HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT HRM (527

)

ISSUES IN LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS

Submitted by:

(AH524979)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First of all I would be thankful to Allah Almighty without whose blessing and mercies I were not able to complete this project. This project is refined from a splendid efforts of many people who contributed regardless of any reward. I thank them from the core of our hearts. May Allah give them success by leaps and bounds.

I can‟t forget the guidance‟s and knowledge which our kind teachers have provided us. We were lucky to have such a kind teacher who taught us and with such devotion and zest, which I could never forget. I thank her from the core of my heart.

In the end we would like to thank to all those people who provided us with useful suggestions, useful data and facility of composing.

ABSTRACT
The Pakistan Television Corporation is Pakistan's national television broadcaster. The first live transmission of PTV began on November 26, 1964, in Lahore. The PTV family includes six channels. Originally broadcast in black and white, PTV began color transmission in 1976. With this new upgrade in techniques and equipment, the Pakistan Television Academy was founded and opened in 1987 to teach students who wished to work in the medium. The broader perspective to start electronic media in the country was to inform and educate the people through wholesome entertainment and to inculcate in them a greater awareness of their own history, heritage, current problems and development as well as knowledge of the world at large. In fulfillment of its broad and main objectives, PTV's telecast policy concerning various matters of national and international interests has always been motivated and guided by the cardinal principles of educating viewers about the values that are vitally important in building a united, integrated and disciplined society. These objectives have successfully been achieved through a variety of programs on religion, education, entertainment and culture.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction to the Topic .............................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 1.2 Labor Relations ............................................................................................................................. 1 Labor Management Relations ....................................................................................................... 1 Labor Rights........................................................................................................................... 2 Labor unions.......................................................................................................................... 2 Right-to-work law.................................................................................................................. 3 Standardization ..................................................................................................................... 4 Bargaining Rights................................................................................................................... 4 Lookism ................................................................................................................................. 5 Multinational Corporations................................................................................................... 5 Considerations ...................................................................................................................... 5 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.4 1.5

Issues in Labor Management Relations ........................................................................................ 4

Labor Rights in the Constitution of Pakistan................................................................................. 6 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 8 Mission .................................................................................................................................. 9 Vision ..................................................................................................................................... 9 Objective ............................................................................................................................... 9

Practical Study............................................................................................................................................... 8 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9

History of Trade Unions in PTV ................................................................................................... 10 Management-Union Relations in PTV ......................................................................................... 12 Issues and Resolution Techniques used by Management of PTV ............................................... 12 Trade-Union Rights and Responsibilities .................................................................................... 14

Data Collection Methods ............................................................................................................................ 16 SWOT Analysis............................................................................................................................................. 17 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Strength....................................................................................................................................... 17 Weakness .................................................................................................................................... 17 Opportunities .............................................................................................................................. 17 Threats ........................................................................................................................................ 17

Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 18 Recommendations ...................................................................................................................................... 19 References .................................................................................................................................................. 20

Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527)

INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC
1.1 LABOR RELATIONS
“Labor Relations” is the study and practice of managing unionized employment situations. In academia, labor relations is frequently a subarea within industrial relations, though scholars from many disciplines--including economics, sociology, history, law, and political science--also study labor unions and labor movements. In practice, „labor relations‟ is frequently a subarea within human resource management. Courses in labor relations typically cover labor history, labor law, union organizing, bargaining, contract administration, and important contemporary topics.i

1.2 LABOR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS
The field of labor management relations (also called industrial relations or labor relations or workplace relations) looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. Labor relations is an important factor in analyzing "varieties of capitalism", such as neocorporatism (or corporatism), social democracy, and neo-liberalism (or liberalism). Labor relations can take place on many levels, such as the "shop-floor", the regional level, and the national level. The distribution of power amongst these levels can greatly shape the way an economy functions. Another key question when considering systems of labor relations is their ability to adapt to change. This change can be technological (e.g., "What do we do when an industry employing half the population becomes obsolete?"), economic (e.g., "How do we respond to globalization?"), or political (e.g., "How dependent is the system on a certain party or coalition holding power?"). Governments set the framework for labor relations through legislation and regulation. Usually, employment law covers issues such as minimum wages and wrongful dismissal.ii

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1.2.1 LABOR RIGHTS
Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. In general, these rights' debates have to do with negotiating workers' pay, benefits, and safe working conditions. One of the most central of these "rights" is the right to unionize. Unions take advantage of collective bargaining and industrial action to increase their members' wages and otherwise change their working situation. The labor movement initially focused on this "right to unionize", but attention has shifted elsewhere. Critics of the labor rights movement claim that regulation promoted by labor rights activists may limit opportunities for work. In the United States, critics objected to unions establishing closed shops, situations where employers could only hire union members. The Taft-Hartley Act banned the closed shop but allowed the less restrictive union shop. Taft-Hartley also allowed states to pass right-to-work laws, which require an open shop where a worker's employment is not affected by his union membership. Proponents of "right to work" legislation claim that workers have the right to work whether or not they join a union. Labor counters that the open shop leads to a free rider problem.iii

1.2.2 LABOR UNIONS
Labor unions in the United States are legally recognized as representatives of workers in many industries. The most prominent unions are among public sector employees such as teachers and police. Activity by labor unions in the United States today centers on collective bargaining over wages, benefits, and working conditions for their membership and on representing their members if management attempts to violate contract provisions. Although much smaller compared to their peak membership in the 1950s, American unions also remain an important political factor, both through mobilization of their own memberships and through coalitions with like-minded activist organizations around issues such as immigrant rights, trade policy, health care, and living wage campaigns. Unions are currently advocating new federal legislation that would allow workers to elect union representation by simply signing a support card. The current process established by federal law 2|Page

Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527) requires at least 30% of employees to sign cards for the union, then wait 45 to 90 days for a federal official to conduct a secret ballot election in which a simple majority of the employees must vote for the union in order to obligate the employer to bargain. Unions report that, under the present system, many employers use the 45 to 90 day period to conduct anti-union campaigns. Some opponents of this legislation fear that removing secret balloting from the process will lead to the intimidation and coercion of workers on behalf of the unions. During the 2008 elections, the Employee Free Choice Act had widespread support of many legislators in the House and Senate, and of the President. Since then, support for the "card check" provisions of the EFCA subsided substantially.iv

1.2.3 RIGHT-TO-WORK LAW
Right-to-work laws are statutes enforced in twenty-two U.S. states, mostly in the southern or western U.S., allowed under provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act, which prohibit agreements between labor unions and employers making membership or payment of union dues or fees a condition of employment, either before or after hiring. v Proponents of right-to-work laws point to the Constitutional right to freedom of association, as well as the common-law principle of private ownership of property. They argue that workers should be free both to join unions and to refrain from joining unions, and for this reason sometimes refer to non-right-to-work states as "forced unionism" states. They contend that it is wrong for unions to be able to agree with employers to include clauses in their union contracts (also known as a union security agreement) which require all employees to either join the union, or pay union dues as a condition of employment. Furthermore, they contend that in certain cases forced union dues are used to support political causes, causes which some union members may oppose. Unfortunately, it is difficult to analyze right-to-work laws by comparing states.[citation needed] This is because there are other differences between states that are strongly associated with right-to-work laws. For instance, states with RTW laws often have other pro-business laws, which makes it difficult to determine the effect of any single law. v Opponents argue right-to-work laws create a free-rider problem, in which non-union employees (who are bound by the terms of the union contract even though they are not members of the 3|Page

Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527) union) benefit from collective bargaining without paying union dues. Opponents further argue that because unions are weakened by these laws, wages are lowered and worker safety and health is endangered. For these reasons, they often refer to right-to-work states as "right to work for less" states or "right-to-fire" states, and "non-right-to-work" states as "free collective bargaining" states. They also cite statistics from the United States Department of Labor showing, for example, that, in 2003, states with right-to-work laws in general had a higher rate of workplace fatalities per 100,000 workers. v

1.3 ISSUES IN LABOR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS
The many issues of industrial relations are concerned with a company's treatment of its employees and workers. What used to be merely domestic issues of labor management have now become global issues of cross-national management, as the international business sector has grown. And when the influence of one multinational principal is perceived as more relevant than others, it can trigger a possible examination of that principal's relationship with its home-based workers, and possibly even doubt and uncertainty of future dealings.vi

1.3.1 STANDARDIZATION
Although the United States government has staked an interest in promoting standardized labor practices in developing countries, their efforts, according to John W. Budd and James G. Scoville, editors of The Ethics of Human Resources and Industrial Relations, have been challenged by critics who argue that demands, such as restrictions on child labor practices and the improving of adult labor practices, will only harm the workers of those countries, resulting in the loss of needed jobs.

1.3.2 BARGAINING RIGHTS
Bargaining rights refer to union recognition and the rights of individual workers to join together and bargain for a change in policy and organization. According to

digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu, The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) maintains that a key element to the recognition of bargaining rights is the intent to come to an agreement; a-meeting-

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Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527) of-the-minds, as it were. One of the major issues in American industrial relations is the discrepancies and variations found between the NLRA, the Railway Labor Act and the different policies found from state to state. These differences determine who in the workforce is granted bargaining rights and who is not.

1.3.3 LOOKISM
The topic of appearance discrimination in the workplace has become a popular issue in industrial relations. One such issue is the idea that men and women were missing out on promotions, pay raises, top-level assignments and equal inclusion in the workplace all because of their weight. What resulted was a 2001 study by professors Rebecca Puhl and Kelly Brownell confirming that there was, in fact, stereotyping occurring amongst managers and administrators, and that it often started at the hiring level. The study, which appeared in Obesity Research, raised the awareness of lookism as yet another issue in industrial relations.

1.3.4 MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS
Another issue in industrial relations is the probability of the American approach to human resource management in multinational corporations not only becoming globally popularized in the host countries, but also influencing their governmental business policy. This issue of influence is a particular concern to those who have a future interest in developing nations who rely heavily on the presence of American multinational corporations to boost their present economy, as well as foster business for the future. According to Phil Almond and Anthony Ferner, editors of American Multinationals in Europe: Managing Employment Relations Across National Borders, the international business community has conflicting views regarding the effects of America's presence in multinational corporations. One view regards the United States as a leader and innovator in cross-national corporate management, while another view questions the hegemonic role that American multinational corporations have come to assume.

1.3.5 CONSIDERATIONS
When considering America's role in various issues of industrial relations, it is important to remember that the global business community is not as wide and disconnected as it once was. 5|Page

Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527) Countries who share interests in multinational businesses also share interests in the governmental and operational policies of developing nations that represent potential markets and future profits. Because of this, the way in which American companies relate to their workers may be forced to undergo a radical change or relinquish their dominant position in the theater of global opinion.

1.4 LABOR RIGHTS IN THE CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN
The Constitution of Pakistan contains a range of provisions with regards to labor rights found in Part II: Fundamental Rights and Principles of Policy. vii  Article 11 of the Constitution prohibits all forms of slavery, forced labour and child labour;  Article 17 provides for a fundamental right to exercise the freedom of association and the right to form unions;  Article 18 proscribes the right of its citizens to enter upon any lawful profession or occupation and to conduct any lawful trade or business;  Article 25 lays down the right to equality before the law and prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of sex alone;  Article 37(e) makes provision for securing just and humane conditions of work, ensuring that children and women are not employed in vocations unsuited to their age or sex, and for maternity benefits for women in employment.  Article 38 of the Constitution imparts the State‟s obligations aimed at achieving equality in the form of securing the well-being of the people, irrespective of sex, caste, creed or race, by raising their standard of living, by preventing the concentration of wealth and means of production and distribution in the hands of a few to the detriment of general interest and by ensuring equitable adjustment of rights between employers and employees, and landlords and tenants. All citizens are bestowed, within the available resources of the country, facilities for work and adequate livelihood with reasonable rest and leisure and the basic necessities of life, such as food, clothing, housing, education and medical relief, for all such citizens, irrespective again of their sex, caste, creed or race, as are permanently or temporarily unable to earn their livelihood on account of infirmity, sickness or unemployment. 6|Page

Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527)  Under the Factories Act, 1934 no adult employee, defined as a worker who has completed his or her 18th year of age, can be required or permitted to work in any establishment in excess of nine hours a day and 48 hours a week. Similarly, no young person, under the age of 18, can be required or permitted to work in excess of seven hours a day and 42 hours a week. The Factories Act, which governs the conditions of work of industrial labor, applies to factories, employing ten or more workers. The Provincial Governments are further empowered to extend the provisions of the Act, to even five workers.  The right to association is guaranteed by Article 17 of the Pakistani Constitution imparting on every citizen the right to form associations or unions, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of sovereignty or integrity of Pakistan, public order or morality. Under Article 3 of the IRO 2002, workers as well as employers in any establishment or industry have the right to establish and to join associations of their own choosing, subject to respect of the law. Both workers and employers' organizations have the right to establish and join federations and confederations and any such organization, federation or confederation shall have the right to affiliate with international organizations and confederations of workers' and employers organizations.  Registration of a trade union is to be made under the Industrial Relations Ordinance. Workers‟ trade unions are registered with the Registrar Trade Unions in the Province, and if the industry or establishment is nationwide with the National Industrial Relations Commission, after fulfilling a number of requirements, listed in Article 6 of the IRO 2002. Through its registration, the trade union obtains certain benefits: registration confers a legal existence as an entity separate from its members. Trade unions in Pakistan generally function on plant-wide basis, with their membership contingent on the size of the industry/trade to which they belong. Once established, the trade unions and employers' associations have the right to draw up their constitutions and rules, to elect their representatives in full freedom, to organize their administration and activities and to formulate their programs.

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Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527)

PRACTICAL STUDY

PAKISTAN TELEVISION CORPORATION
1.5 INTRODUCTION
The Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) is Pakistan's national television broadcaster. The first live transmission of PTV began on November 26, 1964, in Lahore. As of 2007, the PTV family includes six channels. Unlike other state-run corporations, the television company was allowed by the Government of Pakistan to raise a sizeable amount of private capital to finance the stations. This includes a Rs 25 pcm TV fee charge to all the consumers of electricity. In October 1963, the government signed an agreement with the Nippon Electronic Company (NEC) of Japan to have NEC operate affiliates for PTV. On 26 November 1964, the first television station commenced broadcasts in the cities of Lahore, and Dhaka (then the capital of East Pakistan). Centres were established in Karachi and Rawalpindi/Islamabad in 1967, and in Peshawar and Quetta in 1974. Originally broadcast in black and white, PTV began colour transmission on February 18, 1979. With this new upgrade in techniques and equipment, the Pakistan Television Academy was founded and opened in 1987 to teach students who wished to work in the medium. As with the other agreement, the government financed most of the funds while the private venture capitalists offered to fund the remainder. Different administrative divisions of PTV include news diviosn, current affairs, sports division, International Relations, PTV film censor board, engineering, and Training academy. Currently, PTV can be received via satellite in South Asia, East Asia and in the Middle East. Selected programming can be seen on Prime TV (with a partnership) in the United Kingdom and Europe Today, PTV is split up into the original channel feed:  PTV Home - 24-hour entertainment channel, the transmission is broadcasted across the Pakistan on terrestrial network and world wide through satellite. 8|Page

Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527)  PTV News - 24-hour news channel which can be viewed in many parts of the globe.  PTV National - An emphasis on broadcasting programmes in different languages to represent the whole of Pakistan.  AJK TV - For Pakistani residents of Kashmir.  PTV Bolan - Baluchi language channel.  PTV Global - Offered exclusively for the United States on Dish Network, and recently launched in Europe.

1.5.1 MISSION
 To impart refined, modern and superior education  To disseminate accurate and authentic information  To offer healthy and value entertainment.

1.5.2 VISION
 Pakistan television is a mirror image of the people of Pakistan. It has the privilege of pioneering television in South Asia and enjoys the distinction of introducing a multitude of shining stars that set the imagination of the nation alight.  PTV is fully abreast of the challenges and are diversifying and modernizing to enhance the quality of the programming.  it aims to build upon professional expertise and traditions.  it has vision to embrace information, education and entertainment by introducing new strategies.

1.5.3 OBJECTIVE
In fulfillment of its broad and main objectives, PTV's telecast policy concerning various matters of national and international interests has always been motivated and guided by the cardinal principles of educating viewers about the values that are vitally important in building a united, integrated and disciplined society. These objectives have successfully been achieved through a variety of programs on religion, education, entertainment and culture.

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Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527)  The audience driven programmes have given PTV a new look and dramatically changed the views about PTV.  PTV has surged ahead of its competitors and as such PTV-2 has been turned into a viable project.  Generation of more than RS.56 million within a span of five months of the implementation of the new idea speaks of this unparalleled achievement. The projection of new emerging social order is highlighted in PTV's general programming focusing directly and indirectly on the themes like morality, civic or national responsibilities, drive against narcotics, environmental pollution, agricultural reforms in discussions, shows, and through anchorpersons in the transmission.

1.6 HISTORY OF TRADE UNIONS IN PTV
Trade union activities at Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) started in 1976. However, Trade union activities were banned in 1978 in PTV under the Martial Law regime. Since then LabourManagement Relations remained at the lowest ebb. PTV Management had indulged itself in unfair labor practices by introducing new rules under the heading "ADI", (Administrative Staff Instructions) making one sided amendments in the Gazetted Service Rules cf PTV. These ASIs were framed particularly to serve their own interests and to benefit a small segment. This had resultantly caused frustration among employees. The contents of ASIs were mostly ambiguous which provided interpretation of one's suitings. Since there was no union in PTV, management was free to act in its own style without any proper check. However, Employee-Management Relations started improving when Mr. Farhad Zaidi took over as Managing Director, PTV. He invited representatives of PTV workers from all the centres and discussed their problems. This created an atmosphere of confidence which in turn created a better working relationship between the employees and the management. During the time of ban, PTV employees were not satisfied with the then existing pay structure. The last negotiations between Union and Management were held in 1976 and a Charter of Demands was signed and pay scales were revised upward. PTV then became the best paid

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Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527) organization among the top 10 institutions of the country. PTV Management had not revised pay scale at its own since 1976 except the increase that was given by the government under its own policy. Had there been no ban on trade union in PTV in late 70's during Zia era at least 9 collective bargaining agreements would have been signed. As a matter of fact enhancement in salaries and fringe benefits was also over due in PTV. The political leadership of the country (PPP) was committed to the cause of the workers, however, the bureaucracy appeared hell bent to reverse government policies. It is to be recalled that restoration of Trade Unions occupied top position on government agenda and was a part of PPP's manifesto. The government soon after coming into power constituted Labor Task Force headed by Mr. Aziz Memon, MNA, to sort out workers' problems. The Labor Task Force has reportedly submitted its report to the Government. In an interview with the Economic Review Abdul Qadir Salat said: “The problems of PTV employees have started mounting since ban in 1978. The worst victims were the low paid employees who were denied all lawful facilities. Contrarily there had been substantial increase in the salaries, fringe benefits and other privileges of the managerial staff. It is unfortunate that payment of house requisitioning is not being made for last 5 months. Programme production by outside agencies has adversely affected PTV's financial position. Rumours are also afloat that some sections of PTV are being privatised and a likely golden handshake with employees is on the card. Such reports reflects adversely on the efficiency of the employees particularly the staff deputed to collect business. We strongly oppose the reported move of privatisation of any section of PTV. It is interesting to note that PTV through its transmission propagates and promotes democratic norms over 36 countries. But unfortunately the PTV employees are denied their democratic right to form union. We strongly demand to restore union activities in PTV before the announcement of Labour Policy to immediately redress the problems being experienced by approximately 6,000 employees of PTV working in all four provinces and some times under odd conditions.” Consequently, 1988 the trade unions were restored with the coming in of Benazir Bhutto‟s civil regime.

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1.7 MANAGEMENT-UNION RELATIONS IN PTV
Management-union relations at Pakistan Television Corporation are no different than any other firm. The acting trade union is registered so the management has to pay heed to their concerns otherwise it results in industrial action on the part of the unions as we already mentioned. Mr. Muhammad Ikram at the union office PTV told us that management union relations are regular and usual as long as some kind of dead lock occurs. Management tries to cater to the demands of the union and the union also makes compromises to reach a decision that is acceptable to both the parties under normal circumstances. In other instances if the dispute gains momentum union doesn‟t hold back severe form of industrial action and management also stands firm on its ground.

1.8 ISSUES AND RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES USED BY MANAGEMENT
OF PTV
In the history of Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) certain management-union disputes have been witnessed. A few of these disputes and the resolution techniques used by the management have been narrated below: On 22nd august 2008, the union workers at the Pakistan Television (PTV) headquarters Tuesday night besieged the building and locked the administration officials, including the newly appointed chairman, Dr Shahid Masud, inside their offices to protest against the administration's inability to honor the promises made to them. Workers besieged the PTV headquarters for more than three hours and locked the external gates while the PTV officials locked themselves inside their offices to escape the wrath of angry protesters. The workers were demanding the approval of the charter of demands and fulfillment of the promises made to them by the PTV administration. The angry crowd chanted slogans against the PTV administration and some of them held the chairman responsible for all the mess.

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Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527) Akbar Malik, the head of the workers union, told The News that the union had nothing to do with the chairman and the whole dispute was between the union and the PTV administration, which has changed the main points of the charter of demands. He said that the chairman was

cooperating with them and only those with vested interest chanted slogans against him. He said that the PTV administration wanted amendments in the charter of demands after accepting it earlier. This enraged the workers. "We locked the doors because we did not want the troublemakers to take advantage of the situation and did not let any one go inside the building till our demands were accepted", said the union leader. However, ultimately the charter of demand was accepted by the management on. Similarly, the union and management also reached a Salary and Allowance dead lock in 2008. Trade union demanded 100% increase in the base pay of the employees whereas management refused to give an increase of more than 35%. The negotiations reached a deadlock and the union threatened the management with strike and picketing. Ultimately the managing director had to intervene to resolve the problem at 40% increase in the base pays. Management and union at PTV follow Industrial relations law, 2008 regarding negotiations relating to differences and disputes.  If at any time an employer or a collective bargaining agent finds that industrial dispute has arisen or is likely to arise, the employer or, as the case may be, the collective bargaining agent, may communicate his or its views in writing either to the Works Council or to the other party so, however, that, where the views are so communicated to the Work Council, a copy of the communication shall also be sent to the other party.  On the receipt of the communication under sub-section 1. the works Council or the party receiving it shall try to settle the dispute by bilateral negotiations within ten days of receipt of the communication or within such further period as may be agreed upon by the parties and, if the parties reach a settlement, a memorandum of settlement shall be recorded in writing and signed by both the parties and a copy thereof shall be forwarded to the conciliator and the authorities mentioned in clause (xxv) of Section (3) where a

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Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527) settlement is not reached between the employer and the collective bargaining agent or, if the views of the employer and the collective bargaining agent have been communicated under sub-section (1) to the Works Council, there is a failure of bilateral negotiations in the Works Council, the employer or the collective bargaining agent may, within seven days from the end of the period referred to in sub-section (2), serve on the other party to the dispute a notice of lock-out or strike, as the case may be, n accordance with the provisions of this Act.

1.9 TRADE-UNION RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
Industrial relations at PTV are in accordance with the Industrial Relations Act, 2008 according to which trade unions have following rights: 1. No employer or trade union of employers and no person acting on behalf of either shall: a) Impose any condition in a contract of employment seeking to restrain the right of a person who is a party to such contract to join a trade union or continue his member ship of a trade union b) Refuse to employ or refuse to continue to employ any person on the ground that such person is, or is not a member or officer of a trade union; c) Discriminate against any person in regard to any employment, promotion, condition of employment or working condition on the ground that such person is, or is not, a member or officer of a trade union; d) Dismiss, discharge, remove from employment or transfer or threaten to dismiss, discharge or remove from employment or transfer a workman of injure or threaten to injure him in respect of his employment by reason that the workman. a. is or propose to become, or seeks to persuade any other person to become, a member or officer of a trade union; OR b. participate in the promotion, formation or activities of a trade union;

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Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527) e) Induce any person to refrain from becoming, or to cease to be a member or officer of a trade union, by conferring or offering to confer any advantage on, or by procuring or offering to procure any advantage for such person or any other person; f) Compel or attempt to compel any officer of the collective bargaining agent to arrive at a settlement by using intimidation, objection, pressure, threat, confinement to a place, physical injury, disconnection of water, power and telephone facilities and such other methods; g) Interfere with or in any way influence the balloting provided for section 24. h) Recruit any new workman during the period of a notice of strike under Section 44 or during the currency of a strike which is not illegal except where the conciliator having been satisfied that complete cessation of work is likely to cause serious damage to the machinery or installation, has permitted temporary employment of a limited number of workmen in the section where damage is likely to occur; i) Close down the whole of the establishment in contravention of Standing Order 11-A of the industrial and Commercial Employment ( Standing Orders) Ordinance, 1968 (W.P. Ordinance VI of 1968) or; j) Commence, continue, instigate or incite others to take part in, or expend or supply money or otherwise act in furtherance or support of, an illegal lockout. 2. Nothing in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to preclude an employer from requiring that a person upon his appointment or promotion to managerial position shall cease to be, and shall be disqualified from being, a member or officer of a trade union of workmen.

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DATA COLLECTION METHODS
I choose PTV on the following basis: As PTV is a well-known organization not only in Pakistan but also around the world, for it is the only organization, which claims to provide family entertainment, education and information. I studied the structure of PTV Islamabad center. In spite of the shortage of time, lack of printed material and hesitation of high officials in disclosing the required information, I managed to have a short but comprehensive analytic study of this organization. Other data/information regarding PTV is taken from its website.

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SWOT ANALYSIS
1.10 STRENGTH
 Nationwide coverage unlike any other channel.  Gives live coverage from everywhere  Being a Government institute, it has rights to take coverage of almost everything, unlike other TV channels.

1.11 WEAKNESS
 PTV is the business of government induced programs  Level of entertainment is low.  PTV is criticized with the government  The management keeps on changing with the change of government

1.12 OPPORTUNITIES
 PTV can be expanded globally.  Quality can be added to programs with a very slight change in culture.  Variations in programs can be

1.13 THREATS
 The threats are all the other quality cable operators which have taken the market share.  In PEST, the political forces are playing a lot of role in the media these days, the economic factors are diminishing, social effects are causing other channels to capture PTV's share and technological advances have led PTV to change its infrastructure a bit.  New entertainment TV channels are spreading very quickly.

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CONCLUSION
Industrial relations at PTV are in accordance with the Industrial Relations Act, 2008 according to which trade unions have specific rights; No employer or trade union of employers and no person acting on behalf of either shall, Impose any condition in a contract of employment seeking to restrain the right of a person who is a party to such contract to join a trade union or continue his member ship of a trade union, Refuse to employ or refuse to continue to employ any person on the ground that such person is, or is not a member or officer of a trade union; Discriminate against any person in regard to any employment, promotion, condition of employment or working condition on the ground that such person is, or is not, a member or officer of a trade union; Dismiss, discharge, remove from employment or transfer or threaten to dismiss, discharge or remove from employment or transfer a workman of injure or threaten to injure him in respect of his employment by reason that the workman; Induce any person to refrain from becoming, or to cease to be a member or officer of a trade union, by conferring or offering to confer any advantage on, or by procuring or offering to procure any advantage for such person or any other person; Compel or attempt to compel any officer of the collective bargaining agent to arrive at a settlement by using intimidation, objection, pressure, threat, confinement to a place, physical injury, disconnection of water, power and telephone facilities and such other methods; Interfere with or in any way influence the balloting provided for section 24. Recruit any new workman during the period of a notice of strike under Section 44 or during the currency of a strike which is not illegal except where the conciliator having been satisfied that complete cessation of work is likely to cause serious damage to the machinery or installation, has permitted temporary employment of a limited number of workmen in the section where damage is likely to occur;

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Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527)

RECOMMENDATIONS
As PTV is a very huge organization so there are some problems, which are faced by the employees of PTV Islamabad center. 1. Union plays a very vital role in the development of any organization. As far as PTV is concerned union is banned from 1974, which is not a good sign for the development of organization. 2. The promotion policy in PTV is too much slow which creates discouragement among the employees. 3. Transfer and promotion of employees are made on political basis. Qualification is not considered for promotion. 4. Only salary section is properly computerized, while the remaining sections have no proper computer facility. 5. There is delay in payment to actors. 6. There is no proper check on medical funds. This amount is misused. 7. The authority is centralized in PTV. 8. No proper networking among the functional areas of business that yield in high degree of confusions and ultimately effects on efficiency of workers. 9. Late payment of over times that‟s why majority workers are un motivated. 10. There is a need of more staff in PTV because in PTV the task of three persons is performing by one person that results in to low degree of satisfaction and commitment with the organization.

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Assignment II – Human Resource Management (527)

REFERENCES
i

John W. Budd (2010) Labor Relations: Striking a Balance, 3rd ed. (Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin)
ii

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http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Labor_management_relations http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labor_rights http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labor_unions_in_the_United_States http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right-to-work_law http://www.ehow.com/about_5283298_issues-industrial-relations.html http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/ifpdial/info/national/pak.htm

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