taylor: Taylor was an engineer who first integrated scientific management with business. Businessmen pushed for citywide elections and for the city-manager system of government. This municipal level reform soon moved to the state level. a settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. Hull House: Addams was a prominent social reformer in the US and Europe. even the political bosses assisted. She saw its evils as a resident in Hull House for several years. began to regulate the railroads in his state. In 1889 she created Hull House in Chicago. Frederick W. consumerism: Kelley was largely responsible for the regulation of child labor. Addams also played an important role in the National Progressive party. The new state level of regulation had some inherit problems. Regulatory commissions: As the Progressive Era advanced. He also created a legislative reference library for lawyers. Jane Addams. He took the reform movement. The populace agreed with this opinion by electing him governor as an independent. "laboratory of democracy": La Follette enacted sweeping changes during his governorship of Wisconsin in 1900. regulatory commissions became more prevalent and numerable. an organization he used to collect a large war chest to assist in McKinley’s election. • Municipal Reform: The beginning of the Progressive Era is marked by a great increase in municipal reform. to new heights. La Follette: La Follette. Nearly all elements of the urban population participated in these reform efforts. these problems were solved. home rule for cities: Home rule was a new form of city government other than the mayor-council form that emerged in the Progressive Era. increased corporate taxes. using time and motion studies to find what each worker should for the highest efficiency. It also tried to teach immigrants English customs. In an effort to end the abuses of the rich capitalists regulatory commissions were created to divide the concentrated wealth. which used organized consumer boycotts and strikes to force improved factory conditions. Under this form of government the city was run by a committee of three elected commissioners. In reforms concerning the commoners. The excesses of the monopolistic railroad companies became known to all. previously only found at the municipal level. . The middle class began the movement and was the core of urban beautification. but as the progressive movement entered the national government.

Uncle Joe Cannon (Old Guard): Cannon was a Republican who served as Speaker of the House from 1903 to 1911. Department of Labor (from 1903 Department of Commerce and Labor. Hazen Pingree: These were all progressives who reformed the political process. in conjunction with John Root. Taft also strongly supported a national budgetary system. This group. Ohio. . a plan in which many beautiful pre-skyscraper buildings were designed in Chicago. 1909: This tariff was initially intended to lower several other tariffs. He strongly opposed many progressive reforms and was thus not very popular in the house. the honesty in government. which is what they were elected to do. City manager plan. and beautified his city. Taft lost standing with the progressive Republicans. commission plan: This form of government replaced the traditional mayor/council version in several cities. Payne-Aldrich Tariff. Since Taft have given him support. They were experts in rebuilding the ruined city. Taft focused primarily on a continuation of trustbusting and reuniting the old conservatives and young progressives of the Republican Party. It was empowered to investigate and report illegal corporative activities. replacing them with five elected commissioners.Tom Johnson. He was unable to reunite the two parties and. Progressives and Democrats joined to remove much of his power in 1910. Ballinger-Pinchot controversy: Pinchot charged that Ballinger was giving the nation's natural resources to private corporate interests. Under investigation it was found that Ballinger did nothing illegal though he did bend the government's environmental policies. San Jones reformed profit sharing and education in Toledo. Pingree reformed taxes. Many Progressive reformers considered this a sign that the companies and various special interests were preventing consumer prices from reaching reasonable levels. 1909 Chicago Plan: Burnham. Daniel Hudson Burnham. Insurgents: Insurgents was a nickname for a small group of reformist Republicans. allowing the Republican-Democratic coalition to run the Senate. as a result. Bureau of Corporations also in 1903): This department was created in 1913 with the intention of assisting the welfare and working conditions of the general worker. Johnson reformed public ownership of utilities in Chicago. turned against Taft after his passage of the 1909 tariff and completely separated after he supported the Payne-Aldrich Tariff. Sam (Golden Rule) Jones. The separation between progressive and conservative republicans was caused by this group. It began in Texas when progressives removed the corrupt mayor and council. built the first steel-frame buildings that later developed into modern skyscrapers. Brand Whitlock. Burnham was the designer of the famous Chicago Plan. William Howard Taft: As president. including La Follette and Norris. the Democratic party swept the 1912 elections. but after numerous compromises in the Senate it became a protective measure.

Kansas speech: The differences between Taft and Roosevelt were revealed in Roosevelt’s 1910 Osawatomie "New Nationalism" speech. but the US kept a portion of the military in the Dominican Republic. Bull Moose Party: This party. Most of the money was stolen by corrupt government officials. Through a change in House rules he ended the rule of the Speaker of the House Joseph Cannon. They outpolled the Republicans but lost to the Democrats. This was planned to quiet revolutionary thoughts and to prevent foreign financial problems. According to this "rule of reason" principle. They advocated primary elections. a dam building company. Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party and thus siphoned enough votes to cause the Republicans to lose the election. President Taft sought to avoid military confrontation by using money to increase foreign interest in the US. His efforts were largely a failure as most of the money never reached the actual people of Latin America. and prohibition of child labor. Rule of reason: Standard Oil case. • "dollar diplomacy": In an effort to avoid Roosevelt’s "big stick" economic policy. China refused to approve Taft’s plan and Japan and Russia began to grow suspicious of the US’s motives. social. He also created the Tennessee Valley Authority. Roosevelt’s Osawatomie. and political stability in Latin America rather than sending the military to force stability. American Tobacco case: In 1911 a progressive interpretation of the Sherman Act was enacted by the Supreme Court. opposing Taft’s support of numerous tariffs as well as the Old Guard in Congress. Roosevelt unveiled a plan in which he called for a protection of welfare over property. Manchurian railroad scheme: In an attempt to force Japan and Russia to sell their land in Manchuria for railroad investment. only "unreasonable" combinations restraining trade were illegal. He planned to promote better relation. As he ignored the limitations of party politics he slowly lost support. It was created in his anger of Taft being nominated in the Republican Party.Senator George Norris: Norris was a reformist senator who favored federal regulation of public utilities. formally known as the Progressive Party. This interpretation emerged when the court broke these two companies into smaller firms. was created by Theodore Roosevelt after his split with Taft. Secretary of State Knox: Knox was responsible for the creation of the Latin American Division of the State Department. Taft-Roosevelt split: In 1912 the Democrats finally regained control of the presidency due to the Taft-Roosevelt split. woman suffrage. President Taft moved to construct his own competing rail system. Taft’s inability to associate with the progressive elements of his party convinced Roosevelt to return. He planned to donate large sums of money to generate economic. Progressivism to Wilson .

" was a radical labor group formed by "Big Bill" Haywood. Debs continued to run on the Socialist platform. running under a compromise platform. All of the platforms dealt primarily with economic reform. Wilson ran with the Democratic Party. Eugene V. to which Wilson belonged. Herbert Croly. woman’s suffrage. He did not. They were never large. Four amendments to the Constitution within the span of eight years demonstrated the efficiency of the progressive impulse. • Election of 1912: Wilson. they were more rhetoric than action. banking and currency reform. Roosevelt tried to run with the Republican Party.In 1912. all big business was morally evil and should be broken up. His Socialist party was quite popular until it splintered apart along internal divisions. and minimum wages.issues: The election of 1912 was very interesting for most Americans since there were 4 active political parties. support trustbusting in the same way that Roosevelt did. A Federal Trade Commission was also planned to regulate the economy. • Woodrow Wilson. In 1897 he created the Social Democratic Party of America. Wobblies. Roosevelt copied many of his ideas for his New Nationalism platform. indicating the change that Americans wanted. Specifically. however. New Nationalism: In the election of 1912 Roosevelt was nominated under a platform nicknamed "The New Nationalism. He received nearly one million votes for president while he was imprisoned in jail. Roosevelt. New Freedom: The Democratic Party. the divided Republicans were no match for the united Democrats. Debs . Debs was an American Socialist leader and five time presidential candidate. Wilson’s "New Freedom" campaign was concerned with progressive programs similar to both parties. the election identified the party firmly with reform for the rest of the century. Debs even received 900. Daniel DeLeon. To him. This platform was essentially identical with many of the progressive reforms later passed under Wilson. "Big Bill" Haywood: The Industrial Workers of the World. Though they won several strikes. Woodrow Wilson easily glided to victory as the Democrats also took both houses of Congress. and labor legislation. The Promise of American Life: Croly best captured the nature of progressivism in this book. had a past history of 45 ballots without a nomination. corporate regulation." This platform followed the previous trustbusting and regulation trend as well as alleviating many common progressive concerns such as child labor. National Monetary Commission: The National Monetary Commission examined monetary data collected by the Pujo Committee and recommended a new form of . and individualism.000 votes. Socialist Party: Eugene V. Wilson’s agenda included tariff reform. but Taft was chosen. Debs. Except on the issue of race. He dreamed of an activist government which would serve all citizens. • Theodore Roosevelt. he suggested a redefinition of government. democracy. nicknamed the "Wobblies. IWW. To overcome this stumbling block the Democrats united with the Progressives. but they captured many people’s imaginations as they preached revolution. He left and created the Progressive Party. Taft.

Historical revisionism: Mary and Charles were two historians that pioneered a new perspective on history. Some Americans believed that the society could be improved by controlled breeding. W. Noticing the lack of moral oversight. published in 1916. well-acted films. Spoon River Anthology: Edgar Lee Master’s poems are unique in that they are presented as the voices of a town’s graveyard talking about their lives. W. Bell. political. Edwin Porter. and a forced eugenics movement by crime and by race type. later became the Federal Reserve System. used to adjust the value of money to keep the economy stable. Written in the Progressive Era. They each believed that history must be reexamined from a modern perspective and that the economic. These scenes were later unified to form a coherent narrative ending in a scene of suspense. Ragtime: Scott Joplin was a pianist and one of the most important developers of ragtime music. Scott Joplin. Griffith revolutionized the field of motion pictures after his production of The Birth of a Nation in 1915. .banking. is a preview to the ideas later espoused by Adolf Hitler. This story demonstrated the power of film propaganda and the racist effects it had on people. The right to do so was upheld in the court case Buck v. His work’s realism and irony contrast with the romantic and sentimental trends in progressive literature. The Passing of the Great Race: This book. suggesting a secure Treasury reserve and branch banks. produced by Edwin Porter in 1903. Edgar Lee Masters. His 1899 release of "Maple Leaf Rag" was the beginning of popular ragtime music. this book calls for absolute racial segregation. demonstrating the revolt against conventional social standards that was beginning. The Birth of a Nation: D. Charles A. became extremely popular in the Progressive Era due to the freedom they offered children from parents. It also began a trend towards hour-long. was the first major American film. He believed that ragtime should evolve into an indigenous black American opera style. Nickelodeons: Nickelodeons. many progressives moved to create censorship boards for these films. It used new innovations such as the intercutting of scenes shot in different settings. This advice. The Great Train Robbery: The Great Train Robbery. Eugenics movement: The Eugenics movement is one of the best examples of progressive ideas contradicting science. They accomplished this by sterilizing many criminals and sex offenders. Beard. Mary Ritter Beard. D. Madison Grant. and social threads of present time must be followed back to generate a clearer picture. movies costing a nickel each. Immigrant children could easily imagine away their restrictive home conditions. dramatic. immigrant restriction. Griffith.

In 1916 she opened the first American birth-control facility. moved the election of senators from the state legislatures to the general populace. is an obvious indicator to the Progressive era in which it was passed. and eventually gained the right for birth-control. It split the US into 12 regions with one Federal bank in each region. passing many progressive reform measures. She attacked the Comstock Law. granting women the vote in 1920. Seventeenth Amendment: The Seventeenth Amendment. Federal Reserve Act: The Federal Reserve Act was a compromise designed to stabilize the currency in the US. This law was intended to create a more democratic. ratified in 1919. Charles Evans Hughes: Charles Evans Hughes was an American jurist and statesmen. It followed the ideas already laid down by the Australian secret ballot and the direct primary. Pujo Committee: The Pujo Committee researched and later reported on the concentration of money and credit over the general populace. He conducted regular ‘revivals’ throughout the nation. Margaret Sanger: Sanger was a leader among birth-control advocates. He served as the chief justice of the Supreme Court in the depression years of the 1930s and supported many aspects of Roosevelt’s liberal New Deal. in which he used broadcasting to strengthen people’s bond with Christianity. proving to the nation that women could effect political changes. In the spirit of progressivism they were granted the vote in 1920.Billy Sunday: Billy Sunday was an American Fundamentalist preacher and professional baseball player. It authorized the income tax thereby allowing the Underwood-Simmons Tariff of 1913 to lower many tariffs. they began to demand the ability to vote from their male peers. ratified in 1913. ratified in 1913. This amendment is the midpoint of a growing drive towards women’s rights. She was convicted for this "public nuisance. The discount rate at which the federal bank lent the money determined the interest rate. a law which prevented the distribution of birth control. This amendment resulted from intense efforts among various women’s movements. prohibited the non-medical sale of alcohol. Sixteenth Amendment: The Sixteenth Amendment. As women felt their power in politics increasing. This committee’s findings later led to the creation of the Federal Reserve Banking system." won an appeal. As governor of New York he eliminated much of the corruption in government. Commercial banks bought stock from this bank. is a logical progression from the prohibition movement. The broadcasts of his revivals are considered among the most effective ever. Eighteenth Amendment: The Eighteenth Amendment. This amendment invalidated an earlier Supreme Court decision calling the income tax was unconstitutional. Nineteenth Amendment: The Nineteenth Amendment. fair society in the eyes of progressives. They found that the money and credit of the US is localized inside a small group of rich capitalists. .

He felt that instead of insisting on passenger’s rights. a Jew. the United States passed a bill that would exempt the United States from payment in the use of the Panama Canal. Great Britain opposed the move saying it violated the 1901 Hay-Pauncefote Treaty. It investigated economically unfair business practices and regulated these. was later ratified as the Sixteenth Amendment. originally declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. Woodrow Wilson appointed Louis Brandeis. noticing that it followed his principle of "New Freedom. Panama Tolls dispute: In 1912. The US’s stubbornness on the issue of neutrality rights led Bryan to resign his position in 1915. Federal Trade Commission. to the Supreme Court. The treaties were undermined by disputes of individual national interests. boycott. labor’s Magna Carta (?): The Clayton Act was designed to clarify the Sherman Antitrust Act in terms of new economic issues that had arisen." heavily advocated it. Bryan served as Secretary of State to Wilson.Underwood-Simmons Tariff: The Underwood-Simmons Tariff reduced the tariffs from the Payne-Aldrich Tariff to about 29%. and picket was also confirmed. which was briefly opposed because of anti- . It included a graduated income tax. cease and desist orders: The Federal Trade Commission. arbitration treaties: The arbitration treaties were negotiated by Secretary of State Root with 25 other nations. An example of such a treaty is the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Louis Brandeis. This act would have been labor’s Magna Carta had it been followed. Income tax has been greatly increased as tariffs have been lowered. This new power was first used in the Tariff Act of 1913 which set the tax of corporate income at 1%. created by the Federal Trade Commission Act. The commission also regularly generated statistics of economic and business conditions to the public. "Brandeis brief": In 1916. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan: From 1913-1915. After some dispute the United States eliminated the exemption clause and the president signed the bill in 1914. promoted free and fair trade competition. International disputes could be deferred to the Hague Tribunal as stipulated by the arbitration treaties. to correct for this monetary loss. It also levied a 1% tax on all rich families. made legal by the sixteenth amendment to the Constitution. the United States should keep Americans off belligerent ships. Practices such as local price-cutting and price discrimination were made illegal. Wilson. a differing view on neutrality. Income tax: The income tax. Colonel House: Colonel Edward M House was part of the Wilson administration and served as an advisor to the president. The right of unions to strike. but unfavorable court interpretations rendered many of its pro-labor sections powerless without further legislation. He later was part of the Roosevelt administration and was involved in New Deal legislation taking his traditional Wilsonian democracy to the New Deal era and its actions. • Clayton Antitrust Act.

Hughes Act: The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 created the Federal Board for Vocational Education to encourage agricultural growth. low-interest credit. passed in 1915. it gave the federal government greater control over education because it required that states submit proposals for education to a federal board. . It forbade interstate shipment of products whose production was due to the labor of children under fourteen or sixteen. farmers had to use actual money or property as security. enacted in 1914. Oregon. This represented the Court’s adapting to the new. his Brandeis brief provided evidence as to why women need limited work hours. Furthermore. Keating-Owen Act: The Keating-Owen Act. Smith-Lever Act: The Smith-Lever Act. This aided the automobile industry and allowed for the existence of more cars. The act was designed to attract Americans to ocean occupations. The act signaled a major victory for railroad workers. Prior to this act. This act created scales of compensation for any injury. Included provisions regulating work hours. Workmen’s Compensation Act: The Workmen’s Compensation Act heightened the rights of employees to bring legal action against their employers for injuries. attempted to prevent the problem of child labor. changing industrial society. Prior to the passage of this act. This law was particularly important because it was the first attempt by Congress to regulate interstate commerce. making loans harder to obtain. Federal Highways Act. La Follette Seaman’s Act: Passed in 1915. using land or crops as the loan security. Federal Warehouse Act: Wilson heavily supported the Federal Warehouse Act. from regional Farm Loan Banks. It stated that federal funds would match appropriations made by states funds for highway construction. It was part of the governments plan to encourage a growth in American agriculture. as well as pay and food quality. the employee had to prove they were not at fault and that it was not a normal risk. the La Follette Seaman’s Act improved working and living conditions as well as making ships safer. It applied to US ships as well as any ship docked in a US port. which allowed farmers to more easily secure long-term. 1916: The Adamson Act of 1916 was a compromise that avoided a railroad strike. Adamson Act. An example of Wilson’s sympathy to labor and was one of his important worker protection laws.Semitism. In 1908 in Muller v. Students not in college benefited because they were taught agricultural skills by county agents. Smith. created a system of agricultural extension work funded by federal grants. regardless to the party responsible. 1916: The Federal Highways Act of 1916 was pushed by Wilson and supported by the Democratic congress. It set an eight hour day for interstate railroad workers with a salary of one and a half for overtime work.

Charles Evans Hughes was the Republican candidate who attacked the inefficiency of the Democratic Party. Germany responded with its U-boats. as well as Italy. Wilson won the election. most Americans wanted no part. Wilson declared war in 1917. the British Lusitania was sunk bringing protests from Wilson. election of 1916: Hughes. the United States lent the Allies over $10 billion. Serbia’s allies by treaties. Sussex pledge: In 1915. In 1916. it led to increased reparations for Germany because of allied indebtedness.First World War When war burst upon Europe in August 1914. This great indebtedness led to conflict later when the United States attempted to collect. AustriaHungary." Yet the United States and Britain were linked by extensive economic ties and many Americans felt close emotionally with the British. Arabic pledge. France and Russia had signed treaties with each other. Britain. and seething over violation of neutral rights on the seas. called the "sick man of Europe. Germany declared war on Russia and France. Balkan States gained their independence from the Ottoman Empire. Triple Entente: Allies: Beginning in the early 1900’s. Great Britain utilized its sizable navy to blockade all trade going in and out of Germany. issues: Wilson ran for reelection for the Democrats on the call that he had kept the United States out of the war. with its blank check provision to Austria. This system of alliances had escalated what was once a localized incident. Germany. In the Balkan Wars. Afterwards. loans to the Allies: In total. Also. had in encouraged the war declaration on Serbia. in turn drawing Great Britain into the war. Germans sunk the Sussex and made the Sussex pledge to promise a stoppage of attacks. so was able to continue his idealistic policies. Wilson. and Serbia were created." From it. Great Britain owed the United States over $4. Wilson immediately proclaimed American neutrality and called on the nation to be neutral "in thought and in action." Ottoman Empire. Bulgaria. "Sick man of Europe.Hungary. Triple Alliance: Central Powers: The Triple Alliance consisted of Germany. Fearing a world dominated by imperial Germany.2 billion by the end of the war. British blockade: In an attempt to win the war of attrition that was World War I. Lusitania. Germany declared war on the allies (Russia and France). After Austria declared war on Serbia. the newly independent nations of Romania. Balkan Wars: The ancient Ottoman empire had lost its grip throughout the late 1800’s. eventually going on the offensive in 1917 by itself blockading Britain at the cost of American involvement. The Arabic was sunk in the same year and Germans followed with the Arabic pledge promising to stop attacks on passenger vessels. .

necessary for the war with five campaigns between 1917 and 1919 with much excitement. It depicted Germans and other enemies on bad terms. Russian Revolutions. or CPI. Anything German was frowned upon. bond drives: Treasury Secretary William Gibbs McAdoo organized the raising of funds. Germany announced it would resume unrestricted submarine warfare. formed in 1917. The second Revolution. or Liberty Loans. Wilson foresaw the vengeful atmosphere that would follow a prolonged war. Americans sided with neutrality. In other words. war declared. 1917. and served to censor the press. The CPI was a propaganda committee that built support for the war effort in Europe among Americans. was headed by journalist George Creel. Eventually. March and Bolshevik: In March 1917 a revolution overthrew Russia’s tsarist regime. At the beginning of the first World War. 1917. It would be a Mexican opportunity to retake the Mexican Cession. Mexico should attack the US. • Zimmerman Note: Also known as the Zimmerman Telegram. was an armed coup organized by the Bolshevik party. was successful in raising widespread American support for the war effort. April 1917: On March 2. the Zimmerman note was a message intercepted by British intelligence from Germany to Mexico in 1917 proposing that in the event of a German war with the United states. a democratic revolution could arise. These revolutions were caused by and led to Russia pulling out of World War I.unrestricted submarine warfare: On January 31. This was one of a few events which led to widespread public support for the Allies and eventual United States involvement in the World War. a repudiation of the Sussex pledge. 1917. People felt obliged to buy bonds because they were afraid of being seen as unpatriotic. a new democratic world order led by the United States would follow. they raised over $21 billion for the war. and sink all ships without warning whatsoever. commonly called the October Revolution. This action was backed by the German belief that this would lead it to victory before the Americans could become involved in the war. It was based on the belief that from this international power struggle. in which he proposed the declaration of war against Germany." His words were a call to the European nations to stop the conflict based on a balance of power and to form a peace in which nations together would keep the peace. Wilson’s "Peace without victory": In 1916 President Wilson called for a "peace without victory. "Make the world safe for democracy": "Make the world safe for democracy" was Wilson’s famous line justifying United States involvement in the World War. The Creel Committee. . • Creel Committee: The Committee on Public Information. The declaration was passed by the Senate by a vote of 82 to 6 and in the House by a vote of 373 to 50 before it was then signed by Wilson. President Wilson called a special Congressional session for April 2.

This was part of Wilson’s effort to take stronger action in the war effort. 1917. or obstructing recruitment or the draft.War Industries Board: Created in July 1917. Pershing.S. The United States insisted the AEF be independent of French and English armies because it was believed the U. 1917. prices. During the war. the Selective Service Act was passed. 24 million registered. AEF: From 1917-1918. . production. the AEF. and 3 million were actually drafted. The speech criticized American policy. Made into a party-like atmosphere.S. Also papers which opposed the government could be banned from the U. and paying high prices to businesses. At the time. on May 18. the War Industries Board controlled raw materials. Most enlisted in search of action and adventure. it set prices for agricultural goods high to encourage the production of agricultural products. It also encouraged production by allocating raw materials. selective service: As part of US mobilization for war. he served in the US Air Service as commander of the 94th Aero Pursuit Squadron. standardizing manufactured products. the United States military was in poor disarray and men were desperately needed. The Sedition Act of 1918 made illegal any criticism of the government. He was aided by a coalition of 100 businessman who advised him on fiscal policy. His imprisonment was an example of the reactionism and hysteria of the period. sent 2 million men to France under General John J. inciting rebellion. Eugene V. or American Expeditionary Force. Sedition Act. and a response to the poor harvests of 1916 and 1917. He received the Distinguished Service Cross as well as the Congressional Medal of Honor. Headed by Herbert Hoover. would have a stronger bargaining voice with a separate army. 1918: The Espionage Act of 1917 enacted fines and imprisonment for false statements. instituting strict production and purchasing controls. It was poorly applied and used to trample civil liberties during the war hysteria as in the example of the imprisonment of Eugene Debs. involvement in the war and for warning of the dangers of war and militarism. postal service. Men from 21-30 were to register for the military. Eddie Rickenbacker: Rickenbacker was an American Aviator during World War I. Debs imprisoned: Eugene Debs was questionably imprisoned and was given a 10 year prison term for giving a speech at a Socialist’s convention. Herbert Hoover. and labor relations. Food Administration: The Food Administration was created in 1917 as part of the war effort. he was America’s leading pilot. Bernard Baruch: Bernard Baruch was a Wall Street broker before being chosen by President Wilson in 1918 to head the War Industries Board." Espionage Act. It encouraged conservation with such days as "meatless Tuesdays. Shooting down 22 planes.

The other points dealt with self determination and finally a general association of nations. meeting in Geneva. November 1918 saw the war grind to a halt. arms reduction and free trade. was dominated by conflict among the "Big Four. Blatantly missing from the delegation were any Republican leaders. so the conference became not an American but a Democratic affair. American membership in the League of Nations. Implemented at the Versailles conference. Switzerland. During the conference of Versailles. The aims of the other allies were not as liberal as that of the US. freedom of the seas. the League of Nations. General Tasker Bliss. Each had a different prerogative and differing interests. For example. Colonel Edward M. and Vittorio Orlando represented Italy. After WWI. President Woodrow Wilson represented the United States. Clemenceau. The US never joined because of controversy over Article X of the League Covenant that took away the United States’s freedom of determination in world affairs. and attorney Henry White. The enormous reparations settled on was representative of this atmosphere. They dealt with the things that led to the first World War. Orlando: The Big Four were the dominating four at the Versailles conference after World War I. In a fourteen-point speech to Congress. Big Four: Wilson. Wilson pushed the Fourteen points and was partly successful. Clemenceau for France. held at Versailles in 1919. US Versailles delegation: The delegation was headed by President Wilson himself. until it was taken over by the United Nations. Wilson promoted his Fourteen Points while other Allies sought vengeance. Wilson failed in his most cherished objective. The treaty found Germany liable for the war and established new nations based on self determination. The peace conference. aims of Allies and US at peace conference: The main goal of Wilson and the American delegation was to secure an international peacekeeping organization. the first points called for open treaties. Wilson believed that United States involvement would translate into a new democratic world order. It also made German colonies mandates under the League of Nations and included the controversial article X that kept the US out of the League. Wilson summed up United States war aims and its noble objectives. Ultimately. it existed from 1920 to 1946. . George. These provisions set the stage for World War II." and the resulting treaty proved a disaster.Postwar Aims During the war. Lloyd George for Britain. • League of Nations: The organization promoted by Wilson in his Fourteen Points was the League of Nations. • Fourteen Points: The Fourteen Points were Wilson’s proposals and beliefs for a postwar world order. it divided German colonies into mandates of various League members. House. and included Secretary of State Robert Lansing. • Versailles Conference and Treaty: The Big Four dominated the conference in 1919 that determined the postwar world order. a peace based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points.

They did not want the United States going to war defending another League member without Congress’s permission. as was stipulated by Article X. Austria. Estonia. Yugoslavia. those of the respective countries. Lithuania. allowing for the rise of Hitler and World War II mandate system: As a provision of the Versailles Treaty. Article 10 of the Versailles Treaty: The most controversial of the League of Nations covenants. boundaries for new countries still left many misrepresented and under others’ control. Reparations payments were based on this claim. self determination: The idea of new nations and self determination was behind some of the aspects of the Treaty of Versailles. Johnson. Czechoslovakia Poland. Hungary. They wanted that article removed before ratification. The colonies became in actuality. This article was a large part of why the US rejected the League. Even with the doctrine of self determination. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. Germany’s colonies became mandates of the League of Nations and delegated to France. Article 10 said that all nations must protect the territorial and political integrity of other League members. new nations. so new nations were created to allow this. Latvia.• collective security: Collective security was the dogma behind Article X of the League of Nations covenant of the Versailles Treaty. Senate rejection. They opposed nearly all of the provisions of the League of Nations and felt that the League obstructed the United State’s freedom of self determination. which was one of their purposes in fighting the war. Wilson . and Finland were new nations which filled this definition. Self determination meant every nationality getting their own country. Japan and Britain. It led to hatred among Germans and inadvertently contributed to conditions precipitating World War II. This huge amount led to Germany’s economic downfall. The belief manifested inself in the international world court that was established and later in the establishment of the United Nations after the demise of the League. Germany accepted total responsibility for her and her allies for starting the First World War. The article meant that if one nation was engaged in war. Germany was forced to pay a huge sum. reservations: Senate reservationists did not fully oppose the League except for mainly one Article. some $33 billion to the Allies for civilian and veterans costs. • "irreconcileables": Borah. all others must become involved. it was felt that this would ensure peace in the postwar world order. It stated that every nation would serve to protect the territorial integrity and existing governments of all other League nations. Hence. Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty: By Article 231. La Follette: The irreconcileables were those in Congress who felt the United States should not be a member of the League under any circumstances. reparations: Reparations were implemented by European powers wanting vengeance against Germany.

Republicans no who had traditionally supported Wilson’s plans in Europe no longer supported him because of his cry to voters for a Democratic Congress. there was a string of bombings. wartime manpower losses: During World War I. blacks left their traditional homes in the South and migrated North for job opportunities in the war industries. The United States never joined the League of Nations. women should play a role so that after the war. Supplied America’s labor needs. Harriet Stanton Blatch: A prominent women’s leader who during the war offered a view on why women should play a role in the wartime effort. Women’s Roles in World War I: Prominent women’s leaders like Carrie Chapman Catt and Anna Howard Shaw saw war as an opportunity for women’s rights. Red Scare. Some were deported under the Alien Act. In comparison. In a variant of Wilson’s theme of determining the postwar peace. The wartime mood also gave a boost to moral-reform movements. Still. The Red Scare in the United States followed Communist revolutions in Russia. tired of idealism.attempted to overcome them and get ratification for the League but was unsuccessful in his campaign. the Republicans gained an advantage in both the House of Representatives as well as the Senate.5 million deaths on both sides. This growing concentration of blacks led to the Harlem Renaissance. Impact of the War The war affected the lives of millions of industrial workers. World War I brought prosperity to the American economy. women. military casualties alone accounted for just over 8. In November 1919.000 blacks migrated North during the war. Palmer raids: In 1919.7 million killed each. Russia and Germany by far lost the most men at 1. the wartime spirit saw new racial violence and fresh antiradical hysteria.000 men. Thousands of American Women took vacated jobs and became involved in industrial production as well as volunteer agencies at home and abroad. black migration to Northern cities: During the war. revealed their feelings in the election of 1920 leaving Republican Warren Harding in the office. Among the victims was Attorney General A. . In all. Led to racial tension and violence in the North. The antiradical panic crested in the Red Scare of 1919-1920. over 21 million men were injured during the war. Mitchell Palmer. farmers. the United States lost only 126. About 500. and blacks in important ways. Americans. For all its horrors. Palmer led raids and arrested around 700 suspected communists and anarchists. they will have an opportunity to gain power and rights. Congressional elections of 1918: In 1918.

The United Mine Workers of America under John L. With the shortage came higher wages which led to more purchases and in turn.1920 in Boston. Esch-Cummins Transportation Act: Also known as the Transportation Act of 1920. The most famous strike was in a Seattle shipyard. Cox and Franklin D. The rise in prices was regulated by the WIB which set prices.strikes: 1919. 1920 and attempted to insure the operation of the railroads. issues. Prices fell and unemployment was over 12% at its height. the immediate abandonment of the foreign and domestic policies of Wilson.2 million for prenatal and baby-care centers in rural areas. The government responded with troops to break up the strike. Roosevelt were the Democratic nominees. to powerful businessmen. Harding of Ohio and Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts. fueling the Red Scare. Sheppard-Towner Act: Lobbying for child-labor laws as well as worker protection for women and support for education by the Women’s Joint Congressional Committee resulted in the Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921. this act allowed the government to take over the railroads from Dec 26. Americans yearned for a return to "normalcy" and political leaders that could provide it. Republicans chose Senator Warren G. This act provided $1. It was due to decreased European purchases from American industries after the war. 1920-1921: A brief depression occurred from mid-1920 to the end of 1921. It was followed by the improved economy of the 1920’s until the Great Depression struck. inflation. 1920. steel. 1917 until Mar 1. Normalcy: Coined by Warren G. police: Post-war strikes occurred because of an increase in prices. Harding. brief depression. inflation during the First World War: As Americans were sent to Europe to fight in World War I. vice-presidential candidates: The democrats nominated James M. Harding in an address before the Home Market Club on May 14. Harding was the Republican dark horse with running mate Calvin Coolidge. coal. They ran on a platform endorsing the League with reservations. They were forced to carry heavy traffic while ignoring maintenance. They advocated a "return to normalcy" from the war environment. Chicago police struck and were all fired. this term came to symbolize. election of 1920: candidates. thus turning to the leadership of Warren G. Twenties Domestic Affairs America of the 1920s was a period of prosperity as well as industrial and technological growth. Harding sensed popular longing for calm and won in a landslide victory. The result was the Act of Feb 28. issues: Senator Warren G. This meant a return to high protective tariffs and a reduction in taxes. James Cox. Roosevelt for his running mate. With the recent end of World War I. and Franklin D. . Lewis struck as well. a labor shortage was created. Election of 1920: candidates.

Simmons. he held an antipathy to progressivism. led by William J. Warren G.S. was forced from office in 1924 after receiving payments from violators of prohibition.S. Fall leased government oil reserves in 1921 to Sinclair. appointed attorney general. It helped defeat the conservative Republican candidates in 1924. . was exposed and convicted of stealing funds from it for personal economic growth. 1924. profarmer. An example of this was the 1919 federal law imposing taxes on the products of child labor that he overturned. Teapot Dome. Sceretary of Interior Fall. the Supreme Court overturned many progressive reform measures that were opposed by popular business interests. 1923. the CPPA adopted policies of pro-labor. The Bureau provided for a more efficient management of the budget within the treasury department. believed the government had no obligation in protecting citizens against natural disasters. from their respective country since 1890 and completely rejected the immigration of Asians. this act provided for the Bureau to be located in the treasury department with the director appointed by the president. Harding. KKK revival: A KKK was an organization founded in Pulaski. Coolidge. his administration was full of scandals and on Aug 2. Under his jurisdiction. They aimed to destroy radical political power and establish white supremacy in the U. and government ownership of railroads and utilities such as telephones and electricity. where his silences became legendary. 1921. 1922 (CPPA): A committee designed to revive the practices of the progressive era.•Immigration Acts 1921. In 1924. quota system: In 1921 Congress limited annual immigration to about 350. Harry Daugherty. Nathan Bedford Forrest served as the first Grand Wizard for this organization. Tennessee in 1866. director of the Veteran’s Bureau. •Harding scandals: Charles Forbes. This also restricted immigration to 2% of the total number of people who lived in the U.000 people annually. president of the Mammoth Oil Company. his ordinary. Calvin: Harding’s death brought vice president Coolidge to the presidency. Unfortunately. and warned of "the tyranny of bureaucratic regulation and control. Daugherty. Harding died in San Francisco of a heart attack. Conference for Progressive Political Action. they limited the number to 164. As president. but then it was revived in 1915. Chief Justice William Howard: Taft was appointed by President Harding in 1921. in 1924. All suspects evaded prosecution. Bureau of the Budget: Created by the Budget and Accounting Act on June 10." Taft. friendly manner and advocacy of a return to "normalcy" resulted in a landslide vicotry in the election of 1920. They were formally disbanded in 1869.: Although Harding lacked the qualifications for presidency. The intent of these provisions was to reduce the immigration of foreign people in the United States. Harry Sinclair: Forbes.000 people annually.

or transportation of alcoholic liquors in 1917. Smith was the Democratic candidate with the experience of being the governor of NY. However. Volstead Act. The Republicans nominated Coolidge. Secretary of Treasury tax cuts: Mellon was the secretary of the treasury under Harding. Nicola Sacco and Bartholomeo . Congress submitted the 18th amendment prohibiting the manufacture. •Prohibition: Prohibition was first an issue before World War I. Progressive Party: CPPA delegates revived the Progressive Party at the meeting in Cleveland in July of 1924 and nominated Robert La Follette for president. the Socialist party and AFL supported this nomination. Massachusetts. backgrounds: Candidates Al Smith and Herbert Hoover represented the social and cultural differences of the 1920s. a compromise candidate. Mellon also succeeded in balancing the budget every year from 1921 to 1928." He denounced the bill as an unconstitutional scheme because it would benefit American agriculture at the expense of the general public’s welfare. He secured the passage of legislation that established the Board to Promote Cooperative Commodity Marketing. Norris. Federal Farm Board: This action was a result of Hoover’s response towards the problems faced by agriculture. Davis. 1920 two robbers killed a clerk and stole money from a shoe factory in South Briantree. Congress lowered the income tax rates for the wealthy. The Democratic Party nominated John W. Alabama to automaker Henry Ford for only a portion of the value of the land. Progressives saw it as a way to deal with the social problems associated with alcoholism. He also helped reject further tax cuts for the rich. Coolidge. Election of 1928: candidates. personalities. election of 1924: candidates. who won with 54% of the vote. Under his administration. vetoes: The veto of the McNary-Haugen Bill by Coolidge reflected a fear of "the tyranny of bureaucratic regulation. and Hoover.Mellon. Al Capone: The Volstead Act of 1919 established the Prohibition Bureau within the Treasury Department. but it lacked financial stability and was ineffective. Robert La Follette. Hoover was an inexperienced candidate that had never sought a public office before. his illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties. yet he won. Muscle Shoals: Norris successfully prevented President Coolidge from selling a federal hydroelectric facility at Muscle Shoals. Capone was a mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. By doing so he was permitted to raise farm prices while still preserving the voluntarist principle. also. Sacco and Vanzetti Case: On Apr 15. Senator George. closet manufacturing of alcoholic beverages and a rise in criminal activities within the cities due to illegal importation of alcohol led to its repeal with the 21st amendment in 1933. sale. McNary-Haugen Bill.

The economy during this time was stimulated by the new and booming electrical industry. Amidst the speakeasies. Americans began to stray from traditional values as the culture changed. were angered by the theory of evolution. Darrow was the head of ACLU’s lawyers. Scopes Trial. Billy Sunday. This boom also was started with the invention of the affordable automobile. Both men died in the electric chair on Aug 23. Aimee Semple McPherson: During the twenties.S. Pittsburgh: This was the first successful radio station in the U. The inventions of new consumer goods and home electrical products contributed to this prosperity. This case has been referred to for its moral lesson on human nature. This radio station also influenced the establishment of the Federal Radio Commission. jazz. the Tennessee legislature outlawed the teaching of evolution in public schools. Americans responded to criminal cases also. Leopold and Loeb Case: The case in 1924 involved the murder of a young boy by two rich and intelligent college students. It also shows that not only famous cases have been products of social developments. based in Pittsburgh. An evangelist. William Jennings Bryan: In 1925." Evangelist McPherson used drama and theatrical talent in her sermons. Protestants who insisted on the divinity of the Bible. 1927. The American Civil Liberties Union volunteered to defend any teacher willing to challenge this law. While the movie industry produced new celebrities and jazz music became popular. "If you turn hell upside down you will find ‘Made in Germany’ stamped on the bottom. KDKA. broadcast the news of President Harding’s election. Billy Sunday’s most famous quote reads. The jury found them both guilty. It began the radio era when KDKA. •Prosperity: This is a term that refers to the economic stability and opportunity experienced during the 1920s. This can be seen as an example of the progressive spirit that still survived in the legislative branch and its effect on society. Federal Radio Commission. to start broadcasting on Nov 2. •fundamentalists. 1920. and jitterbugs. A growth oriented business climate of the time was expansionist regarding American capitalism. literature flourished and flappers defined a social trend.Vanzetti were arrested and both were charged with the robbery and the murder. Fundamentalist legislatures even introduced bills to prohibit the teaching of evolution in schools. . Clarence Darrow. Roaring Twenties American culture and society in the 1920s were marked by a wave of new lifestyles and ideas. winning many followers. William Jennings Bryan agreed to assist prosecution. 1927: The FRC was created by Congress and extended the principle of governmental regulation of business activity to the new radio industry.

Charlie Chaplin was a silent film actor who appeared in 1914 with the Keystone Film Company. Sloan. he started a weekly newspaper called the Negro World. Unfortunately. Henry.: He was an American motion picture director and producer who in 1913 joined with Jesse Lasky and Samuel Goldwyn to form the Jesse L. Chaplin. In 1920 he became the NAACP’s first black executive secretary. the proposed amendment never succeeded through the party. Lasky Feature Play Company. Langston Hughes: Hughes was an American writer known for the use of jazz and black folk rhythms in his poetry. Anti-Saloon League: Another organization formed during the progressive era. feminist Alice Paul’s National Women’s Party lobbied for an equal-rights amendment to the Constitution. James Weldon: American author. and diplomat who reflected his deep consideration of black life in the United States. lawyer. the AntiSaloon league was spurred by the Women’s Christian Temperance Movement in 1893. In 1914 he founded the UNIA and in 1916. •Harlem Renaissance. Charlie: Valentino was an actor who was idolized by female fans of the 1920s. Ford completed the construction of his first automobile and in 1903 he founded the Ford Motor Company. In 1913 Ford began using standardized interchangeable parts and assembly-lines in his plants. His first silent film was The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921) but his peak was with The Sheik (1921). the movement depended on the patronage of white people. De Mille produced and directed the first feature film made in Hollywood called The Squaw Man in 1914. Rudolph. Universal Negro Improvement Association: Garvey was a black nationalist leader who created the "Back to Africa" movement in the U. the Women’s Christian Temperance movement grew in momentum during the progressive era. Valentino. In the 1920s he was a prominent figure during the Harlem Renaissance and was the Poet Laureate of Harlem. and labor activists condemned Paul’s stance on this issue. Garvey.: In 1893.Women’s Christian Temperance Movement: Formed in 1874. Alfred P. National Women’s Party. Other feminists. the Model T. In 1907. The result of the efforts of the ASL was the 18th amendment passed in 1918. However. James Weldon Johnson served as field secretary of the NAACP from 1916-1920. Johnson. he led a printers’ strike for higher wages at a printing company in Kingston. This occurred because the war with Germany fermented wider support for the movement. de Mille. Alice Paul: During the twenties.S. In 1908 he started production of the Model-T. . He used musical rhythms and the traditions of African American culture in his poetry. The Harlem Renaissance refers to the black cultural development during the 1920s. Marcus. By 1917 it successfully established prohibition in 19 states. Ford. Progressives encouraged the legal abolition of alcohol. radicals. Cecil B.

Mencken remained the editor until 1933. Babbitt: Main Street was written in 1920 and is where Lewis first developed the theme of the monotony. Fred Astaire was involved with the choreography in the movie along with other famous dancers such as Berkeley. the Jazz Age: The Jazz Age is the general label of what the twenties represented. Lindbergh. Babe. F. Flying in his single engine plane. •"the Lost Generation": This term refers to a group of American writers who lived primarily in Paris during the 1920s and 1930s. Main Street. Dempsey. Louis: Lindbergh was an American aviator. and Pulitzer Prize winner. Jack: Babe Ruth was the most popular player in the history of baseball." By this he referred to the public’s admiration of leaders like President Harding.Ruth." Freud’s. Charles. his ideas became popular during the 1920s. comments on how people conform blindly to the standards of their environment. and De Mille.. H. that started a demand for dancers who could fulfill the expectations of the 1920s. emotional frustration. Jack Dempsey was an American professional boxer who became world heavyweight champion in 1919 but lost the title in 1926. and lack of values in American middle-class life. Bruce. . he was the first person to make a nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic. Balanchine. Spirit of St. written in 1922. engineer . On May 20. Sigmund theories: Freud was a Viennese physician whose studies of human sexuality and human psychology first appeared in the 1890s. Spirit of St. Barton. those were the "good times. This name also refers to the general prosperity and liberation of the people during the time. Louis. and William Carlos Williams. The American Mercury: Mencken founded the magazine The American Mercury in 1924. Babbitt. Bitter about their World War I experiences and disillusioned with different aspects of American society. His lectures in 1909 at Clark University advanced psychoanalysis in the United States. Such a title reflects the revolution in music during the time. The Jazz Singer: The Jazz Singer was a movie. but individually they were all influential writers. these writers were seen to be ex-patriots. Mencken. he flew from New York City to Paris. They never formed a formal literary movement. editor of the magazine. He began in 1914 on the Baltimore team of the International League. The writers include: Ernest Hemingway. Sinclair. 1927. Scott Fitzgerald. The Man Nobody Knows 1925: Barton was an advertising executive that described Jesus Christ as a managerial genius who "picked up twelve men from the bottom ranks of business and forged them into an organization that conquered the world. However. made in 1927. when jazz music became popular and in style. Lewis. He targeted his work at the shortcomings of democracy and the middle-class American culture.L.

such as the League of Nations and the World Court. Written in 1922.Eliot. Focus during this era was upon domestic affairs more so than foreign affairs. He also portrays his characters as victims of social and economic forces. as reflected through its foreign policy during the twenties. and her ever shortening skirt length. he usually depicted the lives of two types of people: men and women deprived of faith in their values by World War I. •Collective Security: The term "collective security" was first mentioned in the inaugural speech made by president Franklin D. Hemingway. The plot was a sensitive and satiric story of the pursuit of success and the collapse of the American dream. and men of simple character and primitive emotions. The Waste Land expresses Eliot’s conception of the contrast between modern society and societies of the past. T. This was Hemingway’s second most important novel next to The Sun Also Rises (1926). while women themselves turned to a more liberated attitude. The burden of domestic chores were alleviated with new technology. dangling cigarette. Dreiser. F. Foreign Policy in the 1920s In relation to the rest of the world. Roosevelt on Oct 5. The isolationist disposition of the U. Fitzgerald. 1937. Theodore.S. the United States drew into isolation. Fitzgerald was bitter because of the effects of the war. The Great Gatsby: Fitzgerald wrote this book in five months and completed it in 1925. In that speech Roosevelt refereed to the need to quarantine aggressor nations by acting upon them in a collective measure. . heavy make-up. Independent and representing the rebellious youth of the age. Ernest. The Waste Land: Eliot won the Nobel Prize for literature for his poem The Waste Land. This poem that is one of the most widely discussed literary works. New woman: During the 1920s changes in postwar behavior had a liberating effect on women. the flapper was the stereotype of a woman in the 1920s. Scott. Being one of the writers of the Lost Generation. Dreiser believed in representing life honestly in his fiction and accomplished this through accurate detail and descriptions of the urban settings of his stories.S. called for collective security. A Farewell to Arms: In Hemingway’s novels. An American Tragedy had great success. Women of the twenties were noticed more for their sex appeal and presented as thus in the advertising industry. thus saying that nations need to stick together in order to combat evil. Flappers: Called a flapper because they would leave their boot flaps open. New restrictions on immigration and a lack of membership in international organizations. for Americans sought to secure their nation after the effects of World War I and maintain prosperity. the flapper was usually characterized by her "bobbed" hair. An American Tragedy: In 1925.. contributed to this isolationist period of America.

The principle is to hear cases that extended from the different participants in the court. reparations were a major concern. This act prompted the formulating of the Twenty-One demands written by China. this treaty was a series of notes between U. GB. These demands recognized Japan’s rights in Shandong. Secretary of State Robert Lansing and the Japanese military informer Kikujiro Ishii. and Japan) discussed respect towards Pacific nations. Fr.World Court: Also named the International Court of Justice. It also helped to reinstate the Open Door Policy. USSR. Fr. Twenty-One Demands: Japan in 1915. Four Power Treaty. Aug 1924.. The ideal tonnage ratio for the countries were 5-US. The Young Plan signed on Jun 7. The numbers are the allowed amount of tonnage for each nations’ supply of battleships. 5-5-3-1. 5-GB. reparations: Reparations is a term applied to the issuing of money from one nation to another. at the end of WWI.S. it sought to bring about a change in the way countries dealt with foreign policy. 1928. Lansing-Ishii Treaty: Signed on Nov 2. Signed by Frank Kellogg of the US and Aristicie Briand from France on Aug 27. Dawes Plan. not all cases submitted would be tried. . 1917. and the desired amount of battleships that each nation should have. 1929 was for the final installment of the reparation payments and reduced the amount due by Germany significantly.75-1. regarded reparations payments and consisted of an annual allotment of 2.. 1.75-France. 1. invaded the city of Shandong and forced China to hand over the right of Japanese imperialism in the former German regions plus the city of Shandong.75 ratio: These ratios were conceived on Dec 14. Young Plan: The Dawes Plan. the World Court was established in 1946 exceeding from a charter that was established by the UN. the World Court has the option of choosing cases. During the First and Second World Wars. 1920 at the Washington Arms Conference. The 9 Power Treaty restated the Open Door Policy. and Italy) halted battleship construction for 10 years and developed the ideal tonnage ratio. The 5 power treaty (US. GB. •Washington Disarmament Conference: Also called the Washington Naval Conference it convened during 1921-1922. Pertaining to this treaty was the reconciliation of the two countries on the issue of foreign policy in the Far East. The money is usually given to a nation that has been damaged by the destructiveness of war due to the acts from the other county. From this conference came the ideal of setting a standard on the desired tonnage that each nation should have.75 Italy. 3-Japan. Five Power Treaty. Kellogg-Briand Treaty: This treaty of 1928 denounced war between countries when it was used for the purpose of handling relations between countries.5 billion gold pieces to the US from Germany. Nine Power Treaty: The 4 Power treaty (US. At the conference which was called by the United States the issue of the arms race and the idea of keeping peace on the Pacific ocean were discussed.

relations. however. it also warned member banks not to loan money for the purpose of buying stocks.Sending troops into Nicaragua. and the ensuing struggle of the government to relieve Americans and recover the economy. Their message went unheard. The Fordney-McCumber Tariff. Hoover also believed that cutthroat capitalism was unnecessary. Welfare capitalism: Hoover welcomed this idea and urged further movement in this direction. . Hoover Administration When Herbert Hoover was elected to the presidency in 1928. 1922: This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper.S. Calvin Coolidge. and the panic which led to bank foreclosures all over the United States. To accomplish this they increased the rate on federal reserve notes to decrease speculation. Federal Reserve Board: The Federal Reserve Board tried to establish an easy credit policy. and who would rise above them in order to succeed. his ideologies and legislation were not as effective in restoring prosperity to the nation. the U. 1929 when the great stock market crash occurred. Black Thursday: Black Thursday refers to Oct 29. 1927-1928: The United States refused to recognize the government established in Nicaragua under the regime of Emiliano Chamorro. He believed that economic development demanded corporate cooperation in the areas of workers wages and production regulations. the unregulated trade within the process of buying stocks. During his term of office. by 1933 Hoover expelled the troops for they were no longer needed. "rugged individualism" meant people who were self made individuals. came the onset of the Great Depression. who could handle the pressures given by a damaged society. The crash was caused by a number of ailments: the decline of agriculture. would become self sufficient. and the stock market crash of 1929 resulted. 1922: The ideal quality which every American should possess. "Rugged Individualism". The goal of this tariff was to push foreign competition out of the way of American markets and after an isolationist principle was introduced. Voluntarism: Hoover believed that a socially responsible economic order could only be brought about by the voluntary action of capitalist leaders and not through governmental persuasion. Americans viewed him as a man who would further boost the nation’s growing prosperity. However. the president at the time felt it necessary to send troops to Nicaragua. Hoover saw this as a way to accelerate the decade’s trend towards corporate consolidation and cooperation. American Individualism. Unfortunately for Hoover. These ideas were encompassed in Hoover’s book.

the loss of enthusiasm directed at the consumer products that were being produced and a loss of mirth in the economy created a no buying situation. . the Hawley-Smoot Tariff. Reconstruction Finance Corp. America could not keep up with international trading thus further deepening the problem. Hoover Dam provides flood control. the uncontrolled policies of the stock market. (RFC): Created under the presidency of Herbert Hoover. Hoover Dam: Originally called Boulder Dam.. it stands 726 feet high and 1244 feet wide. The areas hardest hit was England for it depended greatly on U. National Credit Corporation: Created in 1931.. at that time. to provide lending agencies that would be able to give banks. The inflation in agriculture. the Trickle Down theory was an economic ideal which held the belief that the government should get involved in the economy by pumping money into it. the National Credit Corporation under the persuasion of Herbert Hoover got the largest banks in the country. Trickle Down Theory: Applied by Herbert Hoover. exports. money that could be used for loans. the overproduction of goods by industries. and irrigation for farms. electricity.S. 1930: Like the Fordney-McCumber Tariff.•Causes of the Great Depression: The Great Depression was not solely caused by the stock market crash in Oct of 1929. the HawleySmoot Tariff also rose protective tariffs on the United States. and thus creating a surplus supply of money that would "trickle" down onto the rest of society. The goal for the committee was to coordinate efforts between other agencies in order to provide relief for the massive unemployed during the years of the Great Depression. and monopolistic companies in order to pump money back into the economy during the years of the Depression. It pushed rates on imported goods to the highest point they’ve ever been. As part of the New Deal it was constructed between 1931 to 1935 and began operations in 1936. Federal Home Loan Act: Under the presidential term of Hoover in 1931 the Federal Home Loan Act was created. railroads. on the brink of foreclosure. Depression as an International Event: Due to the devastating effects that the Depression had on the American way of life a spiral of depressions sprung up all over Europe. Located on the Colorado River in Arizona. Emergency Committee for Employment: The Emergency Committee for Employment was created in 1930 under the presidency of Herbert Hoover. On the contrary there were many other factors involved. Within the act a five man Home Loan Board was created and the creation of banks to handle home mortgages provided money to homeowners that needed loans. The isolationist principle also reflect the isolationist move the US was moving towards in the 1920s. the RFC was designed to give out loans to banks.

Hoover Moratorium: The Hoover Moratorium was held in 1931 to discuss the payment of the allied war debts sustained during WWI. 1932. The name was termed due to the cold.Farmers’ Holiday Association: In 1931 farmers from the Midwest got together to discuss the methods they would use in order to stop the policies that devastated the agricultural economy. The conditions were that Mexico had to give fair compensation to the countries. in 1932 the deadline for the veterans was pushed back by the government to a latter date thus causing the group to march onto Washington to demand their money. Representative J.S. The main issue that he focused on was the methods he could use to reconcile differences between the Mexican government and the Church. concluded that the U. Cardenas nationalized many oil companies.Reuben Clark in Dec of 1928. The number of battleships was a great concern to these nations for they wanted to live in peace with one another. valued then at 450 million dollars.Morgan and Company. Though the issue was never reconciled due to the fact that Britain and other European Countries went off the gold standard before the plan could be implemented. to China and Japan. London Naval Conference: US. •Bonus Army: The Bonus Army was a group of WWI veterans who were supposed to be given economic relief from the government due to their involvement in the war. Morrow also named Ambassador Morrow was a worker for J. These letters written on Jan 7. Out of the meeting came the decision to withhold grain and livestock from the economy. Stimson Doctrine: Based on the principles of the Kellogg-Briand pact.P. and because they were veterans and heroes of this country.The president of Mexico in 1938 was a man named Lazaro Cardenas. and Italy convened in 1930 to come to a mutual agreement pertaining to the number of battleships that were in existence. Hoover believed that giving economic aid to the poor would stifle the economy. Mexico’s naturalization of oil: . Ambassador Morrow: Turned into an ambassador for Mexico.S. Clark Memorandum: The memorandum was called by the U. "Hooverville": "Hooverville" was a name given to any shanty town that manifested itself during the period when Herbert Hoover was president. Japan. Hoover’s popularity plummeted because of it. unfriendly disposition that Hoover took on the policy of helping out the poor. Excessive force was used to disband these protesters. did not formally recognize any change in territory if it was brought about by armed forces. from England and the United States.S. Dwight D. France. GB. . the HooverStimson doctrine was a collection of letters from the U. not in a war like situation. However. it was contradictory to the ideals of the Roosevelt Corollary. The purpose of the meeting was to reinstate the principles of the Monroe Doctrine to the events that were happening in Latin America.

and the restraining of an act committed by either a group or of an individual striker. the various programs all contributed to the eventual. Roosevelt’s message was "Pay attention to the forgotten man at the bottom of the economy period." Roosevelt won. the Social Security Act. musical programs. though gradual. 1932: The Norris-La Guardia Act forbade the issuing of injunctions to maintain anti-union contracts of employment. While not all were entirely successful. Rexford Tugwell. Many of her books include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and This Is My Story and On My Own. and developed the CCC. and the means that were going to be taken in order to revive it. Secretary of Labor: Being the first woman to be appointed to a Cabinet position (1933-1945). The men most known are: Raymond Moley. or to promote a political issue. reform other systems and institutions. issues: The Republican candidate was Hoover and the Democratic one was Franklin D. . Perkins strengthened the Department of Labor. She mostly fought for women and minority groups. and Adolph A. Fireside Chats: During the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office Roosevelt held informal radio conversations every so often that were dubbed "fireside chats. Hoover’s platform was to increase the government’s role in the economy. Overall. Perkins. recovery of the economy. pushed for a limit on employment age. Election of 1932: candidates. these legislative measures dealt with assisting people financially. and recover the prosperity before the Depression. The issue was ending the Great Depression. Also. During her term. sell products. Eleanor: Eleanor Roosevelt is portrayed as a U. Brain Trust: The term brain trust refers to the individual people outside the Franklin Roosevelt appointed presidential cabinet that helped in the decision making process of the president. Roosevelt and the New Deal Declining appeal of Hoover to the public led to the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932. the president and business companies utilized this resource to attract people. and comedy shows. Berle. Frances.Norris-La Guardia (anti-junction) Act." The topic discussed was the economy that had been plagued by the depression. Roosevelt. Age of the Radio: Radio reached its climax in the 1930s when millions of Americans listened to network news commentators. the prevention to perform work. and Fair Labor Standards Act (1938). humanitarian and displayed her politics and social issues as a wife of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Perkins was also a social reformer. Roosevelt.S. Moley was conservative while Tugwell and Berle were interested in reform. Roosevelt’s extensive program to restore the economy made up the New Deal.

this theory pumped governmental money to the poor so they could buy products. Emergency Banking Relief Act. "Bank Holiday": Franklin Roosevelt in 1932 called for a "bank holiday" which permitted banks that were hurt from the depression to close down for a few days in order to regain stability. This demand in turn will produce jobs for the poor. FDR intended to revive the lost prosperity of the economy by reforming other institutions and programs. He theorized that the relationship between supply and demand was critical: when the demand doesn’t meet expectations there is unemployment and depression while if demand surpasses production inflation occurs. and Reform: These three areas. Fiscal policy is regulation of trade between domestic or foreign goods. Further help to relieve the problem of the foreclosing of banks was the Emergency Banking Act which was passed during the holiday to help open more banks. This is done to stimulate the economy through the rise in government costs or due to the decrease of taxation.•Keynesian economics: Keynes looked at the economy in a wider sense: macroeconomics. enabled FDR to pass acts critical to stabilizing the economy. and thus recover the nation’s wealth. recovery. The Relief category was defined by the acts implemented in the area of aid to the unemployment. The solution is to have the government spend while maintaining low taxes and when there is demand that a tight budget should be created. Reform was a category in which the government tried to recreate areas that seemed faulty (i. Hundred Days: Measures taken during Roosevelt’s first days in office. Now that the poor have jobs they have the necessary income to buy products and this cycle occurs again. deficit spending is also seen as inefficiency of government spending. The Hundred Days symbolized the beginning stages of the New Deal because the measures taken focused on relief. FDR proposed a series of relief and emergency measures known collectively as the New Deal. recovery and reform: key phrases from the New Deal itself. fiscal policy: The policy gave government control of the money supply and created a high economic rate to stabilized prices and wages. from Mar 9 to Jun 16. On the other hand. Recovery. Import duties are still possible. Monetary policy. New Deal: In light of the Great Depression. relief. Through these measures. Pump-priming: Supported by Roosevelt. 1933: Implemented during the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt’s first term the Emergency Banking Relief Act allowed the reopening . agriculture and industry). •Relief.e. are the categories into which the New Deal was split. but fiscal policy makes an exception because its purpose is to raise revenue. The Recovery category put forth measures that would help aid in the speedy recovery of areas hit hardest by the depression (i. by relieving the plight of the people. and reform. This would increase sales and cause a demand for that product. Deficit spending: The manner in which the government spends more than it receives is refereed to as deficit spending.e. banking system).

both which stifled the economy. In order to stop the problem of "dust bowls" created by the overuse of soil. •National Industrial Recovery Administration (NRA): Promoting recovery. "The Blue Eagle. Wagner of New York. "The Blue Eagle" was the symbol of the NRA. The government also tried to restrict the production of certain commodities. (FDIC): This measure as the second of the banking acts enacted during Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office. the National Industrial recovery Administration was designed to administer the codes of "fair competition" brought forth by the NIRA. second AAA 1938: The first AAA was rendered unconstitutional years after the Act of 1938. In addition.of healthy banks.000 dollars. set wages and working conditions. The act itself made 750 million dollars that had once been kept in the governments gold reserves now able to be used in the creation of loans to private businesses and other major corporations. National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA): Placed under the PWA. •Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): Created under Franklin Roosevelt. Such codes established production limits. Wagner helped organized labor by not allowing employers from discriminating against union members." Johnson. The NIRA pumped money into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition. Glass-Steagall Act. It tried to help mend the ailing problems that had plagued agriculture since the ending of the First World War. it separated deposit banking from investment banking. The act provided healthy banks with a Treasury Department license and handled the affairs of the failed banks. Hugh: Hugh Johnson was the head of the National Recovery Administration who quickly created the organization and rallied support for the NRA by throwing parades in all of the main cities across the United States. Section 7a of the NRA: Developed by Senator Robert F. 1933: In February of 1933 the Glass-Steagal Act was signed. the government. Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. teach fire . the NIRA focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. Jun 1933. granted subsidies to farms who did not continually use the same plot of soil. and disallowed price cutting and unfair competitive practices. passed in Jun of 1933. under the AAA. This program created jobs that would try to conserve the nation’s natural resources. •Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA). the CCC aimed at men particularly in the age group from 18-25. The Federal Deposit Insurance Committee allowed all bank deposits up to 5. The main focus of the NRA was to break wage cuts and strikes. section 7a allowed the workers to organize and enabled them to bargain collectively. The CCC would take these men out of the workforce and place them on jobs that would reforest certain areas.

The CWA provided temporary public works that allocated a billion dollars for short-term projects for the jobless during the winter but was demolished when the spring arrived. Federal Housing Authority (FHA): This agency forced small down payments and lowinterest loans on home sales and thus stimulated the economy. The SEC required the registration of all companies and securities and required disclosure of company information and registration of all company securities exchanged. and public buildings. Public Works Administration (PWA): Harold Ickes: Headed by Harold Ickes. the TVA was eventually curtailed in 1980 when nuclear plants were introduced.prevention and soil conservation. This agency served more than two million people and was set up because students were the most rebellious due to their exposure to new ideas. This stimulation allowed a .S. This valiant effort allowed one-fifth of all U. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA): Senator Norris: Pushed for by Senator George Norris. the construction of hydroelectric dams. Created in 1933. Civil Works Administration (CWA): In Nov 1933 relief administrator Harry Hopkins convinced Franklin D. bridges.000 public works project which constructed dams. the HOLC refinanced American home mortgages. each man would work for one year. it was named the Farm Credit Administration. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA): One of the most powerful social workers. the Secretary of Interior. and controlling floods. listened to complaints. Roosevelt to create the CWA. protected investors. National Youth Administration (NYA): As part of President Roosevelt’s New Deal plan. he set up the National Youth Administration to provide part time work for high school and college students. Between 1933-1942 3 million men were put to work under the CCC. It was designed to help rural Americans refinance their farmland. Franklin D. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): The SEC. Harry Hopkins. established in 1934. mortgages to become refinanced which would prevent another Great Depression Farm Credit Administration: During Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office. issued licenses and penalized fraud. administered this program directed at local causes. the PWA was a governmental agency which spent $4 billion on 34. who was cautious and suspicious. Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC): As part of the Hundred Days that understood the nation’s tragedy of foreclosed mortgages. an important federal agency was established. this measure allocated $500 million to relieve cities and states. and help to stop soil erosion. it also helped to restore the livelihood that was missing in agriculture. Roosevelt created the FERA in May 1933 and as a part of the New Deal. the TVA was a governmental agency which ruled several federal programs of building dams.

the Wagner Act of 1935 established defined unjust labor practices. this act supported old-age advantages by utilizing a pay roll tax on employers and employees. As an independent agency. Gold Clause Act. As an expression of the class spirit of the Second New Deal. the eight year program employed 8 million people and provided $11 billion dollars to the economy in which 650. 124. this agency created loans for small farmers and sharecroppers to buy their own farms. F. Wagner Act. and 125. The Federal Arts Project created positions for artists by making positions for art teachers and decorated posts for offices and courthouses with murals. 1935: Supported by R.1935. it catalyzed the force of unionization. Congress on August 14.000 bridges.000 miles of roads. Soon the program was expanded to include dependents. 1935: The Gold Clause Act stated that private contracts dealing with certain railroad bonds were unable to interfere in the coining of money. there were many loopholes. This program was so successful that by 1941 40% of these farms had received electrical power. •Works Progress Administration (WPA). secured workers the right to bargain collectively. .new market for private homes that accelerated the construction-industry through the utilization of technology to mass-produce homes.000 schools. Social Security Act: Created by the U. Wagner. and established the National Labor Relations Board. Revenue Act. 1935: This act allowed the government to raise a spectrum of tariffs ranging from personal taxes at higher income levels to rises in corporate taxes to having heavier levies on gifts and estates. Hopkins. As an integral part of the New Deal. Even though the Resettlement Administration lasted two years.S. Resettlement Administration: As part of the New Deal and led by Rexford Tugwell. Harry. Federal Arts Project: Directed by Harry Hopkins in 1935. This originated from the Townsend clubs which pushed for a $200 pension. and post offices were built. the disabled. it satisfied the requirements of the governmental concern of sharecroppers. and adjusted with the inflation. (Also known as the National Labor Relation Act) National Labor Relations Board (NLRB): This agency was assembled by Congress in 1935 and oversaw the National Labor Relation Act (1935). arts. The regulation in the value of money for those areas defined were specifically the areas given to Congress when the Constitution was written. the NLRB controlled the secret ballot elections during collective bargaining and managed the complaints of unfairness by the employers or unions. Rural Electrification Administration (REA): The REA was an agency that provided low-interest loans to utility companies and farmers’ cooperatives to reach the 90% of rural farmers who lacked electrical power. hospitals.

by providing benefit payments to farmers who practiced soil conservation methods. 1933 repealed the eighteenth amendment which dealt with the passing of prohibition. helped to stem the overproduction in agriculture thus stabilizing farm prices. Twentieth Amendment: Also known as the Lame-Duck Amendment the Twentieth Amendment in 1933 called for the ending of the "lame-duck" sessions of Congress from Dec of the even numbered years until the following Mar. part of which he used to set up the Works Progress Administration. Congress was forced into passing the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act in which Roosevelt was granted five billion dollars. and other similar problems that faced society during that era. the federal government assumed responsibility in reviving economic prosperity. would respect the rights of other nations. vastly increasing the power of the president. By 1941. Ultimately this resulted in support from Latin America during World War II. . The legislative measures brought reform and reinstated confidence in the people. This policy was used on various occasions of armed troops being sent to Latin America to maintain political stability. 1936: The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act was formulated to replace the Agricultural Adjustment Act. the Wikersham Convention in May of 1929 discussed the probing problems of prohibition. the treatment of juvenile delinquents. the Twenty-First Amendment on Dec 5. Fair Labors Standards Act: maximum hours and minimum wage: This act was created by the Roosevelt administration of northerners to undermine the South’s competitive edge.S. Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act. Twenty-First Amendment: Ratified within the span of 10 months. The act. For the first time. Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenancy Act: The act created the Farm Security Administration and replaced the Resettlement Administration. This agency created low-interest loans allowing farmers and sharecroppers to buy their own land. Results of the New Deal: Several accomplishments of the New Deal contributed to the nation’s economy. It established a minimum wage for most workers while it concurrently created a forty-four hour work week and banned child labor. The amendment also set the date of the President’s inauguration back to Jan 20. The amendment also permitted states to levy a tax on alcoholic substances. the ideology was that the U.Emergency Relief Appropriation Act: As part of the Second New Deal in relation to the high unemployment rate in April 1935. the cost of law enforcement. Wikersham Convention: Officially named the National Committee on Law Observation and Enforcement. they had loaned 1 billion dollars assisting thousands of farmers. Good Neighbor Policy: Stated in 1933 by Roosevelt in his inaugural address.

S. a constitution.S. Wilson and the other Allies agreed to weaken Russia. This type of passive resistance allowed the employees to halt production. Roosevelt. many other companies began to do the same. Only until Roosevelt’s presidency did the U. . and political stands. Enacted on Jun 18. unions. Also. UMW: This union was created by militant leader John L. thus paralyzing the business. Because of this action. AFL: The AFL was led by Samuel Gompers and was composed of craft unions that excluded unskilled and semiskilled workers.000 members out of which Lewis co-founded the CIO. By 1935. Steel. recognize Russia. big cities machines.S. An example of this is that the Emergency Banking Act passed through Congress in one day. it provided the Indians direct ownership of their land. its methods. and Southerners favored these relief programs. steelworkers. Lewis of the United Mine Workers and Sidney Hillman of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers established the CIO in the November of 1935. Indian Reorganization Act. and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs. In 1935 it had about 250. and accepted a 40-hour week. and electrical workers. 1934. Because blacks. at the treaty of Versailles. government. Steel Workers Organization Committee. the dissidents formed the Committee for Industrial Organization. By March 1937. Lewis. gave the workers a wage increase. This 2 million-member group welcomed all autoworkers. John L. the Congress was viewed as conservative. big city machines. The size of the union grew as production in the 1900’s grew. SWOC: Led by Philip Murray. they merged with the Democratic Party. U. based on his stands on increases in pay. South: Franklin D. Lewis in 1890. Steel recognized the union. intellectuals. Roosevelt relied on state and local Democratic leaders who pushed beyond the traditional Democratic base. SWOC gained recognition by striking against U. reflect Lewis’ military style. sit down strikes: These strikes were characterized by employees occupying the work place yet doing nothing. 1934: Authorized by the U. United Mine Workers. Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). 1933: The United States didn’t recognize Russia because of the betrayal when Russia withdrew from WWI due to the Russian Revolution in March of 1917.S. American Federation of Labor. it allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U. Coalition of the Democratic Party: blacks. "conservative coalition" in Congress: Because of the combination of a majority in Congress and the agreeableness of President Franklin D.Recognition of the USSR. Congress.S. credit. safer working conditions.: John L. This tactic was utilized in the strike by the United Automobile Workers against General Motors in 1937. intellectuals.

they supported the Republican candidate. Landon from the Republican party. Wall Street. New Members of the Supreme Court: Black. Roosevelt’s New Deal. Smith. Alf Landon. William O. and Jews. He asserted reactionary views and revolved around anti-New Deal and ant-Semitic views. Davis. Father Charles: Coughlin used his status as a U. Jones & Laughlin Steel. Frankfurter. Townsend’s ideals were an early foundation of the Social Security Act. Long was known for his Share the Wealth program that painted a picture in which "every man [was] a king. Hughes.: Both radical agitators. Roosevelt between 1937 to 1939 to guarantee a foundation for a liberal majority and thus extending Roosevelt’s New Deal policies after leaving office. It called for a pension for citizens over 60 years of age to receive $200 provided by the federal government. totaling six in all. Election of 1936: candidates. Roosevelt from the Democratic Party.: These four men were appointed by Franklin D. Roosevelt allowing the president to appoint new Supreme Court members for each one over 70 years of age. America First Party (1944). Coughlin. Chief Justice Charles Evans: Hughes guided the Supreme Court in the attack against President Roosevelt in his plan to "pack" the Supreme Court in 1937. Share the Wealth. he upheld the Wagner Act in which workers had the right of collective bargaining in the National Labor Relations Board v. In addition. issues: The candidates included Franklin D.S. This resulted in some New Dealers leaving the president’s side and humiliated President Franklin D. Congress and the American people disapproved of the action as well. Ending in 1940. Roman Catholic "radio priest" to announce his political and economic views.. After Chief Justice Evan Hughes’ leadership in expressing their disapproval in this plan. Felix. United States: This case took place in May 1935 when a New York company was charged with a violation of an NRA poultry code. Hugo. Dr. Long." Smith decried blacks. Stanley F. Smith and John W. Communists. Although Congress rejected it. Catholics. Roosevelt. Gerald L.K. Huey. Francis: Townsend developed the Townsend Plan in 1933 which embraced 5 million supporters. Reed. Douglass. Alfred M. and William . Townsend. Also. It lasted for four years and was composed of famous members like Alfred E. and labor unions in the Union Party (1936). Schechter v. these charges resulted in the Supreme Court declaring the NRA unconstitutional by stating that the NRA was regulating interstate commerce a violation of federal regulation.Liberty League: This group was made of conservative Democrats who were against the economic and fiscal policies of Franklin D. •"court packing" proposal: This proposal was announced by Franklin D. he created the magazine Social Justice which attacked Communism. and the Christian National Crusade (1947).

Robinson-Patman Act. The Grapes of Wrath: "Okies" were poor farmers who moved west to California and Arizona during the 1930s or moved to the crowded cities. "Roosevelt recession": Although the economy improved in 1936 and early 1937. Roosevelt and expressed in his State of the Union Address in January 1935. It disallowed bribery of votes. Roosevelt during his presidency and involved in a court case: Literacy Digest poll v. In the end. the Second New Deal focused on and enlarged the federal program to incorporate the jobless. Hatch Act. it once again fell back in mid 1937. 1939: Supported by Senator Carl Hatch of New Mexico and passed by Congress on Aug 2. and to incorporate social-welfare benefits. the Hatch Act tried to exterminate corruption during elections. became waste areas and unusable. and limited donations from individuals which were to be given to political campaigns. restricted federal employees from political campaigning. 1939. A violation of this would be an unfair method as stated in the Federal Trade Commission Act. Roosevelt’s New Deal policies. FDR won in a landslide victory. The principal issue was how to exploit the New Deal’s popularity. Okies. organized labor. GATHERING STORM .Lemke from the Union Party. Literacy Digest Poll: The poll was initiated by Franklin D. 1937: The purpose of this act was to amend the Sherman Anti-Trust Act by exempting any contract or agreement ("horizontal agreements") in which a product would be set at a significantly lower price. and unemployment statistics increased. to help the unemployed receive jobs. they debated on the validity of each poll in relation to Franklin D. and merchants large or small. The Grapes of Wrath written by Steinbeck in 1939 illustrates the plight of a dust bowl family. There. 1936: Originated from a Federal Trade Commission chain store investigation. this act was an amendment to the Clayton Act. On Jun 19." once fertile land. Roosevelt wanted to levy heavier taxes on the rich. This occurred because after two generations of a melange of drought and poor farming techniques these areas. also known as "dust bowls. Miller-Tydings Act. Gallop Poll. this act was passed and applied to all buyers or sellers. create harder regulations on businesses. and social welfare. •Second New Deal: Created by President Franklin D. Some of the major factors of this recession were federal policies that greatly reduced consumer income. when industrial production and steel output declined. •dust bowl. it eliminated unfair business practices and destroyed monopolies. 1936. John Steinbeck. to give assistance to the rural poor.

Montevideo Conference: This conference was held in 1933. Jones Act. Rio de Janeiro Conference. 1938: Another conference before WWII.S. Descendants of Spanish subjects in 1899 were designated citizens. committing each republic to assist another in times of any attack or if an American republic were threatened by a situation not involving an armed attack. members would meet and decide necessary actions to be taken Buenos Aires Conference. and also restated the sovereignty of the American states. 1933: Meeting of 19 American republics.S." Declaration of Panama. Tydings-McDuffie Act. who were able to capitalize on a German sense of injustice and nationalistic frustration. Philippines: The act eliminated certain objectionable provisions of a previous act known as the Hawes-Cutting Act. 1934. Secretary of State furthered the interests of Latin American States when he asked for a reduction of trade barriers.S. sixteen resolutions were passed to deal with the outbreak of war in Europe. 1916: This act provided for the government of the Philippines and committed the U. Depression and out of control inflation totally destabilized Germany’s government and allowed the rise to power of the Nazis. in which the American treaty of reciprocal Assistance was signed. 1940: The act was created to prevent the transfer to European colonies to Germany in the western hemisphere. 1939: Adopted at Panama city by the foreign ministers of the American Republics. Act of Havana. Resolution no. Additionally. Some of the issues were related to unresolved conflicts left over from World War I. A U. and Supreme Court justices were to be appointed by the president. it expressed the U." Also a pact was adopted promising consultation if war was imminent Lima Conference. Voting rights were given to all literate male citizens over 21. 1936: It was opened by Roosevelt when he stated in a speech that any non-American state seeking "to commit acts of aggression against us will face a Hemisphere wholly prepared to consult together for our mutual safety and our mutual good. It was unanimously approved by the Pan American Nations. delegation to the conference endorsed a document that declared "no state has the right to intervene in the internal affairs of another. the Lima Conference adopted the Declaration of Lima. to the future independence of the Philippines. XIV entitled "Declaration of Panama. determination to resist "all foreign intervention or activities that may threaten them. the Philippine Congress was made elective. It stated that the American Republics would take over and administer any European possession in the New World endangered by aggression." stated that American waters should be free of hostilities from non-belligerent nations.The two decades prior to the outbreak of hostilities in World War II were a period of increasing unrest both politically and socially in many areas of the world. which provided for the .

S. He also pursued an aggressive policy which won him support in every sector of the population. banks and corporations financing WWI and supplying arms and loans to the Allied nations.S. and instituted the cash and carry policy which meant that nations that were seeking to trade with the U. He came into power in the 1920s. prohibited loans to belligerent nations. had to purchase the goods they wanted as well as provide their own vessels in which they could be shipped out to their country. 1936. and by 1926. these laws placed an embargo on exports of war materials to belligerents. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia which did not have a way of stopping him from invading because Ethiopia was such a weak nation without a strong army and a supply of ammunition. Litvinov asked for action against fascist governments. monarchists. Japan attacked the Chinese province of Manchuria and installed a puppet government. landowners. In 1937. It also provided for trade relations with the U. •neutrality legislation: A series of Neutrality Acts were passed in 1935. China’s leader. and Roman Catholic hierarchy. Franco: This war lasted from 1936-1939. Russia’s Commissar of Foreign Affairs MaksimM. citizens not to travel on belligerent vessels. Chiang Kai-shek. . Russia sought a formation of united-front governments in foreign countries. The Committee held hearings between 1934 and 1936 and compiled evidence of involvement of U. Nye Committee: Instituted due to public concern over the issue that the U.S. industrialists. Ethiopia: Mussolini was intent on building an African empire comparable to those of the European nations. All these allegations were investigated by the Nye committee. The revolution was supported by Spanish conservatives. Mussolini: Mussolini founded the Fasci de Combitimmento after being kicked out of the Socialist party in 1919. This united or popular front formed in 1938. In 1931. Chiang Kai-shek: Japan was taken over by a militaristic government that had expansionist dreams.S.independence of the Philippine Islands after 12 years. called for a collaboration of Communist Socialist to fight fascism. and 1937. this committee was headed by Senator Gerald Nye. effective 10 years after the inauguration of an authorized government. into the war because they were desperate to protect the millions of dollars invested in loans and weapon sales to Britain and France. Japan Attacks China. was powerless to stop it. It also warned U.S. fascist Franco led the Spanish army units to overthrow the elected government in Spain. In 1935. Popular Front: In order to gain the support of the Allies. Mussolini had transformed Italy into a single-party totalitarian regime. In July of 1936. Japan declared war against China. Spanish Civil War.S. was dragged into WW I. "merchants of death": This term refers to the business corporations and banks who were blamed for dragging the U.

However. Nothing was spared. the United States attempted to maintain a distance. the United States. signed a pact with Nazi Germany on August 24. representing England." 1937: Roosevelt recognized the power of the antiwar feelings demonstrated at home. In a 1937 speech. Jewish businesses and schools were wrecked and looted. Hitler. 1939 agreeing not to make war on each other and divided up Poland between the two nations: the USSR and Germany." this rampage was carried out by Nazis all over Germany and Austria to destroy Jewish homes and structures. Nazi sympathizers in Austria welcomed Hitler’s annexation of Austria. appeasement.Panay Incident. not one to push ahead of public opinion. Thousands of homes were vandalized and synagogues were burned to the ground. 1937: Japanese bombers engaged in war with China bombed and sank the marked U. His racist views targeted all non-white Christians who expressed anti-German ideas. Austria Annexed: Hitler annexed Austria in 1938 and expanded the German borders. evident in his plan to raise a half million man army and expand German borders to Russia. who advocated a popular front against fascism. Neville Chamberlain: This conference was held in 1938 between England and Germany. "Quarantine speech. . pressure increased on the United States. He was replaced soon after by Winston Churchill. Chamberlain. which were evacuating American officials from China. After France fell to Germany. He pursued a militaristic and expansionist foreign policy. Gathering Storm 1940-1941 As World War Two began in Europe. was considered a legitimate target by the Axis. He proclaimed an Anschluss between Austria and Germany and German troops rolled into the capital city Vienna. the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor pulled the United States into the global conflict. gave in to Hitler’s demands on territory that Germany had lost after the end of WWI. he assured a visiting Australian leader in 1935 that America would never enter a war. Chamberlain was very much blamed for the oncoming of WWII due to his actions toward Hitler. Japan accepted responsibilities of bombing the ships. he suggested the possibility of a "quarantine" of aggressor nations. Many people in Britain were very disappointed in Chamberlain and how easily he had appeased to the demands of Hitler. made a formal apology and promised indemnities later set at $2 million. gunboat Panay and three Standard Oil ships. •Munich Conference. Hitler’s actions here furthered his plans to expand German borders and his rule. the United States was fenced in and forced to choose a side. Kristallnacht: Meaning "The Night of Broken Glass. though not officially in the war. Supporting the Allied forces. nonaggression pact between Germany and USSR: Stalin. This was a severe blow to the Popular Front.S. Finally. as hostilities escalated in both the East and West. Nazism: Adolf Hitler’s Nazi party came into power in 1933 and clamped a dictatorship on Germany.

Italy and Germany. Charles Lindbergh was a big supporter of this policy. The Committee.S. 1939.S. Belgium and Luxembourg. and in 1940 made Minister of War. Smith Act: The Smith Act was created in 1940 and outlawed any conspiracy to overthrow the government. Led the Japanese army against Manchuria. In Sept. England evacuated 338. advocated total war.1. April 1940. Nations who wanted to trade had to purchase the materials from the U. and carry them on their own vessels. It was largely used in the later years of communist hysteria. Hitler unleashed his Blitzkrieg. and even joined the America First Committee to demonstrate his antiwar sentiment. it was extended when Japan was incorporated into the Axis by the signing of the Tripartite pact. oversaw lend lease policy implemented by Roosevelt for purposes of protecting America and also to help stop Germany in Europe.Invasion of Poland.000 men from the English channel. The committee was compromised of many pro-isolationist who thought that the allied powers could do nothing to stop the war. Resigned 1944. 22 France capitulated." and quickly occupied many western European nations. to make sure they stayed isolationist. as most citizens did not want to be involved in many international affairs. appointed Prime Minister.. Axis Powers: Group of countries opposed to the Allied powers. Hitler’s troops attacked Poland on Sept. Tojo: Japanese leader during WWII. fall of France: Hitler’s launched his blitzkrieg on France in 1938. In 1941. Mussolini attacked from the South at the same time. Became Army Chief of Staff in 1937. Originated in the RomeBerlin Axis with the 1936 Hitler-Mussolini Accord and their alliance in 1939. he was faced with stiff resistance by the America First Committee in 1940. Blitzkrieg: When Poland refused to restore the German city of Danzig lost after WWI. "cash and carry": A precautionary move by the U. but rather for their rhetoric and their views on the American government. The Axis powers were Japan. Isolationism. The British were already being driven back when Hitler attacked Netherlands. Charles: Isolationism was the foreign policy practiced by America after WWI. Lindbergh. An extreme militarist. This meant that the allied countries had to only pay for the goods and the United States would ship them. America First Committee: When FDR expressed a desire for American intervention in WWII. or "lightening war. . and imprisoned individuals not because of any acts of violence or espionage. and on Jun. 1940. Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies: Instituted by Roosevelt to oversee loans and other such financial activities occurring while Germany attacked Britain. and controlled government and military operations during WWII.

•Pearl Harbor. •Japanese Relocation: Japanese-born Americans and immigrants from Japan were sent to concentration camps in the early 1940’s because of a fear that they would leak out . The United States government established many wartime organizations to monitor supplies and food as well control propaganda. Each of the signatories pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the U. France. Thirty-five other nations besides Great Britain. Britain gave the United States 99 year leases to establish military bases on British possessions in the Western hemisphere. with the previously allied Italy and Germany. election of 1940: candidates. The major issues were WWII and military spending. 3 light cruisers. Willkie. and to strafe the planes parked side by side at nearby air bases. and China received loans from the lend lease. the amount totaled $48 billion. soil. •"Lend Lease." March 1941: Program set up to loan the Allied nations arms and other materials to wage war against the Axis powers. and endorsed the principles of collective security and disarmament. Tripartite Pact: The Tripartite Pact was a 10 year military and economic alliance also known as the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis. affirmed national self-determination. Worst loss of U. and 8 battleships. Atlantic Charter. Everyone on the homefront was expected to do his or her part in the war as well. The Lend-lease bill was approved by Congress in 1941. In less that 3 hours. Housewives grew Liberty Gardens and went to work in place of the drafted men. USSR. Families were encouraged to help fathers and brothers by not buying tin or rationing sugar or buying war bonds. 1940. August 1941: FDR met Churchill to discuss joint military strategy. issues: Roosevelt was nominated by the Democrats for a third term. Their public statement expressed their ideas of a postwar world.S. 1941: On the morning of December 7. arms in history.destroyers-for-bases deal: In exchange for fifty old WWI American destroyers which had in been recommissioned in 1939 and 1940 and were serving on neutrality patrol. By August 1945. scores of Japanese dive-bombers and torpedo planes flew across Oahu to bomb the ships that were anchored in Peal Harbor. over 300 aircraft were destroyed or damaged. S. of which the United States received $6 billion in repayment by these nations. and 3 destroyers were sunk or crippled. Roosevelt endorsed the nation’s 1st peacetime draft and advocated a military spending increase. December 7. Japan signed this alliance in September. and the Republicans nominated Wendell L. which originally authorized $7 billion. and frowned upon aggression. the entire country pitched in to help the war effort. Homefront Though World War Two was not fought on U.S.

and FDR apologized to them. It examined all written documents. Office of Strategic Services: FDR and the Joint Chief of Staffs formed the Office of Strategic Services which served as an intelligence agency during WWII and was a . Most of these people were suspected of being spies for the Japanese. In order to get the necessary amount of raw materials. Roosevelt wanted to pay for as much as possible through taxes. oil. he established the Office of Censorship. though there was no solid evidence to support such accusations. It relocated many refugees in need. 1 million still died. Office of Censorship. including works of publishers and broadcasters. Although it saved 200. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas. The captured Japanese were released in 1942. War Manpower Commission (WMC): FDR established the War Manpower Commission in 1942 to help supervise the mobilization of males and females in the military. the Revenue Act raised the top income-tax rate from 60% to 90% and added middle class and lower income groups to the tax bracket as well. The bonds raised half the money for WWII. The War Labor Board acted as the mediator to prevent massive strikes and wage increases that occurred with the demand for workers.S. and sought to prevent strikes and out of control wage increases. Office of Price Administration (OPA): Instituted in 1942. although it was late in inception. The treasury department sold about $40 billion "E" bonds to investors.information about the U. in 1942. FDR established the War Production Board. and the war industry. and also to study how profit can be gained through the production of weapons and supplies. to Japan. and nearly twice the amount in higher denomination.000 Jews and 20. as well as all letters going overseas. War Refugee Board (WRB): FDR established the War Refugee Board in 1943 to help rescue and assist the many people who were condemned to death camps. Although Congress refused to grant him a progressive tax. FDR announced a plan for massive war production. the War Labor Board was instituted to mediate disputes between management and labor. War Production Board: In 1942. meat.000 non-Jews. sugar. and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers. Office of War Information: Roosevelt wanted public opinion to be positive during the war. profiteering. butter. War Labor Board: Established in 1942. limited or stopped the production of civil goods. bond drives: In order to finance the war and give people a sense of involvement in the war effort. this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation. hoarding and price administration. in order to maintain the positive public opinion in America. and in 1941. Revenue Act of 1942: Because of the expenditure on the war. It allocated scarce materials. coffee and shoes. bond drives were held.

the struggle in Europe and the battle in the Pacific Theater. and the development of DDT and other pesticides. radar devices. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD): Formed in 1941 to contract out the development of new medicines and ordinances. it employed an allied army of more than 100. He became Secretary of State for President Truman. and to analyze the enemy. gather intelligence information required for planning. MacArthur. the Allies would concentrate on the Japanese threat.predecessor of the CIA. the United States hoped that after Germany was defeated. Eisenhower. Island hopping proved to be the only way the United States could retake the Pacific from the Japanese. the troops landed in Morocco and . advanced jets. Blacks moved into service in all areas of the military. •African-Americans in World War II: Many civil rights groups used the need of the government for the cooperation of all its citizens in the war effort to push a new militancy in redressing discrimination. and as such played an important role in aiding the postwar economic recovery of Europe with the Marshall Plan. General MacArthur was credited for the great successes that the Americans had in the Pacific wars. the Allied forces hammered at the Italian and German lines. •Women in World War II: Women served in significant numbers during World War II. including heavy industry.000 troops. It began on June 13. Operation Torch: Undertaken in November 1942. Led by General Eisenhower. tanks. Marshall. From bases in England and Africa. and was highly respected by his peers in the armed forces. replacing those men who had entered the military. which provided assistance to war-torn Western Europe. He was the strategist behind the Pacific Wars. and the Second World War The United States was involved in two major areas of conflict.1942 to conduct espionage. A large migration of blacks from the South to Northern industrial areas made civil rights a national rather than regional concern and broadened the political effects of black votes. Women moved into the civilian workforce. rockets. It spent $1 billion dollars to produce sonar. Opting to first prevent the complete takeover of Europe. The U. General: Eisenhower led the D-Day invasion with great success. Women pilots ferried planes from station to station. freeing men for combat pilot positions. both as civilian support personnel and in the uniformed services in the Woman’s Army Corps (WAC) and Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service in the Navy (WAVES). General. although most in segregated units until 1948. Discontinued by Truman in 1945. George Catlett: An American military commander who was Army Chief of Staff during World War II.S.

the head of the Chinese government. he set up many concentration camps. but Churchill objected and Roosevelt agreed for a plan to invade Sicily in the summer on 1943. In a clever move. Churchill. Winston: British Prime Minister during WWII. where Jews were methodically executed by means of poisonous gas or other forms. "Final solution": Hitler persecuted Jews in Germany and sought to rid Germany of them. June 6. arriving in Paris by August. 6 million perished.Algeria and pressed eastward to entrap the German forces being pushed by British forces in Libya. and thus were able to launch a counter-offensive against Germany and drive the Nazis from Russia. 1943: In the middle of the North African campaign. in the form of equipment and arms. Invasion of Sicily: Stalin pleaded for a second front in Russia. the Japanese were determined to wipe out any remaining ships of the decimated American fleet when they sailed toward Midway. FDR promised Chiang that Manchuria and Taiwan would be . During WWII. when the allies were better equipped to fight. Roosevelt was convinced by Churchill to delay the second front from 1942 to a later date. 1943: FDR met with Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek. By the end. Stalingrad: The site of one of the bloodiest battles during WWII. Thousands of soldiers died at the hands of German and Russian armies during the battle of Stalingrad. Genocide. he asked for assistance from the U. he ordered dive-bombers to destroy the ships. When Germany first began attacking Britain. Casablanca Conference. member of the Big Three. and have forces in Africa to protect English colonies since Germany was attacking Africa. FDR and him and were the major parties involved in allied conferences. Cairo Conference. Battle of Midway: In 1942. Surrounded. second front: The plan that was going to be used to aid the Soviet Union in fighting the Germans. They also vowed to pursue the war until the unconditional surrender of the Axis power.000 allied troops landed on the beach of Normandy. The Big Three was compromised of Stalin. and tried to reduce Soviet mistrust of the west. 150. D-Day.. and allies reached inland in July. allied forces seized control of Sicily. Japanese codes were decoded and Admiral Nimitz knew the exact plans and location of the Japanese ships. But. 1944: In the first 24 hours.S. the Germans surrendered in May 1943. Italian military leaders surrendered to the allied forces on September 8 1943. The Russians were victorious at the battle. By summer’s end British secured Belgium and the Americans recovered France and Luxembourg. Roosevelt and Churchill met at Casablanca and resolved to attack Italy before invading France. In roughly a month. An additional million waded ashore in the following weeks.

Battle of the Bulge: As the allies prepared for an attack on Germany after penetrating up to Germany’s border.returned to China and that Korea would be free with the hope that Chiang would fight until Japan surrendered unconditionally. turned its full attention to the War in the Pacific Manhattan Project: Because Nazi scientists were seeking to use atomic physics in a harmful manner. J. They agreed to divide Germany into occupation zones. the Cold War Era had just begun. in 1941 FDR launched a secret program to produce an A-bomb before the Germans. the allies stopped the last German counter-attack and within a month. Okinawa was 350 miles from Japan and a key area for staging the invasion of Japan by the American troops. The bomb unleashed terrible fury on the two cities. Robert: The scientific director of the Manhattan project.S. 1943. to coincide with the Russian offensive from the east. There was also debate on whether such a potent and powerful weapon should have been unleashed before proper tests were conducted on the long-term effects. to impose reparations on the Reich. Americans celebrated this Victory in Europe day with ticker tape parades and dancing in the streets. U. but with the explosion of the Abomb. Teheran Conference. On Dec. After the A-bomb fell on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. 25. Afterward. had undertaken to build the atomic bomb before Germany. which the U. Okinawa: The island of Okinawa was secured by the Americans after the battle of Iwo Jima. Oppenheimer. 1943: FDR met with Stalin and Churchill and set the date for the invasion of France for May or June 1944. "unconditional surrender": Term used by the allied powers to describe what kind of surrender they wanted from Japan-one without negotiations. The assault forces suffered nearly fifty thousand casualties in the battle before being able to subdue Japanese resistance. Hitler threw the last of his reserves to fight against the allied troops in December of 1944. and did was by relying on Nazi scientists.S. drove the Nazis back to Rhine. •Atomic bomb: The atomic bomb was successfully built in 1944 and was employed in bombing the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In 1943 and 1944. the new German government surrendered unconditionally on May 8. and Stalin promised to fight Japan after Hitler’s defeat. killing hundreds of thousands of people through the incinerating heat and radiation poisoning. . V-E day: As Russia pushed the Germans back into Germany and reached the suburbs of Berlin. the Manhattan Engineering district worked to stockpile U-235 and in 1945 attempted to use it in a bomb. Oppenheimer was later employed by Harry Truman to work on building a more destructive weapon known as the Hydrogen bomb. Japan surrendered.

Stalin and Churchill in Crimea. Stalin and Churchill met in Potsdam Germany from July 16-Aug. agreed to drop demands for reparations from Germany. Nagasaki: The 1st A-bomb was dropped on Hiroshima by the U. Germany. •POTSDAM CONFERENCE: Truman. Charles: The French President during WWII. Russia’s traditional paranoia led to the establishment of a communist satellite buffer zone around the USSR. •YALTA CONFERENCE: Conference of Russia.1945 with leaders FDR. Vietnam and Korea were divided into zones to be held by US. An early theory for Soviet containment. Britain and the Soviet Union and then reorganized through selfdetermination. The spread of communism into Asian and South American countries exacerbated anticommunist feelings in the United States and contributed to the pressure for increased buildup of defensive forces. Origins of the Cold War Although relations with the Soviet Union were already strained. approved plans for a UN Conference and promised free elections in Poland. and to make provisions for the trials of war criminals. Churchill. partitioning of Korea.Hiroshima. In 1935 Stalin endorsed a "Popular Front" to oppose fascism. 2 to decide on postwar arrangements begun at Yalta. Stalin: Ruler of Russia from 1929-1953.S. The iron curtain was the satellites and territories held by the communist Soviet Union. Russian. The next day a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki killing. Vietnam. Winston. de Gaulle. Roosevelt’s death and the beginning of Truman’s presidency brought new tensions to the relationship. in 1945 after Japan refused unconditional surrender. France. Germany: As decided by the Potsdam by the Council of Foreign minister.000 people died immediately and 1000s more died of radiation poisoning in later years. he was also active in several treaty conferences. Some 80. A Council of Foreign Ministers was established to draft treaties concerning conquered European nations. The Soviet Union agreed to drop demands for reparations and Germany was decentralized into British. Churchill and FDR promise for Soviet concessions in Manchurian and return of lost territories. French and US zones. which obliterated the city. "Iron Curtain" speech: Asked for Anglo-American cooperation to combat an "Iron Curtain" that cut across Europe from the Baltic to Adriatic. Great Britain and US in Feb. Stalin also had considerable influence in the Yalta agreement as well as . Stalin recognized Chiang as China's ruler. The result was statement of Soviet intent on entering the Pacific War two to three months after the end of the European war.

and the Secretariat. socialism and communism became fearful subjects after WWII as fears of war led to hatred against socialist and communist American troops. Nuremberg trials: Thirteen trials held accusing leaders of Nazi Germany of crimes against international law from 1945-1949. The conference established committees. Accusations included murder. UN: Security Council. was to curb Stalin's and communist influence. General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and World Bank were created. to discuss plans for an international organization to be named the United Nations. Secretary-General: January 10. General Assembly. The UN represented a worldwide attempt for a peaceful world after the hidden treaties and chaos caused by WWII. 1945. satellites: The countries surrounding the Soviet Union created a buffer zone between Russia and the rest of Europe. Conferences represented the superpowers and their importance in postwar reconstruction. looting and atrocities against soldiers and citizens of occupied countries. The "Barouch Plan" set up the International Atomic Development whose goal was for use of peaceful potentials for atomic energy and to provide nations with security against surprise attacks. Atomic Energy Commission: To oversee the control and development of nuclear weapons. the International Court of Justice. . San Francisco Conference. Fear and hatred against communism and Socialism continued throughout the Cold War. 1946 was the first UN General Assembly. and UN Charter: A meeting of world nations to establish a international organization for collective security. Economic and Social Council. 39 delegates from US. Bretton Woods Conference: Meeting of Allied governments in 1944. socialism. and Great Britain began proceedings such as the Yalta and Potsdam. Lie of Norway as Secretary General.C. the Soviet Union. From the Bretton Woods Agreement. enslavement. Dumbarton Oaks Conference: An international conference held August-October 1944 at Dumbarton Oaks Washington D. the primary focus of Amer. Great Britain and Russia gathered. General Assembly. After WWII. foreign currencies would be valued in relation to the dollar and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). These superpowers consisting of the United States. Trusteeship Council. These "satellites" were nations conquered by the Soviet Union during the counteroffensive attack of the Russians against the Germans during WWII. electing Trygve H. superpowers: The world powers after WWII created a new balance of power. communism: Two forms of governing.being a leader of one of the world's superpowers.

Navy and the new Department of the Air Force. Korea and Egypt.: An advocate for tough foreign policy against the Soviets. . X who wrote "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" in the magazine Foreign Affairs advising a policy of restricting Soviet expansion to protect western institutions. a title proved by US actions in the UN. Kennan was the American charge d'affaires in Moscow through WWII. the president announced that the United States would assist free people resisting "armed minorities or. Czechoslovakian coup: On February 25. He was also the anonymous Mr. The Marshall Plan was expanded to mass economic aid to the nations of Europe for recovery from WWII. Reforming the Departments of War and Navy they became the Departments of Army. a communist coup led by Klement Gottwald took control of the Czechoslovakian government after the October 5 announcement of Moscow's plan to block the Marshall Plan in Europe. government and seen through the domino theory and US actions in Vietnam and Korea.. Yugoslavia.outside pressure. 1947. The Marshall Plan also hope to minimize suffering to be exploited by communist nations.Department of Defense created: The Department of Defense was created in 1947 by the National Security Act. The Truman Doctrine became a major portion of Cold War ideology." Meant as a offer for aid against communism the Truman Doctrine established the United States as a global policeman. Aid was rejected by communist nations. Voice of America. George F. Plan would make provisions to supply US investment capital and personnel to agricultural and industrial development as well as development in other national interests.S. •MARSHALL PLAN: Truman's secretary of state George C. Marshall proposed massive economic aid to Greece and Turkey on Feb. Czechoslovakia became a communist satellite of the Soviet Union. 1947 after the British told the US they could not afford to continue assistance to the governments of Greece and Turkey against Soviet pressure for access to the Mediterranean. The theory of containment was accepted by the U. CARE: A part of the US Information Agency. Kennan. Vietnam. Point Four: A post-WWII foreign aid treaty devised from the fourth point of President Truman's inaugural address in 1950. Tito. Through his rule he kept Yugoslavia independent of Soviet control and was recognized as the only lawful authority in Yugoslavia. Result of need for a consolidated department. Marshall: Marshall Tito is the name used by Josip Bronz since 1934. a feeling of personal responsibility for the containment of communism.. 1948. Tito was the communist dictator of Yugoslavia until proclaiming himself president in January 1953. Voice of America was a US government radio station sent to Eastern Europe nations. 27. •TRUMAN DOCTRINE: From Truman’s address to Congress on March 12. •CONTAINMENT.

1920 led nonviolent disobedience movement for independence for India. complied with Communist demands. Warsaw Pact: Treaty unifying communist nations of Europe signed May 1955 by: Russia. and Romania after the signing of the NATO treaty in 1949. Denmark. Admitted in U. 1948: From the UN General Assembly on April 28. on October 1948. "lost China": Mao Tse-tung. Communist China dedicated support but did not sign the treaty. New Zealand US (ANZUS): All these treaties were formed post WWII as mutual defense pledges in an attempt to halt the spread of communism through Europe and Asia. •NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO): Following the Vanderberg Resolutions on April 4. Mao. British. 1948 the Soviet withdrew representation from the Allied Control Council and refused to allow US. Hungary. On May 14. During 1924 led another civil disobedience movement for India's freedom in exchange for India's help against Japan Assassinated. After 321 days in 1949 Russia agreed to end blockade if the Council of Foreign Ministers would agree to discuss Berlin. the communists controlled major cities and to avoid a full scale war with China. 1948 Israel proclaimed independence and US recognized the new state but the Arabs rejected the proclamation and declared war against Israel. Poland. 1947. fall of China. Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) and the Australia. June 24. the Palestine partition of Arab and Jewish states. Albania. and France to gain access to Berlin. The organization considered an attack against one member of the alliance. Bulgaria. The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington on April 4. The NSC-68 became of major importance throughout the Cold War as it spoke of the need to remain a step ahead of the Soviet Union to protect its own security.Gandhi: Spiritual and political leader of India. Israel created. Tse-tung. East Germany. an attack on all. and the U. The airlift provided food and supplies to the blockaded people and intensified antagonism against Stalin. In 1949. and Portland joined the Canadian-US negotiations for mutual defense and mutual aid. head of the Chinese Communists demanded US halt military aid and for US forces to leave China in January 1945. •NSC-68: In the 1950's President Truman called for a top secret investigation from the CIA to review national defense policy.N in 1949. Southeast Asia Treaty organization (SEATO). 1949 creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The NSA-68 called for a massive military buildup and increase in defense spending through raising of taxes in fear of Soviet aggressive intentions and military strength. . •BERLIN BLOCKADE: On March 20.S. the Western Powers began Berlin Airlift to supply residents of Berlin. Italy. Czechoslovakia. Norway.

Needed to facilitate cooperation in the war effort between the . giving the president power to defend Formosa without committing to defense of islands. the Nationalist government moved their headquarters to the city of Formosa. all the citizens in the United States wanted was a return to normalcy. limited war: After Japan's defeat in 1945. It was accepted June. Chiang Kaishek was opposed by the communist leader Mao Tse-tung who opposed US involvement in the war. tuition fees. provoking war. and US interference would lead to outbreak of war. G." 1949: The United States Relations With China. he became the United Nations Commander in Korea. June 24. military. Matsu: On September 3. Also. medical treatment. but laid the seeds for the later women’s movement. women were forced to return to their homes as former soldiers reclaimed the workplace. and economic deficiencies. After losing major cities.State Department "White Paper. the population in the United States increased rapidly with the baby boom.I. 1944: Congress enacted the bill to provide living allowances. US gained UN approval to stop the considered communist domino. Bill of Rights. With Special Reference to the Period 1944-1946 warned that the Nationalists were on the verge of collapse because of political. Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion: A 1943 organization that controlled all aspects of the economy. supplies. Korea was divided at the 38th parallel between Soviet troops to the north and the People's Democratic Republic and US troops to the south. This exodus of working women promoted the idea that the proper place for the women was in the home. He was recalled from duty after expressing unpopular opinions about the US policy in Korea. and loans for homes and businesses. Quemoy. Formosa: Chiang Kai-shek was the Nationalist leader in China whom the United States supported during the Chinese civil wars. 1950 North Korean troops attacked the Republic of Korea. •KOREAN WAR. the Communist army attacked the Nationalist held islands of Quemoy and Matsu. 1953. At the beginning of the Korean War. new factories and equipment. Truman-MacArthur controversy: During WWII. A cease fire was installed on July 26. At this point in time. MacArthur was general in the Pacific Wars. Truman and Domestic Issues With the return of large amounts of soldiers from the Second World War. These attacks led to the Formosa Revolution which Eisenhower issued. The "limited" war was to hold the 38th parallel without beginning WWIII. Chiang Kai-shek. 1944 and helped to stimulate economic growth and the accumulation of wartime profits.

low taxes and energy costs.P. representing states rights. plants moving their corporate headquarters here.W. Strom Thurmond was able to collect 1. Because it proved detrimental to certain unions.2 million votes and ran under the Democratic party symbol.’s life. Strom Thurmond: They helped Truman win by showing how the communists in the Wallace campaign forced liberals back into the mainstream Democratic Party. Because of opposition from food producers. closed shop. consumer prices rose only 8% while the total cost of living rose 28% between 1940-1945. Truman vetoed Congress’ 1946 bill that would have extended O.A. Wary of federal deficit spending and increased presidential powers. The National War Labor Board tried to contain restriction by limiting wage increases and Congress gave the president the power in 1942 to freeze wages to help combat inflation. 1948 election. Employment Act of 1946: Truman promised economic growth and established the Council of Economic Advisors to assist the president in maximizing employment. and retailers. extension of the OPA vetoed: Congress instituted a ration program to conserve materials and battle inflation. and brought green lawn and suburbs. Sen. Dixiecrats. the O. and purchasing power. increased war production 33% in May 1943. and permitting the president to call an eighty-day cooling period. . a republican devoted to National unity and Strom Thurmond. "right to work" laws: An area across TX and southern CA called the Sunbelt outlawed unionized shops which were to prevent non-unionized workers to benefit.: Representing a small group of Republican senators. although Congress overrode it. Robert A. he warned that entering into NATO would provoke an arms race with Russia and force the United States to provide military aid to Europe. Taft. who represented the Dixiecrats. He supported that tax measures favorable to the wealthy and no minimum wage increase. production.M. manufacturers. Taft-Hartley Act: Congress modified the Wagner Act in 1947 to outlaw the practices of delaying a strike. issues: Truman ran against Dewey. transformed through technology. candidates. Truman vetoed the measure. postwar inflation: Two years after the war. J. This generation was able to fuel the economy and widen the realm of education. and thus ended price controls. Congress cut the goal of full employment. Truman wins with 24 million votes and the platform of the some of the New Deal and bipartisan foreign policy. baby boom: The number of babies being born between 1950-1963 rose substantially and the mortality rate dramatically dropped allowing for a 19% increase in the population.government and representatives of industry and the military.

McCarthyism As a result of the recent escalation of the Cold War and the spread of communism throughout the world.S. 1949: The CIA was enacted to pursue and conduct espionage and analyze information and facts concerning the actions of foreign countries. health insurance. Americans for Democratic Action (ADA): Founded in 1947 to initiate the development and promotion of a national liberal agenda of public policy. Taking advantage of this "Red Scare" was Senator Joseph McCarthy who utilized the fear and panic of United States citizens to advance his own interests. this bill proclaims that "No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice." It resulted from the agitation following FDR’s running for and being elected to a third or fourth term of office of president. slum clearance. Considered the true New Deal liberal. expanded public power. domestic paranoia concerning communist infiltration increased. Twenty-second Amendment: adopted in 1951. increased the minimum wage. Citizen participation was essential through direct democracy which was equal in only one way : all can exercise the right to vote. expanded social securities. supported social-welfare programs and justice and equality for minorities. It also brought about hysteria and caused blacklisting to occur so that people considered to be "communists" never found work. National Securities Act of 1947. •FAIR DEAL: Truman proposed a social and economic program during his State of the Union message in 1949.S. It also became involved in undercover operations to destroy operations made to be hostile toward the U. economic security. This laid the foundation for the investigations of the House Un-American Activities Committee. Though many Americans believed the investigations were wrong.Progressive Party. . flood control. Henry Wallace: He was nominated for President after being fired by Truman for questioning action taken towards Russia. Wallace’s’ campaign forced liberals back into the Democratic party. agricultural subsidies. soil conservation. •HOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE (HUAC) : FDR established this organization to serve as a platform to the denunciation of the New Deal and communism growth in the U. conservation. building of low income housing units. few said anything. It enlarged the New Deal by adding housing. federal aid to education. reclamation. Used to investigate and expose communist influence in America and blurred the line between dissent and disloyalty.

•MCCARTHYISM, McCarthy, Senator Joseph: He started the hysteria that occurred after the second Red Scare and accused U.S. citizens of being communists. These accusations appealed to Midwestern Americans who found that anti-communism was to fight against liberals and internationalists. It took over the U.S. as a means of fighting communism without realizing that the U.S. was in danger of losing what it was fighting for, Freedom and the Constitution. McCarthy, Senator Joseph: Republicans support and political power was given to senator McCarthy to instill fear within the Democratic Party. He was supported by the GOP party and many resented that he accused many people of being Communists without having proof of their disloyalty. By accusing many of communism, McCarthyism arose. Hiss, Alger: Identified as a member of the communist party by and initially denied claims. Proof was given that Hiss was involved in espionage in the 1930s with the transmitting of information to the Soviet Union through microfilm. Indicted for perjury and sentenced to five years in prison, 1950 McCarran Internal Security Act, 1950: Required all organizations that were believed to be communist by the attorney general to submit a roster of the members and financial statements to the Department of Justice. It also excluded communists from working in defense plants, passports to communists and deported aliens suspected of subversion. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg:. In March of 1951, based primarily on the testimony of their alleged accomplices, Henry Greengrass and Harry Gold, the Rosenbergs were found guilty of conspiring to commit espionage. Their electrocution in 1953 represented the anti-Communist fever that gripped the U.S. Hollywood 10: The 10 people from the entertainment industry called before the House Un-American Activities Committee as "unfriendly" witnesses in October 1947 became known as the Hollywood Ten. All refused to state whether they were communists, served prison sentences, and were blacklisted in the film industry. Fuchs, Klaus: He was a German physicist who was a British citizen from 1942-1950 and an atomic scientist in the United Kingdom and the United States from 1942 on. He was sentenced to prison in England in 1950 for having given atomic secrets to the USSR. After he was freed in 1959, he went to East Germany. "Pink Lady" - Douglas, Helen Gahagan: When Richard Nixon ran against the liberal Democratic Jerry Voorhis for a California congressional seat in 1946, he won easily by suggesting that Voorhis had left-wing tendencies. When Nixon ran for the Senate in 1950, he used similar charges to defeat the Democratic candidate, Congresswoman Douglas. •ANTI-COMMUNIST VOCABULARY: Red, pink or pinko, left-wing, and commie were some of the slurs thrown around during the McCarthy years to brand people with a communist "taint." These campaigns were known as witch-hunts by those who opposed

HUAC tactics, and like the Salem witch-hunts, accusations alone, without any proof of wrong-doing, could be enough to ruin someone and get them "blacklisted" and unable to find employment.

Eisenhower and the 1950s
Hailing Eisenhower as someone whom one might have as a regular neighbor, the country overwhelmingly elected the former and celebrated World War Two Allied forces commander. Although a former military leader, Eisenhower strongly believed in the ascendancy of civilian control over the military and condemned what he termed the "military-industrial complex." During Eisenhower’s administration, the USSR made several advances in the space race pushing the United States to catch up. 1952 election: candidates, issues: Truman would not seek reelection. The Democrats drafted Adlai Stevenson, who was unsuccessful. The Republicans decided to back the war hero Dwight D. Eisenhower who chose Nixon as his running mate. The GOP controlled both houses. •IKE AND MODERN REPUBLICANISM: He provided Americans with the stability they craved, and labeled his credo "Modern Republicanism." In general, he was conservative on monetary issues and liberal "when it came to human beings." During his term as president, he backed the most extensive public-works program in U.S. history: the Interstate Highway Act and also extended social security benefits and raised the minimum wage. "fiscal management": Large scale labor organizations and social welfare were used to deal with powerful pressure groups. It rejected an extreme step to the right side of politics and a return to the pre-New Deal policies. Also, it abandoned the goal of a balanced budget in favor of increased spending to restore prosperity. Niebuhr, Reinhold, Rand, Ayn, The Fountainhead: Niebuhr was a theologian who expressed neo-Orthodox Protestant views and liberal social thoughts. Ayn Rand was a U.S. novelist who became a citizen in 1931 and wrote about the struggles of poverty. Her work was important in expressing life’s hardships and was published in 1928. McCarran-Walter Immigration Act, 1952: Passed over the presidents’ veto, it validated the quota system firmly based on the idea that national origin restrained immigration from southern and Eastern Europe. This act also empowered the attorney general to exclude and deport aliens suspected of being communists. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW): Eisenhower transformed the Federal Securities Agency into the H.E.W. and gave it cabinet rank in 1953. This agency allowed for the reorganization of government in order to achieve greater efficiency and a better economy.

Interstate Highway Act: Passed by Eisenhower, this was the largest and most expensive public-works system in American history that allowed for the building of 41,000 miles of expressways in 1956. Allowed for suburban growth, the decay of central cities, and increased America’s reliance on cars. St. Lawrence Seaway: Approved by Eisenhower, this seaway linked the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean in 1954. It was built to accelerate suburban growth, expand trade to promote economic prosperity, and allowed boats greater access to transport goods. It connected Montreal and Lake Ontario promoting good relations with Canada. Landrum-Griffin Act: Passed in 1959 to regulate the government of unions, guarantee members’ rights, provisions for anti-corruption, and fair elections. Enacted due to the concern of financial misconduct on the part of union officials and connected to gangsters and organized crime. Hoffa, Jimmy: He became president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters in 1957. Jury tampering was found after he was sentenced to thirteen years in prison for the fraudulent use of the union pension fund. After losing his appeals, he was sentenced in 1967 but only served about four years and nine months in prison. AFL-CIO merger: In 1955, this brought 85% of all union members into a single administrative unit, which promised aggressive unionism under the leadership of AFL’s George Meany as president and CIO’s Walter Reuther as vice-president. However, the movement was unable to achieve its old level of success. Alaska, Hawaii: Congress approved Alaska as the forty-ninth state of the Union in June and Eisenhower signed the Alaska statehood bill on July 7, 1958 . Congress approved of giving Hawaii statehood in March of 1959 and it was admitted to the Union on August 21, 1959. •FIRST INDOCHINA WAR: After WWII, Ho Chi Minh of the Vietminh declared himself leader of the Republic of Vietnam and began a war to drive the France imperialists out of Vietnam in Dec of 1946. After a 55 day siege, the French surrendered at the fortress of Diem Bien Phu and July 21, 1954 a truce agreement was signed with France surrendering North Vietnam and granting independence to Cambodia, Laos, and South Vietnam. Bricker Amendment: On January 7, 1954, Senator John W. Bricker proposed a constitutional amendment to limit the executive power of the president. His proposal called for a limit on the power of the president to negotiate treaties and executive agreements. Rejected February 26, 1954. Dulles, John Foster: Became Secretary of State under Eisenhower in 1953. Cold Warrior who supported "massive retaliation," brinksmanship, and preemptive strike. In 1951 he was author of Japanese peace treaty. Politically influential during WWII, from 19491959.

"massive retaliation": January, 1940s. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles signed the Strategic Air Command as the primary deterrent for Soviet attack. Great Britain, Turkey, and Italy stationed intermediate-range nuclear weapons in their countries to provide for a capacity for "massive retaliation." brinksmanship: This is another of the policies of John Foster Dulles that caused considerable controversy during the Cold War. Dulles declared that the United States must be prepared to "go to the brink" of war in order to attain its objectives. This stance was labeled brinksmanship. preemptive strike: A plan of acting first with nuclear or conventional weapons as a defensive action. A preemptive strike would solve the problem before it became an issue by acting first and swiftly. A preemptive strike is another Cold War term that generated fear for the beginning of a nuclear war. Khrushchev, 1955 Geneva Summit: The meeting of "Four Powers," US, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union. Also present was Khrushchev, the 1st Secretary of the Communist Party. Decided to reunify Germany, and on disarmament, and how to improve relations between east and west. Hungarian revolt, 1956: Antigovernment demonstrations in Budapest on Oct. 23, 1956 as revolutionaries demanded the denunciation of the Warsaw Pact and liberation from Soviet troops. On Oct. 21, U.S. announced it wouldn’t give military aid to the revolutionaries. On Nov. 4, Soviets attacked Hungary. Nasser Suez Canal crisis: Dec 17, 1955, the U.S. offered Egypt a loan to build the Aswan High Dam, withdrawing its offer after Egypt accepted Soviet Union aid and Pres. Nasser nationalized the Suez canal to use tolls to build the dam. On Oct 31, Israel invaded Egypt with French and British aircraft. •PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE: A term applied to the actions of the US under Eisenhower and USSR under Khrushchev for maintaining peace and reducing the possibility of war between the two nations. The implementation of the phrase is seen in the Geneva Summit where the "spirit of Geneva" was one of peace and collaboration to create a secure and peaceful world. March 1959 the USSR and the U.S agreed to suspend atomic testing. Eisenhower Doctrine: January 5, 1957, Eisenhower made a speech to the joint House of Congress to limit communist expansion. Authorized March 7, the Eisenhower Doctrine allowed the president to extend economic and military aid to certain nations as well as use of $200 million mutual security funds. Common Market: Established 1958 by the Treaty of Rome to set up a wide customs union in 1968 and was joined by Great Britain in 1972. The EEC developed world wide trading relations between European nations providing for a more solidified Europe, another symbol of rearrangement of power after WWII.

There was widespread recognition that the integration of society had not progressed as it was supposed to and that it was time for the African-American citizens to take a stand. May 11 Eisenhower admitted to authorization of U-2 flights. Philip: President of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters who worked to build his March-on-Washington Committee into an all-black protest movement. ICBM: Intercontinental Ballistic missiles were developed in the 1950's in America. Created by Congress. the U. These intertwined interests helped lead to leverage in government and threatened subordination of the military. NASA released a cover story of a lost weather research plane. to better make scientific advancements. NASA was created in 1958. "military-industrial complex": The demands of national security had produced the symbiotic relationship of immense military establishment and industry. Randolph. a Consultative Conference of Foreign Ministers. National Defense Education Act (NDEA Act) : Passed in 1958 to provide $300 million in loans to students of undergraduate and graduate status.Organization of American States (OAS): From the Charter of Bogotá regional association was established with US and Latin America states and formed a InterAmerican conference. In addition. A. May 7. and for the development of new instructional material to ensure a higher level of national security. the USSR announced an American U-2 plane was shot down in Soviet territory. Humiliated at being upstaged by the Russians. The . 1960. Civil Rights to 1960 After the army became desegregated in 1948. Landmark decisions in the Supreme Court as well as civil rights laws foreshadowed the changes and upheaval that would come in this and following decades. May 5. The ICBM's with one or two nuclear warheads had the potential to destroy the USSR and the US. pilot Francis Gary Powers confessed to being a CIA spy. •SPUTNIK: The Soviet Union launched this first satellite into orbit on October 4. a Council with a delegate from each state. the position of African-Americans in civilian society came under increasing scrutiny. reshaped the educational system in efforts to produce the large numbers of scientists and engineers that Russia had. U-2 incident: May 3. and a Secretariat and Commissions. ICBM's were one of the many factors that gave the American people the sense that war was imminent. 1957. funds for training teachers.S. it brought a national aeronautics agency to administer nonmilitary space research and exploration.

In the urban North. Truman ordered American troops to invade South Korea. resulting in the bloodiest riot in this half-century. It called for an end to racial discrimination and segregation. desegregation of the armed forces. 1950. 1948: Truman ended segregation in the army to provide support during World War II to ensure victory. Forty-three were found dead. he developed blood-transfusion programs for the British and French. He also conducted research on the preservation of blood and during WWII. 1966: Erupted because of constant conflict between black citizens and white cops.Committee also engaged in civil disobedience to protest racial discrimination in all aspects of American life. Gunnar. An American Dilemma: A Swedish economist. and in 1953 a cease fire was issued after a truce agreement was signed by the U. and over $50 million in property was destroyed. and Communists. rural and Southern to urban and Northern : Eisenhower sought to give low income farmers increased training and trade as well as to improve industry and the health of citizens of the rural South . Gunnar wrote about anticipated changes in race relations. Led by James Farmer. it organized Freedom Rides that rode throughout the south to try to force desegregation of public facilities. Drew. On June 27. Dr. He specifically noted that Black veterans returned with very high expectations from civilian life due to war. Detroit race riots. Korean War: Seen as a Soviet-directed aggression to test American containment policy. General Douglas MacArthur sought total victory. he developed techniques for the storing and processing of blood for transfusion in 1944. Myrdal. direct action. . Fair Employment Practices Committee: Roosevelt issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies. and companies involved in war-related work for the purpose of enforcing an Executive Order and made possible the employment of 2 million blacks. as well as the problems between the races in 1944. and was called "an American charter of human freedom. Charles: As an African-American physician. a great emphasis was put upon renovation and the rehabilitation of the cities opposed to clearance and reconstruction. thousands were wounded. unions. To Secure These Rights: The 1946 Committee on Civil Rights dramatized the inequities of life in the South and under the Jim Crow laws." by President Truman. He was the first president to deal with the legislative civil rights since the implementation of Reconstruction and fought for many other civil rights acts but was denied.N. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE): The Congress of Racial Equality was formed in 1942 to help combat discrimination through nonviolent.

. and was therefore arrested. Martin Luther: An African-American leader who was the voice of his people. ARK. and a mob of whites reacted by preventing the students from entering the school.1957: Eisenhower passed this bill to establish a permanent commission on civil rights with investigative powers but it did not guarantee a ballot for blacks. The Supreme Court said that it had no place in schools. Resistance to desegregation of buses was finally overcome by the Supreme Court ruling that it was unconstitutional to segregate public transportation in November. On April 4. Refusing to force the white south to accept the ruling. Faubus sent the National Guard to bar nine black students from entering Central High School in Arkansas in 1957. 1956. Eisenhower then enforced a new court order that forced the men to withdraw." Marshall. Neither act was able to empower federal officials to register the right to vote for African-Americans and was not effective. navy yards and veteran hospitals. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA: The Supreme Court reversed Plessy v."separate but equal": Enacted because of the inferiority complex given to blacks. The court held that "separate but equal" violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and was unconstitutional.. Many southerners saw it as "an abuse of judiciary power. His philosophy emphasized need for direct action by getting every AfricanAmerican involved in the pursuit of equality and to build a community of brotherhood in his "I have a dream" speech. •MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT. Previously a lawyer with such key victories as in Brown v. Parks refused to get up from her seat on the bus to give it to a white man. the death penalty. defiance toward the law sprang up. Alabama. Civil Rights Act. Rev. it set forth an attempt to liberalize without losing control. Civil Rights Act. and his support of civil liberties and free speech. King Jr. It was the first civil-rights bill to be enacted after Reconstruction which was supported by most non-southern whites. founder of the NAACP Legal Defense. Board of Education. famous for his fight against discrimination. Thurgood: 1st African American justice of the Supreme Court. •BROWN V. Then The National Guard was sent to protect the students from the violence for the rest of the school year. so it ordered the desegregation of schools. 1960: Eisenhower passed this bill to appease strong southern resistance and only slightly strengthened the first measures provisions. The school was then shut down in 1958-59. CRISIS: Governor Orval E. Because of her actions she is known as the "mother" of civil rights.1968 he was assassinated. •LITTLE ROCK. Ferguson in 1954 by ruling in favor of the desegregation of schools. Rosa Parks: In December of 1955. This led to massive bus boycotts in Montgomery.

Southern Christian Leadership Conference: In protest to Jim Crow. and other signs of the explosive discontent ravaged the nation. White primaries were used to control everything even with disenfranchisement and was declared unconstitutional in 1944.literacy tests. Black Power and the cry that "Black is Beautiful" resounded in the hearts of many African Americans. the president refused to enforce it and blacks continued to attend segregated schools. King organized the SCLC in 1957. The poll tax prevented AfricanAmericans from voting by requiring all voters to pay a tax. Montgomery bus boycott: After refusing to give up her seat for a white man in the front of a Montgomery bus in Dec. Sit-ins. Destroying the public’s complacency. Black leaders. the poll tax was outlawed in all elections. It was declared unconstitutional in 1915. It was made up of a group of ministers that supported the Montgomery bus boycott. JACKIE: He was the first African-American baseball player to play professionally in 1947. This organization coordinated future protests and preached the need for civil rights activists.: One of the most prominent black civil rights leaders. He is famous for his "Letter from Birmingham Jail" which promotes the doctrine of civil disobedience. grandfather clause. black militancy grew. Board of Education of Topeka: The Warren court decided in 1954 that the separate but equal concept that legalized segregation was unconstitutional. He was able to break the color barrier and seemed to successfully overcome the racism so prevalent in his sport. nonviolent protest met by vicious dogs. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP): The NAACP was created in 1909 in New York to raise the quality of living for inner city . poll tax: Literacy tests were given to blacks with the idea that they would be denied the right to vote since most could not read. including King. and sneering racists shocked the nation. especially in the south where such actions were met by fierce resistance. organized a massive boycott of the buses and took the case to a lower court where it was decided that bus seating would be based on a first-come-first-serve basis. white southerners refused to comply. Rev. King Jr. • ROBINSON. Civil Rights to 1965 Frustrated by black disenfranchisement in the south and the blatant racism epitomized by segregated schools. Rosa Park was arrested. white primaries: The grandfather clause was a provision used to exclude people who served in the war and their descendants from taking suffrage tests. Angered by the court decision. In 1966. a method of protests that urges blacks to ignore all laws that they believe are unjust. 1955. Implementation of Brown v. Martin Luther. Robinson was also was able to contribute to the winning of the pennant and Rookie of the Year in his first year of playing. blasting water hoses. King called for black assertiveness and nonviolent resistance to oppression. freedom rides. which blacks could not afford.

the League advocated more militant tactics. He also was one of the early recruiters for the NAACP and was the first field secretary for the state of Mississippi. Adam Clayton: Powell was a Black civil rights leader serving as a Democratic Congressman of New York and the Chairman of the House Committee on Education and Labor in 1960-1967. It was also the site where King made the "I have a dream" speech. They sought direct confrontation and violence with local governments. March on Washington: King organized this massive civil protest march in Washington in August of 1963 as a result of the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 1963. Evers. Protestors sat in a segregated section on a bus or restaurant until they were forced to move by racists. Powell. •SIT-INS.blacks. The group became more militant. When this happened another protestor took the place that had just been vacated. . The speech reiterated the American ideals of democracy and equality. This type of action was used to expose the violations of the court decision to outlaw segregation in public areas and transit. Rejecting the courtroom strategy utilized by the NAACP. CORE also registered blacks to vote throughout the South. Board of Education and formed the Urban League. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Medgar: Evers was an American civil rights leader who conducted campaigns to register black voters and organized boycotts of firms that practiced racial discrimination. Under his direction the House Committee on Education and Labor passed the Minimum Wage Bill and Anti-Poverty Bill. It became a powerful legal force and argued cases in the Supreme Court which led to the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and Voting Rights Act of 1965. Urban League: Some southern blacks were not satisfied by the Brown v. The march reaffirmed the need for civil rights legislation and nonviolent protest. Stokely Carmicheal. FREEDOM RIDES: Utilized in the spring of 1961. sit-ins and freedom rides were forms of protest organized by CORE and utilized in the spring of 1961. The speech was said to be inspiring and reaffirmed the need for civil rights legislation and nonviolent protesting. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE): CORE was a group of black rights protesters created in 1942. "I have a dream" speech: King gave this speech during the historic civil rights March on Washington on August 28. Rap Brown: SNCC was a organization of college students that utilized nonviolent forms of protest until Carmicheal and Brown rallied the members in favor of Black Power. H. It organized freedom rides through the south to expose the violations of the 1960 Supreme Court decision outlawing segregation on interstate buses and trains. pushing for direct armed confrontation with the police.

He advocated Black Power. leader of the Congress of Racial Equality. Newton. and was a root for black militancy in America. but broke with them to form a black nationalist group. He served as the Secretary of Housing and Department of Urban Development. He was a part of the Nation of Islam. regardless of their race or religion. Marshall. It sparked a huge riot . a new office created to address the needs of those living in the inner city areas. Seale and Huey P. Marshall was famous for pursuing cases that dealt with controversial issues of civil rights and the status of racism in America. Malcolm X: Malcolm X was an influential black leader who called for unity between blacks to combat oppressive forces in the United States. Black Panthers: The Black Panthers was a black rights political organization created in Oakland. Twenty-fourth Amendment: The 24th Amendment. gave voting rights to every American citizen. Angela: Angela Davis was an influential black leader and activist. Thurgood: Marshall was the first black residing under the Warren Court during the 1960s. It was originally a small community action group for defense against racism but later it began to urge black armament and direct confrontation with the police. Watts.Weaver. The group was known for its strict adherence to Islam. Detroit race riots: A confrontation between police and blacks in Watts and Detroit took place after the voting rights bill was passed in 1965. Davis. World Community of Al-Islam in the West. the Black Muslims was a religious organization of the Islamic faith that was also called the American Muslim Mission. It also prohibited the use of the poll tax or any tax that denied the vote. California in 1966 by Bobby G. Tried in 1972 and acquitted. The amendment gave Congress the power to enforce it with legislation. adopted in 1964. In 1970. the Organization of AfroAmerican Unity (OAAU). •BLACK POWER: Black power was a slogan created by Malcolm X and widely used by Stokely Carmichael. Black power became the basis for black militancy in the civil rights movement. The slogan called for all blacks to organize together and overthrow the oppressive forces of racism in America. Robert: Weaver was the first black cabinet member appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1966. The slogan was used by a number of new civil rights activist groups such as the Black Panthers. she went into hiding after being accused of aiding an attempted courtroom escape that killed four persons. His presence in Supreme Court drew more attention to the area of civil and individual rights. Black Muslims: Formally called the Nation of Islam. she became the vice-presidential candidate of the Communist party in 1980.

de facto. •CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964. •VOTING RIGHTS ACT. This act was the strongest civil rights legislation since Reconstruction and invalidated the Southern Caste System. charming. this meant that segregation was accepted as long as it was not outlawed. This violent growth of civil discontent was given the name "The Long Hot Summers. The act enabled federal examiners to register anyone who qualified in the South. The act also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to prevent discrimination in the work place. The suggestion was ignored. this act outlawed segregation in public areas and granted the federal government power to fight black disfranchisement. poor education and police brutality and recommended creating 2 million jobs and 6 million housing units to lower tensions. The reaction slowed the civil rights movement because whites in power feared passing legislation and creating civil discontent and riots. •WHITE BACKLASH: White backlash referred to white reaction against the massive ghetto riots of thousands of young blacks across the nation. the commission concluded that white racism caused mounting violence. New Frontier Innovative. The act was a key piece of legislation which ensured blacks more equal rights.that lasted six days. self-confident. This act was a part of a series of new legislation that encouraged desegregation of blacks in America. and energetic." Kerner Commission on Civil Disorders: Created to investigate reasons for the massive outbreaks of riots in 1965. de jure segregation: De facto referred to the use of power and authority in the absence of an actual government or legal authority. public accommodations section of the act: Passed under the Johnson administration. 1968: The Civil Rights Act of 1968 barred discrimination in housing sales or rentals. It prohibited the use of literacy tests as a part of the voter registration process which were initially used as a method to control immigration to the United States during the 1920s. De jure segregation referred to the system of segregation that was legal in the North such as New York and Chicago. He hoped for "more sacrifice instead of more security" in a nation on "the frontier of unknown opportunities and perils." . In the 1960s. The National Guard was called to put down both riots. poverty. giving the power of the vote to underrepresented minorities. 1965: The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed as a Great Society program under the Johnson administration. JFK vigorously called on the American people to support his programs of domestic reform and foreign policy. Civil Rights Act.

Kennedy and the steel price rollback: In his attempt to lower business taxes and solve wage problems. this decision would prevent later voting frauds. VISTA: The Peacecorps and Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) were created by the Office of Economic Opportunity to work in poverty areas. He threatened to file antitrust suits and the prices fell. he lost the respect and admiration of the American public. one vote" needed to be maintained in all elections. Carr: In 1962. 1963: The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963 was negotiated by Harriman Averell. The treaty was the first treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union that called for a ban on atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. thus closing the missile gap. Warren was branded a communist sympathizer by his enemies. Wainwright: The Warren Court ruled in the case of Gideon v. This ruling was a part of the effort to reform the criminal justice system and enable poor people legal council. JFK was faced with a crisis when U. Richard M. his political friends in congress. Steel raised their prices to $6 after JFK worked with the steel union for noninflationary contracts and minimal wage increases for workers. This was a part of President Johnson’s training programs and support services created during the 1960s. It was erected by the government of East Germany in order to prevent a brain drain. Wainwright that the state was required to provide attorneys for defendants in felony cases at the public’s expense. The wall was dismantled in August of 1989. a diplomat to the Soviet Union after World War II. Baker v. and the government. As a result. Arizona which required police to read a suspect their constitutional right which included remaining silent and having legal council present during police questioning. Gideon v. "missile gap": The election of 1960 was a race between Kennedy. Escobedo decision: The Miranda Decision referred to the 1966 case of Miranda v. Nixon. .election of 1960: candidates.S. The Escobedo decision labeled the Warren Court as an intrusive presence. •"Impeach Earl Warren": The ultra-reactionary John Birch Society created the phrase. in which the skilled artisans of the population immigrated to West Germany. Also. who promised a new and better future for the nation. the Warren court ruled that the principle of "one man. Berlin Wall: The Berlin Wall was a concrete wire wall which divided East and West Germany after World War II. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The issues included which path of action to take against Russia to ensure an advantage of arms. Miranda Decision. and the "middle way" Republican candidate. Peacecorps. "impeach Earl Warren" in 1954 as a result of Chief Justice Earl Warren’s rulings which affirmed the rights of alleged communists and the desegregation of schools and public areas. The ruling reaffirmed the requirement that representation in legislative bodies would be based on the people’s vote.

It was the most imminent threat of nuclear annihilation and thereafter. Dominican Republic. Panama gave the rights to use the Panama Canal to the United States. Alliance for Progress: This was an economic assistance program proposed by President Kennedy in 1961. but American businesses feared the nationalization of their industries.Castro Revolution: Fidel Castro led a nationalist uprising against the former despotic Cuban government.S. for atomic weapons were never used. It was to settle disputes between member nations and discourage foreign intervention in their internal affairs. Another treaty was signed between the . The Cuban exiles were captured and traded back to the U.S. and the people. The Cuban soldiers were secretly trained by the CIA and supplied by the U. he turned to Soviet communism. When the U. removed nuclear weapons from Turkey. 1961. Panama Canal treaties: After gaining its independence in 1903. Allende. a hot line was established between the White House and the Kremlin to prevent accidental missile launches. His socialist program led to inflation and strikes which resulted a military coup that overthrew his regime in 1973. 17. UN in the Congo: During the 1950s the United Nations was called upon to act as a peace keeping force throughout the world such as in Kuwait and the Middle East. He initially asked for U. in an attempt to overthrow the Communist government and capture Fidel Castro. •Bay of Pigs: On Apr. The U. 1965: A civil war broke out in the Dominican Republic between the Bosch forces.S. In the 1950s the United Nations sent a peace keeping force to the Congo. "flexible response": JFK’s policy of "flexible response" called for the preparation of more conventional weapons versus atomic weapons. Allende founded the Chilean Socialist party and was elected president of Chile in 1970. Salvador: In 1933.S. needed both a strong military program and atomic weapons to combat the forces of communism. for food. The United States intervened with military forces and the Organization of American States restored peace by conducting elections where Joaquín Balaguer defeated Bosch. which is located in Africa.S and Russia in 1962 following the discovery of nuclear missile sites in Cuba. He reasoned conventional weapons were essential. The program to give Latin America $20 million in aid was protested after the fall of the democratic government in Haiti. Kennedy felt that U. assistance. refused to help.S. Kennedy placed a blockade on the island and Russia agreed to remove the missiles rather than provoke a nuclear war. a group of Cuban exiles invaded the Bay of Pigs. •Cuban missile crisis: The Cuban Missile Crisis was a major confrontation between the U. He became the first elected Marxist leader in the Americas.S. the current government regime. Their return embarrassed the United States and the nation acquired a reputation as a belligerent imperial country. government.

Silent Spring: Rachel Carson was a marine biologist that wrote and published Silent Spring. 1963 in Texas. Her writings coincided with many other novels which brought social issues to the surface such as Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique. but the counterculture rise was stemmed as the idealism turned into thievery. defeated Barry Goldwater. Kennedy was shot and killed by Lee Havery Oswald. Largely successful in the first two years of the Johnson administration. conservation. the idealism would later give way to virulent conservatism and a return to traditional values. 1999. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS): As frustrations concerning government policies grew. the Great Society was inspired by JFK and prompted by LBJ’s insecure need to win over the American people. Flower children: Flower children referred to the counterculture of the 1960s. Reich. 22. this organization was created in 1962. and health programs. This social category consisted mainly of student protestors who envisioned a life of freedom and harmony. The SDS became a focal point for activist students. .United States and Panama stating that control over the canal was to be returned to the Panamanian government on December 31. future civil rights legislation and the status of the war in Vietnam. Main issues of the election of 1964 included serious debates over the continuation of Johnson’s Great Society plan. and drugs. The Greening of America: In his critical novel of the New Deal. It addressed her concerns on the environmental hazards of pesticides. They issued the Port Huron Statement which called for support of liberalism. the Warren Commission was created to investigate the controversial issues concerning a possible conspiracy. Great Society An idealistic call for improved environmental. Oswald was later killed by Jack Ruby on his way to a court hearing. Rachel. Carson. the elected Democratic party majority leader. racial. •Election of 1964: LBJ. the elected Republican majority leader. educational. Warren Commission: On Nov. Reich expressed his desire for courts to expand individual rights to protect nonconformists from social standards in 1971. As a result. He stated that it was impossible to mix individual interests in large general tax bills. rape. Goldwater: In the election of 1964 Lyndon Johnson. John F. Lyndon Johnson attempted to continue his Great Society program after the election with small social legislation. Oswald. The SDS organized massive Vietnam Protests. They led pilgrimages to San Francisco and New York. Charles. Lee Harvey.

Kennedy. The law gave over one billion dollars to public and parochial schools for books and special education programs. VISTA. New Left: The New Left encompassed the liberalism of college students during the 1960s. Abolition of immigration quotas: President Lyndon Johnson’s program of liberalism. Kennedy.S. the office funded the Job Corps to train young people to work. He stressed that voting was the key to racial equality and pushed for the Civil Rights Act of 1964. in 1968 and senator from New York. Richard Nixon captured the presidency for the Republican party after he defeated George C. which included social legislation in 1965. Robert: Kennedy was the attorney general of the U. War on Poverty: The term. Established by the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. the American Independent and Hubert H. President Lyndon Johnson rallied for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 which gave federal aid to education. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Created in 1966 to give aid to needy families located in poor inner city areas. which began the first funding for education. the Democratic candidate. Although some states refused to administer the insurance the Kerr-Mills Act of 1960 provided federal support for state medical programs. War on Poverty. It was used to describe Johnson’s Great Society package that created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Economic Opportunity Office.S. supported the election of John F. Wallace. These laws abolished the restrictions and the quota based system previously used by the U. They held idealistic views of civil rights movements.Office of Economic Opportunity: The Office of Economic Opportunity was created as a part of President Johnson’s Great Society. to determine the amount of immigration from a certain area. Medicare: A program of national health insurance created by the Social Security Amendments of 1965. . but was assassinated in California during a campaign. Kennedy gained the Democratic presidential nomination in 1968. Humphrey. this program gave health insurance for persons who were over the age of 65 or seriously disabled. referred to Lyndon Johnson’s statement describing his goal to create a better America. Election of the 1968: Lyndon Johnson did not run for reelection in 1968 due to his dissatisfaction with the Vietnam War and public discontent. Elementary and Secondary Act: As a part of his Great Society vision. It was also the root of protest over Vietnam. and Project Headstart. and heralded the campaign against nuclear testing that created the nuclear test ban treaty of 1963. led to the liberalization of immigration laws. the Department of Housing and Urban Development passed bills allocating funds to housing development projects under the leadership of Robert Weaver.

Neil Armstrong walked on the moon’s surface. Kennedy promised the American people to put a man on the moon before the end of the decade. Betty. Democratic Party Convention riot: In August 1968. with the installation of reformers Alexander Dubcek as party leader and Ludvik Svoboda as president. National Organization for Women (NOW): The National Organization for Women was formed in 1966. of 1968. He also appointed W. Nixon began his attack on radicalism in America. and technological obsolescence. they filed lawsuits against gender discrimination and rallied public opinion "to bring American women to full participation. aggressive foreign competition. About 11. Sunbelt verses Rustbelt: The leading work industries. 1969. Wallace ran for the presidency in 1968 and 1972 and was shot and killed during a 1972 election campaign stop in Maryland. •MOON RACE. Nixon. the Chicago convention was disrupted by violence due to the party split over the nomination of the majority leader. Friedan’s personal demand for "something more than my husband. Defining themselves as a civil-rights group for women. Americans put fears of Soviet technological superiority to rest for the United States had been the first to launch a human out into space. reeled under the triple blow of slumping exports. and my home" rang true to a growing number of middle class American women who found joys in motherhood. the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies invaded Czechoslovakia. the Rustbelt and Sunbelt. focusing on the failure of southern white efforts to destroy racial equality. On July 21. Burger to counter liberalism in the Warren Court. The Soviet Union replaced Dubcek with the staunchly pro-Soviet Communist regime. Wallace. Kennedy was determined not to allow Russia to win. Friedan. He first came to national attention as an outspoken segregationist." Equal Rights Amendment (ERA): By 1972 Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the Constitution. This amendment stated that "Equality of rights . my children. The Feminine Mystique: The Feminine Mystique elucidated to readers that they were not alone in their unhappiness. NOW lobbied for equal opportunity. Nixon went on television to condemn the court that enforced bus desegregation. Tensions rose as young SDS protestors against the Vietnam war arrived to voice their discontent.Czechoslovakia invaded: In Aug. forcing the repeal of most of the reforms. Chicago. Neil: Frightened out of complacency by the Soviet launching of Sputnik.5 million American workers lost jobs as a result of plant closings or lack of work. Richard’s Southern strategy: In 1965. Pouring vast amounts of money into the space program. a satellite. Governor: George Wallace was an American politician and three-time governor of Alabama. Armstrong. The riot destroyed Democratic unity and resulted in a loss of support.

•Domino theory: Eisenhower’s domino theory claimed that once one nation fell to communism. Thailand. and Cambodia: The French empire condensed North and South Vietnam. Nader. Ho Chi Minh refused to give up sovereignty which resulted in the First Indochina War. South Vietnam. it drew the U. aided the French. Unsafe at Any Speed: Ralph Nader. Vietnam to 1968 As the French pulled out of an increasingly helpless situation. he brought forth the movement of environmental concerns which would later launch major campaigns for federal regulations. It is the site for the famous battle that led to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Gulf of Tonkin: The Gulf of Tonkin is the northwestern arm of the South China Sea. but Vietnam became more staunchly communist after the war. Thailand. He was a nationalist at heart and wanted Vietnamese independence far more than a communist government. In 1954. He led the Vietminh. The separate regions resented this and nationalist stirrings caused widespread discontent among the people of each nation. exposed the danger of automobiles that were "unsafe at any speed". in Vietnam. many states had liberalized their abortion laws and banned sex discrimination in job hiring. Ralph. First Indochina War: The French wanted Indochina back after losing control over the colony during the Vichy era of the Second World War. Laos. The theory was . Ho later turned to the Soviet Union when the U. Laos. North Vietnam. which committed the U. a group of guerrillas.under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on the basis of sex.S. the majority of the nation supported the war. China and the island of Hainan border it on the west by Vietnam. •Ho Chi Minh: Ho was the Vietnamese Communist leader and the principal force behind the Vietnamese struggle against French colonial rule.S. By 1972.S. bordering countries would follow like falling dominoes. Not until the Têt offensive did massive opposition arise. Hoping for U." National Women’s Political Caucus: The National Women’s Political Caucus (1971) endorsed candidates that promoted a feminist agenda in Washington and many other State capitals. assistance in Vietnam’s struggle for independence. Though many liberal college students mounted large protests against the conflict. the United States became more involved to fill the power vacuum. they defeated the French garrison at the battle of Dien Bien Phu. a graduate of Harvard Law School. into the fight against communism. and Cambodia into one colony called Indochina.S.

1964: After North Vietnamese gun boats assaulted American ships that were organizing air strikes and military moves. The conference also created an area known as the demilitarized zone. •GENEVA CONFERENCE. 1954." granting him full authority against North Vietnamese forces. which claimed that all communist countries were in a conspiracy to destroy democracy in the world. The demilitarized zone during the Vietnam War was surrounded the seventeenth parallel. Facing this humiliating defeat.used in context of the monolithic view of communism. Popularity for the war vastly declined. the U. an international conference was called in Geneva in 1954 to discuss the status of the war in Vietnam. the French decided to give up their futile attempt to fight nationalist stirrings in Vietnam. the offensive showed that the nationalists were still capable of fighting and that the government had lied. In support of Ho Chi Minh. After being told that the enemy was virtually defeated. .S.S. forcing them to surrender. The delegates of the conference decided that Vietnam should be divided into North and South at the seventeenth parallel until national elections took place in 1954. refused to give aid to the French for fear of condoning imperialism. •Têt Offensive: The NLF and the North Vietnamese arm mounted a massive offensive against the South Vietnamese and American armies on January 31. Johnson and his advisers drafted the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that committed the United States in Vietnam. •GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION. This led to the increased U.S. The parallel and the DMZ were created as a result of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolutions. the Vietminh surrounded and laid siege to the French garrison. the National Liberation Front was a part of this group. The elections were never held. The U. Applied to Asia. Eisenhower increased American involvement in Vietnam. 1954: After the fall of the French garrison at Dien Bien Phu. It was passed by Congress and gave Johnson a "blank check. the group pushed to overthrow the South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem. The National Liberation Front consisted mainly of guerilla fighters. could not let Vietnam fall after "losing" China to communism. •VIET CONG. The National Liberation Front was partly responsible for the fall of Dinh Bien Phu and organization of the Têt Offensive. which was also the first day of the Vietnamese New Year known as Têt. Fearful of Soviet expansion. National Liberation Front: The Viet Cong was the name given to the Vietnamese communist army. Dien Bien Phu: On May 7. 1968. Demilitarized zone: A demilitarized zone (DMZ) refers to areas in which military weapons and other installations are prohibited. The nationalists successfully penetrated Saigon and took the United States embassy. involvement in Vietnam.

the president ordered massive bombings of Cambodia and Laos. Hanoi. .S. who in 1971 released to the press the Pentagon Papers. the process of replacing the American armed forces with South Vietnamese troops trained by American advisors." Bombing of Laos and Cambodia: As Nixon began to withdraw American forces in Vietnam in 1972. It was located in the northern part of the country. he sent Henry Kissinger to negotiate with the communists’ foreign minister. Haipong: Hanoi was the capital of Vietnam before the war. My Lai. Pentagon Papers: Daniel Ellsberg was a analyst for the Department of Defense. Vietnamization. Leaving Vietnam without honor would endanger U. With a major Cold War conflict over. Calley: Lt. Nixon gracefully pulled the United States out of Vietnam by turning over the conflict to the South Vietnamese. and old men in 1968. Le Duc Tho. who proposed the Fulbright Act of 1964. Daniel Ellsberg. the invasion of Cambodia spread the war throughout Indochina which sparked massive American protests on college campuses. Kent State and Jackson State incidents: In 1972. It was the largest port in Southeast Asia and site of the Indochina naval base. The papers revealed government lies to Congress and the American people. This act established the exchange program for American and foreign educators and students. an account of American involvement in Vietnam created by the department during the Johnson administration. but he could not allow the United States to lose face. Fulbright.Vietnamization and Détente Skilled in foreign politics. During the war it was heavily bombed in an attempt to force the North Vietnamese to negotiate a peace treaty. The Kent and Jackson State universities were sites of protest in which student protesters were killed. the locations of communist supply lines. The horrors of the massacre were revealed to the public and the Vietnam Veterans Against the War. Haiphong was located 10 miles from the Gulf of Tonkin. to save its reputation and satisfy an American public weary with a futile struggle. In order to force a compromise. global dominance and give a considerable advantage the Soviet Union. allowed the U. an organization of returning soldiers that renounced their war medals as a result. Calley was an inexperienced commander of an American army unit massacred 347 defenseless women. He opposed the war. Senator: Senator Fulbright was an American senator of Arkansas.S. children. the president proceeded to lessen American-Soviet tensions through a call for "peaceful coexistence. Lt. Senator Fulbright also served as the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. •Vietnamization: Popular discontent forced Nixon to pull out of the Vietnam war.

Nixon took advantage of the Sino-Soviet split to pit the former allies against each other by recognizing China. backed by Russia. led an all out attack on Israel in 1973 on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. Nixon declared that a peace had been reached in Vietnam. recognition of China: On February 22.S.Paris Accords. 1973: In 1973. HENRY. 15 million men had been trained and equipped with armed forces ready for battle. It was also agreed that the future of North Vietnam would not be determined by war. 1972. Six Day War. the Israelis stopped the assault and counterattacked. Kissinger negotiated the peace agreement with the aid of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to end the Yom Kippur war. Thousands of special wartime agencies suddenly regulated almost every of American life. 1967: Israel’s decisive triumph in the Six Day War had left the Arabs humiliated and eager to reclaim the militarily strategic Golan Heights which was taken from Syria. the President’s plane landed in China. This agreement was to limit each side to 2. 1972. There were frequent bombings and raids amongst the countries for oil. Aided by massive U. Nixon to Watergate . 1973: As an act passed by Congress. He organized a cease-fire in November of 1973. The Paris Accords ended the war between the North Vietnamese government and Thieu government of South Vietnam. the SALT I agreement allowed Ford and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev to make enormous progress towards the new arms-control treaty. leaving Russia more isolated. This dramatic development marked a significant change in American foreign policy by developing a cordial attitude towards the communists. after Lyndon Johnson died of a heart attack. The China visit sealed the new Chinese-American friendship. SALT I Agreement: At a meeting in Vladivostok. the president was given unprecedented authority. in 1974. "shuttle diplomacy": Henry Kissinger flew from capital to capital and bargained with the Israelis and the Egyptian people. This war between the Israelis and their neighboring countries spanned several years. After the war. Détente: The evacuation of American troops from Vietnam helped Nixon and Kissinger reduce Chinese-American tensions and achieve détente with the communist superpowers. China visit. Yom Kippur War: Syria and Egypt. • KISSINGER.400 nuclear missiles which would reduce the rate of war to a mere fraction. Part of his policy of détente. Siberia. War Powers Act. shipments of highly sophisticated weaponry. His "shuttle diplomacy" ameliorated the hostility between the Middle Eastern countries and the United States.

wage and price controls: In response to the troubled American economy. The term Imperial Presidency referred to Nixon’s efforts to acquire absolute control over his Presidency. Agnew left the government service with a three-year suspended sentence. Nixon verses Congress: On July 27th." "revenue sharing" was a five year plan to distribute $30 billion of federal revenues to the states. Nixon actually broke from Republican tradition in environmental protection. the House Judiciary Committee took in the first article of impeachment. . election of 1972: Nixon’s reelection was assured. and massive spending during the 1960s. Congress passed it in 1972 in response to the failing economy caused by the inflation. The president had abused his power. Nixon." The Imperial Presidency: Nixon’s "New Federalism" promised to bring back law and order to the United States by promoting conservatism and executive authority. He expected his southern strategy and law-and-order posture to attract the conservative Democrats. He pleaded no contest which was "the full equivalent to a plea of guilty. Appointing attorney general John Mitchell as the head. and finding solutions to economic problems such as the severe inflation.5% for prices and rents. The election federal judge. "New Federalism. Spiro T. "revenue sharing": As part of Nixon’s "New Federalism.5% for wages and 2. 6 out of 17 Republicans voted with the 21 Democrats to charge Nixon with interruption of justice for controlling the Watergate investigation. prices. Dishonored and distrusted. refused to accept the claim of those on trial that they had behaved on their own terms. his resignation: Vice President Agnew was charged with income-tax evasion and accepting bribes. CREEP financed many "dirty tricks" to spread dissension within Democratic ranks and paid for a special internal espionage unit to spy on the opposition. Nixon declared a ninety-day freeze on wages. trade deficit. Sirica. welfare reform." according to the trial judge.Basing his support on the conservative New Right coalition. Agnew. He relied on his diplomatic successes with China and Russia and his strategy towards the winding down of the war in Vietnam to attract moderate voters. and rents which would be followed by federally imposed controls setting maximum annual increases of 5.. Committee for the Reelection of the President (CREEP): Nixon created CREEP to ensure every vote for the election of 1972. Yet Nixon’s insecurity as president and his abuse of executive power led to his downfall. Watergate: The scandal exposed the connection between the White House and the accused Watergate burglars who had raided the Democrats’ headquarters during the 1972 campaign.

John Dean. Both the Ervin committee and prosecutor Cox insisted to hear the tapes. McGovern. All three and former Attorney General Mitchell were indicted on March 1974. Ehrlichman. The amendment allowed the politicians to listen to the voices of younger people as voters. Sen. they lacked all the civil liberties of citizenship. . Twenty-fifth Amendment: Ratified in 1967. John Mitchell: All were involved in the Watergate scandal. John. H. this Republican undercover team obtained approval by Mitchell to wire telephones at the Democractic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate apartment/office complex. He was seen as inept and radical.R. Impeachment proceeding: The most damaging to the President was when the hearings exposed the White House’s active involvement in the Watergate cover-up. but Nixon refused. 1992 by a security guard. Thus they could not impeach Nixon. Watergate Tapes: Another Presidential rumor shocked the committee and the nation by revealing that Nixon had put in a secret taping system in the White House that recorded all the conversations between his enemies in the Oval Office. It gave the power to Congress to enforce and protect by appropriate legislation. but Nixon was insecure about McGovern’s popularity. It also limited the power given to the vice president from the incapacitated president. this amendment detailed the procedure by which the vice president was to take over the presidency if the current president could not uphold his status in office. Edmund: The campaign of Senator Edmund Muskie of Maine collapsed when he started to cry in public while trying to respond to an accusation of prejudice against Canadian-Americans. Muskie. George: George McGovern of South Dakota rose to fame on the energetic support of antiwar activists rushing to the Democratic primaries.White House "plumbers": Led by Liddy and Hunt. Chicanos: Chicanos were segregated Mexican-Americans and also included Puerto Ricans. the senator contributed to Nixon’s downfall. Twenty-sixth Amendment: This amendment guaranteed the rights of those who were 18 years of age or older to vote as citizens of the United States. They typically worked in the agricultural field as menial laborers and were unpaid and overcharged. Dean refused to cover up Nixon’s involvement in Watergate. The operation was thwarted on June 17. Sen. Haldeman. Nixon fired Dean and Haldeman and Erlichman who headed the White House Staff resigned. it would bring about the downfall of Nixon. Assumed as inferiors. Muskie’s campaign was never a threat to Nixon’s reelection.. But the Senate still lacked concrete evidence on the president’s criminality. but Nixon still feared him.

Yet more turbulent conflicts existed in the Middle East: religious issues and territorial disputes inflamed tensions between Israel and the Palestinians. Many took advantage of inexpensive labor in one country and depreciated taxes in another. the economy in the western world fell into inflation and unemployment. the western world which relied heavily on petroleum was forced to seek other resources of fuel and energy. a nation-wide recession resulted which forced Jimmy Carter to seek new economic programs at the end of his term in office. Chavez worked to win rights for migrant farmers. the Arab nations began to downsize the exportation of petroleum products to western nations. Warren Burger was to replace the old and retiring Chief Justice Earl Warren. Arab oil embargo: Furious at American intervention in the Middle Eastern conflicts. he could only do little to dispel the effects of the rising prices of oil. (PLO). there was great violence in the Middle East when Israel invaded Lebanon to extinguish the Palestinian Liberation Front from its headquarters. However. Yasser Arafat: In June 1982. He is famous for a strike he organized with the help of grape pickers in California in 1965. Burger. •ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC): In the 1970s. Multinational Corporations: In the modern era. Chavez’s leadership brought guarantees of rights for the farmers. He was young and a new addition to the Nixon court. Consequently. The chaos and confusion escalated in Lebanon which was already plagued by its own Civil War. 1969: Appointed in 1969. OPEC drove up oil prices which caused severe economic problems for the United States. The Middle East Crisis With a virtual monopoly on petroleum. The reason they defiantly occupied Alcatraz Island was to protest their low status in America. . American Indian Movement (AIM). where transportation allows rapid communication and exportation of products. corporations could span several nations. William appointed. and Wounded Knee was their trading post site. They advocated Red Power and demanded justice for past wrongs. Wounded Knee: Native-Americans occupied Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay in 1969. Middle Eastern petroleum exporting countries formed a monopoly and agreed to raise the price of oil.Cesar Chavez: As a Roman Catholic and a follower of King. He was an important figure in the Brown Power movement. Nixon appointed him to moderate the liberalism of the Warren court and its controversial decisions. Palestinian Liberation Front. As a result.

and it was forced to find other methods to collect revenue.The Energy Crisis and Carter Trying desperately to cope with the economic predicament spawned by OPEC.S. SALT II: In June 1979.S. Cold War tensions mounted as the Soviet Union became increasingly annoyed with Carter’s rigorous standard of human rights. The U. "stagflation" severely worsened the American economy. trade deficits: A U. Gerald. and the U. This treaty was met with staunch opposition by Republicans who felt that they "stole it fair and square. Carter was an advocate of human rights. Carter presented it to the Senate and they ratified it. 9. both Ford and Carter dismally failed. economy would not survive. interest rates still increased. •"STAGFLATION": As a combination of business stagnation and inflation. Nixon Pardon: On Aug." to lower interest rates to prevent stagnation would worsen the ongoing inflation. General Ford granted pardon for ex-President Nixon. the Cold War thaw slowed. Climaxing a remarkable rise to national fame. many people were angry that the government could easily forgive corruption and dishonesty. Ford. Balance of trade. They excluded nations which violated Carter’s humane standards through cruel business practices. Carter. Jimmy. As a result.S. 1974. As a result. Due to the invasion of Afghanistan by Russia. There was no simple solution to "stagflation. The federal government could not repay the loan. In foreign affairs. Carter defeated Gerald Ford in the 1976 election. Amnesty: Elected to the Presidency in 1976. Ford became the first vice president to inherit leadership of the nation after the president resigned. boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. He granted amnesty to countries who followed his foreign policy.S.-Soviet relationship grew sour. the balance of trade was thrown off and the economic experts worried that the U. Election of 1976: Jimmy Carter was elected President of the United States in 1976. economic report during the 1970s revealed that the nation imported more than it exported. Nixon began such programs as "revenue sharing" and wage and price controls for regulation. Carter had been governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975 and was little known elsewhere at the beginning of 1976. To put the nation forward. Panama Canal Treaty: The Carter administration put together bargains on a number of treaties to transfer the Panama Canal and the Canal Zone to the Panamanians by 1999. Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev agreed and signed the SALT II treaty." . When the government borrowed money to offset the drastic loss of tax revenue.

Anderson as the Independent candidate. President Reagan believed that the government should leave the economy alone. WIN: To compensate for the economic predicament caused by OPEC and the crisis of energy conservation. Democratic nominee Jimmy Carter. and John B. tax credits for those who found methods on saving money and alternative-energy resources. The biggest issue at the time was American foreign policy. When he announced his candidacy. It was a return to the laissez faire theory of Adam Smith. George Bush named this new economic strategy Reaganomics in the 1980 primary campaign. economy. yet Reagan expanded his theory by advocating supply-side economics as a method to solve the economic hardships. prominence and honor globally. gifts. 1981: Following his promise of bettering the U.S. and his running mate was Patrick J. They discussed certain negotiations and tried to hammer out a framework for a peace treaty for the Middle East. He liberalized business taxes and decreased capital gains. Economy Recovery Tax Act. Department of Energy: Carter created the Department of Energy and created an energy bill including taxation on oil and gasoline. WIN was to provide methods for conserving energy by creating the Department of Energy and regulating consumption of gas by automobiles. and restrictions on business. Ronald Reagan became the President of the United States in 1980 with the promise of ameliorating the American economy against the forces of "stagflation. House of Representatives. It represented peace and harmony in the modern world. and Ronald Reagan had a greater hand in that issue. he was serving his 10th term in the U. John: He was a Republican congressman from Illinois." Anderson. He advocated a more laissez faire policy through a lessening of government activism. Reagan proposed a 30% tax cut allowing the money supply to circulate. inheritance taxes to encourage investments in a plunging economy. It went well and the bill for energy consumption came down in 1978. Lucey from Wisconsin. taxes. and fight economic problems. Jimmy Carter proposed a innovative economic program.S. •REAGANOMICS: Also known as voodoo economics.Camp David Accords: Camp David was a place where the Egyptian leader Anwar elSadat and the Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin came together with Jimmy Carter. He hoped that it would run by itself. •ELECTION OF 1980: The election of 1980 included candidates such as Republican Ronald Reagan.S. spending. . Reagan Revolution Reagan promulgated a program to restore U. He was known for his strong liberal statements and spoke well on complex issues.

The people who had interceded with the Department of Housing and Urban Development were paid hundreds of thousands of dollars for federal subsides. she was delighted when he nominated her as the first woman justice on the U. a near catastrophe occurred at Three Mile Island when there was an accident involving a nuclear power plant. the public would purchase them. However. National Endowment for Humanities: The National Endowment for Humanities was created to further promote artistic and cultural development in the United States. Reagan assumed that if the economy provided the products and services.Supply side economics: In contrast to Adam Smith’s belief in supply-and-demand. and trucking companies. This was targeted to foreigners. James Secretary of Interior: James Watt received more than $400. O’Connor. He reasoned government must take its "hands off" from the economy to encourage investments and free enterprise. "New Federalism" proposals. Three Mile Island: In 1979. Environmental Protection Agency. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was also created to enforce the hygiene. Supreme Court. Deregulation-AT&T. chemical wastes that had leaked from a former disposal site threatened the health of residents in that area. airlines. The president proposed a revenue sharing bill that transferred some federal revenues to the states and prominent cities. Safety measures were taken so that a future incident would not occur.000 for making several calls to the Department of Housing and Urban Development officials. Consequently. trucking: To reverse the flow of federal power. The plants were placed far away to reduce the hazards of near fatal accidents. Watt. EPA. Sandra Day: She was a feminist who generally deplored Reagan’s programs. Reagan began to deregulate governmental controls over such companies as AT&T. Love Canal. Reagan lowered income taxes to stimulate the economy by expanding the money supply. NY: In the 1970s and early 1980s. 1982: New Federalism proposed to reverse the flow of power and resources from the states and communities to the state capital. Niagara Falls. OHSA: It was created in 1969 by President Nixon to enforce government standards for water and the air quality for work safety. The project revealed the full cultural spectrum of America. Both the New York state government and the federal government provided financial aid to help move families from the Love Canal to other areas. NEH.S. airlines. Many people supported Reagan’s decisions in favor of women’s rights. .

The Challenger Disaster. located nearby. . her presence failed to win Mondale the election. 51% of them were working from day to day. The explosion was caused by a faulty seal in the fuel tank. Geraldine: The first woman ever to be on the ticket of a major party. Betty The Second Stage. •"MORAL MAJORITY": The Moral Majority was Jerry Falwell’s pro-Reagan followers who embraced the new evangelical revival of the late seventies. as a higher percentage of women voted republican in 1984 than in 1980. She reasons no person should ignore such a significant issue while focusing on female independence and advancement in society. but was resumed in 1988 with the flight of the Discovery. and school prayer.S. the disease soon spread. Originally concentrated among homosexual men. The Moral Majority was politically active in targeting such issues as abortion. Election of 1984: Former Vice President Walter Mondale got the Democratic nomination over Jesse Jackson.Friedan. killing all aboard. In the 1960s. Ferraro.’s National Mall. Reagan’s campaign revolved around the optimistic slogan "It’s Morning in America" and he rode the tide of prosperity to a decisive victory. 97. but in 1988. Vietnam Veterans’s Memorial. backed by minority groups.000 cases were reported in 1989. the memorial is a black marble wall sunken below ground level in Washington D. In 1984. planes on the jungles of Vietnam during the war which caused the defoliation of trees and shrubs and made enemy positions more visible. to a "safe sex" attitude of the 1990s. The shuttle program was halted while investigators and officials drew up new safety regulations. The Moral Majority was started in 1979 as a secular political group. On it are inscribed the names of all Americans who died or were missing in action. 1981: In her novel The Second Stage. 35% of women held jobs. manufacturers agreed to pay veterans injured by the chemical. and sex partners of high risk groups. However. Ferraro was chosen by Walter Mondale to be his Vice-Presidential candidate in 1984. Defeat of the ERA: As the argument over the ERA and abortion went on more women got jobs in the working industry. 60% of women worked. and were finished as a political force by the late 1980s. Even though women had children. Agent Orange: Agent Orange was a chemical sprayed by U. and Gary Hart. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome): First diagnosed in 1981. homosexuality.C. 1982: Constructed in 1982. pornography. In the 1970s it was found that Agent Orange was harmful to humans. AIDS prompted a change from the "free love" attitude of the 1970s. Friedan stresses the need to add family matters to the cause of women’s rights. It also includes a statue of three soldiers. and influential. They was strongly conservative. anticommunist. 1986: The space shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds into flight. needle-sharing drug users. who appealed to the young.

but they wanted them to change religiously. insure . prominent Republicans had been paid hundreds of thousands of dollars for interceding with the Department of Housing and Development on behalf of developers seeking federal subsidies. HUD scandals: In 1989. Lech. the United States picked up an anti-Soviet relationship towards everything that had to do with Russia. and planes. The tax reform helped reduce the deficit by 1987. Walesa. revelations surfaced that during Reagan’s administration. 1979-1989: The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in an effort to acquire more land for Russia’s use. simplified tax system that lowered the taxes of individuals and corporate incomes. Walesa’s negotiations with Poland’s government that year led to the government’s recognition of Solidarity. but the stock market crash in October 1987 made higher taxes a necessity. By the end of Reagan’s administration. with the federal deficit exceeding $200 billion. Once again. Olympic boycott. which unfortunately included the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. The "Teflon Presidency": Ronald Reagan’s popularity never seemed to change much despite the scandals and failures of his presidency. sea and land battles broke out between Argentina and Britain. Solidarity: He became the leader of Poland’s government in 1980. the Cold War was unofficially over. Civil war in Lebanon.Tax Reform Act. In Moscow’s attempt to take over Afghanistan. ships. Even with all the criticism. Afghanistan. Reagan proposed a new. Solidarity was a organization composed of about 50 Polish trade unions. Argentine troops invaded and occupied the islands. 1986: In 1986. Anti-Soviet rhetoric proved to be only rhetoric and the two nations resolved many of their differences. Israel moves into Southern Lebanon: President Reagan sent 2. Falkland Island War: In April 1982. Reagan verbally attacked the USSR as an "evil empire" yet his actions were friendly. Britain also responded by sending troops. Russia wanted to setup some sort of pro-Soviet Afghan regime. Reagan’s popularity was unaffected. Air. He was called the Teflon president by some because nothing would stick to him. Not only did Russia try to take over Afghanistan. Heating and Cooling of the Cold War Ambiguous in his position towards the Soviet Union. Reagan remained very popular and charismatic.000 Marines to Lebanon in 1982 in order to gain control over the crippled PLO. Due to severe losses the Argentine forces surrendered in June 1982. 1980: When Carter and Brezhnev could not agree on the rules and regulations of the SALT II agreement.

began talks on strategic-arms reductions with the Soviets. support.S.S. This exposure of U. the U. and was fiercely debated until the end of the Reagan administration. rallies. and put in a U. and overthrew the disruptive radical government. Carter backed the Sandinista revolutionaries in overthrowing dictator Anastasio Somoza in 1979. In 1986.-friendly regime. El Salvador. was very influential in pushing for peace in Central America which was stalled because of civil wars in the region and the tensions between Nicaragua’s Sandinista government and the U.S. Contras.S. •NICARAGUA—Somoza Family. Ortega: First.S. Reagan secretly began sending illegal aid to the contras.S. the president of Costa Rica. Ayatollah Khomeini: The Iranian crisis started when a Beirut newspaper reported that in 1985 the United States shipped 508 antitank missiles to the government of Iran. Iranian crisis. Duarte: Fear of Soviet expansion helped shape policy towards third world revolutions. popularly dubbed "Star Wars. but was never held accountable. The moderate Jose Napoleon Duarte was elected in 1984 with U. Grenada. Responding to pressure.-Soviet relations worsened. who was replaced by Daniel Ortega. 1983. 1983: On October 23. 2. Many argued it would escalate the conflict. Fear of another Vietnam-like war prompted Congress in 1982 to halt aid to the contras. and help restore order to the war damaged country. It was the first popular challenge to Reaganism. Marine soldiers invaded the island of Grenada. The new government that the United States had just installed was collaborating well with the local Grenadians.000 U. but his ineffective government was voted out in 1989. the Shah.S.that they got out of Tunisia. It proved difficult as fire broke out upon the U. Fighting spread throughout the gulf region and the U. Marine soldiers. The system was never used. was dragged into the conflict several times.S. "Star Wars": SDI was a proposed system of space based lasers and other high-tech defenses against nuclear attack. and resolutions against nukes were passed. Reagan later reversed the policy thinking that the Sandinistas were procommunist. the U. intervention led to the American hostage situation held in Lebanon by pro-Iranian radical groups. either . In El Salvador. backed the military rulers in suppressing insurgents (leftists backed by Cuba).S. the warring nations signed a peace agreement. Arias Peace Plan in Central America: Oscar Arias Sánchez. Sandinistas.S. The CIA organized an army of "contras" to oppose the Sandinistas. Iran-Iraq War: The war began in 1980 over territorial disputes. nuclear freeze movement: The movement was a popular reaction to the military and nuclear buildup under Reagan." It was proposed by Reagan in 1983 in an effort to ward off the perceived threat of a Soviet strike as U. The system carried a huge price tag. •SDI (STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE). Protests.

Panama. His program of economic and political reform was called perestroika or restructuring. Marcos. Free elections were held in 1994 and Mandela became president. A U. realized that the U.S. U. His wife. who hid the affair from the president. Gorbachev’s call for more openness in government was given the name glasnost. Col. (or Irangate): Caught selling arms to the anti-American government of Iran. The war ended in 1988. Duvalier.W. grand jury indicted Noriega on various drug charges. conviction: In 1987 the U. F. military planes and after an explosion at a German nightclub popular with American GI’s. She was backed by the U. drug-trafficking indictment. who had been jailed for 27 years. Criminal charges were filed against only North. Gen. as Iraq began preparing to invade Kuwait. Nelson Mandela. Noriega. Ferdinand Marcos intensified after the 1983 assassination of opposition leader Benito Aquino. Corazon led the surge after Marco’s fraudulent 1986 reelection and took control. •GORBACHEV. Marines were sent in and he was caught and convicted. South Africa.S. He ignored the actions. glasnost. was profiting on the flow of drugs through his country. who sent millions of dollars from these sales to contras in Nicaragua when Congress had forbidden such aid. President De Klerk worked with Mandela.S.being attacked or attacking hostile targets.S. This was followed by years of violent political turmoil in Haiti. Manuel Noriega. Hostilities continue in the region. INF Treaty. and John Poindexter. In 1986. Libya: Colonel Muammar Qaddafi was a pro-terrorist and anti-American leader of Libya.-supported ruler of Panama. Qaddafi. Many sought refuge in the United States.. . Libya fired missiles at U. Reagan admitted it and stated his aim had been to encourage "moderate elements" in Tehran and gain the release of American hostages. used oppressive measures and a violent secret police force to control Haitian citizens. The area remained a volatile region. dictator of Haiti from 1971-1986. perestroika: Mikhail Gorbachev welded influence in transforming the Soviet Union into a less rigidly communist regime. to end apartheid. Haitians staged a revolt against Duvalier and he fled the country. planes bombed five Libyan sites. Philippines.S. Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union continued to improve which furthered the thaw in the Cold War. and the country was to face turbulent times. In 1986. apartheid.S. Corazon Aquino: Resistance to the corrupt government of Pres. Haiti: Jean-Claude Duvalier. It is an example of the warming Soviet-American relations and renewed the arms control process. •IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIR. Key players included Oliver North. Congress voted to boycott South Africa in 1986. 1987 (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty): The treaty was a 1987 agreement between Reagan and Gorbachev which banned INF’s but did little to end the nuclear threat as 95% of the world’s nuclear arsenal remained. De Klerk: When opposition to South Africa’s racist government grew in the U.S.

. Non-Communist political movements soon developed in Poland. the volatility and uncertainty remained. resisted the Russian military’s attempted coup in 1991. Rainbow Coalition: Jackson. the bill required the automatic unilateral slashing of many budget items. issues: Bush got the Republican nomination while Michael Dukakis won the Democratic nomination over Jesse Jackson. Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act: Passed in 1986. Germany. Berlin Wall falls. Jesse. having been divided into East and West Germany since World War II. The USSR reduced its military force in its eastern satellites and allowed more freedom of expression. the effects of the era of Reaganomics. 1987. crime. Hispanics. These included many domestic and defense programs. Bush was defeated by Bill Clinton and Al Gore in the 1992 election. the Cold War which shaped U. 1987. He was not as successful in domestic affairs as the economy dwindled and the deficit rose. The wall which separated the two countries fell. it fell 508 points in the largest single day drop in history. Hungary. Stock Market crashes: The market had enjoyed incredible success for the past five years and had tripled in size. GEORGE: Bush was Vice President under Reagan. Bush won fairly decisively on a negative campaign. and other political outsiders to try to gain nomination and election in 1984.Bush and the Post Cold War Era With the disintegration of the Soviet empire. • BUSH. once an associate of King. Moscow began losing direct control over Eastern Europe. Rev. Bush chose Quayle as his running mate for his good looks. and was president from 1989 to 1993. policy for nearly a half-century finally died. East Germany.S. On October 19. Though it soon regained the loss and surged to new heights. unified in October 1990. and personal appearance were the main issues in 1988. Election of 1988--candidates. Jackson. Taxes. tried to build a "rainbow coalition" of blacks. Black Monday. The threat of nuclear annihilation subsided and the American public breathed a sigh of relief. As president. Germany reunited: The dismantling of the Berlin Wall began in 1989. and Czechoslovakia. displaced workers. and citizens were once again permitted to travel between East and West Germany. but was not moderate enough to gain popular approval. He eased relations with Russia. holes in the "Iron Curtain": Due to Gorbachev’s more liberalized policies. The goal of the bill was to reduce the enormous debt of the Reagan years and to have a balanced budget by the year 1991. Bush was successful in areas of foreign relations. and fought Saddam Hussein in the Persian gulf. Jackson ran several times for the presidency.

Tiananmen Square. called for Russians to resist the coup. 1991: After the failed coup in August of 1991. Commonwealth of Independent States. the 15 Russian states declared independence.. •END OF THE COLD WAR. difficulties between Russia and the new republics: The new republics were wary of losing power to Russia. This was the direct cause of the Persian Gulf War. the president-elect. responded with outrage and cut everything but diplomatic relations. Iraqi president Hussein ordered the invasion of Kuwait after oil negotiations between the two broke down. A wave of repression and executions followed. Pres. attempted coup in Moscow. 908 billion to 2. hardline communists seized power from Gorbachev. smog. The act was a cornerstone in pollution regulation legislation. The U. Yeltsin. August 1991. "drug czar"--Office of National Drug Control Policy: Bennett was chosen as "drug czar" by Bush in response to national concerns about drugs. The act was aimed at reducing the chemicals which cause acid rain. The commonwealth was very weak. the leader of the Sandinista regime.9 trillion: In an effort to restimulate the economy. His philosophy of supplyside economics. or heavy spending in the corporate sector.S. William J. D. Chamorro’s election signaled a more moderate turn for the Nicaraguans. and his first target was the violent drug lords of Washington. Nicaragua. Clean Air Act. though it is still considered a single country. 1990 (also one in 1970): President Bush sponsored the bill. 12 of the states formed the Commonwealth of Independent States and severed all ties to the old Soviet regime.national debt triples from 1980 to 1989. Fearful of centralized power but mindful of the economic pitfalls of independence. The debt skyrocketed during his term. driving prices down. Ortega defeated in free election: President Daniel Ortega. Reagan’s administration increased defense spending drastically while lowering taxes. Hussein. Iraq invades Kuwait: On August 2. ozone damage and many airborne carcinogens. The economy was in shambles after the lifting of economic restraints and a severe drought.C. The Commonwealth was a loose economic union. Bennett. The coup failed. was a contributing factor. Iraq had complained that Kuwait was exceeding its oil production quota and flooding the world market. by far the largest and most endowed state. 1990. supports Chamorro. Boris Yeltsin: In 1991. was defeated in 1990 by Violeta Barrios de Chamorro in national elections. . who wished to give more power to the states. though the transition has met resistance. The U. which set stricter regulations on many airborne pollutants. Beijing: 400-800 students were massacred by government troops during a pro-democracy demonstration in Beijing’s central square. Saddam. Violence erupted in some states. His job was to coordinate federal programs against drugs. which hampered political unity. Gorbachev. but the political turmoil led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union into independent states.S.

Gen. issued November 29. SCUD missiles. Patriot Missiles: SCUD’s were Soviet-made surface to surface missiles used by Iraq to bomb Israel during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. who became so popular as to later contemplate a 1996 presidential run. the resolution imposed an embargo on Iraqi trade effectively halting oil shipments from Iraq and Kuwait. revolts in Iraq--Shi’ites in South. President Bush ordered a buildup of troops into Saudi Arabia called Desert Shield.S.S.UN Security Council Resolution 661 (trade embargo on Iraq): On Aug. They were aimed at provoking Israelite retaliation to fracture the Allied-Arab alliance but were countered effectively by the U. Desert Storm was directed by Gen. 1991 Civil Rights Act: The act allowed women. leading to the rise of smaller networks. Operation Desert Storm. 1990. An estimated 110. The resolution was evoked early on January 17 when Allied planes began the air offensive. It was led by General Collin Powell. It contained strict work and child support guidelines. ." Cable TV became a fixture in many U. 6. though more numerous than the Allied force. Hussein responded by increasing his forces in Kuwait. UN Security Council Resolution 678: The allied operation shifted to a potentially offensive nature with this resolution. The air raid utilized the most advanced missile technology such as smart bombs and cruise missiles to weaken the Iraqi defenses. and MTV were legitimate contenders. NBC. Desert Shield. Gen. The fighting claimed nearly 25. Iraqi forces. 1991. Once was dominated by ABC. The UN created a safe zone for them. MTV: MTV was part of the "cable revolution.S. and parents without custody could have child support payments withheld from their paychecks. Patriots launched to destroy SCUD’s while still airborne. It authorized the use of force by the allies if Iraq did not withdraw from Kuwait by January 15. Schwarzkopf. The embargo had severe economic effects on surrounding countries who depended on Iraqi trade and oil. The U. FOX. Schwarzkopf: Beginning with a bombing raid on January 17. used force to protect the Kurds. and CBS.S.000 lives and created massive refuge problems for bordering nations. people with handicaps. "work fare": This Act tried to reform the welfare system. and religious minorities to collect punitive damages for intentional on-the-job discrimination. Family Support Act. •GULF WAR. The short ground war began on February 24 and ended two days later. Desert Shield became Desert Storm on January 17 with the beginning of the allied air assault. MTV specifically became an important marketing tool for music and politics. Kurds in North: Postwar uprisings by Shi’ite Muslims in southern Iraq and Kurds in the North were crushed by Hussein’s army. 1988.000 Iraqi soldiers died with about 300 U. 1990. Collin Powell: In August 1990. were far behind technologically. Some of its provisions required women on welfare to work if they have no children under 3 years old. deaths. households. now stations like CNN.

Previously. and 30% have come from Asia. Officials later arrested militant Muslim extremists who condemned American actions towards Israel and the U. of the Independent party. especially in the south west and west. the state of medical insurance. the EEA. The major issues were the state of the economy. dropped out of the running. Hispanic immigration: 45% of immigrants since 1960 have been from the Western Hemisphere. many government projects and parks were closed down for several weeks.S. increased Asian. . baby-boom generation hits middle age: Once called the "Me Generation." people of the 1980s were interested with personal over public concerns. then returned near November with much less support. involvement in the Persian Gulf War. 1993: The 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (except Switzerland) and the 12 European Community nations signed an accord to create an enlarged free-trade zone. Clarence. Jan. Supreme Court. gentrification: Reversing the trend of the middle-class exodus from urban centers. Ross Perot: The election of 1992 was primarily between the Democrat Bill Clinton and the Republican incumbent George Bush. VCRs. the second black justice on the Court. including a great number of elderly citizens. the President: Because a Democratic President and a Republican Congress were elected in 1992. It widened the definition of discrimination and forced businesses to respect citizens rights of equality. and materialism. a bomb in a parking structure of the World Trade Center Building in New York killed six and injured nearly 1000 people. The process often came at the expense of poorer and older residents. "gridlock. both had the power to obstruct the other. bombing of World Trade Center: In 1993." Congress vs. Unable to resolve a dispute. and Bush’s record of foreign diplomacy. which had taken a turn for the worse at the end of the Bush administration. yuppies bought run-down apartments and town houses in poorer districts and fixed them up. The "yuppie" was a person preoccupied with physical fitness. His nomination was plagued with controversy due to sexual harassment allegations by Anita Hill. issues. money. Thomas. did well in early polls. Some nations have loosened border and currency restrictions to make political unity easier. The charges were dismissed in a series of highly public congressional hearings. The issue of illegal immigration became a hot topic politically. Many bills were passed in an attempt to limit immigration. 1. This "gridlock" occurred midway through Clinton’s term. Anita Hill: Thomas. European Economic Area. was nominated and seated in 1991. signaling a new pattern of immigration. and personal computers were common. •ELECTION OF 1992—candidates. Ross Perot. only racial minorities could claim damages. a former associate. TV’s.

Dole became the Senate majority leader. Gingrich authored the contract and became Speaker of the House. "greenhouse effect": The large amount of fossil fuels burned by cars. The bill would have required employers to pay 80% of their employees’ medical costs. and factories has led to a rise in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. homes. gained a majority in Congress. and Mexico. and a recognition of Israel and the PLO as legitimate entities. investments. Clinton’s health plan: Clinton’s dream of universal health care package died as the bill could not get approval by resistant Republicans. Soon. but the issue was dead by September 1994. Bosnia. disintegration of Yugoslavia: In 1991-1992. the Whitewater affair revolves around the question if the Clinton’s benefitted improperly from their involvement in a real estate venture. protect Israelis in Palestinian areas. but not the violence. Investigators began searching for incriminating evidence.S. among other major changes.S.S. Violence erupted in Bosnia as Serbs and Croatians fought. PLO-Israel Peace Treaty (1993). Several compromises were attempted by Clinton. The effort succeeded in ending the famine. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): After a fierce political struggle. was approved by the 117 members of GATT. Rabin: A historic treaty was signed between Yasir Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin which would allow Palestinian self-rule in parts of Israel. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: An international plan to reduce tariffs and establish laws governing trade of services.. Somalia: A massive famine caused by warring factions of the government prompted George Bush to send troops (along with the UN) to protect relief efforts in December 1992. . Many of Bosnia’s Muslims were victims of "ethnic cleansing. Yugoslavia split into Croatia.GATT. making the flow of commerce more efficient. The problem is made worse by tropical deforestation. It eliminated trade barriers between Canada." mass expulsions to promote a Serbian ethnic partition of Bosnia. was sustaining casualties. 1994 Congressional election: The Republican Party. The plan also established an agency to deal with international trade disputes. raising its temperature. Radical Israelis and Palestinians denounced the treaty and violence ensued. called the World Trade Organization. left leaving the UN in charge. Whitewater: A scandal which has plagued Bill and Hillary Clinton while in the White House. and by 1994 the U. Macedonia. the U. and Herzegovina. The NAFTA victory for free trade set the stage for the GATT treaty. Carbon dioxide traps heat near the surface of the planet. capitalizing on Clinton’s perceived inactivity. Arafat. the U. and has become a major environmental concern. More than 300 GOP candidates signed a "Contract with America" pledging support of several popular initiates. killing tens of thousands. Slovenia. and other economic issues. the Whitewater Development Corp. NAFTA was approved by Congress in 1993.

Rabin assassinated. the plan was designed to restore President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power.intervention in Haiti: The term referred to Operation Restore Democracy. Women were discouraged from attending. Officials estimated 400. . 1995: Israeli Prime Minister Yitzak Rabin was shot and killed by a Jewish settler just after speaking at a mass peace rally. The agreed upon plan is a moderate compromise. budget showdown between Congress and the President: Negotiations between President Clinton and Congress regarding balancing the budget wrapped up in May 1997. Clinton later withdrew his support. The mission was successful.000 black men came. The future is uncertain under newly elected P. Republicans had originally wanted a constitutional amendment specifying a balanced budget. The man who shot him was arrested on the scene. Officials Terry Nicoles and Timothy McVeigh were right wing militant extremists angry at the government. a major rally for African-Americans was held in Washington DC. Supported by the Clinton administration. Farrakhan: Led by the radical Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. but Aristide did little towards turning Haiti into a democracy. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. Minister Netehayu. 1995.000-837. The blast destroyed the front section of the building. killing 68. 1995 a 2½ ton bomb exploded in front of the Alfred P. He acted in protest to the signing of the PLO-Israeli Peace Accord of 1993. of whom 19 were children. 1995: On April 19. but Clinton resisted. Million Man March. Oklahoma City bombing. Farrakhan preached the need for blacks to become active family and community members.

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