Cisco TelePresence Room Design Guide

February 2011

Design Guide

Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................... 6 What Is Immersive Cisco TelePresence? .................................................................................................................. 6 How Is Cisco TelePresence Used? ........................................................................................................................... 6 Characteristics of Immersive Cisco TelePresence Rooms ................................................................................... 6 How to Use This Guide .............................................................................................................................................. 7 Immersive Cisco TelePresence ................................................................................................................................... 8 Continuity in Cisco TelePresence .............................................................................................................................. 8 Continuity Implementation: Lighting, Acoustics, and Aesthetics................................................................................ 8 Lighting........................................................................................................................................................................ 10 Lighting Theory ........................................................................................................................................................ 10 Color Temperature .............................................................................................................................................. 11 Color Rendering Index ........................................................................................................................................ 11 Pigment and Light Color...................................................................................................................................... 11 Lumens, Lux, and the Candela Curve................................................................................................................. 12 How to Measure Lighting Levels ......................................................................................................................... 13 Application of Video Production Lighting to Cisco TelePresence ............................................................................ 13 Key Light ............................................................................................................................................................. 14 Fill Light ............................................................................................................................................................... 14 Back Light............................................................................................................................................................ 14 Application of Commercial Office Lighting to Cisco TelePresence .......................................................................... 15 Immersive Cisco TelePresence Lighting.................................................................................................................. 15 Lighting Control Systems .................................................................................................................................... 16 Zoned Switching.................................................................................................................................................. 17 Occupancy Sensors ............................................................................................................................................ 17 Time-of-Day Switching ........................................................................................................................................ 17 Photocell Dimming Controls ................................................................................................................................ 17 Multiscene Preset Dimming................................................................................................................................. 17 Indirect Lighting ................................................................................................................................................... 17 Indirect/Direct Lighting Fixtures........................................................................................................................... 18 Pendant-Style Indirect-Lighting Fixtures ............................................................................................................. 21 Accent Lighting.................................................................................................................................................... 22 Asymmetrical Lighting Fixtures ........................................................................................................................... 23 Ceiling Soffits and Lighting Coves....................................................................................................................... 24 Energy Efficiency ..................................................................................................................................................... 25 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................... 25 Acoustics..................................................................................................................................................................... 26 Acoustic Theory and Background ............................................................................................................................ 26 Sound Pressure Level in Decibels ...................................................................................................................... 26 Human Range of Hearing Frequencies............................................................................................................... 27 Human Hearing ................................................................................................................................................... 27 Human Speech.................................................................................................................................................... 29 Reverberation...................................................................................................................................................... 29 Echo .................................................................................................................................................................... 30 Reverberation and Echo in Cisco TelePresence Rooms .................................................................................... 31 Lively Sound Environments................................................................................................................................. 32 Flat Sound Environments .................................................................................................................................... 32 Building for Acoustic Isolation .................................................................................................................................. 33 Sound Transmission Class.................................................................................................................................. 33 Noise-Reduction Coefficient................................................................................................................................ 34 Impact Insulation Class ....................................................................................................................................... 35 Office Environment Acoustic Concerns and Resolutions......................................................................................... 35 High Ambient Noise Levels ................................................................................................................................. 36 Noise from Air Movement.................................................................................................................................... 36 Noise from Machinery ......................................................................................................................................... 37 Noise from Adjacent Rooms................................................................................................................................ 37 Reverberation Remediation................................................................................................................................. 38
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information. Page 2 of 70

Design Guide

Acoustic Panel Placement................................................................................................................................... 39 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................... 41 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for CiscoTelePresence ....................................................................... 42 General Rules for HVAC .......................................................................................................................................... 42 Use of an Existing HVAC System ............................................................................................................................ 43 Zoning and Capability to Rezone HVAC.................................................................................................................. 45 Common HVAC Cooling Issues and Resolutions .................................................................................................... 45 Supplemental Cooling.............................................................................................................................................. 46 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................... 46 Aesthetics.................................................................................................................................................................... 47 Aesthetic Principles.................................................................................................................................................. 47 Choice and Customization in Design ....................................................................................................................... 47 How to Approach Aesthetic Design for Immersive Cisco TelePresence ................................................................. 48 Wall Color ................................................................................................................................................................ 49 Color Matching .................................................................................................................................................... 49 Aesthetics and Room Remediation.......................................................................................................................... 49 Exterior Windows ................................................................................................................................................ 50 Interior Windows.................................................................................................................................................. 50 Doorways ............................................................................................................................................................ 50 Acoustic Panels................................................................................................................................................... 50 Creative Wall Treatments ........................................................................................................................................ 51 Wall Coverings .................................................................................................................................................... 51 Wood Panels ....................................................................................................................................................... 51 Modifiable Aesthetic Elements................................................................................................................................. 52 Branding In Cisco TelePresence Room Design....................................................................................................... 53 Integration of Aesthetics in a Cisco TelePresence Room........................................................................................ 53 Décor to Avoid in an Immersive Cisco TelePresence Room ................................................................................... 54 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................... 54 Immersive Room Design Implementation ................................................................................................................ 55 Room Selection........................................................................................................................................................ 55 Cost Versus Immersive Experience .................................................................................................................... 55 Dedicated or Multipurpose Meeting Space .............................................................................................................. 56 Physical Elements of the Room ............................................................................................................................... 57 Room Dimensions.................................................................................................................................................... 58 Location ................................................................................................................................................................... 59 Doors................................................................................................................................................................... 59 Windows.............................................................................................................................................................. 59 Placement of The Room in the Building .............................................................................................................. 60 Adjacent Rooms .................................................................................................................................................. 60 Acoustic Evaluation ............................................................................................................................................. 60 Construction Characteristics .................................................................................................................................... 61 Wall Materials...................................................................................................................................................... 61 Ceiling Materials.................................................................................................................................................. 61 Flooring Materials................................................................................................................................................ 61 Power Outlets...................................................................................................................................................... 62 Network Access................................................................................................................................................... 62 Indirect Lighting........................................................................................................................................................ 62 Direct Lighting .......................................................................................................................................................... 62 Replacing Lighting Fixtures...................................................................................................................................... 64 Room Design Models ................................................................................................................................................. 65 Appendix A: HVAC Components and Systems ....................................................................................................... 67 HVAC Components.................................................................................................................................................. 67 Duct Types .......................................................................................................................................................... 67 Galvanized Steel ................................................................................................................................................. 67 Duct Board .......................................................................................................................................................... 67 Flexible Ducting................................................................................................................................................... 67 Ducting Systems ................................................................................................................................................. 67 Perimeter Duct Systems...................................................................................................................................... 67 Extended Plenum Systems ................................................................................................................................. 68 Other Main Duct Components............................................................................................................................. 68 Air Terminals ............................................................................................................................................................ 68
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information. Page 3 of 70

..............................Design Guide Diffusers ............................................................... 69 Central Air Handler System with Forced Air..................................................................................... 69 HVAC System Types ................................................................ Page 4 of 70 .. This document is Cisco Public Information.......... 70 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates........................................................................................................................................ 68 Registers ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 70 Independent Room Heat Systems ........................................................................................................................ 70 Split Air Conditioning Systems ................................................................. 69 Thermostats ............ 69 Independent Room Air Conditioning System ............................................................................................ 70 Cassette Room Air Conditioning Systems ............................................................................................... All rights reserved..............................

This document is Cisco Public Information. CISCO SHALL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FAILURE OF ANY REPORT OR RELATED DOCUMENT. RECOMMENDATIONS. COMMUNICATIONS AND OTHER INFORMATION GENERATED IN CONNECTION THEREWITH. RECOMMENDATIONS. AND CISCO DISCLAIMS ALL REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES (EXPRESS OR IMPLIED) RELATING TO ALL REPORTS. BUSINESS. All rights reserved. ARE PROVIDED BY CISCO TO THE RECIPIENT ON AN "AS IS" BASIS. COMMUNICATIONS AND OTHER INFORMATION PROVIDED IN CONNECTION THEREWITH. IN NO EVENT SHALL CISCO BE LIABLE FOR THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN ANY REPORT OR OTHER INFORMATION PROVIDED IN CONNECTION THEREWITH. BUSINESS. NON-INFRINGEMENT AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates.Design Guide THIS REPORT. EXCEPT AS OTHERWISE PROVIDED IN A SEPARATE WRITTEN AGREEMENT. OR OTHER REQUIREMENTS. DESIGN. DOCUMENTS. Page 5 of 70 . INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY. THE RECIPIENT EXPRESSLY ACKNOWLEDGES AND AGREES THAT IT IS SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DETERMINATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ITS NETWORK. DESIGN. AND ALL DOCUMENTS. RECOMMENDATION OR COMMUNICATION TO MEET RECIPIENT’S NETWORK. AND ARE NOT REPRESENTED TO BE COMPLETE OR ACCURATE.

but Cisco TelePresence is different from video conferencing because it can deliver an experience free from distractions. life-size. room color. which discusses what separates telepresence from video conferencing. 2009). Increase intimacy with customers through intracompany meetings that are a normal part of the business day without disruptive travel. The premium experience of Immersive Cisco TelePresence spurs business results and savings by providing a practical and enjoyable alternative to physical travel. Lower operating costs by replacing business travel with a life-like virtual meeting. Collaborate more effectively on projects. It is unique in that all details of the meeting experience are carefully planned in advance — using the best practices in this guide — to provide a natural experience that puts people first and technology seamlessly in the background. Reduce or eliminate physical access issues such as allowing additional personnel into secure buildings for a meeting. resulting in an overall seamless experience that is like all of the participants being in the same room. Implementing a dedicated. and meets Immersive Cisco TelePresence room design recommendations. Speed decision making among geographically dispersed teams by allowing them to meet regularly without travel. All rights reserved. Some people categorize any video conferencing system that provides high-definition (HD) video and wideband audio as telepresence. and acoustics — and remediation of variables that can distract from a meeting — results in a room that provides the highest level of ease-of-use for participants. and employees. Increase productivity by giving employees time to work on projects that would otherwise be lost during travel. partners. ● ● ● ● ● ● Characteristics of Immersive Cisco TelePresence Rooms An Immersive Cisco TelePresence room is an environment that is completely dedicated to Cisco TelePresence. interactive meeting experience that enables participants in different cities and parts of the world to come together in one meeting across all geographies and time zones. The following are common business uses of Cisco TelePresence: ● ● Communicate more frequently and more effectively with customers. This document is Cisco Public Information.Design Guide Introduction What Is Immersive Cisco TelePresence? Immersive Cisco TelePresence is a real-time. Page 6 of 70 . see Cisco TelePresence Fundamentals (Cisco Press. including the history of these technologies. The key to this experience is Immersive Cisco TelePresence room design coupled with Cisco TelePresence technology. Note: For more information about the differences between telepresence and videoconferencing. provides continuity. room with correct lighting. How Is Cisco TelePresence Used? Regardless of the economic outlook. Build corporate identity across geographies. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. These rooms are ideal for very important meetings where communication and body language are needed to be viewed without distractions. Immersive rooms or environments offer the best and most natural Cisco TelePresence meeting experience because they are predictable in their meeting quality and free from distractions. companies seek technologies that enable them to improve business results and reduce operating costs.

they nevertheless should find the environment familiar and be able to place a call in a new Immersive Cisco TelePresence room just as if they were in an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room that they had visited before. Furthermore. adornments. seating positions are well defined. Ultimately. With the clarity of life-like audio and video. experience most of the same emotional and psychological interactions that occur when people meet face-to-face. or room size are slightly different than what participants are used to. How to Use This Guide For an Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience. This guide should be read prior to completing the Cisco TelePresence prequalification questionnaires and Room Readiness Assessment (RRA). this guide outlines room selection criteria to help facilities planners chose the best room for the Cisco TelePresence deployment. Individuals involved with any portion of Cisco TelePresence deployment. This document is Cisco Public Information. Additionally. Combined with an Immersive Cisco TelePresence endpoint. is in view on camera. and the network is designed for the best quality and highest availability. or room remediation will find this information invaluable. the participant knows where to sit. unremediated acoustic issues. All rights reserved. instead of on distractions caused by acoustic problems or lights that are too dim or too bright. room selection. colors and adornments are correctly positioned. Even if the colors. instead of dealing with technological distractions. Everything is 100 percent designed for a Cisco TelePresence meeting. insufficient or incorrect lighting leads to fuzzy video capture no matter how well tuned the cameras are or how efficient the network is. This guide describes each element needed for an Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience. sound. Page 7 of 70 . and glaring or distracting room colors all interfere with the experience. ● © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Lighting is designed to produce the best image on the display. preparation of the room before installation of a Cisco TelePresence endpoint is crucial because poor lighting. and is already correctly positioned with regard to microphones and speakers. When a participant walks into a purpose-designed Immersive Cisco TelePresence room. the Immersive Cisco TelePresence room design principles for lighting. participants have a level of comfort and familiarity when they enter another Immersive Cisco TelePresence room. and aesthetics presented in this guide result in an experience that is so life-like and realistic that meeting participants will be able to: ● Focus all their attention on the people in the meeting and what is being said or shown.Design Guide The advantage of an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room is that there are no variables to consider — nothing that will distract participants during the meeting.

From Toronto to Barcelona to Jakarta.Design Guide Immersive Cisco TelePresence Continuity in Cisco TelePresence Feeling like you are in the same room with the participants on the other side of a Cisco TelePresence meeting is called Immersive Cisco TelePresence. wood trim. franchises create a continuous experience for their customers. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Continuity is what creates this feeling. This document is Cisco Public Information. the meeting participants will have a familiar. This is continuity. Starbucks uses the same earth-toned colors. Acoustics. smaller. Continuity Implementation: Lighting. For example. consistent experience for all participants. and general ordering procedure across its locations. Immersive Cisco TelePresence matches the experiences of local and remote participants using continuity principles. One of the reasons franchising is so successful is because customers are already familiar with the environment when they enter a new store in a different location. The square footage of a store may be larger. or arranged differently than in other stores. type of counters. Even so. Some stores may have couches while others do not. consider food and coffee franchises. As an example of continuity. The counters for adding cream and sugar to drinks are generally the same. no two locations are exactly the same. All rights reserved. The core drink and snack menu is generally the same. although rooms may be designed differently. Page 8 of 70 . consistent experience. Details such as lighting and temperature are also consistent. when a customer walks into a Starbucks store. However. and Aesthetics Immersive Cisco TelePresence considers the entire room environment and uses continuity to create a familiar. and if continuity principles are applied. the experience is the same and familiar across all Starbucks locations. In other words.

Continuity In Cisco TelePresence Rooms Los Angeles Kiev Specifically. This guide discusses each of these elements and how to apply them to create an immersive meeting. in different countries and different time zones. there is continuity. Remember that the idea is to make the local room and remote room as similar in their core design elements as possible. This experience is the ultimate goal of Immersive Cisco TelePresence. the meeting participants will focus on the meeting rather than the technology or room. the meeting participants will feel like they are in similar rooms sharing the same experience. If two totally different rooms.Design Guide Figure 1. All rights reserved. the more immersive the experience will feel. have continuity. The more continuity there is between multiple environments. one should always consider the environment of the endpoint and if the environment supports the elements of continuity. Page 9 of 70 . the elements of continuity in Immersive Cisco TelePresence room design are: ● ● ● Lighting Acoustics Aesthetics When these are consistent. regardless of the size of the endpoint. This document is Cisco Public Information. When successful. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. When designing a Cisco TelePresence environment.

Lighting sets the overall tone and feeling of the space and is fundamentally important for capturing the high-quality video used in Cisco TelePresence. All rights reserved. or with or without shadows and hotspots. Page 10 of 70 . The Cisco TelePresence lighting recommendations. and that the environment provides for the best overall video quality and immersive experience. Note: Improper lighting in a room can create grainy or pixilated video even if the network carrying the Cisco TelePresence traffic is operating perfectly. Lighting also provides aesthetic appeal. take into consideration the participant seating locations and placement of lighting to ensure that appropriate illumination levels are achieved without overexposure or shadowing. lighting may be darker. more blue. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. this chapter discusses the following areas: ● ● ● ● ● Lighting theory Application of video production lighting to Cisco TelePresence Application of commercial office lighting to Cisco TelePresence Cisco TelePresence lighting Energy efficiency Lighting Theory This section describes the main concepts and terms used in lighting theory in order to be able to use them in Cisco TelePresence lighting design. in conjunction with the integrated endpoint lighting components. room to room. This document is Cisco Public Information. Variations in lighting are instantly perceived by the eye and can generate undesirable effects in capturing and displaying video.Design Guide Lighting Lighting is one of the most important factors in building continuity across different environments. Cisco TelePresence Lighting Design To better understand lighting for Cisco TelePresence. more yellow. For example. Figure 2. the Cisco TelePresence cameras capture the same image quality across all rooms and create a visually harmonious experience. if the lighting is consistent from room to room. However.

Page 11 of 70 . This document is Cisco Public Information. If only 4100 Kelvin lighting is available. Color temperature measures the spectral properties of a light source. The higher the CRI value. Using 4000/4100 Kelvin for all lighting in an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room ensures that the white levels match and are processed and displayed well by the Cisco TelePresence endpoint. Many different kinds of light can seem ‘white’ to the human eye. such as 5000 or 6500 Kelvin. which are often used in video production studios. also conveys color. actors are lit with very warm or very cool lighting at very high intensities (2000 lux or higher). regardless of the source. lower color temperatures. and so maintaining a consistent color temperature enhances the quality and consistency of the image that is captured and transmitted. because the human eye changes aperture and blends light colors to produce an optimum picture in dark and bright conditions. Unlike cameras and video systems. even when they actually have different color temperatures. color needs to be addressed by both pigment color and lighting color. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. A CRI of 82 or higher is recommended for Immersive Cisco TelePresence. Pigment and Light Color For video technology. a greater amount of comfort is taken into consideration. Since an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room is not a studio. Higher color temperatures. Outdoor light has a blue color temperature.Design Guide Color Temperature Light. Cameras. produce a warmer yellow or red light. whereas the integrated lighting of a CTS Immersive TelePresence endpoint emits a white light. the human visual system is adept at quickly correcting for changes in the color temperature of light. Kelvin Color Temperature Scale Generally in TV studios. such as 3500 Kelvin (for example. Color Rendering Index The color rendering index (CRI) is a measureable characteristic of a light regarding its ability to illuminate an object and reproduce its natural colors accurately. regardless of whether or not the human eye is sensitive to it. this is also acceptable. As shown in the figure below. however. The highest CRI value attainable is 100. produce a cooler blue light. All rights reserved. from incandescent lights). the greater the quality of the lamp. Figure 3. cannot adjust to such changes. Through video quality testing and user feedback. It indicates the quality of a light source and its ability to not alter color. the color temperature of 4000 Kelvin was chosen for Cisco TelePresence because it is the closest color temperature to that of pure white for producing high-quality video without being overly taxing to human vision or modifying the natural hues of human skin tones. You can expect very bright (and annoying) lights when you are in a studio environment.

Yellows can also have LRVs close to the values for pure whites. blue. LRV values range from 0 to 100 percent. if you choose that fixture. a Candela curve. and the whitest white has an LRV of about 80 to 90 percent. red and royal blue are more saturated than pink and sky blue. with absolute black at 0 percent and pure white at 100 percent reflectivity. Candela Curve ® © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. These exact colors are available in the Cisco TelePresence Wall Color Guide on Cisco. Lux is also expressed as the Candela distribution curve or.Design Guide Pigment color is in respect to paint. intensity. Page 12 of 70 .com. A Candela distribution curve is often included in lamp manufacturer specifications and is a representation of the output in lumens at different angles. absolute black and pure white do not exist in paint or dye pigments. The curve also shows whether the light is concentrated below the fixture or widely spread. so the Cisco recommended colors that have been fully tested to be consistent both in the room and over video. Also. For example. simply. Lux. Value is how light or dark a color is. the blackest black available as a paint color has an LRV of approximately 5 percent. and violet. the color on monitors appears as a variation of the color the eye perceives when looking at the same room while standing in the room. green. Curves for fluorescent lights often provide two (or more) curves. The color temperature. Lux is a measurement of the overall intensity of light within an environment for any given area or distance from the source. a camera’s and a monitor’s interpretation of color will be different from the interpretation by the human eye. saturation. one for the intensity parallel to the fixture axis and the other for intensity perpendicular to the axis. ● ● The light reflectance value (LRV) of an individual color indicates the amount of light and heat that the color will reflect back into the room. This is also known as chroma or purity. the concepts of lumens and lux should be well understood. yellow. and the Candela Curve When considering lighting. because in practical terms. This document is Cisco Public Information. This measurement is important as it indicates how much direct light and indirect light will be emitted into the room by the light source. The intensity of light emitted directly from a source in a specific direction is measured in the scientific unit lumens. its proper location in the room (Figure 4). Saturation is how intense or vibrant a color is. Figure 4. Think of lumens as the brightness of the lighting source and of lux as the amount of light in an environment as perceived by the human eye. It is the variation in these three components that creates differences in color ranges. However. The chemistry of paint is made up of three components: hue. ● Hue refers to the pure spectrum colors commonly referred to by the color names red. therefore paint seen under different lighting looks different to both video and the human eye. All rights reserved. and positioning of a room’s practical lights affect the way that pigment color is perceived over Cisco TelePresence. The color of the light source influences the perceived colors used in a room. and value. In addition. Lumens. The Candela distribution curve enables you to determine the appropriateness of a fixture for the lighting application you are considering and. orange.

and averaging illumination levels over a period of time or location. the above formula is required. Application of Video Production Lighting to Cisco TelePresence It is important to consider the basics of video production lighting as it relates to proper illumination for video in order to better understand the challenges of lighting for Immersive Cisco TelePresence. or any other area of the room. color. high-quality images. This document is Cisco Public Information. tabletop. it is critical to control the intensity.764 lux. This is generally achieved by the use of the three-point lighting. and distribution of lighting so that it produces well-defined. with a key light. back wall. the lux is the standard SI unit whereas the foot-candle is not. In order to determine how much light will reach the participants face. To accomplish this. and can also reduce the total number of light fixtures needed for proper illumination. noting maximum and minimum levels. For example. Page 13 of 70 . and a back light. How to Measure Lighting Levels Measuring lighting or the illumination of an environment requires the use of an incident lux meter or foot-candle meter. This three-point lighting method illuminates the subject. the main purpose of lighting is to provide the required illumination for the picture to be processed correctly by the camera. which is 750 lux = (3000 lumens / 2 meters squared) Lux meters are available in many varieties and may have special features such as recording. Figure 5. Lux Meter You will use a lux meter in assessing and remediating the lighting of your selected Immersive Cisco TelePresence room. provides shape. we’ll refer to light levels in lux rather than foot-candle. For calculating lux based on meters use the following: Lux = (lumens / meters squared) This is an important formula to understand when designing lighting because often fixtures will be specified by the lumens they output in a given direction. This choice is important because it reduces areas of light concentration. and separates the subject from the background. including their spatial relationship by showing depth within the scene. For this reason. The lighting must also provide accurate depiction of objects in the scene. a lamp rated at 3000 lumens will produce the following: 750 lux at 2 meters.Design Guide In designing for Cisco TelePresence. minimizing hotspots and shadowing. However. All rights reserved. a fill light. In broadcast studios and on Hollywood sets. Note: A foot-candle describes the same measurement as lux and can be converted to lux by the following formula as needed: 1 foot-candle = 10. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. the light fixtures with the greatest area of light diffusion above 60 degrees are preferred because they provide a greater level of vertical lux and more even light distribution.

Design Guide Figure 6. this is an acceptable lighting solution. All rights reserved. With an Immersive Cisco TelePresence endpoint. In Immersive Cisco TelePresence. the whites of the eyes are also lost along with any possibility of eye contact. The main difference between the Cisco TelePresence endpoint integrated lighting and a traditional production fill light is that Cisco TelePresence participants must be illuminated without eyestrain for long durations. the key light is achieved by the standard commercial ceiling fixtures already installed in the environment or additional fixtures that are added to the ceiling. Back Light To help the subject stand out from the background and promote the perception of depth. However. it creates hard shadows and contrast. This is also referred to as ambient light or global illumination. Video Production Lighting Key Light The key light is generally the dominant light source on the subject and is the brightest source of light. Without adequate fill light. because this light is twice as bright as any other lighting. the fill light is provided by the endpoint. shadows appear as solid black on camera due to the camera's limited dynamic range. versus the very bright lighting used for traditional fill lights. This is the main light used to illuminate the subject. Page 14 of 70 . The key light is generally not positioned at an angle low enough to illuminate the subject’s face and this creates shadows over the subject’s eyes creating a ‘raccoon-like’ effect. allowing the light to illuminate facial features with a softer and lower intensity than traditional production-style fill lights. the use of direct-lighting fixtures increases the shadowing effects. Adequate fill light is imperative to avoid this. In a film production world where dramatic effects are required and eye contact is not. Often. Cisco has developed light sources that are at an extremely low angle. a light is cast onto the back of the subject. First. Cisco highly recommends replacing direct-lighting fixtures. If the shadows are not illuminated by a fill light (discussed below). illuminating its outer edge or contour. To accomplish this. Fill Light Fill lighting is generally a reflected light within the studio or set that softens shadows and fills dark areas on the subject being filmed. This type of lighting is called a rim light because it places a rim of light on the subject. if present. with indirect fixtures that balance light throughout the room and soften shadows. Back lighting is performed in a two primary ways. It is also the most important light on the set as it provides the source of light from which the camera is calibrated as well as the other lighting on the set. Fill lighting is accomplished by using reflectors and diffusers such as soft boxes and other tools in the gaffer’s arsenal (the gaffer is the person in charge of lighting on a production set). back lighting is used. the background itself is lighted with less © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. This document is Cisco Public Information. Since reduction of this effect for better eye contact is desired. Second. This lighting gives the subject a sharp edge that is clearly brighter than the background and allows the subject to stand out. This allows for excellent illumination for prolonged durations without eyestrain. to provide additional separation of the subject from background.

as shown in Figure 7. If the subject is a person. depending on the location of the room within the building and the tasks performed within those areas. specific lighting may be used such as spot lighting. to perceive the separation of space and depth within the scene. Key and back lighting comes from the overhead lighting. It is also lit with subtle patterns or angles to provide reference points of focus for the camera. This document is Cisco Public Information. but technologies such as LED and CFL can provide accent lighting with lower power consumption. Levels of illumination for an office space usually range from 200 to 800 lux on the horizontal plane. This accurately identifies how much light is on the subject from the cameras’ perspective.) Office lighting provides the main lighting in conference rooms. still requires the use of direct-lighting fixtures. perpendicular to the floor and pointed towards the © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Creating visual interest. Page 15 of 70 . Commercial offices often incorporate other lighting such as indirect perimeter fixtures or smaller diffused ceiling lights to add ambient or general illumination. Lighting on the vertical plane is often not measured or considered in office environments but is necessary. Cisco TelePresence Lighting in Use There are two methods for measuring light levels in an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room: ● Facial lighting.Design Guide intensity than the subject in the foreground (sometimes this is referred to as the fourth light). This separation of subject and background can be further enhanced by adding wall wash lighting to the back wall. Point the light meter sensor at the camera from where the subject will be sitting or standing. Since the fixtures are mounted above the subject (in the ceiling or reflecting from the ceiling) this creates a natural top or rim light to the subject. (Office lighting is also known as task lighting. for Immersive Cisco TelePresence. In recent years. however. Application of Commercial Office Lighting to Cisco TelePresence The goal of illumination in a commercial office environment is to adequately illuminate the work surface or desktop as well as walking paths. offices. The standard commercial ceiling lights in a Cisco TelePresence room also help to accomplish this goal. All rights reserved. the natural gradation of light that is cast on the back wall as the light loses intensity from the ceiling to the floor creates a background that is illuminated properly to promote depth perception. Figure 7. the use of indirect fixtures for task and ambient lighting has become more common due to their efficiency and to reduce carbon footprint. and the main goal is to illuminate the meeting participants with enough light for the camera. or sconces. the light meter sensor is held to the persons face. which can help to make the participants stand out even more on camera. Also. and fill lighting comes from the Cisco TelePresence Immersive Endpoint. artwork. and ultimately the human eye. These fixtures often have more direct lighting than diffuse or indirect lighting. In areas where greater focus is wanted to highlight the display of items such as signage. walls washes. or simply for visual interest. Immersive Cisco TelePresence Lighting Immersive Cisco TelePresence lighting uses both video production and commercial lighting principles. along with lighting on the horizontal plane. and over cubicles.

which varies intensity Page 16 of 70 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. it takes into account additional factors and provides some flexibility in meeting required lighting levels. Measure facial lighting here. Lighting Control Systems Lighting controls consist of two basic types: ● ● Switching. Immersive Cisco TelePresence rooms should be designed with lighting that is: ● ● ● ● ● 4000 or 4100 Kelvin color temperature CRI index of 82 Evenly dispersed across the room and does not fluctuate more than 100 lux between room areas 300 to 400 lux on the vertical plane (facial lighting) 600 to 800 lux on the horizontal plane (shoulder lighting) It should also be noted that when the Room Remediation Assessment (RRA) for Immersive Cisco TelePresence is performed. parallel to the desk surface or floor. In other words. Point the meter at the ceiling. Measuring Lighting in a Cisco TelePresence Room Callout 1 2 3 Description Fill lighting comes from the Immersive Cisco TelePresence lighting façade. which turns lights on and off Dimming. Figure 8. Measure shoulder lighting here. it should not exceed twice that of the vertical plane lighting. Facial lighting should be 300-400 lux on the vertical plane. This document is Cisco Public Information. Key and back lighting comes from the overhead lighting. This type of measurement is commonly used in video production lighting and measures the vertical plane lighting. In summary. . (This type of measurement is commonly used in commercial lighting and measures horizontal plane lighting. ● Shoulder lighting.) Shoulder lighting should not exceed 600-800 lux.Design Guide camera.

Page 17 of 70 . Photocell Dimming Controls Photocell dimming controls adjust light output to maintain a specified level of illumination. or both. it is highly recommended that these systems be set to a single scene for the Cisco TelePresence environment. Photocell dimming is used by some of the most environmentally conscious companies around the world. Ultrasonic sensors emit an inaudible signal and detect motion by the reflection of that signal. With the correct wiring. Small offices usually require two zones of control. However. and or combination thereof. Switching is needed to turn lights on and off at appropriate times. Zoned control of three lamp lights yields three light levels. Time-of-Day Switching Time-of-day switching turns off lights according to scheduled occupancy. However. A good use of dimmers is to reduce light levels that are too high. Multi-level lighting ballasts permit zoned control without any of the lamps appearing dark. Each scene preset represents a different setting for the lights. and usually can be retrofitted. a dimming ballast to adjust the electric lighting. they function effectively in partitioned spaces. each separately switched. One switch provides half-level illumination as only half the lamps or half the luminaries are on. primary © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Sensors can be mounted on the ceiling or within a wall switch. you can control individual lights or sets of lights. such as private and executive offices with irregular occupancy patterns. automatic. and to be effective should be included in the basic architectural planning of a building. Indirect Lighting The physical design for illumination in an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room can be as simple or as elaborate as the organization wants as long as the technical specifications are met. Infrared sensors detect occupancy by changes in body-heat patterns. Zoned Switching Zoned switching is the simplest control strategy. or an entire building. that quickly raise light levels above recommended levels. and a processor to control the operation. a single office or a zone in a large space. Time-of-day switching is particularly useful in large open areas with fixed working hours and is usually part of a computer-driven building management system. take care when selecting a control system or dimmer solution so that it does not increase the ambient noise levels in the room. This document is Cisco Public Information. with a number of control zones specified in building codes. and ceiling tile reflectivity. and in working with local vendors to procure additional lighting as needed. That said. they suffer the least from nuisance tripping but require line of sight for proper operation and are not suitable around partitions. Two-level control is achieved by wiring alternate lamps in each fixture into two zones. number of light fixtures used. this type of dimming is still costly and complicated. ceiling height. Occupancy Sensors Occupancy sensors detect the presence or absence of occupants and turn lights on and off appropriately. Occupancy sensors are very cost effective in well-defined areas.Design Guide Both switching and dimming can be manual. not as an energy afterthought. Multiscene Preset Dimming Multiscene preset dimming systems control several groups of lights in such spaces as conference rooms and executive offices. They require a photocell to read the light level. and both switches on provides full intensity. and there are several factors such as room size. All rights reserved. Another option is to use multi-level lighting ballasts. However. Cisco has deliberately not identified specific lighting manufacturers or fixture model numbers so that organizations have the greatest flexibility in using or adapting existing fixtures. Various override techniques permit occupants to keep lights on when working late. Photocells can dim electric lighting in the presence of daylight or compensate for the loss in light as lamps age and dirt accumulates.

Design Guide

illumination of the room should be provided by indirect lighting fixtures because of the evenly distributed and diffuse lighting that these fixtures produce. Indirect/Direct Lighting Fixtures The most common indirect/direct fixture style is the center-basket fixture. The center basket refers to the lamp location residing in the center of the fixture and the lamp shield hanging below the lamps in the center of the fixture, as shown in the following figure:
Figure 9. Center-Basket Indirect/Direct Fixture

The other common indirect/direct fixture is the side-basket type where the lamps reside on each side of the fixture with two lamp shields hanging below the lamps on each side of the fixture, as shown in the following figure:
Figure 10. Side-Basket Indirect/Direct Fixture

These types of fixtures become indirect lighting fixtures when opaque lamp shields are used. However, this must be examined closely because lamp shields can be solid, perforated, micro-perforated, or louvered. If the lamp shield is solid the fixture will be an indirect fixture, which is the best type for a Cisco TelePresence room. If the lamp shield has any perforation or louvers, it is either direct or indirect/direct. Some manufacturers offer a choice in the lamp shield type, and the amount of direct light the fixture produces should be indicated in the fixture product specification sheet. If available, choose the solid lamp shield. Otherwise, you may accidentally be ordering an indirect/direct fixture instead. Indirect/Direct fixtures with perforated lower sections or louvers provide as much as 10 to 30 percent direct downward light. This amount of direct light can create issues similar and worse than those created by improperly placed direct fixtures. Indirect/Direct fixtures cannot be placed directly above participants or the Cisco TelePresence endpoint and still maintain a quality Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience. If you must use an indirect/direct fixture with a perforated lamp shield, ask the manufacture if they offer diffusers, which can be inserted into the lamp shield. Inserting an opaque diffuser into the lamp shield may control and reduce the percentage of direct light output. Also, diffusers affect the overall lux output of the fixture so be sure to calculate this variation when designing the lighting layout.

© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.

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Design Guide

Figure 11.

Recessed Indirect Lighting

If using recessed indirect lighting, Cisco recommends 2 x 2-foot (0.61 x 0.61-meter) or 2 x 4-foot (0.61 x 1.22-meter) panels. The main difference due to fixture size is illumination intensity; the smaller the size, the less intense the illumination. It will generally take twice as many 2 x 2-foot (0.61 x 0.61-meter) fixtures as 2 x 4-foot (0.61 x 1.22meter) fixtures to provide the same amount of illumination. However, there is a greater flexibility in placement when using 2 x 2-foot (0.61 x 0.61-meter) fixtures. If there are obstructions within a ceiling, the smaller fixtures are more easily installed. Also, since the participants sit at a curved table, it is easier to follow that curvature when using 2 x 2foot (0.61 x 0.61-meter) fixtures. Following the table curvature is not required, but can improve the even dispersion of light. Recessed indirect lighting should not be placed directly above the Cisco TelePresence endpoint or participant seating locations. Instead, offset the lighting fixtures from the Cisco TelePresence endpoint and seating locations as shown in the following figures:
Figure 12. Recessed Indirect Lighting Layout Example

© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.

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Design Guide

Figure 13.

2 x 4-Foot (0.61 x 1.22 Meter) Recessed Indirect Lighting Layout Following Curve of Table

Figure 14.

2 x 2-Foot (0.61 x 0.61-Meter) Recessed Indirect Lighting Layout Following Curve of Table

© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.

Page 20 of 70

Page 21 of 70 . Example of Pendant-Style Indirect-Lighting Fixture This type of lighting fixture is becoming more common across commercial office spaces because of its efficient ability to provide very evenly diffused light across a large space. When using an indirect pendant lighting fixture. Cisco recommends the use of acoustic ceiling tiles when possible with a 70 to 90 percent LRV. The LRV is also a large factor in the choice of lamp wattage. and the lamp is oriented upward.Design Guide Pendant-Style Indirect-Lighting Fixtures Another type of indirect-lighting fixture is a pendant-style fixture as shown in the following figure: Figure 15. This type of lighting fixture is designed to hang 12 to 18 inches (0.46 meters) below the ceiling (but not limited to that distance). It should be noted that these fixtures are very effective in achieving illumination in a non-invasive manner but do have some drawbacks. The closer a fixture is mounted to the ceiling. The distance of the fixture from the ceiling can drastically change the overall illumination of the entire room and must be considered when deciding the height at which the fixtures will hang from the ceiling. tabletop. the reflective properties of the ceiling must also be considered. these fixtures perform very well for Immersive Cisco TelePresence rooms. projection screen. Example of Pendant-Style Indirect-Lighting Fixtures in Use Note: High ceilings are ideal when using a pendant-type lighting fixture. It is safer to over-light a room and use a dimmer in the lighting controls than to install too little lighting and have to redesign the room to install more illumination. For that same reason. The performance of this fixture highly depends on its placement and the reflectivity of the ceiling.30 to 0. reflecting its light output off the ceiling to illuminate the rest of the room. All rights reserved. the greater the intensity of light that is cast onto the ceiling and reflected below. it will have a specific LRV. and place the second front-most fixture far enough behind the © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. This document is Cisco Public Information. Figure 16. placement location in the ceiling is a critical factor. Incidental direct light can be cast from the ceiling onto the plasma screens. or participant’s heads and shoulders. Whether the ceiling is a painted hard surface or consists of commercial acoustic tiles. place the first front-most lighting fixture close enough to the endpoint so that any direct reflections will not hit the plasma or LCD screens. When working with pendant fixtures. Lowering the fixture from the ceiling lowers the intensity of the illumination. Therefore.

If there is too much contrast. One way to manage this situation is to add some recessed can lights or pendant spotlights to illuminate the back wall. All rights reserved. This situation can result in a dark back wall and shadows in the back corners. and fixture performance. the image will have great detail but may look flat because the human eye and video cameras require a reference point or change in lighting to distinguish the difference between the foreground and the background. ceiling reflectivity. Page 22 of 70 . especially in larger rooms. or if the shadows are overly dark. you may not get even coverage of light across the back wall with indirect fixtures. lamp wattage. if the room and back wall are lighted exactly the same. However. Accent Lighting © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Figure 18. This document is Cisco Public Information. number of lamps. the Cisco TelePresence video codec has a challenge in encoding the video and may lower the video quality transmitted. Actual distance depends on ceiling height. Indirect Pendant Lighting Layout Example Accent Lighting Often.Design Guide front-row participants to avoid direct light on the tops of the heads of the participants. The following figure shows an example placement of Indirect Pendant Lighting: Figure 17.

© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Another type of accent lighting that can add visual interest is a wall sconce. and provides a third element of light which boosts the camera’s perception of depth while lowering overall contrast. However. These are not generally placed in a room for added light but instead are an aesthetic finish providing character to the room.Design Guide Direct lighting pointed at a wall itself is known as ‘wall wash’ and can dramatically improve the overall look and quality of the video. sconces can be used as desired. etc. Cisco does not recommend this type of fixture for wall wash because they provide a blanket of light that can produce flat-looking video. Asymmetric fixtures are commonly used for video communication applications such as Cisco TelePresence because they provide a very even distribution of light on the participants without spilling light onto the displays.. it increases the detail of the background. furniture. This document is Cisco Public Information. Wall Wash When wall wash is introduced. Asymmetrical Lighting Fixtures Another type of recessed indirect fixture that has not been discussed is an asymmetrical fixture. These fixtures are identical to the recessed indirect fixtures previously discussed but with one unique feature: they produce a greater amount of light in one direction versus the other direction. As long as this type of fixture does not produce hotspots (bright areas above 800 lux) within the camera view. These are available in any number of designs and light outputs. If a customer chooses to incorporate signage. Any light cast on a display (especially plasma screens) can wash out the on-screen image. wall hangings. Not only will the participants be very distinct from the background. This results in high video quality with great detail and low contrast. fills in shadows. Figure 19. All rights reserved. the wall wash accent lighting can be directed to specifically call added attention to these elements. pictures. but the background will have greater interest. The other common use of such fixtures is for wall wash. Page 23 of 70 . Wall wash can also be used to enhance or call attention to specific elements of room design.

All rights reserved. the basic rules for Cisco TelePresence lighting still apply. but this lighting plays an important role in the overall comfort of the room.Design Guide An asymmetric fixture has only one lamp and one lamp shield. In these cases. In some cases. This configuration is acceptable and very efficient. It may seem odd that it is important to provide illumination behind the displays. Since this method of lighting requires a © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. in a room that uses asymmetric fixtures. This light reflects off the ceiling (usually a matte white) and illuminates the entire room very evenly. These are usually built into the ceiling or walls during construction and have hidden. This effect can be enhanced by the use of highly reflective ceiling tiles. Good lighting can be achieved through many different designs. Asymmetric Dispersion of Light Callout 1 Description Opaque or microperforated lamp shield in an asymmetric lighting fixture. Page 24 of 70 . the wall behind the displays can be painted white and the rest of the room painted with the standard Cisco recommended colors to reflect more light off the wall behind the displays. However. on only one side of the fixture as shown in the following figure: Figure 20. Ceiling Soffits and Lighting Coves In many instances a Cisco TelePresence endpoint may be installed in an executive environment that must maintain a specific look and feel. A common design that has custom appeal and sophistication and yet yields results that meet the requirements for Cisco TelePresence lighting are ceiling soffits or lighting coves. Providing illumination on the wall behind the displays through bounced light or wall wash relieves this strain and promotes the vividness of the displays. asymmetrical fixtures are often placed in configurations similar to those of standard recessed indirect lights but slightly forward of the participants for even illumination and bounced light off the wall behind the displays. Figure 21. indirect fixtures that illuminate upward to fill the ceiling with light. The contrast of a dark cavity behind the displays and bright displays in the front can strain the eye. Therefore. This document is Cisco Public Information. a more liberal lighting design can be used. Asymmetric Side Basket (One Side Only) A limitation of asymmetrical lighting fixtures is that they do not provide illumination behind the displays when they are properly oriented.

Design Guide cove to be built around the perimeter of the room. The general rule is to use dimmable indirect lighting for Cisco TelePresence rooms but the details are up to the designer. Use of dimmable ballasts and dimmers is highly recommended to adjust the intensity of fluorescent lamps without needing to precisely calculate the proper number and wattages of fixtures. indirect fluorescent lighting fixtures are ideal and provide the best results for ambience and amount of dispersed lighting. Conclusion Regardless of fixture choices. This combinationcan produce a great amount of light at a lower wattage. This shift has manifested in local building code changes that reduce the overall wattage budget for commercial lighting. This document is Cisco Public Information. If this is the case for your Immersive Cisco TelePresence room. use of asymmetrical fixtures in combination with a high-output ballast and lamps is the most efficient solution. it easily lends itself to the addition of wall-wash fixtures as well. This is just one of many designs that can be developed to illuminate a Cisco TelePresence room. This can affect your Cisco TelePresence environment because lighting is a critical factor and the local code may restrict your ability to provide adequate lighting. This lighting design provides an elegant look within the room and produces ideal lighting for excellent video. 4000/4100 Kelvin fluorescent lights are recommended to match the built-in Cisco TelePresence endpoint lighting. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Page 25 of 70 . Figure 22. Ceiling Soffit and Wall Wash Use in Cisco TelePresence Lighting Design Energy Efficiency Recently there has been a change in general commercial lighting design due to the motivation of reducing energy usage and environmental impact. Color temperature is also a very important factor as it helps to unify the environment and provide a higher-quality experience. All rights reserved.

and ambient and outside noise. in a concert hall. You do not even have to see the participant to notice the loss of continuity. or average power. These undesirable effects are often due to noise from airflow from heating and cooling systems. or intermittent exterior noise from outside or adjacent rooms. pressure of a particular sound relative to silence at 0dB. resulting in false switching to a participant who is not speaking. a speaker system. If one room is very quiet and subdued. which is the specific dB level of multiple octave-band center frequencies. Microphone placement and the location of the speaker in relation to the microphone also affect sound quality. hard surfaces in a room. Therefore. To achieve this objective special emphasis is laid on acoustic elements such as ambient noise. Instantly there is a loss of continuity in the meeting. and not the audience. This measurement is not required for reviewing Cisco TelePresence environments unless unique issues are present. but the cell phone participant is distant. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. high quality rooms with good acoustics. Alternatively. when designing a room. The acoustic characteristics of a room prior to preparation for Cisco TelePresence may promote sound that is muffled. In extreme cases where acoustic factors are not remediated. Imagine being in a Cisco TelePresence conference and the other TelePresence participants all have similar. The acoustic characteristics of a room require close attention during the room selection and design process. The Cisco TelePresence meeting participants can all still hear and understand each other. the audio-detection algorithms used to facilitate switching in multipoint meetings can be adversely affected. Now a cell phone participant is conferenced in. All rights reserved. adjust the other rooms to that sound quality. Related to SPL is a more detailed measurement called the noise criteria (NC). This measurement is highly useful in understanding the sound within an environment. make sure that other rooms have a similar sound quality. For example. where 0 dB is the threshold of human hearing. especially in troubleshooting complicated acoustics. Sound quality can vary dramatically depending on environmental factors such as the size of the room. Page 26 of 70 . Acoustics are an important characteristic of any meeting space regardless of the involvement of audio-video systems. the orchestra and performers on stage are the desired source of sound. SPL can also be described as a logarithmic measurement of the root mean square (RMS). Sound Pressure Level in Decibels The intensity or amplitude of sound is measured in terms of sound pressure level (SPL). Acoustic Theory and Background This section discusses how to preserve and modify sound waves for an accurate and ideal Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience. or any other instrument. an acoustic scale independent of frequency and expressed in decibels (dB). reverberation. intelligibility of sound can be preserved or impeded based on the acoustics of the environment. and sound isolation. in which case it can be used in addition to dB SPL. with acoustic panels on the wall. consider its acoustic features. Cisco focuses on dB SPL for room assessment and remediation. This document is Cisco Public Information. cutting in and out and talking over background noise with overall bad audio quality. Proper acoustics allow the environment to preserve and deliver sound with clarity and accuracy to the human ear from the desired source.Design Guide Acoustics Acoustics also play a major role in continuity and Immersive Cisco TelePresence room design. or delay in switching to a participant who is speaking. reverberation. Whether the source is a person. Preservation of spatial audio is critical to maintain a life-like virtual meeting. or choppy. reverberant. if the sound quality in one room is bright and lively.

Design Guide The SPL of an enclosed environment can be measured by taking the average amplitude of all sound frequencies across the entire environment. as shown in the following figure. A sound with a low frequency has a low pitch. This document is Cisco Public Information. The ears receive various sounds and vibrations from the environment that carry details referencing time and space. while a sound with a high frequency will have a high pitch. the distance at which the measurement is taken from the sound source must also be noted. and therefore. if you were to measure the sound from an HVAC diffuser. Figure 23. For example. The number of vibrations or cycles per second produced is called the frequency of the sound. Human Hearing Humans have a limited range of frequencies in which they can hear. the following table describes the type of sounds that reside in the different frequency ranges. which is known as the human hearing range. These frequencies are measured in hertz (Hz). Measuring Sound from an HVAC System in a Cisco TelePresence Room Callout 1 Description Sound measurement device Human Range of Hearing Frequencies Hearing is one of two human senses that Cisco TelePresence stimulates to evoke the feeling of sharing the same place and time. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. The human ear is generally sensitive to sound waves with frequencies in the range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. If the measurement is 45 dB. Sound dissipates over distance. All rights reserved. then it should be noted as 45 dB at 1 meter from the source. such as a piccolo. Page 27 of 70 . such as a large drum. you would hold the acquisition microphone 1 meter from the vent and take the SPL reading in dB. For reference.

the range of lower and upper bass notes. it is should be understood what or who is doing the hearing. a 250-Hz sound wave at 60 dB seems more quiet to a person than a 2 kHz sound wave at the same decibel level. When sound is measured on a scientific quantitative level. for example 4kHz. more likely to be felt rather than heard. the human ear does not have a flat spectral response to all sound pressure levels. it is different than when humans are the ones doing the hearing. Scientific Measurement and Human Perception of Sound Scientific Quantitative Specific Frequency of a Sound Wave. is that the human perception is not a linear scale and ultimately quite complex. Range in which plosive and sibilant sounds reside and give more presence to voice. the commonly used weighting schemes (or filters) are A-weighting and C-weighting. All rights reserved. very loud or with high volume. sound pressure levels are frequency weighted so that the measured level matches the perceived levels more closely. These are the critical voice frequencies. An A-weighted sound pressure level is expressed as SPL dBA. Figure 24. Frequency Range 20 to 32 Hz 32 to 90 Hz 512 Hz to 2. In scientific terms.5 kHz 3 to 8 kHz 8 to 20 kHz When hearing is discussed. Frequency Response of the Human Ear In sound processing. Upper thresholds of human hearing. This document is Cisco Public Information. Generally. Rhythm frequencies. This filter can be used to measure peak noise © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Sounds in Various Frequency Ranges Sound The human threshold of hearing. Therefore. Using the A-weighting filter on a sound pressure meter attempts to match the meters response to that of the human ear. The C-weighted filter is flatter and better matches the human ear’s response to lower frequencies at a greater amplitude. Measurement Frequency of sound Amplitude of sound The main reason to understand this difference in the quantitative characteristics of sound and the human perception of sound. Amplitude of air pressure created by sound waves.Design Guide Table 1. for example 90 dB SPL. For example. for example a high pitched sound. Human Perception Tone or Pitch. Loudness or Volume of the Sound. The following table contains examples of these two methods. Range of most human speech. the lower range of frequencies has a lower perception of volume in comparison to higher frequencies. including tones like bells and cymbals. for example. scientific and human hearing. Page 28 of 70 . in the measurement of sound: Table 2. known as also as psychoacoustics.

In a Cisco TelePresence environment. which is the lowest frequency produced by a source. sounds which are 20 to 30 dBA lower than the human voice can still be heard. For sound to be intelligible. so it is important to measure this range in any environment where human speech is the primary source of audio. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. and multiples of that frequency.Design Guide levels that low frequency machinery may make. It is not the volume of the voice but the distinct personality of the voice that is lost. This reflection of sound is called reverberation. it will be audible for a period and eventually fall off to a point that it becomes inaudible or silent. This is not a specific requirement for Immersive Cisco TelePresence but a fact related to the quality of human hearing and speech intelligibility. These frequencies can reside above and below the critical voice frequencies. Another element of human voice that is important (and subject to the amplitude differences explained above) is harmonics. This can be defined as the root-mean-square (RMS) value of the human voice and the area of greatest amplitude. the amplitude of the intended source must be at least 20 to 30 dBA higher than that of the background and ambient sounds. both the A-weighted and C-weighted sound pressure levels are measured in various zones of the room over a preset interval. if human speech is 60 to 65 dBA on average.) Human Speech A very interesting fact is that the range of human hearing is much broader than the range of human speech. It is within this range that the perceived volume or loudness of a person’s voice is measured. however they are considered unintelligible and the human brain will tend to ignore these sounds. The greater the amplitude of the background noise. which is not discussed in this guide. the harder for the human ear to discern the difference between it and the human voice and to hear accurately. Harmonics are important because they provide richness and add personality to each individual voice. the human voice ranges from only about 500 Hz to 2 kHz. Page 29 of 70 . Reverberation When sound waves are generated in an enclosed environment. they continue to reflect from surface to surface until the energy is completely absorbed. Note: For more detailed information on this subject. As the sound reflects within the environment. In addition. Of course. research the equal-loudness contour. and in this case the voice must be this much louder than the background noise. Therefore. This document is Cisco Public Information. The sound pressure level measured with C-weighted filtering is expressed as SPL dBC. Harmonics consist of the fundamental frequency. Human speech on average is at an amplitude between 60-65 dBA SPL. the background sounds should be lower than 40 to 45 dBA. That is why it is often hard to discern who is speaking in a loud environment. This range of human speech is further defined as the critical voice frequency range. these frequencies are the first to be affected by competing sounds in the background noise. (Your Cisco TelePresence or Video Advanced Technology Certified Partner is trained to perform this type of assessment. All rights reserved.

and since Cisco TelePresence is generally located in a meeting room in which the human voice is the main source of audio. an ideal sound-quality design preserves the human range of frequencies and isolates this range from interruptions. Page 30 of 70 . Ideal conditions for human speech intelligibility are an RT60 value of 300 to 500 milliseconds for all frequencies between 125 Hz and 4 kHz. All rights reserved.can be detrimental to speech intelligibility. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Measuring RT60 requires the generation of enough sounds waves (usually pink noise or chirps) to fill an environment and then a pause in the sound generation. Echo is defined similarly to reverberation with one important difference: echo occurs only when the reflection of sound reaches the same location as the original source of the sound.too much reverberation or too little . This measurement is very effective in predicting the sound quality of an environment. An extreme in either direction . This document is Cisco Public Information.Design Guide Figure 25. the rate at which the sound decays by 60 dB describes the RT60. At the pause. Reverberation Reverberation is measured as the rate of time for sound to decay by 60 decibels (RT60). Echo Reverberation and echo are different phenomena.

Echo Reverberation and Echo in Cisco TelePresence Rooms A common problem with rooms larger than the Cisco recommended dimensions is excessive reverberation. Large rooms with smooth surface areas such as glass or long parallel walls reflect more sound and in some cases create a noticeable echo. system echo. System echo is generally caused when a loud sound from the speaker has a prolonged RT60 value that is ultimately reflected to the microphone. very reverberant environments may cause phantom video switching.Design Guide Figure 26. a buildup of reflections or a sustained reflection of sound may occasionally last longer than the threshold of the echo cancellation. or no person is speaking. This document is Cisco Public Information. rooms with hard floors or hard-finished ceilings have more reverberation due to the increased hard-surface areas present. in that particular segment. The echo cancellation within the Cisco TelePresence codec is specifically designed to eliminate this effect. This effect is rare and requires very high levels of reverberation. It is often triggered by a flutter echo or standing sine wave in the path of the microphones. coupled with a very loud sound source such as ● © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. however. or a gating effect on the sound in the Cisco TelePresence system. This effect requires a significant level of reverberation in the voice frequency range. giving the room a ‘boomy’ or ‘echoy’ effect. It can be caused by two parallel hard surface walls on either sides of the room and exaggerated by a highly reverberant sound environment. All rights reserved. Page 31 of 70 . retuning it to the original source. In addition to creating a noisy environment that is uncomfortable for human hearing and interferes with speech intelligibility. If reverberation levels increase beyond 700 milliseconds (ms) in the critical voice frequency range. the Cisco TelePresence endpoint may not perform as desired. These issues are defined as follows: ● Phantom switching describes the action of a video segment switching into the call when no person is present. Additionally. Generally reverberation is more of a concern for participants in the room than for the audio being shared with the other side of the Immersive Cisco TelePresence meeting.

Figure 27. the more the reverberation. such as multiple angles in a room. The effect of reverberation on the sound quality of an environment and the intelligibility of human speech is generally defined as lively or flat: environments with longer reverberation times are called lively. the more the reverberation. Also. It may also be perceived as lower volume. This document is Cisco Public Information. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. the buildup of sound reflections in a reverberant environment can simulate the increase of ambient noise. orientation. However. the greater the number of hard surfaces. can also promote higher reverberation times. sound will echo and be difficult to discern. Very high ceilings can also cause this phenomenon. and objects in the environment. Page 32 of 70 . In general. the sound reflections multiply. It may also have a higher perceived volume. System echo occurs most often in environments with glass walls or large windows. All rights reserved. This effect is usually caused by the presence of loud ambient or background noise in excess of 55 dBA. and those with shorter reverberation times are called flat. creating a perceived loudness in which people begin to speak louder to be heard over the reflections. construction and finish of materials.Design Guide yelling for longer than thirty seconds. The sound quality will lose its presence and become dull or drab. ● Gating or suppression of sound occurs when the noise cancellation within the system can no longer distinguish between the background noise and speech. Lively Sound Environments In a very lively environment. Lively Sound Environment Flat Sound Environments A very flat sound environment will eliminate the harmonics that give speech its uniqueness and personality. The most common factors are size. the larger the space. This cycle continues until the ambient sound levels are increased to an excessive level. Many factors pertain to the reverberation time within an environment. As people talk in a reverberant environment. Other characteristics.

For example. The construction materials of the environment directly relate to the amount of sound isolation an environment has. Specifically. and 4 kHz. Sound quality is very much dependant on the construction of the room environment.Design Guide Figure 28. 500 Hz. This document is Cisco Public Information. Page 33 of 70 . then a sound that is 60 dB will diminish to 20 dB by the time it transfers from one room to the next. 2 kHz. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 250 Hz. STC describes how much a sound will be diminished as it travels through the material at each of the following frequencies: 125 Hz. if a wall has an STC of 40. 1 kHz. Sound Transmission Class The sound transmission class (STC) is a single-number rating of a construction material’s ability to prevent the transmission of sound waves. Flat Sound Environment Building for Acoustic Isolation This section discusses the factors that pertain to the sound isolation and privacy of the environment.

separation of structural elements. acoustic paneling. Page 34 of 70 . The NRC value does not relate directly to STC. Ultimately the sound will be much lower and unintelligible but still audible. An NRC of 0 indicates no absorption. walls in commercial office spaces have an STC rating near 40.Design Guide Figure 29. Therefore. whereas the AC has a rating for each frequency from 125 Hz to 4 kHz. and absorbent insulation. which is used to rate some acoustic materials. As a general rule. it relates closely to the absorption coefficient (AC). Is unintelligibility of the transmitted sound good enough. NRC is generally used to rate carpeting. whereas an NRC of 1 indicates complete absorption of sound. The difference is that the NRC is a single-number value. This is where the decision must be made regarding the amount of privacy that is desired. the walls should have a minimum rating of 65 STC. This type of sound isolation requires materials that are denser than normal. This document is Cisco Public Information. or when trying to reduce a very specific © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. you need to double the existing material to increase the STC rating by 5. ceiling tile. Sound Transmission Through Walls Callout 1 2 3 Description Sound reaches wall at 60 dB SPL Wall rated at 40 STC Sound transmitted through wall at 20 dB SPL Generally. Noise-Reduction Coefficient The noise-reduction coefficient (NRC) is a single-number rating that represents the amount of sound energy that a surface will absorb. Taking into consideration the discussion regarding human speech levels. acoustic materials such as sound barriers and acoustic paneling are better means of improving isolation than is doubling the thickness of existing walls. This level of accuracy is good to have when looking at materials that have vastly different absorbent characteristics at different frequencies. this means that human speech will diminish from 60-65 dB to 20-25 dB by the time it passes through the wall. or does your organization want the sound to be completely inaudible? If inaudibility is desired. and other treatments and soundabsorbing materials. however. All rights reserved.

Acoustic Paneling to Reduce Reverberation and Sound Transmission Callout 1 Description Sound being absorbed by an acoustic panel. Office Environment Acoustic Concerns and Resolutions Most commercial office environments are not built with acoustics in mind. and can be resolved with the elements below. IIC rating measures the resistance to the transmission of impact noise such as footfalls. Impact Insulation Class The impact insulation class (IIC) is a rating similar to STC but is specific to flooring and ceilings.75 or greater. Carpet can perform some of the same remediation functions as acoustic paneling when echoes off the flooring or sound transmission through the floor cause problems. These types of floors are made of materials such as wood. most acoustic issues fall into these two categories. however. The IIC rating represents the amount of sound energy required to transfer sound through a structure. The one place this measurement is important is in an environment with raised flooring such as technical floors. For a room that needs acoustic remediation. An IIC rating of 40 would require more than 40 decibels of sound energy to travel through a structure. Cisco recommends using acoustic panels with an NRC rating of 0. and the use of an NRC value should be sufficient in most situations. Two common issues discovered in commercial room environments are ambient sound levels that are too high and reverberation levels that are too great. or porcelain that may add echoes or more easily transmit sound. This approach enables a relatively small number of panels to be used for highly efficient sound remediation. and dropped items. Figure 30.Design Guide frequency within a space. chairs dragging. metal. Each environment is unique and has its own idiosyncrasies. These scenarios are rare occurrences. Page 35 of 70 . This document is Cisco Public Information. All rights reserved. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

However. such as when background levels exceed 55 dBA for a sustained period of time. or kitchens) The first step is to identify the source of the sound. The Cisco TelePresence system will continue to operate properly with background noise at even higher levels. Cisco recommends lowering background noise to at least 45 dBA and 60 dBC. use the following tables to troubleshoot the cause and apply a remedy. ultimately causing the system to suppress most sound because it identifies that sound as background noise. In extreme cases. Page 36 of 70 . Shorten the path of the ducting and use sweeps rather than 90 degree turns. Add sound-dampening material to the ceiling to reduce sound transference from the ducting into the room. If ambient noise levels are too high. This level is an ideal threshold for background noise in most audio-video communication environments. All rights reserved. Encase the ducting in a sound enclosure and use sound-dampening materials. The most common causes of background noise are as follows: ● ● ● ● Noise from HVAC air movement Noise from HVAC machinery or other machinery External sounds such as street traffic Adjacent room noise (server rooms. break rooms. Symptom Whooshing or whistling sound coming from vent or diffuser Noise from Air Movement Possible Issue Inappropriate diffuser type Velocity of airflow is too great Too many bends in the ducting Whooshing sound above the ceiling but not from the diffusers Velocity of airflow is too great Too many bends in the ducting Ducting does not contain sound dampening Possible Resolution Change diffuser to a plaque style diffuser that is NC30 rated. sound levels are usually higher in a commercial office environment. the sound quality begins to suffer. The Cisco TelePresence system may be able to filter out the background noise for participants at the other end of the call. and these noises become distracting for participants. who must endure a meeting in a loud environment. but the in-room experience is still degraded for the local participants. Add a sound-dampening liner to the ducting. This document is Cisco Public Information. Noise from Air Movement Table 3. bathrooms. Increase the number of supply diffusers or increase the size of the ducting. Background noise above 45 dBA begins to compete with the intelligibility of human speech. Because of this. gating or soundsuppression effects may occur in the Cisco TelePresence audio. These effects occur when the system can no longer distinguish between background noise and speech. Once this has been identified. however. a path for remediation can be defined. Increase the number of supply diffusers or increase the size of the ducting Shorten the path of the ducting and use sweeps rather than 90 degree turns. Environment requires high air velocity © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates.Design Guide High Ambient Noise Levels The background noise level should be less than 36 dBA and 54 dBC for a Cisco TelePresence room.

This document is Cisco Public Information. Noise from plumbing of adjacent bathroom or kitchen Wet walls inherently have noise © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Use the following table to identify possible resolutions if this is an issue. make sure the walls extend to the structural deck and provide insulation to the ceiling. this can be a more difficult to remediate. in some instances. relocate the air handler. Relocate the air handler if possible. ● Cover windows with acoustic paneling backed with insulation.62 cm) and build another dense wall with soundbarrier material. or above. and if the air handler is located adjacent to the room. Table 5. ● Cover windows with drywall and include adequate insulation. the room Air handler is located close to the room Possible Resolution Move the VAV unit to the hallway or over another room. Other mechanical component (not HVAC related) Walls are vibrating and a humming sound is present Air handler or main duct is located near or above the room Noise from Adjacent Rooms Often rooms are located near an adjacent space that generates noise at a level that can become disruptive to the meeting room. Make sure the wall extends to the structural deck. Table 4. However. Refer to the following table to remediate noise from adjacent environments. Page 37 of 70 . ● Plant trees and shrubs outside the window to reduce sounds. ● Leave a large air gap (3 inches or 7. If this room must be used.Design Guide Noise from Machinery If the source of the noise is from HVAC machinery rather than HVAC airflow. Otherwise. ● Cover windows with heavy drapery. provide additional insulation to the ceiling. these rooms must be used due to limitations on available space or proximity to intended users. Generally these types of issues should be identified during the room selection process and help determine whether or not to use that room. make sure the wall extends to the structural deck. Avoid using this room for immersive Cisco TelePresence. and if the air handler is located over the room. you may not be able to resolve this issue. Options include: ● Double the drywall and include a soundbarrier material to help reduce the sound of a wet wall. If not. All rights reserved. Symptom Humming or clicking sound when the air handler is on Noise from HVAC Machinery Possible Issue Variable air volume (VAV) unit installed too close to. Symptom Noise from street traffic through windows Noise from Adjacent Environments Possible Issue Windows do not have a high enough STC rating Possible Resolution Options include: ● Replace windows with higher STC rated windows such as dual-pane windows. If not. If other mechanical sounds cannot be relocated.

Excessive glass walls or windows © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. blinds. However. ● Install acoustic panels to the opposing walls from the floor to the ceiling so there are no parallel hard surfaces. so reverberation is decreased as well.62 cm) and build another inner wall with sound-barrier material. By effectively decreasing the room size. Issue Larger than recommended room size Common Reverberation Issues and Resolutions Possible Resolutions Options include: ● Decrease the room size with a wall or acoustic partition (this is the optimum way to decrease reverberation). These panels can be double-sided to maintain visual appeal. ● Provide insulation to the wall. ● Add acoustic panels to the walls. Noise from adjacent break room or workspace Voices heard through walls or over the ceiling through the ceiling tiles Sound heard through door Door does not have adequate STC rating Options include: Door jam does not have acoustic gasket or skirt ● Replace the door with heavier material with a higher STC rating. Page 38 of 70 . if the room selected has significant reverberation issues. and so reduce the number of parallel hard surfaces that face each other in the room. ● Install acoustic paneling in both rooms to absorb some sound. or other window treatments which are both light blocking and sound absorbing. ● Install acoustic paneling in the server room to absorb some sound.Design Guide Symptom Noise from adjacent server or mechanical room Possible Issue Machine noise creates a humming and may cause noise cancellation of lower frequencies Possible Resolution Options include: ● Ensure that the wall is attached to the structural deck of the ceiling. ● Cover windows with drywall and finish with fabric acoustic panels. The addition of chairs and participants also reduces overall reverberation. All rights reserved. ● Adhere acoustic panels to the windows or glass walls. the common resolutions are described in the table below: Table 6. Reverberation Remediation The Cisco TelePresence Immersive endpoint itself can reduce reverberation levels simply by being installed in what was empty space because Cisco TelePresence Immersive endpoints tend to be physically large and curved in form factor. Be sure to place panels so that no two parallel flat. Options include: ● Cover windows with drapes. the amount of wall surface that creates reverberation is decreased. ● Place the Cisco TelePresence endpoint in front of the windows. Options include: ● Make sure that the wall is attached to the structural deck. ● Provide insulation above the ceiling in both rooms. ● Install a sound gasket on the door jam and add a skirt to the door. ● Provide insulation above the ceiling in both rooms. ● Double the drywall and include a soundbarrier material to help reduce the sound of a wet wall. blackout shades. unpaneled surfaces remain facing each other. ● Provide insulation to the wall. ● Double the drywall and include a soundbarrier material to help reduce the sound of a wet wall. This document is Cisco Public Information. ● Leave a large air gap (3 inches) and build another inner wall with sound-barrier material. ● Leave an air gap (3 inches or 7.

Page 39 of 70 . For this type of issue. ● Replace the ceiling with an acoustic tile ceiling or install an acoustic ceiling below the hardsurface ceiling. This option is the best and least invasive approach for reducing reverberation. or high ceilings. ● Lower the ceiling to help reduce reverberation. Figure 31. or how completely.Design Guide Issue Hard-surface flooring Possible Resolutions Options include: ● Replace or cover the flooring with carpeting. As mentioned previously. in rare instances. phantom switching can be noticed in lively room environments. How much. For floor sound remediation. This document is Cisco Public Information. windows. The placement of acoustic panels on one or both side walls will eliminate the parallel hard surfaces and. ● Strategically place fabric acoustic panels in the room. These can be placed in an alternating pattern on the walls around the room. These panels may need to reach from the floor to the ceiling. there is a need to eliminate the flutter echo or standing sine wave between the two side walls. eliminate this issue. ● Install a sectional acoustic ceiling or floating acoustic panels in the ceiling along with fabric acoustic panels on the walls. you add acoustic paneling depends on how much sound needs to be remediated in the selected room. Hard-surface ceilings High ceilings Acoustic Panel Placement The following images represent a progression of acoustic-panel treatments from minimal through complete floor-toceiling treatments. The goal is to remove any remaining parallel hard surfaces in the room. more panels can be used. Acoustic Panels on Opposite Walls Only In situations with many hard surfaces. these panels may need to extend from the floor to the ceiling. ● Install a sectional acoustic ceiling or floating acoustic panels in the ceiling cavity along with fabric acoustic panels on the walls. as shown in the following figure: © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Options include: ● Cover walls with fabric acoustic paneling from the floor to the ceiling. Options include: ● Strategically place fabric acoustic panels in the room. in turn. All rights reserved.

However. this approach produces a very flat sound environment and should not be used if significant reverberation is not already present in the room. Acoustic Panels Covering Most of the Wall Surfaces In rooms with large glass walls or hard-surface ceilings (such as drywall or smooth plaster ceilings). If this is the case.Design Guide Figure 32. This approach provides more sound absorption. All rights reserved. as shown in the following figure: Figure 33. lower the overall vertical length of the panel to allow some reverberation. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. so the room may begin to sound too flat. Page 40 of 70 . it may be beneficial to continue the acoustic panels or fabric coverings from the floor to the ceiling. This document is Cisco Public Information. Acoustic Panels Strategically Placed on Walls Some organizations do not like having gaps in the panels and prefer a more symmetrical solution. Use of a track system with the acoustic fabric to continue the material around the room can accommodate this preference.

All rights reserved. wall hangings. plants. Page 41 of 70 . This document is Cisco Public Information. Immersive Cisco TelePresence rooms require close attention to room acoustics during the selection and design process to ensure that acoustic quality and sufficient sound isolation are achieved. and other décor to a room can also significantly reduce reverberation in a room. Any items that provide additional reflection and absorption of sound reduce overall reverberation. Conclusion Acoustics are an important element in Immersive Cisco TelePresence room design. Acoustic Panels Covering Walls Completely Adding furniture.Design Guide Figure 34. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

30 BTUs of cooling are needed for every square foot (or 0.05 x 6. As a general rule. For example.53 cubic meters per minute. electrical equipment inside a room also raises the cooling requirements. Also. In most commercial office environments. a ventilation system should change the air in the room once every 10 minutes.41 = 6000 BTUs of cooling required Another detail to consider is the length of time the space is occupied per use. The main purpose of an HVAC system is to maintain indoor air quality and regulate temperature for both people and equipment. a 160-CFM exhaust fan is required for the room (or one exhaust fan that can move 4.09 meters squared). including outside normal working business hours. and Air Conditioning for CiscoTelePresence Heating. each person in a room accounts for approximately an additional 225 BTUs of heat. use this calculation: 1600 cubic feet / 10 minutes = 160 cubic feet per minute (CFM) 45. most use at least one or more HVAC systems in their facilities.61 square meters x 322.31 cubic meters / 10 minutes = 4. the Immersive Cisco TelePresence room should have independent HVAC controls so the system can be used at any time.53 cubic meters per minute Therefore. an important integrated element of any building is the management of air quality and temperature through HVAC systems. Additionally. when many international meetings are held. General Rules for HVAC The ventilation required in a room depends on many factors such as the frequency with which the room is used and the number of people normally using the room. Note: For HVAC definitions. and air conditioning (HVAC) is an important element of your Cisco TelePresence environment and should be considered at the onset of your room selection process.10-meter = 18.44-meter) ceiling height (which is 1600 cubic feet or 45. All rights reserved. The goal of an HVAC system in an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room is to ensure that the room is comfortable for its participants while providing ventilation and compensating for the heat generated by the Cisco TelePresence endpoint. a small conference room may require more ventilation than that of an office of the same size due to the number of occupants commonly present. to change air every 10 minutes in a 10 x 20-foot (3. For example. Additionally. As a general rule.31 cubic meters). with 30 BTUs of cooling for every square foot (and 322. Ventilation. This document is Cisco Public Information.05 x 6. Rooms with windows and rooms that are located near heat sources such as server rooms with large amounts of equipment running require more cooling than rooms without additional heart sources.41 BTUs for every square meter) of floor space: Example in Feet ● ● 10 x 20-foot room = 200 square feet 200 square feet x 30 = 6000 BTUs of cooling required Example in Meters ● ● 3.61 square meters 18.) The cooling required in a room depends on many other factors as well.Design Guide Heating.10-meters) room with an 8-foot (2. The BTU/hr level of a typical Cisco TelePresence Immersive endpoint assumes the following: © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. For example. Although many areas of the world do not enlist all three components due to their local climates and temperatures. Page 42 of 70 . ventilation. please see the HVAC appendix in this guide.

This document is Cisco Public Information. Specifically. the room HVAC systems must be designed to manage these waves of cooling without being overdesigned and so providing too much cooling. a straight section of duct needs to serve the diffuser. An elbow or kinked duct just before the diffuser often leads to poor air distribution and increased noise. Therefore. The BTU/hr output for each Cisco TelePresence Immersive endpoint is reported as the typical use scenario based on metrics from Cisco’s existing deployed rooms and takes into consideration a diversity factor defined by the use of these rooms and the average of various building envelopes. special sound-dampening registers and baffles are recommended such as the use of an NC30-rated (or. the existing system may also be generating unwanted sound at the air registers that is above the maximum ambient noise levels for Cisco TelePresence meetings. Noise above the maximum levels requires remediation because it will affect the Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience. The target ambient noise should be 36 dBA or less at the registers and cannot exceed 45 dBA or 60 dBC. Page 43 of 70 . and these requirements are averaged across the 24-hour day. During the hours of use. However. NC30-Rated Plaque-Style Diffuser Noise from the existing ducts and mechanical equipment should be evaluated as well. For efficiency. For optimal diffuser performance. better. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. and organizations should consult their facilities departments or an HVAC engineer to assist in evaluating and designing an acceptable solution to reduce ambient noise generated by the HVAC system. Cisco TelePresence systems are frequently used to communicate with international offices and business partners in different time zones. NC20-rated) plaque-style diffuser. and each of these use periods may last 1 to 3 hours with periods of nonuse in between. additional cooling may be required beyond what is listed in the Cisco TelePresence endpoint’s installation guide. as shown below. Use of an Existing HVAC System Some existing HVAC systems are already capable of compensating for the heat output of the Cisco TelePresence endpoint. and meeting participant comfort. in this scenario the average room is used periodically throughout a typical 10-hour business day. the HVAC requirements are greater than during the period between meetings. and so Cisco TelePresence Immersive endpoints are often in use outside normal daytime office hours. energy conservation. Figure 35. All rights reserved.Design Guide ● ● ● ● ● Adequate size room for the Cisco TelePresence endpoint and occupants Room location is not subject to additional radiant energy (such as windows or heat from an adjacent room) Proper number of air supplies and returns provided Placement of air supplies and returns for optimized circulation and heat dissipation Color of room meets Immersive Cisco TelePresence wall color guidelines If the room does not allow these conditions to be met. Having independent HVAC controls is also important in a Cisco TelePresence room.

Figure 36. All rights reserved. Air-flow equipment installed near the diffuser dramatically increases noise that the diffuser cannot remediate because the diffuser quiets sound from airflow and not machinery. Recommended HVAC Circulation Callout 1 2 3 4 Description Seating area Cold-air outflow Warm-air inflow Cisco TelePresence unit © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates.Design Guide Also. when possible. The following figure illustrates optimal placement of the HVAC registers. and other air-flow-control devices should not be placed near the diffuser outlet. This document is Cisco Public Information. Cisco recommends locating the return registers above the Cisco TelePresence endpoint to allow natural dissipation of heat as it rises into the return. Page 44 of 70 . extractors. The location of the HVAC registers is also very important to accommodate the heat output of the Cisco TelePresence endpoint and to keep sound levels within requirements. dampers. Supply diffusers can then be placed slightly behind the participant seating locations.

Rooms that contain equipment. an independent HVAC solution may be required for the Cisco TelePresence room. HVAC Issues and Resolutions Possible Resolution Options include: ● Update the control system to provide additional cooling to the intended room. For example. and VAV systems are designed to accommodate these differences. it decreases the amount of energy consumed by the fans that direct the air around the building. If the existing HVAC zone system does not compensate for the BTU/hr requirements for the endpoint and cannot be rezoned or used outside preset business hours. ● Reallocate cooling from other zones to this space to provide additional cooling. Existing HVAC System Adequate capacity already In place without separate Immersive Cisco TelePresence Room Controls © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Inclusion of a Cisco TelePresence room in an HVAC zone with other rooms is not recommended because of the localized heat output of the Cisco TelePresence endpoint. Modern VAV boxes come with advanced control equipment that supports automated changes to airflow as efficiency dictates. Most HVAC zone systems have timers that shut off the HVAC system after normal business hours to save power. or windows. when at maximum cooling. This control equipment is also linked to central computers for the entire HVAC system for a building. A VAV system can be contrasted with a constant air volume (CAV) system. the damper closes until the minimum is reached. the VAV terminal unit damper is completely open. VAV boxes regulate the cooling to specific zones. When the cooling is decreased. Common HVAC Cooling Issues and Resolutions Depending on the type and configuration of the HVAC system and its control system. It makes air conditioning more efficient by regulating the amount of cooling targeted at any specific room or area. or opens to allow more air. people. The most common way to rezone a room into its own zone is to use a variable air volume (VAV) system with a local thermostat. This document is Cisco Public Information. Verify with facilities personnel the capability to turn on the HVAC system in the Cisco TelePresence room after hours. When a VAV box constricts its valve to let less air through. have windows that face the sun. Page 45 of 70 . A dedicated thermostat also is required for this space. Small pressure sensors detect the pressure of air in the VAV box. or hold a large number of people have an increased cooling load relative to rooms with minimal equipment. All rights reserved. In a VAV system. ● Install an additional VAV system to allow independent control of this room. A VAV box has a valve that constricts to allow less air through.Design Guide Zoning and Capability to Rezone HVAC Larger office building locations commonly use zone HVAC systems that cover an entire floor or large area. Table 7. and hinges open and close its doors to manipulate airflow and air volume. The VAV box should be located away from the room to avoid issues from additional noise. a variety of solutions may be available to provide additional cooling (Table 7). Check with facilities personnel to determine whether the HVAC system can be rezoned and ideally rezone the Immersive Cisco TelePresence room so that it has its own zone with independent controls. Be sure to consult the appropriate HVAC professionals when determining which solutions are appropriate for a specific facility. You should not run the Cisco TelePresence system without the HVAC system in use because the endpoint can overheat and become damaged. VAV provides a method for independently controlling the capacity and airflow rate of each of an HVAC system’s zones.

This document is Cisco Public Information. This approach also follows the recommended placement of traditional air supply diffusers and promotes the natural dissipation of heat with returns or vents placed above the Cisco TelePresence endpoint. split systems are much quieter than cassette-type systems. they are typically more expensive than a cassette-type system. then the seepage is not next to the Cisco TelePresence endpoint. ● Install a supplemental cassette-style air conditioning system. regardless of choice. but is far less complicated than installing a new central air system. However. this solution also adds a new noise concern for the room. Page 46 of 70 . The preferred location is behind. or on. Note: Installing a mini split air conditioner is more complicated than installing a cassette system. The challenge in recent times is to accomplish this goal efficiently with the least energy consumption possible. the wall behind the participant seating locations. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. For a Cisco TelePresence room. it is always recommended to avoid installing any air conditioner along the same wall as the Cisco TelePresence endpoint. Supplemental Cooling Supplemental cooling is an option if the main HVAC system cannot be rezoned and additional cooling is needed. Split air conditioners can be more cost effective than changing central air conditioning systems. All rights reserved. and because the compressor sits outside of the room. Many split air systems are available that produce 45 dB of noise for up to 24. Either type of supplemental air conditioning system — split or cassette — can provide independent cooling to the room without modification to the existing central air system.Design Guide Existing HVAC System Inadequate capacity Possible Resolution Options include: ● Upgrade the existing HVAC system (a costly solution). ● Install a supplemental split-style air conditioning system. while keeping ambient noise levels to a minimum.000 BTU/hr of cooling. The main reason is that if any leakage of water in the drain tubes occurs. ensure the following: ● ● ● Appropriate BTU/hr of cooling Appropriate noise level (less than 45 dB of noise in the room) Appropriate location of the system and ducting to reduce ambient noise in the room Be sure to keep in mind that the goal of the HVAC system is to ensure that the meeting room is comfortable (that is. However. less than 76°F [24°C]) and inviting to its participants. Conclusion In summary.

They define who the end user is and what the room says about the company. and each organization should consider adding a personal signature to its rooms’ appearance. in parallel with lighting and acoustics. While it is always the organization’s prerogative to determine the look of their Cisco TelePresence rooms. sophisticated appearance while still maintaining immersive audio and video capture and transmission. Basic Room Design By following the design recommendations outlined here. Adaptation of lighting. acoustics. and aesthetics help achieve the expected experience. an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room will meet the standards for a high quality Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience and can have a customized. designs do need to comply with basic room design guidelines to work optimally with the Immersive Cisco TelePresence technology. Organizations are also advised to design their Immersive Cisco TelePresence rooms to reflect their corporate culture as well as the local culture of the places in which the Cisco TelePresence room is located. Figure 38. these guidelines welcome aesthetic creativity in execution. and provide an opportunity for corporate branding. produce the overall quality of the Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience. To achieve this balance. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information. Figure 37. Upgrades to the room aesthetics. Specialized Room Design Choice and Customization in Design Organizations are advised to deploy rooms based on the requirements and expectations of their users. Consulting with your organization’s corporate branding team is encouraged.Design Guide Aesthetics Aesthetic Principles The physical components in a Cisco TelePresence room give the space its identity. Page 47 of 70 .

have an abridged view of the design elements introduced into the room. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. fabrics. artwork. Below is an example of a welldesigned Cisco TelePresence room that has a unique personality of its own. The addition of textures and layering of decorative elements within the camera’s field of view helps make the two-dimensional image shown to remote participants appear more three-dimensional on the screen. furniture. decorative pieces.Design Guide How to Approach Aesthetic Design for Immersive Cisco TelePresence Aesthetic room design for Immersive Cisco TelePresence addresses visual enhancements to the meeting room. The on-camera experience relies on the technology’s interpretation of that room. These elements include the use of wallpaper. and signage. This document is Cisco Public Information. Elements in Aesthetic Room Design The design approach for an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room has to be planned for two purposes: ● ● The local in-room experience The remote on-camera experience While designing the Cisco TelePresence in-room experience for the comfort of the end user. That feeling may be amplified if the space is large. including wall color. so aesthetic elements should maintain continuity along the back wall behind the participants and carry that continuity through all Cisco TelePresence screens. lighting scheme. A person using an undecorated room will have a vastly different experience than a person using the same room with added design elements. Within a physical space. Figure 39. plants. If the room is devoid of everything other than the Cisco TelePresence Immersive endpoint — in an essentially empty environment — the experience may feel stark and cold. visual improvement of remediation materials such as acoustic panels. Aesthetic design choices are also powerful tools for reinforcing a company’s corporate identity. room aesthetics provide visual reference points to identify participant locations. therefore. Certain design elements enhance the way that a room appears on camera. All rights reserved. Page 48 of 70 . and decorative accents. Addressing the aesthetics of a space creates a more comfortable meeting environment and enhances the in-room experience. Room design can also create on-camera interest and improve the on-camera visual perception. consider how that room will appear on camera to other sites engaged in a meeting. Remote locations will see only what is within the camera’s field of view and. In Cisco TelePresence meetings with multiple sites connected to the same meeting. visual perception and interpretation are addressed from a three-dimensional viewpoint involving the relationship between distance. scale and openness.

placing particular demands on the color of that area to reproduce well on camera. white. Organizations can opt to paint the wall behind the Cisco TelePresence Immersive endpoint white or yellow to increase the lighting efficiency in the room or introduce a different color entirely. These areas can create jitter or may require a greater amount of bandwidth on the network to process. the wall behind the Cisco TelePresence endpoint does not have to be painted using the same Cisco approved color palette as the other three room walls. Working with the approved wall colors. matte finishes. These form the approved wall color palette. and most of these color systems were designed predominantly to address printing ink rather than paint. More energy consumption also means greater heat output and more HVAC compensation required. If most of the background is white.com. but a cooler. Remediation solutions are also an opportunity to introduce aesthetics into the room to add style. Cisco has tested a broad spectrum of hues to identify the characteristics of paint colors that complement the codec and plasma technology. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Note: Because only the back and side walls appear on camera during a Cisco TelePresence call. Color Matching There are several competing color systems that have been developed to communicate an accurate representation of color. Cisco recommends earth-tone colors. and patterned high-contrast backgrounds introduce the potential for areas of glare and are more challenging to the video encoding process. ”Can we leave the walls white and save some money on the painting?” This may seem like a way to save costs. Therefore. Organizations sometimes ask. Plasma displays require a large amount of energy to produce white pixels. The approach to mixing paint is vastly different. when the total impact is understood. Specific colors from the North American paint manufacturer Benjamin Moore have been approved for use with the Cisco TelePresence Wall Color Guide on Cisco. The Cisco TelePresence solution asks organizations to work within the palette of approved wall colors for the room walls. there is no universal color standard in use globally today. which are available in the Cisco TelePresence Wall Color Guide on Cisco. the video quality will be diminished. There are also additional factors that affect the experience. A blue or green background makes participants appear more distinctly against the background and gives the experience a more on-stage or newsroom feel. fabric. When the plasma screen expends a greater amount of energy producing white. Colors viewed on monitors or printed from electronic presentations vary based on the color calibration of the equipment used. convert efficiently to video. and feel comfortable in person. and an LRV of no greater than 40. black. True color accuracy can be achieved only by having an actual paint sample in hand. These colors may be used preferentially for higher-profile meetings or in rooms in which the personal preference is not a warm. there is less energy available to render other parts of the images such as the participants’ faces. Color matching should be performed by requesting paint card samples from Benjamin Moore and obtaining a color match from a local paint manufacturer. the endpoint will consume more energy. Page 49 of 70 . Unfortunately. All rights reserved. it is clear that this is not a great way to save money. Aesthetics and Room Remediation Remediation addresses the baseline requirements to tune the environment for an optimal Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience. work well with the skin tones of the participants on camera. and be comfortable for participants in the room. Lastly. which is a cost factor. another cost point.com. wall coverings. Other colors such as blue and green work well also. however.Design Guide Wall Color Wall color is very important because the Cisco TelePresence image captured is filled to a large extent by the room wall behind the participants. and wood panels. more direct feel. relaxed feel. This document is Cisco Public Information. Extensive tests have shown that the Cisco approved wall colors create optimal images on the Cisco TelePresence display. These colors are a lot cooler than the warm earth-toned colors and provide a different experience. there are several creative options that can upgrade the room to a customized environment with design elements such as accent colors.

Page 50 of 70 . window treatments should be used to block the outdoor light. However. Parallax. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. indigenous to a room and act as identifiers to help associate viewers in the setting. or baseboards. The best way to address this discrepancy is to distract the eye by building up the background with other objects and giving the eye something else on which to focus. especially when observing horizontal and vertical lines on the left and right screens. Depending on the desired look. Again. This document is Cisco Public Information. the greatest effect that a small interior window has is the distraction of seeing people passing by the room through the glass. manifests as straight lines in the camera view that appear bent or angled instead of strictly horizontal or vertical. frosted window tint. In those instances.Design Guide The following sections describe the combination of room remediation with aesthetic design. wide architectural panels may be installed. as shown in Figure 40. Overhead lighting should be consistent with the color temperature of the integrated lighting in the Cisco TelePresence endpoint. Furniture and shelves with interesting objects break up the horizontal plane at the back of the room. The shallower the room. such as floor and baseboard lines. you can use curtains. window tints can be stenciled with your corporate logo or other desirable graphic elements. outlet plates. in the context of Cisco TelePresence. Door Placement in an Immersive Cisco TelePresence Room. horizontal blinds. Interior Windows Interior windows should not need to be covered up unless they are large enough to affect lighting and acoustics. interior windows. Usually. a parallax effect is visible. Large exterior windows in a space affect the lighting and acoustics of a room. do not appear on camera. These are physical items. Window treatments that are not recommended are tightly woven materials and patterned fabrics. and narrow vertical blinds. Additionally. All rights reserved. the less noticeable the parallax effect appears because horizontal lines. or apply a translucent. Exterior Windows To avoid introducing conflicting light temperature zones. cover the windows with panel curtains. Use of fabric-wrapped acoustic sound panels can add aesthetic appeal as well as sound dampening properties. it is recommended that windows to the exterior should be blocked to eliminate the strong blue light that will be brought into the room by the sun. Figure 40. These panels can hold opaque materials and maintain the structure of the room. you do not have to cover up architectural elements such as doors. Acoustic Panels An organization may want or need less reverberation or sound transmission in the Immersive Cisco TelePresence room and opt to place acoustic panels in the room. Doorways Due to the positioning of the Cisco TelePresence cameras. If a large window along the back or a side wall is visible on camera.

Creative Wall Treatments The Cisco TelePresence solution asks customers to work within the palette of approved Cisco TelePresence colors. solid surfaces. and these effects are magnified in larger room sizes. working within the range of these colors there are several creative wall treatments to upgrade rooms from a utilitarian deployment to a highly customized experience. However. textures. as shown below: Figure 41. Selecting a wall covering in the approved colors instead of paint offers a greater array of options to introduce a different look and feel in the room environment. reflective nature of the panels. The aesthetic design team should engage with the vendor providing the panels and the sound engineer installing them to meet both aesthetic design and room remediation needs. wood panels can still be used in a Cisco TelePresence environment if they are strategically placed. however. The fabric should also be viewed on the Cisco TelePresence screen to check how the pattern renders and to check for color accuracy on camera. Strategic Use of Wood Paneling Combined with Acoustic Wall Treatment © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Several companies produce eco-friendly wall coverings that are good options for Leadership in Environment and Energy Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System compliance. This document is Cisco Public Information. Patterns and textures should be subtle enough to show variances but should not have so much contrast that they are distracting on camera. The fabric covering the acoustic panels should match the Cisco TelePresence paint colors closely. Note: Questions regarding the viability of creative finishes or requests to use colors outside the existing color palette should be addressed to your Cisco TelePresence or Video Advanced Technology Certified Partner or Cisco Advanced Services during room remediation as an additional service. with the areas above and below the acoustic treatment done in wood paneling. Wood Panels Wood panels produce excess sound reverberation due to the polished. and patterns. Acoustic paneling applied at the level of the microphones will dampen the effects of the wood. Wall Coverings Wall coverings come in various materials.Design Guide Fabrics with a subtle weave and minimal pattern variation render better on camera than flat. Page 51 of 70 . All rights reserved.

plants can be real or artificial. All rights reserved. a coffee table. the space feels like a conference room. Furniture: Furniture can be added to identify the purpose for the space and the identity of the end user. Decorative Accents: To add visual interest and depth to a room. here are some modifiable aesthetic elements that can be introduced: Accent Colors: Work with the approved Cisco TelePresence wall paint colors for overall wall color. side tables. table art. include decorative accents. Depending on the organization. Some suggested furnishings that work well in the Cisco TelePresence room environment are additional seating. Examine the amount of space available for adding furniture pieces to the room. Organizations can then opt to add their equity colors as accents throughout the room or on the wall behind the Cisco TelePresence Immersive endpoint. To optimize the aesthetics in the Immersive Cisco TelePresence room. chances are that the art will not appear on camera. Consider the height and leafiness of the plant as how well as how its shape works on screen. Flowers also introduce a nice touch of color to a room. Wall Art: Wall art helps balance the room as a whole. plants can help integrate the Cisco TelePresence endpoint into the space. Placement of a plant on the side of the endpoint helps connect the endpoint to the room and breaks up the void between the endpoint and the side wall. Furthermore. and ottomans feels like a social setting instead of being a work-related space. Use of Plants in a Cisco TelePresence Room © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. bookshelves. clocks. The same space filled with a few lounge chairs. Items to consider placing in a room are vases. credenzas. For example.Design Guide Modifiable Aesthetic Elements There are several highly customizable elements of design to enhance the visual experience of an Immersive Cisco TelePresence meeting. and coat racks. corporate awards. but it serves to address to in-person experience. Page 52 of 70 . This document is Cisco Public Information. Wall Art in an Immersive Cisco TelePresence Room Plants: Plants offer a pleasant touch to any room environment. books. as shown in the following figure: Figure 43. Given the camera’s field of view. and other items with interesting shapes. if the furniture that is added is a long rectangular table and four chairs placed around it. as shown in the following figure: Figure 42.

Signage: Signage is an opportunity for branding and also may assist in the identification of the room’s location. Every Cisco TelePresence meeting in which the room is engaged becomes an opportunity to relay corporate identity. Signage should not be made of highly reflective materials or obstructed by the participants when seated. or sculptures around the room that reconcile the upper half of the wall with the decorations you have placed against the lower half of the wall. plants are often used in the back corners of a Cisco TelePresence room to enhance depth perception for the on-camera experience. distracting people on the other side of the Cisco TelePresence meeting. notice that the signage sits far below a natural height at which wall art is typically hung. Optimal positioning of signage is so that it appears in the middle of the center TelePresence screen. and tissue boxes. Compensate for this phenomenon by adding wall art at its natural height. modify corporate practices. If signage is placed within the camera field of view. Likewise with color. and decision making of people who come into contact with these spaces. Think about placing framed photos. After you have established a plan for determining the placement of objects within the camera view. artwork. Creating the right environment can boost employee morale and positively affect key stakeholders such as customers. behavior. Items to consider are water trays. Branding efforts applied to a Cisco TelePresence room also have the potential to accelerate return on investment (ROI) because the organization’s brand now receives broader exposure than beyond the four walls of the physical room. If a large object is placed on one edge of the camera view and the other edge is not addressed. napkins. Be cognizant of color distribution as well. Page 53 of 70 . pens. Choose areas on camera that are behind the participants’ shoulders. coasters. To balance the room as a physical space. The position of signage should be gauged with the cameras in mind. These will act as reference points. try to create a balance among all three Cisco TelePresence screens so attention is not drawn to a single very intensively colored object only on one screen. this can leave the transmitted image looking unbalanced. step back and assess the room as a whole. be sure that the chairs around the Cisco TelePresence table are in place. With the Cisco TelePresence table and chairs in place and the camera field-of-view parameters marked out. The attention of the participants on the other side will gravitate to the most prominent object in the frame. When adding a colorful object to the background. mint dishes. Integration of Aesthetics in a Cisco TelePresence Room Interior office environments have the potential to influence the attitudes. Be aware of the distribution of objects on each screen. note pads. It is not recommended to place background items symmetrically or directly behind the Cisco TelePresence participant seating positions because the objects may appear to be touching or attached to the heads of meeting participants. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. This document is Cisco Public Information. All rights reserved. Branding In Cisco TelePresence Room Design To build brand recognition companies enlist marketing expertise. Before beginning to assess how to fill the background of the camera view. Hospitality: Items related to supporting the comfort of the people in the meeting room can be added as part of the inperson experience and as decorative elements on screen. and the media.Design Guide Additionally. Choose the placement of objects based on fit for the space and consider the functionality of the aesthetic objects as well. partners. and invest billions of advertising dollars to distinguish themselves in the marketplace. indicating where your Cisco TelePresence participants will be seated. think about where the eye of the Cisco TelePresence participants at the other endpoint will be drawn. assess the best location for aesthetic items in the background of the on-screen image. the wall area above the maximum camera height will need to be addressed.

resulting in diminished video quality or loss of overall immersive experience. Light reflections in an immersive environment should be controlled such that they do not reflect light into the cameras or on displays to avoid issues such as glare. or undesirable points of interest in the room that distract from participants being the focal point. These types of patterns draw attention away from the participants and to the background. they can create a moiré pattern or other undesirable visual effects in the video transmitted. All rights reserved. Page 54 of 70 . you should avoid items that are distracting to participants or difficult for the video to process. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Highly repetitive patterns should be avoided unless the pattern is small enough such that the pattern blends into the background when seen from 10 feet (3 meters) away. In extreme cases. lens flares. In particular. Décor to Avoid Oversized furniture Dark furniture Reflective or shiny elements Highly repetitive patterned materials or fabrics Excessive vertical or horizontal patterns Conclusion The design of your Immersive Cisco TelePresence room has many considerations but also offers the ability to personalize the room to suit organizational expectations and identity. This document is Cisco Public Information. They exaggerate any misalignment of the endpoint’s cameras and in some cases can make even well-aligned cameras seem misaligned. Organizations should consult their Cisco Advanced Technology partner. If patterns are visible from that distance. Dark furniture tends to create numerous areas of high contrast that are difficult for video to process. Over video. as listed in the following table: Table 8. facilities department. and their preferred architectural firm to implement these Immersive Cisco TelePresence room design recommendations. They also tend to create numerous large background shadows that increase areas of high contrast. they tend to look very busy and distracting over video.Design Guide Décor to Avoid in an Immersive Cisco TelePresence Room You should specifically avoid certain items as background elements in an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room. Décor to Avoid in an Immersive Environment Affect on Video or in Person Large pieces of furniture can take up precious space for local participants. these can seem overbearing or daunting because only a small portion of the piece can be seen in the camera view.

Cost vs. Table 9. cost. and time to deployment. there is a budget scheduled for the Cisco TelePresence room remediation and deployment.Design Guide Immersive Room Design Implementation The recommended order of room design implementation. Immersive TelePresence Experience Observations and Comments Cost Effect on Immersive Experience HIGH Characteristic Continuity Continuity is the most important element in Immersive Cisco TelePresence room design. The table below compares the cost and impact of room design choices. they help reduce complexity. many factors that may seem unimportant ultimately affect the overall Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience. It is also the simplest and least expensive element to achieve. Room Selection Heating. Cost Versus Immersive Experience As with many projects. is: 1. LOW Lighting LOW .MEDIUM HIGH © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. it is clear that seemingly small details are very important to the experience and are worth the expense to implement. When Cisco’s recommendations and guidelines are followed. Lighting can be inexpensive with good results. Ventilation. This document is Cisco Public Information. Page 55 of 70 . and Cooling (HVAC) & Room Remediation Aesthetic Design Room Selection Many considerations are necessary when choosing a room for Immersive Cisco TelePresence because the room affects the quality of the experience and so should be assessed carefully. However. 2. but this is one area where it is worthwhile to spend a little more. All rights reserved. 3. Room selection criteria are: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Dedicated or Multipurpose Meeting Space Physical Elements of the Room Environment Room Dimensions Location Construction Characteristics Lighting Acoustics Consultation with the facilities personnel of the building in which the prospective room is located is usually Note: needed to assess all room selection criteria. as shown in the following figure. With a full understanding of the overall impact. Great lighting is the key to great video.

Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience Absence of other technology and devices that may interfere with a Cisco TelePresence meeting Assurance that the room will always be properly configured for a Cisco TelePresence meeting Assurance that the Cisco TelePresence endpoint is available for use and that the room’s potential ROI is achieved Assurance that no distractions are present in the room that would break the continuity of the experience ● ● ● ● Below are two examples of dedicated. Figure 44. and meet all Immersive Cisco TelePresence room © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. There are many advantages to dedicating a room for Cisco TelePresence. Cost ranges from low to medium. flooring. This document is Cisco Public Information. Multipurpose rooms can also be used for Immersive Cisco TelePresence meetings as long as the rooms follow continuity principles. Although these rooms are different in shape. but purchasing an entirely new HVAC system is usually very expensive. have been properly prepared. including: ● Ability to match all Cisco’s room recommendations for a constant.Design Guide Characteristic Observations and Comments Cost Effect on Immersive Experience MEDIUM Acoustics Acoustic remediation creates much more pleasing sound. MEDIUM Dedicated or Multipurpose Meeting Space A dedicated Immersive Cisco TelePresence room is a room completely designed around the use of the Cisco TelePresence endpoint. the similarity in lighting. and type of Cisco TelePresence endpoint installed.HIGH HIGH Room size and orientation Look for a room size in the recommended size range for the MEDIUM endpoint and with no or few windows to keep remediation costs down. Addition of VAV boxes or control systems or rezoning of the existing HVAC system is usually sufficient. continual. Dedicated Immersive Cisco TelePresence Room Examples Los Angeles Kiev Dedicated Cisco TelePresence rooms offer the most predictable and overall highest quality Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience. and artwork creates a fully Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience. respectively. Interior rooms are preferred because they can be less costly to remediate and maintain cooling more easily. fully Immersive Cisco TelePresence rooms.MEDIUM HVAC LOW . LOW . both in the room and on the other side of the Cisco TelePresence meeting. from basic acoustic panels to custom panels. All rights reserved. colors. Look for rooms with few HVAC remediation requirements. Page 56 of 70 .

Figure 45. All rights reserved. windows. have been properly prepared. and location of doors. the higher number of variables in a multipurpose room due to its flexible use leads to a less predictable meeting environment. orientation. configuration. Page 57 of 70 . However. and meet all Immersive Cisco TelePresence room recommendations. Multipurpose Immersive Cisco TelePresence Room Examples Sydney Cairo Smaller.Design Guide recommendations. It is beneficial to have layout drawings with the physical dimensions of each room that is being considered easily accessible during room selection. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. and adjacent rooms and the placement of the Cisco TelePresence endpoint are all physical elements that need to be considered when selecting a room for Immersive Cisco TelePresence. However. Figure 46. Personal Immersive Cisco TelePresence Room Examples Winnipeg Genoa Physical Elements of the Room The size. This document is Cisco Public Information. an important additional consideration is whether or not the network connection into the personal room has sufficient bandwidth to support Cisco TelePresence traffic. personal endpoints can also provide an Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience if they follow continuity principles.

44 meters) may not be able to accommodate the physical height of the Cisco TelePresence endpoint itself. curved walls. width. except for ceiling height. refer to the respective installation guide on Cisco. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● The following figure illustrates the room and endpoint dimensions to consider. with rooms longer than 26 feet (7. The maximum depth of the room is also limited due to the angle of the Cisco TelePresence camera. The minimum depth of the room is to accommodate the space between the wall and the back edge of the Cisco TelePresence participant seating table and chairs. Ceilings higher than 10 feet (3. At 30 feet (9. For endpoint room dimensions and details.01 meters).05 meters) can create undesirable acoustic characteristics and may need remediation. and height. and pillars can create unusual acoustic effects that may also require additional sound remediation.com. Please be sure to review building codes and access laws in your area. Also. In addition.Design Guide Room Dimensions The dimensions of the room to be considered are depth. All rights reserved. Odd angles. accessibility must be considered. the camera will view more floor space than wall space (except with the CTS 3210 system) and this affects the contrast and quality of the Cisco TelePresence experience. This document is Cisco Public Information. as well as fire sprinklers and other such ceiling-mounted items. Rectangular rooms are preferred but irregular shaped rooms can be accommodated. In general: ● Rooms that are larger than the maximum recommended size for an Immersive Cisco TelePresence endpoint do not provide optimal acoustic characteristics and may require remediation such as acoustic paneling. please refer to the installation guide for the endpoints you are considering deploying. The Cisco TelePresence camera has a slight downward tilt to improve perspective and eye contact. This figure is given as an example only.15 meters) away from the camera there is no longer an adequate viewing area for an average person to be seen. Page 58 of 70 . © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Additionally. Note: For more information on specific maximum and minimum room dimensions. Access requirements for disabled persons may mandate a specific minimum space to allow access for a standard wheel chair. the maximum width is limited to avoid large areas of wall surface directly across from each other that may promote reverberation and degrade the audio quality. Ceilings lower than 8 feet (2. The minimum required height and width of a room is due to the physical footprint of the Cisco TelePresence endpoint.

Windows increase reverberation in the room and let in uncontrolled light. Rooms can be wider. Windows may need to be treated for both acoustic and lighting factors. the glass should not comprise more than 20 percent of the total wall space. Room length. Page 59 of 70 .Design Guide Figure 47. Preferably. This document is Cisco Public Information. If the room is longer than the minimum size. Wall behind the Cisco TelePresence endpoint. the doors should be out of camera view to help prevent disruption of the consistency of the Cisco TelePresence experience. The distance from the endpoint to wall behind it depends on the Cisco TelePresence endpoint. Cisco TelePresence rooms should have no windows. 4 5 6 7 None Location Doors Doors should be on the left or right side walls or on the wall behind the participants. Rooms can be longer. proportionally more space can be left behind the unit for easier access Distance from the back of the lighting shroud to the table edge Space between the back table and wall The width of the Cisco TelePresence endpoint Distance from the camera to the table edge at the outer chair position Ceiling height also affects room acoustics. Doors should not be behind the Cisco TelePresence endpoint. reverberation and lighting levels need to be controlled. In an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room. All rights reserved. and windows present many problems. If the room does have windows. Windows Ideally. Room Dimensions Callout 1 2 3 Description Room width. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

Page 60 of 70 . For this reason. Acoustic Evaluation Noise from HVAC ducts and mechanical equipment should be evaluated in choosing a room as a candidate for Cisco TelePresence. Cisco TelePresence participants will expect a certain level of privacy. Sound levels within the room must be under 45 dBA and 60 dBC to enable a highquality Cisco TelePresence experience. Cisco highly recommends the use of NC30-rated plaque-style diffusers for adequate airflow and minimal noise from the airflow into the room from the HVAC system. However. This goal may be difficult to achieve when dealing with an older HVAC system or one that was not designed with the comfort of sound in mind. Likewise. For example. the doors and walls of an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room should be away from areas of high foot traffic to limit intrusive noise. proximity and accessibility for the intended participants needs to be considered to help ensure optimum use of the Immersive Cisco TelePresence room. Consider and evaluate adjacent rooms and infrastructure such as break rooms. or neighboring businesses. the use of sound boots or duct wrapping may be recommended in situations with increased air velocity that creates undesirable sound. privacy should be a factor when evaluating adjacent rooms. Consultations with your facilities department or an HVAC engineer may be needed to assist in designing an acceptable solution to reduce ambient noise generated by the HVAC system. elevators. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. rooms in the interior of the building are recommended for Immersive Cisco TelePresence. the executives may place a premium on having the room physically located next to or near their offices to optimize both the use of the Cisco TelePresence room and their personal time. In addition.Design Guide Placement of The Room in the Building Rooms with exterior walls or windows may allow too much noise from street or local airline traffic. Provide HVAC engineers with the BTU output outlined in the Cisco TelePresence endpoint installation guides. as measured by an SPL meter that is one meter away from each register. Any outside noises that can be heard in the Cisco TelePresence room may cause undesirable noise levels and affect the Cisco TelePresence experience. This information. This document is Cisco Public Information. The Immersive Cisco TelePresence endpoint will perform properly when the ambient sound is greater than 36 dB and will still meet Cisco’s Room Remediation requirements at 45 dB. All rights reserved. Additionally. The ideal ambient noise level is 36 dB or less. and extra remediation should be considered to keep conversations inside the Cisco TelePresence room confidential. noise greater than 45 dB becomes distracting to participants and ultimately diminishes the overall experience. if the Cisco TelePresence endpoints are geared toward use by executives. HVAC systems can also produce sound that needs to be remediated depending on where the HVAC system components are in relation to the Cisco TelePresence room. Adjacent Rooms Adjacent rooms need to be evaluated to verify if additional acoustic remediation is required to isolate noise coming into or going out of these rooms. Also. as with other conference rooms. Diffusers may be added to accommodate greater airflow without increased noise. in combination with details of the room’s location and environment will enable them to design adequate cooling for the room. and large conference rooms as they can increase the noise levels inside the Cisco TelePresence room. wind and weather.

Ceiling Materials Standard office ceiling tiles with an NRC rating of 0.70 or higher are recommended for Immersive Cisco TelePresence rooms because they help absorb reverberation and unwanted noise. You may be able to use a room with hard surfaces. and floor materials in an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room all work collectively to provide an overall NRC rating for the room. brick. an additional heavy curtain which matches the color of the room can all be used to compensate for a glass wall and reduce reverberation. and not end right above false ceiling tiles.1 is adequate for an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room. if acoustic considerations are addressed and compensated for by the materials of other surfaces in the room. Wall Materials Normal drywall surfaces are recommended for Immersive Cisco TelePresence rooms. If plaster or drywall is used in the ceiling. and wall materials with heavy textures are highly discouraged due to how the reproduce visually on camera. Also. All rights reserved. Similarly. Drywall with an NRC of 0. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. careful attention needs to be paid to the construction materials of the room being considered for Immersive Cisco TelePresence. the ceiling tiles. Flooring Materials Standard office carpeting is recommended for its sound absorbing properties. Cinder block. such as wood or marble floors and glass walls. reducing the quality of the Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience. Therefore. Page 61 of 70 . Verify the NRC rating of the ceiling tiles with your organization’s facilities department.Design Guide Construction Characteristics Think of an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room as a confidential area. therefore. If necessary. causing undesirable sound conditions. and glass walls are highly reverberant materials and are not recommended because they require additional acoustic treatment. to help isolate unwanted noise from adjacent rooms. further remediation may be required. raised floors may increase the sound resonance in the room. raised floors may require remediation to keep sound levels within Immersive Cisco TelePresence requirements. a wood or marble floor can be accommodated if the walls are covered with acoustic fabric panels and the ceiling tiles have a higher NRC rating to reduce reverberation. This document is Cisco Public Information. Noise that can be heard in an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room that is coming from above the ceiling tiles requires remediation such as sound batting or acoustic fabric in place of. or marble are highly reflective and usually require remediation to reduce reverberation. Other surfaces such as linoleum. The wall. Plaster or drywall ceilings are not recommended because they increase the reverberation in the room. Rooms with raised floors can be accommodated as Immersive Cisco TelePresence rooms but need to be evaluated to verify that the floor can handle the weight of the Cisco TelePresence endpoint. Additionally. and inside conversations should not be heard outside the room. ceiling. Additionally. understand that the materials from which the room was made effect the acoustic properties of the room and may be well or poorly suited to a high-quality Cisco TelePresence experience. walls should reach toward the structural deck of the floor. all walls should have an STC rating greater than 40. Cisco TelePresence rooms in high-traffic areas or with loud adjacent rooms require walls with a rating higher than STC 40. or above. hardwood. For example. Lower-rated wall materials should not be used because they allow unwanted sound to leak into the room from adjoining rooms and hallways. Standard drywall with a smooth finish or slight texture is preferred. a glass wall can be accommodated if the remaining walls are covered with acoustic panels and the floor is carpeted. For an Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience. Outside conversations should not be heard inside the room.

check with your facilities department to determine whether they have indirect lighting fixtures that can be used for the new Immersive Cisco TelePresence room before you purchase new fixtures. If these are present. Direct lighting is designed specifically to illuminate horizontal surfaces. the light is focused directly downwards and results in the illumination focusing on the tops of people’s heads and shoulders rather than the face and torso.Design Guide Power Outlets Power outlets in the room must be of the appropriate type. the first step is to verify whether the room’s current lighting fixtures are indirect lighting fixtures or some other type. sufficient in total number. Network Access Immersive Cisco TelePresence endpoints usually require a Gigabit Ethernet port (RJ-45 UTP) installed on the wall behind the endpoint. and designed to carry the amperage for the Cisco TelePresence endpoint intended for the room. switches should not generate more than 45 dB of sound within the Cisco TelePresence room. if not already present and in the correct location. some direct-lighting fixtures can be converted to indirect-lighting sources with light diffusers that cover the lamps. All rights reserved. new or additional power outlets must be installed in the room. Direct-lighting fixtures create hotspots and require remediation. and walking paths. Network access for in-room participants can be provided through a wireless access point or with wired connectivity using an additional RJ-45 UTP port combined with a switch. These direct fixtures are designed to illuminate work surfaces. If the type and number of power outlets do not match what is needed for the endpoint. so an option is to have local facilities personnel check with the manufacturer of your current lighting to see whether existing direct-lighting fixtures can be converted into indirect-lighting sources. tabletops. Indirect Lighting When evaluating a room for Immersive Cisco TelePresence. This document is Cisco Public Information. The next step is to verify that the placement of the light fixtures provides optimum lighting conditions. This port connects the Cisco TelePresence endpoint to the organization’s network infrastructure. but they do not provide evenly dispersed lighting. You need to get the model number of the fixture and research it for verification. and less often in offices and over cubicles where desktops or flooring requires illumination. Page 62 of 70 . If used. Also. is installed during the build-out of the Immersive Cisco TelePresence room. You can determine the type of fixture with a visual inspection. as a cost-saving alternative to replacing the existing fixtures. Direct lighting often translates on screen as a glare or a glow across surfaces. This type of fixture is often seen in hallways and corridors. however the level to which the fixtures are indirect versus indirect/direct cannot be determined visually. Below is guidance on two common types of direct lighting fixtures: © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. The RJ-45 UTP port. It is also designed to minimize horizontal light distribution to avoid shinning light into the eyes. the light fixtures are likely to be directlighting fixtures. Since these lights are direct by nature. Direct Lighting Direct lighting fixtures are suited for accent lighting only in an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room due to the hotspots of illumination and other undesirable visual effects they create on camera. which are: ● ● ● ● ● 4000 or 4100 Kelvin color temperature CRI index of 82 Evenly dispersed light across the room that does not to fluctuate more than 100 lux between room areas 300 to 400 lux on the vertical plane (facial lighting) 600 to 800 lux on the horizontal plane (shoulder lighting) If the room is at a site that has not been remodeled within the past 15 years. Many indirect fixtures may appear to be completely indirect but can provide a significant amount of direct downlighting.

All rights reserved. avoid placing them directly over meeting participants. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Recessed Can Lighting The following figure shows the application of indirect lighting as the primary light source in the room combined with direct-lighting fixtures for accent lighting on the back wall of the Cisco TelePresence room. Common Commercial Office Direct-Lighting Fixtures Light Fixture Parabolic Louvers Remediation Diffuser kit Comments Available from some manufacturers. Can lighting is also not recommended as primary lighting in a Cisco TelePresence room because it creates hotspots.Design Guide Table 10. Parabolic Louver Lighting Callout 1 2 Description Direct parabolic louver lighting. Page 63 of 70 . as accent lighting. Useful as a design element but not for primary illumination. Recessed Can Lights Use only as accent lighting Figure 48. This use. Figure 49. can provide an excellent means of creating depth perception within the room and add to the meeting experience. In a Cisco TelePresence room. but it is suitable for accent lighting such as wall wash or to illuminate adornments. these fixtures can be used on the perimeter of the room to add wall wash or perimeter illumination in the back of room. This document is Cisco Public Information. If parabolic louver lighting fixtures must be used. Lighting diffuser kit over parabolic louver lighting. Often these fixtures are used in the back of a large Immersive Cisco TelePresence room to illuminate the back area where shadows would be present.

Indirect Lighting as Primary Source and Direct Lighting for Accent Lighting Replacing Lighting Fixtures If the light fixtures in the selected Cisco TelePresence room need to be replaced. This document is Cisco Public Information. With lower ceiling heights. Ceiling height and space above the ceiling tiles will affect the indirect lighting fixtures that can be used.Design Guide Figure 50. the air space above the ceiling tiles must have adequate clearance to accommodate the light fixtures and still adhere to local building and fire codes. All rights reserved. hanging pendent light fixtures may not leave adequate space above the Immersive Cisco TelePresence endpoint or participants’ heads. give special consideration to selecting the new lighting solution. Page 64 of 70 . © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. With recessed light fixtures.

A company may have a different design approach for the look and feel of an environment that is meant to be used by its executives than for an environment to be used for frequent conferences by knowledge workers. Plants are often used in the back corners of an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room to help enhance the depth perception for the on-camera experience. corporate awards. fixtures combined with lighting combined with back wall and aesthetic-element accent lighting. Consider the height and leafiness of a plant and how well its shape works on screen. incorporate a selection of credenzas. Color Furniture No additional furniture needed. and items with interesting shapes. All rights reserved. books. Vases. Vases. incorporate additional seating. table art. This placement helps connect the system to the room and breaks up the void between the system and the back wall. Cisco TelePresence color palette with specialized color accents throughout the room. How each flexible aesthetic element can be used to create a specific environmental effect is summarized in the table below: Table 11. No plants needed. bookshelves. bookshelves. Page 65 of 70 . or coat racks. Space permitting. Cisco TelePresence color palette. Room Design Models Executive Level Room Design Professional Level Room Design Classic Level Room Design Aesthetic Element Example Lighting Custom overhead indirect lighting Indirect overhead lighting fixtures Commercial indirect overhead lighting fixtures. Decorative Accents No additional accents needed. or side tables. plants can be real or artificial.Design Guide Room Design Models The practical application of aesthetics in an Immersive Cisco TelePresence room comes into play when considering how the participants who will use the space. Space permitting. Cisco TelePresence color palette with corporate colors as accents throughout the room. Depending on an organization’s corporate policy. Consider adding wall art to help carry the continuity of the room across all three screens for multipoint scenarios. clocks. (Optional) Plants can help integrate the Cisco TelePresence endpoint into the space when placed on the sides of the system by the lighting facade. Plants (Optional) Plants offer a pleasant organic touch to any room environment. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. side tables. and items with interesting shapes. Wall Art Consider adding wall art to help carry the continuity of the room across all three screens for multipoint scenarios. corporate awards. Add art on the walls to help create balance in the room as a whole as well as provide the advantage of carrying the continuity of the room across all three screens for multipoint scenarios. coves and scene-type lighting presets as well as back wall and aesthetic-element accent lighting. This document is Cisco Public Information.

or a box of tissues. Classic Level Room Design No special hospitality items needed. Optimal positioning of signage is in the center of the center screen. All rights reserved. Optimal positioning of signage is in the center of the center screen. pens. napkins. Make sure that signage does not use high-reflectivity materials such as glass and polished metals. preferences. note pads. and brand of your organization. Items to consider are: conference desk pads. coasters. Signage Add signage on the back wall as a means of identifying the location to participants on the other end of the Cisco TelePresence call. This document is Cisco Public Information. napkins.Design Guide Aesthetic Element Hospitality Executive Level Room Design Hospitality items that support a meeting can be added as part of the in-person experience or as decorative accents on screen. note pads. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. a mint dish. Add signage on the back wall as a means of identifying the location to participants on the other end of the Cisco TelePresence call. Add signage as a means of identifying the location to participants at the other end of the call. Also check that signage is not obstructed when participants are seated. pens. Use these flexible elements to tailoring room design to the needs. Page 66 of 70 . or a box of tissues. Professional Level Room Design Hospitality items that support a meeting can be added as part of the in-person experience or as decorative accents on screen. Items to consider are: water glasses.

flexible duct. the air will be delivered to the rooms and spaces with little noise or airflow resistance. Page 67 of 70 . The insulation helps reduce heat loss or gain and prevents water vapor from condensing on the outside of the duct when a duct is used for cold air in air conditioning. The cut boards are generally rectangular and closed off with staples or metal-backed tape. The duct is made through a forming process using water or gas. but ducts that are rectangular are often made from duct board. Below are descriptions and definitions for these components. The airflows include supply air. close the floor of the outside wall or on the floor itself. which allows bends and curves to be created as needed. Flexible ducting makes it easy to attach the supply air outlets to the ducting. Duct Board The main types of duct board are polyurethane and fiberglass. Duct liner and fiberglass installation both reduce noise through the duct walls. Generally. This document is Cisco Public Information. and control systems. and exhaust air. Air ducts are generally rectangular or round and are made from a variety of materials. Galvanized steel ducts are usually wrapped with fiberglass thermal insulation. One benefit is to this type of ducting is that it does not require additional insulation. The panels are then coated with aluminum. Insulation also has a particular effect on the Immersive Cisco TelePresence experience since insulation can help reduce noise from air movement within the duct work. flexible plastic is laid over a metal wire coil to make a round. The duct can be insulated with fiberglass insulation to help reduce heat transfer from the duct as well as noise. The ducts are installed using a flange system. This means that the installation needs to be kept to short ducting runs with few turns. Ducting Systems The two duct systems most commonly used are perimeter duct systems and extended plenum duct systems. air conditioning. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Galvanized steel can be easily bent and cut. the supply outlets are located around the outer edge of the structure. Fiberglass duct board provides built-in thermal insulation and excellent sound absorption. When ducts are accurately sized and the duct system is correctly designed. In addition. many features are available in default sizes and shapes. Flexible Ducting A variety of flexible ducting types are available. Galvanized Steel Most ducts are made of galvanized steel.Design Guide Appendix A: HVAC Components and Systems HVAC Components Air conditioning is part of a larger entity called an HVAC system. Duct Types Ducts are used to deliver and remove air. All rights reserved. Perimeter Duct Systems In a perimeter duct system. return air. Polyurethane duct board has built-in properties that provide sound damping. There are several HVAC components that make up an HVAC System. which helps reduce the noise of an HVAC system. which encompasses heating. ventilation. These components should be reviewed during the room selection and room remediation process. Polyurethane duct board is not as common as galvanized steel. One disadvantage of flexible ducting is that pressure loss is greater than with other types of ducting.

Other Main Duct Components In addition to the ducting itself. The branching ducts are usually located between structural joints in the floor or ceiling. attic. which is then called a filter return. and serve the following purposes: ● ● ● ● ● ● Deliver of ventilation and air conditioning Evenly distribute the flow of air in the desired directions Enhance mixing of room air into the air being discharged Attach air jet(s) to a ceiling or other surface Create low-velocity air movement in the occupied portion of room Accomplish the preceding functions while producing the minimum amount of noise © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Round or rectangular supply ducts extend as branches from the plenum extension to the plenum. as part of the room air distribution subsystems. Take-offs are fittings that allow part of the flow from the main duct to be diverted to a duct branch. and registers in the system. This document is Cisco Public Information. Take-offs allow the air to be diverted to the various diffusers. take-offs. air terminals. Vibration isolators reduce the vibration that blowers create. the duct system has other components such as vibration isolators. VAV boxes are one type of terminal unit. Dampers provide a means of adjusting the volume of airflow through the duct system. Grilles and registers are also used. Diffusers are the most common type. For the return. grilles. Diffusers are used on both all-air and air-water HVAC systems.Design Guide There are two basic perimeter duct systems used today: ● ● Perimeter-loop duct system Radial perimeter duct system The perimeter-loop duct system is characterized by feeder supply ducts and extends outward from the furnace plenum to a loop duct running around the perimeter. All rights reserved. dampers. or ceiling. Vibration isolators are installed before and after the air handlers and are made of a flexible rubber-like substance that reduces the vibration the air handlers transmit through the duct system. Terminal units are in branch ducts. which permits a better airflow rate with reduced resistance because of the large duct diameter. and some also incorporate an air filter. In a radial perimeter duct system. the feeder supply duct extends from the furnace plenum to the warm-air supply outlets located on the outside walls or the floor next to the outside walls. Air Terminals Air terminals are the supply and return outlets. ventilating. a large rectangular duct extends straight out from the furnace plenum and generally in a straight line down the center of the basement. Extended Plenum Systems In the extended plenum system. Page 68 of 70 . Normally. and terminal units. Diffusers Diffusers are very common in heating. exhaust grilles are used. Dampers can be fitted in the ducts and can be manual or automatic. They may also have a heating or cooling coil. there is one terminal unit per thermal zone. and air conditioning systems.

which causes the cooling system to engage. This document is Cisco Public Information. the preferred location is high on the inside wall or the ceiling. The following are commonly found in commercial buildings. especially if adequate air velocity in an upward direction is provided at the supply outlet. the thermostat switches heating or cooling devices on or off as needed to maintain the correct temperature. Page 69 of 70 . low on the side wall. A forced-air or warm-air heating system uses air as its heat-transfer medium. Both registers and diffusers can be placed at a number of locations in a room. or at the low side wall of the outside wall. Registers are generally interchangeable with vented grilles. For year-round air conditioning in homes. whereas a diffuser is an outlet that discharges air in a spreading jet. Occasionally. a compromise location is the floor. grilles are used as return or exhaust air inlets. rectangular. As the temperature rises. These sensors can be helpful for cooling specific areas or rooms. The thermostat does this by controlling the flow of heat energy into or out of the system. That is. diffusers are used in a reverse fashion. As these systems can be quite complex. All rights reserved. or low side wall at the exposed wall.Design Guide Diffusers may be round. electrical signals. Thermostats contain a sensor that operates based on its expansion or contraction. baseboard. These systems use ductwork and vents as a means of air distribution. For heating. or linear slot diffusers. including in the floor. More commonly. Thermostats A thermostat is a device for regulating the temperature of a system so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired set point. it is always recommended to consult with an HVAC engineer to ensure that an adequate HVAC system is designed or already in place for the intended Immersive Cisco TelePresence room. the sensor contracts and causes the system to shut down. The return plenum carries the air from several large return vents to a central air handler © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. narrow slots (hence the name) that are often semi-concealed in the ceiling. As the temperature drops. high on the side wall. at the baseboard. An instrument head is connected that is accessible for adjustment or inspection. HVAC System Types There are many different types of HVAC systems. A register is an opening that discharges air in a confined jet. Common sensors include: ● ● ● ● Bi-metal mechanical sensors Expanding wax pellets Electronic thermistors Electrical thermocouples The thermostat can control the heating or cooling apparatus using direct mechanical control. preferably under a window. Linear slot diffusers take the form of one or more long. Central Air Handler System with Forced Air Air distribution systems based on the forced-air principle of delivery use a system of ducts to deliver the heated or cooled air to the various rooms and spaces in the structure. Thermostats start and stop the system depending on the room temperature set. For cooling. on the windowsill. the preferred location is in the floor. as air returns. Duct thermostats have sensors that extend into the wall of the duct. in the baseboard. or in the ceiling. Registers Registers are devices attached to an air-distributing duct for the purpose of discharging air into the space being heated or cooled. the sensor expands. or pneumatic signals.

thermostats are used to control forced-air heating systems. These systems generally operate quietly since the noisy part of the system is installed away from the room. Forced-air heating is the type most commonly installed in North America. It is less common in Europe. and it is important that these pollutants be removed from the room. The cooling air can be distributed through four adjustable outlet apertures. Page 70 of 70 . heat exchanger. Independent Room Air Conditioning System Air conditioning packs consist of an internal device and an external unit for the individual air conditioning of a single room. As in any other kind of central heating system. Split Air Conditioning Systems Ductless or split-system air conditioners. even in larger rooms. Changes in the settings can made using a remote control. Printed in USA C07-643449-01 03/11 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. and the other part located outside or away from the room. A wide variety of space heaters exist. and controls. A three-stage fan with an automatic operating mode selection regulates the temperature in the room. All rights reserved. space heaters should always be vented to the outside. These systems are composed of two units. The different versions of internal devices offer many options for air conditioning. Regardless of type. Unless operated exclusively by electricity. or coil. Their advantage is that these systems are independently controlled and self-contained in one unit. Cassette Room Air Conditioning Systems Cassette air conditioning devices are designed for installation in larger rooms. particularly in the United Kingdom. often called mini-split air conditioners. These internal devices are available in wall-mounted versions as well as cassette units for integration into ceilings. are frequently used in commercial applications in situations where extending or installing additional ductwork is not practical. Except for the air outlets.Design Guide for reheating. Independent Room Heat Systems Space heaters are essentially spot heaters that heat a single room. element. with one part installed directly in the room to be cooled (either in the ceiling or the wall). using different kinds of fuel. blower. where it is typically referred to a warm-air heating. This document is Cisco Public Information. all air handlers consist of an air filter. The characteristics of the space to be heated determine if one is appropriate. The supply plenum directs heated air from the central unit to the rooms that the system is designed to heat. Cassette-type systems are very effective but may produce more noise than desirable. the entire technology hides discretely behind the suspended ceiling. Some have supplemental fans to help distribute heat. The combustion process creates harmful by-products (including carbon monoxide) in addition to large amounts of water vapor.

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