8.

Mechanical Components
Mechatronics

Mechatronics

CHAPTER 8. BASIC MECHANICAL COMPONENTS

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Mechatronics

RELAYS RELAYS
1. Relays are the electromagnetic switches and they offer a

simple ON/ OFF switching action in response to a control signal 2. When a current flows through the coil of wire, a magnetic field is produced. This pulls a movable arm, the armature that forces the contacts to open or close. 3. The minimum currents that must flow through the relay coil to create a magnetic field strong enough to attract the armature is known as the PICK UP OR MAKE CURRENT 4. The current through the relay coil that will just allow the magnetic field to become weak enough to release the armature is known as BREAK OR DROP OUT CURRENT. 5. There are two types of contactors used in conjunction with most relays  normally open and normally closed

The normally open contact remains open when the relay coils is energized and close only when the relay is energized. • The normally closed contact remains closed when the relay is denergised and opens only when the relay coil is energized 6. Relay are used in the control system for many application

Relay used in Light dependent Resistors circuit

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Application of the relay 1. They are used to supply a current to a motor or an electric heater in temperature control system 2. They are used to control the operation of the pneumatic valves 3. They are also used in home security system

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CONTACTORS
1. It is a mechanical switching device capable of making, carrying

and breaking electric current under normal conditions including operating overload condition. 2. However contactors may be capable of making and breaking the short circuit currents if they are designed for short circuit current if they are designed for short circuit duties only. 3. Contactors have a main circuit and a control circuit 4. The current flows from the supply to the load through the main circuit of the contactor. The contactors are designed according to the method of energizing the control circuit namely as a) Electromagnetic contactor: A contactor in which the opening and closing of the main contacts is achieved by mean of electromagnet. b) Electropenumatic contactor A contactor in which the opening and closing of the main contacts is achieved by mean of electrically operated pneumatic device. c) Pneumatic contactor A contactor in which the opening and closing of the main contacts is achieved by mean of compressed air.
5. A contactor consist of three main contact for 3 phase motor

starter) and one or two auxiliary contacts. There are control coils 6. When the coil is energized the contact closed by attracted armature action. When the coil is energized the contact opens 7. Contactors are used in starts for motor as 1. Direct online contactor starter 2. Reversing contactor starter 3. Star delta contactor starter

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Actuators 1. Actuators produce physical changes such as linear and angular displacement with the process conversion of energy to mechanical form. 2. They also modulate the rate and power associated with these changes 3. The actuators are broadly classified as
A. Electromechanical actuator 1. They used permanent magnets, electromagnet and exploit the

phenomenon in order to produce the actuation. 2. Electromechanical actuators are DC and AC stepper motor B. Fluid power actuators 1. Fluid power refer to energy transmitted via a fluid under pressure 2. Hydraulic and pneumatic actuator are under fluid power actuators  with hydraulic the fluid is typically liquid  with the pneumatics the fluid is compressed air or inert gases 3. When a pressure is applies to a confined chamber containing a piston, the piston will move id the difference in force across the piston is larger than the total load together with the frictional force. The resulting net force then accelerates the load proportionately. C. Active material based actuators 1. Material which undergo some sort of transformation through physical interaction are referred to as active materials, 2. The principal of activation of the actuator are based on the fact that they make use of the properties of the material from which they have been constructed 3. Currently available active material are piezoelectric material, shapes memory alloys, magnetiostictive material
Application of the actuators 1. Aerospace structure monitoring system 2. Fluid control device 3. Biomedical equipment 4. Micro assembly 5. Automotive monitoring and control devices 6. Precision optical components, manufacturing and handling T.V.S.

Mechatronics Electromechanical actuators 1. Electromechanical actuators converts the electrical energy into mechanical energy 2. The basic principle is that when an electric current is passed through a group of wire loops placed magnet field ,so the loop rotates and the rotating motion is transmitted to shaft ,providing useful work 3. They are available in different way ranging from Nan watts to megawatts as far as output power is concerned. 4. Some actuators run at constant. 5. Some have a relatively drop in speed as the load increases and some have a large speed decline with load Features of Electromechanical actuators 1. These are rugged and highly flexible in operation. 2. They provide angular as well as liner motion. Liner motion is obtained through the auxiliary mechanical component such as gear and pulley. 3. They are designed to provide starting torque also such as in cranes and elevators

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Mechatronics

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