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28. UGANDA

28.1 General Information 1

Total population (000) 2000 : 23, 300 Dependency ratio (per 100):

Year 1990: 103


Year 2000: 107
Annual growth rate 1990 – 2000 : 3.1%
Percentage of population aged 60 + years:

Year 1990: 4.1%


Year 2000: 3.8%
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Data source: The World Health Report 2001.

28.2 Food Production and Consumption


28.2.1 Estimated Total Production of Foods and Percentage Processed or Semi-
Processed.

Foods Total Production (T) Percentage (%)

Cereals 2, 330, 000 MT 0.5


Fats/oils 35 MT -
Meat, poultry, eggs 200 – 250 MT 20
Fish 637.1 MT 50
Pulses & legumes 831, 000 MT -
Sugar - -
Fruits & vegetables - -
Milk & milk products 750 million litres 7-10%

28.2.2 Proportion of the Population Dependent on Subsistence Economy

Less than 80% of the population is dependent on subsistence economy and 20% of the
food commodity is marketed.

28.2.3 Proportion of the Diet is Made up of Processed Foods

20% of the diet in urban areas is made up of processed foods while 0.5% of the diet in
rural areas is made up of processed foods.

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28.2.4 Estimated Total Production of Milk (Average per Year)

Total Production of Proportion of Milk Proportion of Milk Estimated Amount


Milk Pasteurized for the Sold Unpasteurized of Milk Used for
Local Market through Market Processed Milk
Channels Products.
800 – 900 million litres 7-10% 90-93% 2%

28.2.5 Problems Relating to Consumption and Production of Foods

Cost of foods of animal origin are very high; most of these foods need cold storage which is not
available in most rural areas.

28.3 Food Export Trade (Including Foods Imported for Re-Export)


28.3.1 Main Food Exports in Terms of Quantity and Value, and the Major
Countries to which they are Exported.

Product Quantity (T) Value (USD)


Maize 60, 283 18, 495, 479
Tea 28, 981 28, 011, 000
Coffee 183, 283 97, 652, 000
Beans & other legumes 6, 242 2, 450, 847
Fish and Fish products 28, 231 78, 106, 453
Sesame 1, 849 796, 429
Soya beans/flour 978 93, 965
Pepper 522 899, 461
Vanilla 64 2, 821, 371
Live animals 112 202, 638
Fruits 92 82, 007
Ground nuts 40 25, 867
Bananas 1, 324 675, 268

Countries to which products are imported: Rwanda, Libya, Japan, India, Pakistan,
Britain, Italy, Spain and Egypt.

28.3.2. Main Food Safety and Quality Problems Encountered with the Country’s
Imports.

The following are the food safety and quality problems encountered by the country:
 High moisture content especially for grains;
 Contaminants especially sprayed chemicals, drug residues and foreign matter;
 Most exports are not graded.

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28.3.3 Mechanism for Collection and Dissemination of Information

Mechanism for Collection & Type of Monitoring System Constraints


Dissemination of Information
Not available Combined inspection system Data collection,
documentation &
dissemination ; market
information, research &
distribution.

28.4 Food Import Trade

28.4.1 Volume of Foods Imported, Main Foods Imported and Countries to which
they are Imported.

Volume of Foods Imported Main Foods Imported


Foods T/Year Product Quantity Value (USD)
(T)
Cereals - Maize 14, 492, 866 3, 931, 066
Fats/oils - Tea 6, 531 16, 320
Meat, poultry, eggs - Citrus fruits 62, 333 12, 145
Fish - Guavas, mangoes 53, 864 9, 191
Pulse & legumes - Snails 3, 660 226
Sugar - Soya beans/flour 560, 530 177, 631
Fruits & vegetables - Fish & squid 23, 329 86, 047
Milk & milk - Apricot 612 102
products
Pears 32, 483 3, 306
Destccated coconut 2, 274 247
Oysters 26 288
Coffee 3, 672 9, 813
Dates 5, 713 3, 401
Mussels/scallops 16 31
Pineapples 1 10

Countries to which products are imported: China, Hongkong, Egypt, South Africa,
Argentina, Britain, Kenya and Brazil.

28.4.2. Main Food Safety and Quality Problems Encountered with the Country’s
Imports.

The following are the food safety and quality problems encountered by the country:
 Sub-standard goods;
 Expired products;
 Risk importing diseased products eg BSE;
 Risk importing genetically modified products especially beans, meats and maize.

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28.4.3 Mechanism for Monitoring Food Imports

Mechanism for Monitoring Food Constraints


Imports
Available Restrictions on importing substandard &
expired products should be put in place and/or
enforced; corruption prevents officers from
impounding such goods; public awareness on
risks of consuming such products should be
increased.

28.5 Food Legislation


28.5.1 Food Laws and Implementing Authorities

Food Laws Implementing Consultations with Constraints to


Authorities Consumers, Trade etc Implementation
in the Preparation of
Rules
Public Health Act; Central level: Yes Corruption; obsolete
Draft Food Law; Min. of Health, Min. laws and rules and
Uganda Bureau of of Local Gov’t, Min. regulations;
Standards Act of Trade & Industry responsibility lies
Local level with several
Health Department, ministries/authorities;
Local Councils. weak coordinating
authority.

28.5.2 Coordinating Committee and Bureau for Food Standards

Coordinating Committee National Bureau for Food National Food Standards &
Standards Codex Standards
There is a coordinating There is a separate national National food standards do not
committee or similar body that bureau or a similar institution differ from Codex standards.
ensures cooperation & for food standards.
coordination.

28.5.3 Legislation Cover Food Adulteration During:

Storage Distribution Manufacturing Preparation Sale


Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

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28.5.4 Food Safety Issues Taken into Account in the Preparation of Rules/
Regulations:

28.5.4.1 Food Additives & Pesticide Residues

Food Additives Pesticide Residues


Inter- National Approval Toxi- Inter- National Toxi- Regis-
national rules Proce- cological national rules cological tration
standards dures facilities standards facilities procedures
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

28.5.4.2 Sanitary facilities at food processing and food service levels

Sanitary facilities
Water Plumbing Maintenance Insect Toilet Waste Ventilation
Supply Control facilities disposal
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

28.5.5 Other Items Included in the Rules and regulations

Rules and regulations provide for the following:


 Labeling of food;
 Date marking and marking of weights & measures;
 Sampling procedures;
 Importation & exportation of food;
 In-process quality control;
 Licensing & registration of food premises;
 Closure of unhygienic food premises;
 Health control of food handlers;
 Advertising of food
 Use of safe food packaging material;
 Ante-mortem and/or post-mortem examination of food animals.
 Provision and adequacy of sanitation measures on board aircraft, trains,
ship, and in-service terminals;
 Measures to be implemented in the event of national disasters;
 Irradiation of food;
 Quality certification by an appropriate authority;
 Quarantine measures;
 Waranty measures;
 Penalities.

28.5.6 Food Processing Plants

Food processing plants are required to have their own quality control laboratories, either
on an individual or shared basis, to ensure the safety and quality of their products.

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28.6 Guidelines, Codes of Practice, Advisory Standards


28.6.1 Availability of a Code of Practice and Items Included

Availability of a Code Items Included in the Code


of Practice
Available Cultivation of freshwater & saltwater species of fish; specific storage
conditions, such as temperature, in ports and stations for
transportation by land, water or air of perishable foods; safe food
packaging material; handling of food by street vendors.

28.7 Food Control Implementation


28.7.1 Food Inspection: Food Establishments

Inspection of food establishments cover the following: food processing plants, eating places,
markets, bakeries, fish or meat shops or stalls, grocery stores, milk shops and slaughterhouses.

28.7.2 Food Inspectors

Ratio of Food Ratio of Food Inspectors to the Items Included in the


Inspectors to Number of Establishments to be Prescribed Inspection Form
Population Served Inspected
1: 100,000 1:100 Food handlers’certificates; food
establishments’permits/licenses;
health certificates of food
handlers.

28.7.3 Requirements for Employment of Food Handlers

Requirements for employment of food handlers cover:


 Good health and personal cleanliness;

28.7.4 Specific Procedures and/or Guidelines

Specific procedures and/or guidelines have been lain down with reference to the
following:
 Sampling procedures;
 Sealing storage, and transportation of samples;
 Reporting schedules;
 Collection of evidence of non-compliance;
 Consumer complaints;
 Import/export inspections;
 Food processing plant inspections.

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28.7.5 Laboratory Facilities for Food Analysis

Availability of Number of Laboratories Equipped for Do Laboratories


Laboratories for Food Analysis Perform Statutory
Chemical Chemicals Biotoxins Microbiological Work
& Microbiological Contamination
Analysis of Food
Available 7 8 8 Yes

28.7.5.1 Participation of laboratories in national monitoring programmes for


contaminants.

Laboratories do not participate in national monitoring programmes for contaminants such as


pesticide residues, heavy metals and mycotoxins.

28.7.5.2 Microbiological Laboratories

Microbiological laboratories have facilities for both sample collection and logistic system for
sample collection & dispatch. However facilities for the later are in most cases poor. The kinds
of microbiogical examinations carried out are for disease causing organisms especially food
poisons. The kinds of foods covered by microbiological examinations include diary products and
meats.

28.7.5.3 Chemical laboratories

Chemical laboratories are equipped to undertake testings of: pesticide residues, additives, heavy
metals and other chemicals, toxins of fish & shellfish, toxic plants & mushrooms, mycotoxins,
antibiotics, hormones and radioactive contaminants.

28.8 Epidemiological Services

Notification of cases of food-borne diseases is not equired by law. Statistics of foodborne


diseases is compiled nationally.

28.9 Human Resources and Training Requirements


28.9.1 Categories of Personnel Involved in Food Safety and Food Control and their
Educational & Training Requirements.

The categories of personnel involved in food safety are health inspectors, food inspectors,
veterinary officers, supervisory staff, chemists, microbiologists and epidemiologists. There are no
provisions for continuing education, and periodic assessments for country needs of various
categories of personnel involved in food safety and food control

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28.10 Extension and Advisory Services

There is an organized effort though on demand on the part of the government to provide
extension and advisory services to the food industry and trade. Similarly, there is an organized
effort on the part of non-governmental organizations to provide extension and advisory services
to the food industry and trade.

28.11 Public Education and Participation

There are specific programmes for public education and community participation. There are no
public grievance redressal mechanisms to deal with food safety and economic fraud issues. Food
safety is not part of the primary and secindary school level curriculum.

28.11.1 Organized consumer protection organization.

There is an organized consumer protection organization involved in food safety issues.

Food Safety Regional Assessment : Country Profiles