Computer Application for Business (566

Assignment # 1

Submitted to:

Aaraj Mustafa
Submitted by:


Question # 1 (a): Define Computer. Describe the basic computing functions of a computer. Answer:

A computer is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of operations can be changed readily, allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem. Conventionally a computer consists of some form of memory for data storage, at least one element that carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control element that can change the order of operations based on the information that is stored. Peripheral devices allow information to be entered from external source, and allow the results of operations to be sent out. A computer's processing unit executes series of instructions that make it read, manipulate and then store data. Conditional instructions change the sequence of instructions as a function of the current state of the machine or its environment. The first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940–1945). Originally, they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs). Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.[2] Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and can be powered by a small battery. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". However, the embedded computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous.

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Basic Computing Functions
The four basic computing functions of a computer are:  Input: The computer gathers data or allows a user to add data  Process: Data is converted into information  Output: The processed results are retrieved from the computer  Storage: Data or information is stored for future use





Input is the information you put into the computer by way of keyboard, mouse, or stylus for some processing.

Processing (CPU) - Also known as the "Brain" of the computer. Processes the information you put in into human readable form. There are 3 C's of processing. a. Calculate - Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division b. Copy - happens many times with each instruction that is processed, between registers in the CPU, Devices in the system, and different addresses in the memory. c. Comparing - Every time data is copied, the original data set must be compared to the new data set and when data is being sorted, values in the database compared to the
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sort string. When datasets are being searched, the database must be compared to the search stream.

Output is the information you put into the computer is seen on the monitor screen and can be printers out on paper and is readable.

Storage is either the computer’s memory, CD's, DVD's, Floppy Discs, USB Flash Drives, Zip Disc’s, etc.

Question # 1 (b): Discuss in how different ways a computer user can maintain his computer? Answer:
Keeping your computer running smoothly requires that you do a little housecleaning once in a while. To save a lot of money and needless trips to the computer shop for repairs, there are a series of very simple steps one can take to keep your new computer running fast and efficient. Here's a list of tasks to help one get started:

Windows Update
Visit the Microsoft windows website and the site will automatically update your operating system with files to prevent people on other computers from accessing your data. OR Go to Internet Explorer, Tools, and Windows Update. Click on the Custom button. (I always use the Custom button so I can check what's going to be installed before it gets installed). Windows update may ask you to download and install the latest version of itself. Go ahead and do that, then click Close when it's finished, and then Continue. It will then scan again for real updates and offer those. Choose which updates you want to install. Uncheck the ones you don't want to install.

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Anti-Virus & Spyware
Installation of an anti-virus and spyware program on your computer is a must. After the installation of an anti-virus program, it should be updated, to keep your computer safe from the newly emerged threats.

Deleting Cookies
Over time, we visit many websites. Most of these sites have what are called "cookies". These are little embedded packages of data (files), that the sites you have visited leave on your computer to track your browsing habits. After a while, these files need to be purged, deleted from your computer.

Deleting Temporary Internet Files
Other files that need to be purged at least once a week are your temporary internet files and history files. Failing to do this will really slow down your computer to a crawl and possibly cause a system crash. To do this open up Internet Explorer, at the top left of the page, in the Menu bar, look for “Tools”. Left click "Tools", then left click "Internet Options". To deleted your temporary internet files and history files, check the option, and click "OK”.

Cleaning the Computer Case
First, before you do anything, make sure the computer is unplugged from the outlet and is completely turned off! Next is to get a screwdriver for those little round screws you will need to undo to get inside your case. When both sides of the case are removed, you will need a can of compressed air. You then spray all the areas inside the case; you will see the dust and dirt flying off from the places you sprayed. Doing this 4 times a year(every 3 months)Is a great way to save alot of money and keep your computer running like its brand new.

Keep Files in one folder
Keep all of your working files in one folder. The My Documents folder is offered by Windows expressly for this purpose. The benefits of keeping all your files in one place are multiple. One, you know where all your files are, two, it's easy to back them all up at once, and three, your machine will run faster.
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Do Not Use System Drive for Storing Data
Don't put your personal files on the root of the C: drive. If you store a large number of files on the C: root folder you could corrupt your disk file table which could lead to a "NTLDR is missing" error message when you boot the computer.

Uninstall unwanted Programs
Uninstall programs that you aren't using. But don't just delete the program. Remove it correctly so it won't cause Windows errors. Go to Start, Control Panel, Add or Remove Programs. Find the program you want to remove in the list, and click the Remove button.

Delete Unwanted Files
When you download a zipped file and expand it, delete the original zip file. You'll never remember later why you kept it.

Threats, Phishing and Spam
Practice safe computing. Don't accept software or downloads for which you didn't ask. Delete any suspicious email without opening it. And even if the email came from your best friend, don't open any email attachments with the following extensions: * .exe, .com, .vbs, .bat, .mdb, .reg, and .js. Clean out your email, paying special attention to your Inbox and Sent box.

Question # 2: Discuss the Windows vista Desktop in detail. How the new desktop is different from those of earlier versions of Windows. Elaborate the steps for personalizing the desktop. Answer:
Windows Vista has four main areas that help you access and interact with your programs, files, and folders: the Start menu, the taskbar, the desktop, and Windows Sidebar. Let's look at how you can use each one.

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The desktop is the main screen area that you see after you turn on your computer and log on to Windows. Like the top of an actual desk, it serves as a surface for your work. When you open programs or folders, they appear on the desktop. You can also put things on the desktop, such as files and folders, and arrange them however you want. The desktop is sometimes defined more broadly to include the taskbar and Windows Sidebar. The taskbar sits at the bottom of your screen. It shows you which programs are running and allows you to switch between them. It also contains the Start button Sidebar contains small programs called gadgets. , which you can use to access programs, folders, and computer settings. On the side of the screen,

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Windows Sidebar and gadgets (overview)
Windows Sidebar is a long, vertical bar that is displayed on the side of your desktop. It contains mini-programs called gadgets, which offer information at a glance and provide easy access to frequently used tools. For example, you can use gadgets to display a picture slide show, view continuously updated headlines, or look up contacts.

Sidebar and gadgets

Why use Sidebar?
Sidebar can keep information and tools readily available for you to use. For example, you can display news headlines right next to your open programs. This way, if you want to keep track of what's happening in the news while you work, you don't have to stop what you're doing to switch to a news website. With Sidebar, you can use the Feed Headlines gadget to show the latest news headlines from sources you choose. You don't have to stop working on your document, because the headlines are always visible. If you peripherally see a headline that interests you, you can click that headline, and your web browser will open directly to the story.
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To open Sidebar

Open Windows Sidebar by clicking the Start button Accessories, and then clicking Windows Sidebar.

, clicking All Programs, clicking

To keep Sidebar visible at all times, you must set it so that other windows won't cover it. The Sidebar width is a fixed size.
To keep windows from covering Sidebar

Because of the space Sidebar requires, this option works best if you're using a large or wide-screen monitor or multiple monitors. 1. Open Windows Sidebar properties by clicking the Start button Sidebar Properties. 2. Select the Sidebar is always on top of other windows check box. 3. Click OK. , clicking Control

Panel, clicking Appearance and Personalization, and then clicking Windows

Getting started with gadgets
Windows comes with a small collection of gadgets, but only some of them appear on Sidebar by default. To understand how to use gadgets, let's explore three gadgets that you'll see on Sidebar when you first start Windows: the Clock, Slide Show, and Feed Headlines.
How does the Clock work?

When you point to the Clock gadget, two buttons will appear near its upper-right corner: the Close button—which is the top button—and the Options button.

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The Clock Clicking the Close button removes the Clock from Sidebar. The button below the close button displays options for naming the clock, changing its time zone, and showing its second hand. Note: Not all gadgets have an Options button. Gadgets without an Options button don't have settings that can be changed.
How does Slide Show work?

Next try resting the pointer on the Slide Show gadget, which displays a continuous slide show of pictures on your computer.

Slide Show When you point to Slide Show, the Close and Options buttons will appear near the upperright corner of the gadget. Clicking the Options button allows you to choose which pictures appear in your slide show, control the speed at which your slide show plays, and change the transition effect between pictures.

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How does Feed Headlines work?

Feed Headlines can display frequently updated headlines from a website that suppliesfeeds, also known as RSS feeds, XML feeds, syndicated content, or web feeds. Websites often use feeds to distribute news and blogs. To receive feeds, you need an Internet connection. By default, Feed Headlines won't display any headlines. To start displaying a small set of preselected headlines, click View headlines.

Feed Headlines When you point to Feed Headlines, the Close and Options buttons will appear near the upper-right corner of the gadget. Clicking the Options button allows you to choose from a list of available feeds. You can add to the list by choosing your own feeds from the web.

Which gadgets do I have?
Before a gadget can be added to Sidebar, it must be installed on your computer. To see which gadgets are installed on your computer: 1. At the top of Sidebar, click the plus sign (+) to open the Gadget Gallery.

Add Gadget button 2. Click the scroll buttons to see all the gadgets. 3. Click a gadget, and then click Show details to see information about it at the bottom of the dialog box.

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The Gadget Gallery You can download additional gadgets from the web. To find gadgets online, go to the Microsoft Gadgets website.

Adding and removing gadgets
You can add any installed gadget to Sidebar. If you want, you can add multiple instances of a gadget. For example, if you are keeping track of time in two time zones, you can add two instances of the Clock gadget and set the time of each accordingly.

Organizing gadgets
You can organize your gadgets in any of several ways: You can keep all of the gadgets attached to Sidebar. You can change the display order of gadgets in Sidebar. To do this, drag a gadget to a new position. You can keep some gadgets attached to Sidebar and place some on the desktop. You can detach all of the gadgets from Sidebar and place them on the desktop. If you organize your gadgets this way, you might want to close Sidebar.

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What's new with the Start menu?
The Start menu has a new search feature so you can easily find the programs or folders you're looking for. The information is organized more efficiently than in previous versions of Windows, and there are new buttons for locking your computer or putting it into a lowpower state called sleep mode. Of course, the Start menu is still the place to find and organize your program shortcuts and links to favorite places. It's also still the place to turn your computer off or log off.

Start menu layout

A new, expanded search
The Search box is one of the most convenient ways to find things on your computer. The exact location of the items doesn't matter—the Search box will scour your programs and all of the folders in your personal folder (which includes Documents, Pictures, Music, Desktop, and other common locations). It will also search your e-mail messages, saved instant messages, appointments, and contacts.

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As you type, the Start menu changes to show the best possible results, with priority given to the programs you open most frequently. As you type more letters, the results narrow until there are only a couple of items left in the list.

A search You don't have to know the exact name of the program or other item you want to find. You can also search for a type of program. For example, if you don't know the name of your e-mail program, you can try typing e-mail to get the right result. Note: The Run command is no longer on the Start menu, but you can use the Search box on the Start menu in place of the Run command. You can also add the Run command back to Start menu.

An improved programs list
All Programs on the Start menu is now a single list of folders and programs. When you click a folder in All Programs, the folder expands in place within the list. To get back to the Start menu, just click Back.
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The taskbar (overview)
The taskbar is the long horizontal bar at the bottom of your screen. Unlike the desktop, which can get obscured by the windows on top of it, the taskbar is visible almost all the time. It has four main sections: The Start button , which opens the Start menu.

The Quick Launch toolbar, which lets you start programs with one click. The middle section, which shows you which programs and documents you have open and allows you to quickly switch between them. The notification area, which includes a clock and icons (small pictures) that communicate the status of certain programs and computer settings.

The taskbar is located at the bottom of your screen You're likely to use the middle section of the taskbar the most, so we'll discuss that first.

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See previews of your open windows
When you move your mouse pointer to a taskbar button, a small picture appears that shows you a miniature version of the corresponding window. This preview, also called athumbnail, is especially useful if you can't identify a window by its title alone. And if one of your windows has video or animation playing, you'll see it playing in the preview.

Pointing to a window's taskbar button displays a preview of the window When you point to a grouped taskbar button, you'll see a stack of previews, but only the topmost preview will be visible. Note: Taskbar window previews won't work unless your computer is

runningWindows Aero, the premium visual experience of Windows Vista. Aero is not available in Windows Vista Starter or Windows Vista Home Basic.

The Quick Launch toolbar
To the immediate right of the Start button is the Quick Launch toolbar. As its name implies, it lets you launch (start) programs with a single click. For example, click the Internet Explorer icon to start Internet Explorer.

The Quick Launch toolbar sits to the right of the Start button

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You can customize the Quick Launch toolbar by adding your favorite programs to it. Locate the program in the Start menu, right-click it, and then click Add to Quick Launch. (If you don't see this option, you can also drag the program's icon to the Quick Launch toolbar.) The program's icon now appears in the toolbar. To remove an icon from the Quick Launch toolbar, right-click it, click Delete, and then click Yes. By default, the Quick Launch toolbar also contains two special buttons. Click the Show Desktop button Click the Switch between windows button using Windows Flip 3D. to temporarily hide all open windows and show the desktop; click the button again to show all windows again. to switch between open windows

Customize the taskbar
There are many ways to customize the taskbar to suit your preferences. For example, you can move the entire taskbar to the left, right, or top edge of the screen. You can make the taskbar larger, have Windows automatically hide it when you're not using it, and add toolbars to it. For more information, see the following topics:

What is Windows Aero?
Windows Aero is the premium visual experience of Windows Vista. It features a translucent glass design with subtle window animations and new window colors.

Windows Aero features glass-like windows for an open look
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Aero’s distinctive visual style combines the appearance of lightweight, translucent windows with powerful graphic advances. With Aero, you can enjoy visually appealing effects and appearance and also benefit from better access to your programs.

Glass effects

Translucent glass windows create depth on the desktop One of Aero’s more visually obvious features is glass window borders, which let you focus on the contents of your open windows. Window behavior has also been redesigned, with subtle animations accompanying the minimizing, maximizing, and repositioning of windows to appear more smooth and effortless.

Tint your windows using the provided colors, or mix your own custom color You can even fine-tune the color and appearance of windows, the Start menu, and the taskbar by tinting your translucent windows. Select one of the provided colors, or create your own custom color using the color mixer.
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Switching between programs

Windows Flip 3D Part of the Windows Aero experience is Windows Flip 3D, which is a way to arrange your open windows in a three-dimensional stack that you can quickly flip through without having to click the taskbar.

Pointing to a window's taskbar button displays a preview of the window Aero also includes taskbar previews for your open windows. When you point to a taskbar button, you'll see a thumbnail-sized preview of the window, whether the content of the window is a document, a photo, or even a running video.

Switching windows with ALT+TAB Even the method of pressing ALT+TAB for switching windows has been giving an update. Instead of simple icons, you can see live previews of the windows for each open program.
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Question # 3 (a): List the steps for checking spelling and grammar in an entire document. Answer:

Automatic Spelling and Grammar Check
Microsoft offers automatic spelling and grammar checking facility. Normally this feature is enabled in all offices, but if it is not activated then do the following: 1. Launch Microsoft Word, On the menu, click on Office button (in Word 2007), then go to Word Options (at the bottom right corner).

2. A new window will pop up and under the left pane, select Proofing, click on it.

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3. Scroll down to the Exceptions for and over here, users can define if to apply the feature to only this specific document or to all documents. 4. Once selected, go to check Hide spelling or grammar errors in this document only. 5. Click OK button to save the changes. 6. By now, all the spelling mistakes would be highlighted by red lines, and all the grammar mistakes will be underlined with green lines.

Spelling & Grammar Check
The Spelling & Grammar check can be run by: Going into the review tab and clicking “Spelling & Grammar” under the Proofing menu. Pressing “F7” key, on the keyboard.
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Both the options will open the same window:

The spelling mistakes can either be: 1. Ignored One 2. Ignored for all 3. Changed 4. Added to dictionary If you don’t want to check grammar, uncheck the “Check Grammar” checkbox. Several options can be used according to one’s requirement.

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Question # 3 (b): Differentiate between footnotes and endnotes. How footnotes can be inserted and modified in a document? Explain. Answer:

Footnotes & Endnotes
Except journalists and seasoned writers, people are often plagued with numerous small texts, numbered entries, superscripts and references in their reading material. They simply continue reading these without paying close attention to the other important details. In one complete text, for example, aside from the table of contents and bibliography, there are many parts of the standard text that need to be given importance. Two of these are the end notes and footnotes. Often left unread, footnotes and end notes almost share the same definition when actually they don’t. The key difference between the two is their placement in the text. Footnotes, from the term itself, are the notes or small entries placed at the foot of the page. With super scripted numbers indicating a point to which there is a note, the readers are expected to look for its corresponding note below the page that bears the super scripted number in the actual text. On the other hand, end notes are usually seen at the ‘end’ of the entire text or at the last part of every chapter, but these are the notes that always come before the bibliography page. In terms of the reader’s reading comfort, they usually prefer footnotes over end notes. Footnotes are more accessible than end notes because they are found nearer to the actual text being referred or referenced to. Readers simply can’t constantly flip from the page being actively read to the page where the end notes are placed. In the case of end notes, this becomes worse if every chapter starts with the number one. However, some readers also like to use end notes. They found end notes to be more organized and neat looking most especially if the notes are very lengthy. Thus, end notes do not affect the overall image of the page being referenced. In this regard, end notes have also

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become an avenue to discuss any additional material like a long stretch of quotations or a series of graphs and tables. Hence the next time you get hold of a reading material, please pay attention to all those numbers and notes written for you to know. They are not only necessary but are also vital in making the text more understandable and properly documented. In summary, footnotes and end notes differ in the following areas: 1. Footnotes and end notes differ in their location because footnotes are placed below the page whereas end notes are placed after the entire text or chapter, but definitely before the bibliography. 2. Footnotes are observed to be more accessible while end notes are seen to be a more organized way of arranging text notes especially if they are long.


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Insert & Modify a Footnote
Microsoft Office Word automatically numbers footnotes for you, after you specify a numbering scheme. You can use a single numbering scheme throughout a document, or you can use different numbering schemes within each section in a document. On the References tab, in the Footnotes group, click Insert Footnote or Insert Endnote. Keyboard shortcut. To insert a subsequent footnote, press CTRL+ALT+F. By default, Word places footnotes at the end of each page and endnotes at the end of the document.

When you add, delete, or move notes that are automatically numbered, Word renumbers the footnote and endnote reference marks.

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NOTE If the footnotes in your document are numbered incorrectly, your document may contain tracked changes. Accept the tracked changes so that Word will correctly number the footnotes and endnotes. In Print Layout view, click where you want to insert the note reference mark. To make changes to the format of footnotes or endnotes, click the Footnotes Dialog Box Launcher, and do one of the following: In the Number format box, click the format that you want. To use a custom mark instead of a traditional number format, click Symbol next to Custom mark, and then choose a mark from the available symbols. Click Insert. NOTE This will not change the existing symbols. It will only add new ones.

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Word inserts the note number and places the insertion point next to the note number. Double-click the footnote to return to the reference mark in the document.

Change the number format of footnotes
Place the insertion point in the section in which you want to change the footnote or endnote format. If the document is not divided into sections, place the insertion point anywhere in the document. 1. On the References tab, click the Footnote & Endnote Dialog Box Launcher. 2. Click Footnotes. 3. In the Number format box, click the option that you want. 4. Click Apply.

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Create a footnote continuation notice
If a footnote or endnote is too long to fit on a page, you can create a continuation notice to let readers know that a footnote or endnote is continued on the next page. 1. Make sure that you are in Draft view by clicking Draft next to View on the status bar. 2. On the References tab, in the Footnotes group, click Show Notes. 3. If your document contains both footnotes and endnotes, a message appears. Click View footnote area or View endnote area, and then click OK. 4. In the note pane list, click Footnote Continuation Notice or Endnote Continuation Notice. 5. In the note pane, type the text that you want to use for the continuation notice. For example, type Endnotes continued on the next page.

Delete a footnote or an endnote
When you want to delete a note, you work with the note reference mark in the document window, not the text in the note. If you delete an automatically numbered note reference mark, Word renumbers the notes in the new order. In the document, select the note reference mark of the footnote or endnote that you want to delete, and then press DELETE.
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Question # 4 (a): What are Tab Stops? Brief with different examples, how tab stops can be used in a document? Answer:

Tab Stops
A stop point for tabbing. In word processing, each line contains a number of tab stops placed at regular intervals (for example, every half inch). They can be changed, however, as most word processors allow you to set tab stops wherever you want. When you press the Tab key, the cursor or insertion point jumps to the next tab stop, which itself is invisible. Although tab stops do not exist in the text file, the word processor keeps track of them so that it can react correctly to the Tab key. Modern word processors generalize this concept by offering tab stops that have an alignment attribute and cause the text to be automatically aligned at left, at right or center of the tab stop itself. Such tab stops are paragraph-specific properties and can be moved to a different location in any moment, or even removed. A tab stop is a horizontal position which is set for placing and aligning text on a page. There are at least five kinds of tab stops in general usage in word processing. LEFT CENTER A left tab stop sets the start position of text that will then run to the right as you type.

A Center Tab stop sets the position of the middle of the text. The text centers on this position as you type. A Right Tab stop sets the right end of the text. As you type, the text moves to the RIGHT left. A Decimal Tab stop aligns numbers around a decimal point. Independent of the number of digits, the decimal point will be in the same position. (You can align DECIMAL numbers around a decimal character only; you cannot use the decimal tab to align numbers around a different character, such as a hyphen or an ampersand symbol.) BAR A Bar Tab stop doesn't position text. It inserts a vertical bar at the tab position.

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Seting Tab Stops
1. On the Page Layout tab, click the Paragraph Dialog Box Launcher.

2. In the Paragraph dialog box, click Tabs.

3. By default, there are no tab stops on the ruler when you open a new blank document. 4. The final two options on the tab selector are actually for indents. You can click these and then click the ruler to position the indents, rather than sliding the indent markers along the ruler. Click First Line Indent Click Hanging Indent , and then click the upper half of the horizontal ruler where you want the first line of a paragraph to begin. , and then click the lower half of the horizontal ruler where you want the second and all following lines of a paragraph to begin. 5. When you set a bar tab stop, a vertical bar line appears where you set the tab stop (you don't need to press the TAB key). A bar tab is similar to strikethrough formatting, but it runs vertically through your paragraph at the location of the bar tab stop. Like other types of tabs, you can set a bar tab stop before or after you type the text of your paragraph. 6. You can remove a tab stop by dragging it (up or down) off the ruler. When you release the mouse button, the tab stop disappears. 7. You can also drag existing tab stops left or right along the ruler to a different position. 8. When multiple paragraphs are selected, only the tabs from the first paragraph show on the ruler.

Add leaders between tab stops
You can add dot leaders between tab stops or choose other formatting options in the Tabs dialog box. Page | 29

1. Type the text that you want. 2. On the horizontal ruler, set the tab stop that you want. 3. On the Page Layout tab, click the Paragraph Dialog Box Launcher.

4. In the Paragraph dialog box, click Tabs. 5. Under Leader, click the leader option that you want. When you press ENTER to start a new line, the formatted tab stop is available on the new line.

Change the spacing between the default tab stops
If you set manual tab stops, the default tab stops are interrupted by the manual tab stops that you set. Manual tab stops that are set on the ruler override the default tab stop settings. 1. On the Page Layout tab, click the Paragraph Dialog Box Launcher.

2. In the Paragraph dialog box, click Tabs. 3. In the Default tab stops box, enter the amount of spacing that you want between the default tab stops. When you press the TAB key, your tab will stop across the page at the distance that you specified.

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Question # 4 (b): How mailing labels can be created by using mail merge? Explain. Answer:

Mailing Labels
Mailing labels are usually pieces of paper with adhesive on the back that can be affixed to packages or envelopes to identify the name and address of an addressee. They may also indicate the name and address of the person sending the mail. Though unnecessary when sending small amounts of mail, mailing labels can be essential and time saving for people who must send out a large volume of mail.

Create Mailing Labels, using Mail Merge
1. Open a blank Word document. Click the "Mailings" tab on the menu bar and, in the "Start Mail Merge" group, click "Start Mail Merge" and choose "Labels."

2. Go to the "Label Options" dialog box. Set your printer settings and select your specific label product from the drop-down menus. If your label is not listed, click "New Label" to open up a new custom label window and enter the dimensions of your label and a label name, then click "OK" and find your custom label on the dropdown menu. Click "OK" after choosing the proper label, and the label cells will
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appear in the Word document. Click the "Save" icon on the upper left of the menu, choose a file name and click the "Save" button.

3. Click the "Mailings" tab on the menu bar and, in the "Start Mail Merge" group, click "Select Recipients" and choose "Use Existing List." Browse to the location of your recipient file, click on it to highlight the file name and click "Open." On the dialog box that pops up, choose the Excel worksheet that includes the recipients from the list and click "OK." This attaches the Excel file to the Word document, and the words "Next Record" appears in each label cell except for the first cell.

4. Click the "Edit Recipient List" button in the "Start Mail Merge" group. All the recipient list data is shown in the "Mail Merge Recipients" dialog box--the worksheet is called the data source, each row (individual label) a record and each column (specific category of information on the label) a field. Select the recipients you wish to include on your labels by checking the boxes to the left of each record.
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5. Click "Filter" under "Refine Recipient List" to open the "Filter" dialog box. Select the field, choose "Equal to" under "Comparison," type the actual label field data for the labels to be printed under "Compare to" and click "OK." This will filter out any labels that do not meet the filter criteria and include only those that do. Add another filter if further filtering is required and click "OK." The drop-down arrow next to each column header turns blue to indicate a filter using that criterion. 6. Click a column header to sort the labels by that header. To add more sort criteria, click "Sort" under "Refine Recipient List" to open the "Sort" dialog box and click "OK" when done. Click "OK" again on the "Mail Merge Recipients" dialog once the recipients are filtered, sorted and checked. Save the Word document to save the document and recipient list. 7. Click inside the first label cell to begin designing it as a template for the other cells. To add a logo to the labels, click the "Insert" tab, choose "Picture" from the "Illustrations" group, browse to the location of the picture and click "Insert." Drag the selection handles around the image to resize it. Click "Format" on the "Picture Tools" tab and click the "Position" button in the "Arrange" group to choose an alignment for the logo within the cell.

8. Click on the "Mailings" tab and, in the "Write & Insert Fields" group, click "Address Block" to open the "Insert Address Block" dialog box. Choose the format and specific information to be included on your labels. If some fields are missing, click the "Match Fields" button to open the "Match Fields" dialog box, choose your fields from
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the drop-down menus on the right to match the required information headers on the left and click "OK." Click "OK" on the "Insert Address Block" dialog box once the address elements are chosen. The words "Address Block" will appear inside the first cell. Click "Update the Labels" in the "Write & Insert Fields" group to duplicate the layout in all the label cells. 9. Click the "Mailings" tab and click "Preview Results" in the "Preview Results" group to preview the labels with the actual data. Click the right arrow in the "Preview Results" group to scroll through the label sheets to see the actual data. Make any necessary changes by highlighting the cells and using format commands as you would do with any document using tools under the "Home" tab, such as font size and paragraph spacing. Save the document.

10. Click the "Mailings" tab and, under the "Finish" group, click the "Finish & Merge" button. Choose "Print Documents" to open a dialog box in which the desired cells are chosen and click "OK." Set the printer settings in the "Printer" dialog and click "OK" to begin printing the labels.

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Question # 5: Define the following functions and explain how each is used in MS Excel? a. SUM b. AVERAGE c. MIN d. IF e. DATE Answer: a. SUM
SUM function in MS Excel is a built-in formula for adding numbers. Calculations in Excel are often used to total a column or a row of data. The Excel SUM function offers a shortcut to adding up these columns and rows of data. If we were to create a formula that adds up the contents of cells C2 to H2, the formula would be:

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Writing this takes some time even if we are using pointing to add cell references. Also, the longer the formula, the greater the potential for errors being introduced. The SUM function allows us to write only the start and end points of the data range separated by a colon (:) and the function will add together the contents of all the cells in the range. The same formula, written using the SUM function would be:

AVERAGE function in MS Excel is a built-in formula for taking average/ mean of numbers. Calculations in Excel are often used to total a column or a row of data. The Excel AVERAGE function offers a shortcut to adding up these columns and rows of data and then dividing it by the number of values. If we were to create a formula that takes average of marks of a particular subject, i.e. the contents of cells C2 to C16 divided by 15, the formula would be:

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Writing this takes some time even if we are using pointing to add cell references. Also, the longer the formula, the greater the potential for errors being introduced. The AVERAGE function allows us to write only the start and end points of the data range separated by a colon (:) and the function will add together the contents of all the cells in the range and divides it by the total number of cells in the range.

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c. MIN
The MIN function, one of Excel's statistical functions, is used to find the smallest or minimum value in a list of numbers or arguments. Arguments can be numbers, named ranges, arrays, or cell references. Up to 30 arguments can be entered. There is no other way of finding the minimum number from the list other than finding it manually, which is rather time taking than difficult. Moreover as the number of arguments will increase the calculation would become inaccurate. The range of the arguments is passed in between the parenthesis after MIN function, separated by colon (:).

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d. IF
The IF function is one of Excel’s most useful and most used functions. The IF function introduces “decision making” into a spreadsheet. Depending on whether or not specified criteria are met, the IF function will produce different results.

The syntax of IF function is states above; IF (<Condition>, <when True>, <when False>) The first part in the parenthesis shows the condition that is to be checked, the second part contains the statement or values that are to be displayed when the condition given is true, and the third part contains the statement or values that are to be displayed

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when the condition given is false. The values can be numeric data, alphabetical data, alphanumeric data, or even formulas.

Formula =IF (I2>550,"A+",IF(I2>500,"A", IF(I2>400,"B",IF(I2>300,"C","FAIL")))). It is a nested IF formula, where every false criteria contains another IF condition.

Dates are very important in spreadsheets. Not only is it important to add the current date to a spreadsheet when it is created, but much of the data stored in a spreadsheet is date related - such as the date of purchases or expenditures, the length of term of investments, and the date of scientific observations.

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There are, therefore, a great many date functions in Excel. Listed below are date function tutorials for Excel 2007. Many of these functions are used to calculate the difference between two dates, but each does it in a slightly different way: NETWORKDAYS EDATE EOMONTH WORKDAY DAYS360 DATEDIFF

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