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Table of Contents
Introduction................................................................................. 3 1.1 1.2 Background information ........................................................3 Structure of the Report .........................................................3 Data collection: secondary data review ...................................4 Data collection: CSR review survey.........................................4
2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 Planning activities .............................................................. Design of survey................................................................ Sampling .......................................................................... Conduct of survey..............................................................
Methodology ................................................................................ 4 2.1 2.2
4 4 5 9
2.3 2.4 2.5 3 4
Discussion forums and working sessions..................................9 Interviews ..........................................................................9 International benchmarking................................................. 11
Overview of CSR ........................................................................ 12 Findings – large organisations ................................................... 22 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 Strategic approach to CSR................................................... 22 Internal CSR ..................................................................... 27 Framework for external CSR activities ................................... 31 Evaluation of implementation of CSR activities ....................... 40 Philanthropic and sponsorship activities................................. 44 Partnerships with other organisations ................................... 46 Corporate views on NGO ..................................................... 48 Potential partnerships......................................................... 53 Interest in policy dialogues.................................................. 58 Concluding comments......................................................... 59 Summary of key findings .................................................... 61 Strategic approach to CSR................................................... 64 Internal CSR ..................................................................... 65 Framework for external CSR activities ................................... 67 Evaluation of implementation of CSR activities ....................... 71 Philanthropic and sponsorship activities................................. 74 Partnerships with other organisations ................................... 76 End word .......................................................................... 81 Summary of key findings .................................................... 82
Findings - SMEs.......................................................................... 64 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8
Findings – Rodrigues ................................................................. 84 Legal review .............................................................................. 85 7.1 Existing regulatory framework ............................................. 85
7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.1.4 Fundamental Rights ..........................................................85 Labour ............................................................................88 Environment ....................................................................90 Trading ...........................................................................93
Business..........................................................................95 Security ..........................................................................99 Joint Economic Council – Model of Conduct ......................... 100 Mauritius Code of Ethics................................................... 101 Code of Corporate Governance ......................................... 102 United Nations Global Compact ......................................... 105 OECD Guidelines............................................................. 107 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines (GRI Guidelines) ............ 109
Local voluntary codes of conduct and ethical standards ......... 100
7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3
International codes and guidelines...................................... 105
Mechanisms of control from the State and civil society .......... 110
7.4.1 Ministry of Environment and National Development Unit ....... 110 7.4.2 Ministry of Labour and Industrial Relations ......................... 111 7.4.3 Ministry of Women’s Rights, Child Development, Family Welfare & Consumer Protection.................................................................. 112 7.4.4 Registrar of Companies.................................................... 113 7.4.5 The Office of the Ombudsman........................................... 113
Recommendations ....................................................................115 8.1 8.2 8.3 Overview ........................................................................ 115 An enabling framework for partnerships .............................. 116 Initiatives at individual sector level ..................................... 117
8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 8.3.4 8.4.1 8.4.2 8.4.3 8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3 8.5.4 Overview ....................................................................... 117 Private sector initiatives................................................... 117 Government initiatives..................................................... 119 Reform at NGO level ....................................................... 123 Government and private sector dialogue ............................ 127 Private sector and NGO sector dialogue.............................. 127 Government and NGO sector dialogue................................ 131
Joint partnership initiatives................................................ 127
Towards a three-sector partnership model ........................... 131
Mission.......................................................................... 133 Membership ................................................................... 133 Specific objectives .......................................................... 134 The modus operandi........................................................ 134
8.6 9 10
The Rodrigues case .......................................................... 137
Thematic areas of potential partnerships..................................140 Conclusion ................................................................................144
key drivers and evolution of CSR. conduct of survey. participatory discussion forums and working sessions. and To identify potential areas of strategic partnerships between the Private Sector and the NGO sector. The objectives of the project are: ♦ To assess CSR strategies in major industries and Small and Medium Enterprises in the Republic of Mauritius and make recommendations to target enterprises and the public sector.2 Section 2 details our multifaceted methodology adopted to review CSR in Mauritius including the data review. international codes and guidelines and goes on to analyse the adequacy of the mechanisms of control from the state and from civil society. This assignment is part of an overall program set to reinforce the NGO sector both in Mauritius and Rodrigues. SMEs and in Rodrigues respectively. local voluntary codes of conduct and ethical standards. To assess the relation between the Private Sector and the NGO sector. 5 and 6 present our findings on large organisations. to undertake a review of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Mauritius Republic. Section 10 closes with the conclusion. It then proceeds to look at the advantages of CSR.1 Introduction Background information Kemp Chatteris Deloitte (KCD) was commissioned by the Government of Mauritius. in partnership with the Mauritius Council of Social Service (MACOSS) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Sections 4. analyse the impact of law on CSR and provide examples of CSR in the workplace. Structure of the Report ♦ ♦ 1. Section 7 focuses on the existing regulatory framework. reviewing the history of. interviews with authorities and relevant opinion leaders as well as international benchmarking. Section 3 presents an overview of CSR. Section 9 identifies thematic areas of potential partnerships.1 1. with attempting a definition of the term. views on. Section 8 sets out our recommendations. 3 .
2. This was essential for the exploratory research and design of the questionnaire. given the unique research objectives we engaged in: ♦ ♦ Exploratory research.2 Data collection: CSR review survey 2. boundaries and execution approach. the internet.2 Design of survey For this study. 2. and Descriptive research. work plan: ♦ ♦ ♦ The Provided the necessary information to assist in establishing the assignment charter. and the media. Simple questions were put to them such as: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ How do you define CSR? Does your organisation have a formal policy towards CSR? Which resources do you devote to CSR activities? What does CSR activities encompass in your organisation? Does your organisation have a team/employee looking after CSR? 4 . academic and business sources. 2. Helped in the preparation of contingency plans (if necessary).2.2 2. and Set out quality of work expected and frequency of monitoring of the assignment. Exploratory Research In order to (i) verify the applicability and extent of CSR in the Mauritian context (ii) refine the research objectives and (iii) obtain additional input for the questionnaire. The literature review englobed the Deloitte network.1 Planning activities Rationale A work plan was prepared for approval by the Project Management Unit (PMU).1 Methodology Data collection: secondary data review Extensive and critical literature search Our team members engaged in a literature review on CSR. we conducted informal interviews with professionals from various organisations.
International corporations.2. International corporations. A questionnaire was designed to collect the primary data. and SMEs. This compilation was a good starting point as it provided valuable information such as turnover. We proposed 3 sampling variables (for the first two segments). sector of activity etc.3 Sampling Segment identified 1 Major national corporations Sampling unit We referred to the “Top 100 Companies 2006” to obtain the sampling frame for the major national corporations in Mauritius. were pertinent to our survey: Sampling variable 1 2 3 Sector of activity Turnover. and SMEs. which we believe. the sampling aimed at addressing: ♦ ♦ ♦ Major national organisations. 2. We referred to the list of SMEs registered with the defunct Small and Medium Industries Development Organisation. now Small Enterprises & Handicraft Development Authority (SEHDA). 2 3 International corporations SMEs Selection of sampling variables The sampling frame addressed the 3 segments identified by the Strengthening of the NGO Sector in Mauritius (SNSM): ♦ ♦ ♦ Major national corporations. organisations in major industries of the economy and SMEs were investigated. profit.Descriptive Research A descriptive study was undertaken to find answers for the research objectives. More specifically. and Whether organisation is engaged in CSR or not Retained by SNSM Project Manager Retained Retained Not retained Sampling process For this study. The sampling unit consisted of all international corporations present in Mauritius. 5 .
For the purpose of this assignment. as summarised below: Target 1 2 Major National and International Corporations SMEs Sampling Frame Top 100 Companies SME Directory Sampling Variables Sector of Activity Turnover Sector of Activity Sampling Method Probability Sampling Non-Probability Sampling 1.2000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Agriculture Aviation. the sampling frame that we have used is the Top Hundred Companies as this gives a reliable and complete overview of major national and international corporations. 7 4 7 34 4 12 20 2 10 58 18 24 100 6 . Media and Telecommunications Tourism. Hospitality and Leisure 5 3 4 17 7 16 1 5 1 2 9 1 1 1 3 >2000 1 1 1 8 3 4 3 1 2 No. these organisations have been categorised along 2 major variables namely (i) sector of activity (ii) turnover. Moreover. We stratified the organisations with the following results: Sectors Turnover (RsM) <1000 1001 . Major National and International Corporations For major national and international corporations. both the probability and non-probability sampling methods have been used. Shipping and Transport Construction Consumer Business Energy Investment and Financial Services Manufacturing Technology.
10. We classified banks on the basis of total assets and took a sample of 4 banks proportionately stratified as follows: Total Assets (RsM) <5. 4 3 5 20 1 6 10 2 8 59 We considered the banking sector separately given that most.000 >10. distributed as follows across the sectors: Sample Turnover (RsM) Sectors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Agriculture Aviation. if not all.000 5. Media and Telecommunications Tourism.2000 >2000 No. we considered a sample size of 63. The Top Hundred Companies has also been used as the sampling frame for banks.000 Number 6 5 7 18 Sample 2 1 1 4 7 .001 .For major national and international corporations. Hospitality and Leisure 3 9 1 5 39 2 7 1 <1000 4 2 3 12 1 3 1 1 5 1 2 1 1 1 13 1001 . Shipping and Transport Construction Consumer Business Energy Investment and Financial Services Manufacturing Technology. of them indulge in CSR.
Sample Sector 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Food and Beverage Leather and Garments Wood and Furniture Paper products and Printing Chemical. and Permits the respondent to get clarification from the interviewer. The sampling variable was the sector of activity of organisations with the SME directory as the sampling frame. we considered a sample of 37 organisations. Allows the interviewer to observe as well as listen. SMEs For SMEs. Rubber and Plastic Pottery and Ceramic Jewellery and Related items Fabricated Metal Products Others Number 221 166 205 100 84 6 73 169 151 1175 7 4 7 3 3 2 5 4 37 Summary of sample used A summary and detailed description of the sample used is as follows:Total sample size 100 Large national and international corporations In Mauritius and Rodrigues 63 SMES in Mauritius and Rodrigues 37 Large organisations 59 Banks 4 Contact method We used the face-to-face interview to administer the questionnaire because this technique: ♦ ♦ ♦ Enables the interviewer to establish rapport with the respondent.2. 8 .
Trust Fund for Social Integration of Vulnerable Groups. Ministry of Social Security and MACOSS. and SCW & RI Ministry of Social Security.3 Discussion forums and working sessions We facilitated consultative working sessions with the Steering Committee on the CSR project.4 We also conducted interviews with representatives of major stakeholders to obtain their views on various aspects of CSR. 2. Centre de Solidarité pour une Nouvelle Vie etc). National Solidarity.2. Ministry of Finance and Economic Development. National Solidarity. & SCW and RI Ministry of Finance and Economic Development Ministry of Finance and Economic Development National Economic and Social Council (NESC) National Economic and Social Council (NESC) Decentralized Corporation Programme Trust Fund for Social Integration of Vulnerable Groups NGO Trust Fund Law Reform Commission Whom we met Permanent Secretary Assistant Secretary Financial Secretary Director Financial Policy Analysis Chairperson Research Coordinator International Expert Co-coordinator Officer in Charge Chief Executive Officer 9 . and MEF). SOS Femmes.4 Conduct of survey We conducted the survey once our pilot test was over and the questionnaire and/or the approach to administering same was/were vetted by SNSM. Interviews ♦ ♦ 2. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. and bodies such JEC. Prime Minister’s Office. Organisations met are as follows: Body Ministry of Social Security. and the CSR Task Force. National Solidarity and Senior Citizens Welfare & Reform Institutions. 2. the private sector (private companies. and how to interpret body language of respondent.We ran a training session whereby all interviewers were instructed into how to properly administer the questionnaire so as to avoid ambiguity in questions and answers. Prévention Information et Lutte contre le SIDA. and the civil society (Fondation Medine Horizons.g. the Ministry of Social Security. International Trade & Cooperation). Teams of 2 interviewers administered the questionnaires with Heads of the organisations. The Steering Committee comprised representatives from: ♦ the Government (e.
de Recherche.Body National Committee on Corporate Governance United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Whom we met Chairperson Resident Representative Senior Programme Manager Project Coordination Officer International Consultant United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) International NGO Training and Research Centre (INTRAC) Joint Economic Council (JEC) Mauritius Employers Federation (MEF) Mauritius Employers Federation (MEF) Mauritius Commercial Bank British American Investment Group of Companies (BAI) British American Investment Group of Companies (BAI) T-Printers Fondation Médine Horizons Fondation Nouveau Regard ANAHITA (Ciel Group) Association des Hoteliers et Restaurateurs – Ile Maurice (AHRIM) Association des Hoteliers et Restaurateurs – Ile Maurice (AHRIM) Mauritius Council of Social Service (MACOSS) Mauritius Council of Social Service (MACOSS) Centre de Documentation. de Recherche. de Formation Indiaocéanique (CEDREFI) Centre de Documentation. de Formation Indiaocéanique (CEDREFI) Befrienders Mauritius Prevention Information et Lutte contre le SIDA Fondation Tamriv Fondation Tamriv Director Director Research Officer Communication and Media Specialist Vice President Responsible CSR Director Social Implementation Manager Administrator Director Communication Chief Executive Officer Officer Responsible CSR President Secretary President Director Secretary Director Administrative Director Field Coordinator 10 .
5 International benchmarking We have also carried out internet-based international benchmarking to collect data on best practices in other countries. 11 .Body Fondation Tamriv Institute for Consumers Protection (ICP) Right Now Mouvement Autosuffisance Alimentaire (MAA) Priorité Enfants Force Vive Poudre d’Or Village Whom we met Field Coordinator President Secretary President Psychologist President 2.
Sims. legal. Many critics argue that organisations must evaluate the impact of their decisions and actions on society as a whole and that they must assume responsibility for their activities and related consequences. being a steward of the needs of society is a socially responsible. In short. “The social responsibility of business encompasses the economic. According to Caroll (2003). Some of the well-known definitions of CSR are as follows: ♦ “Corporate social responsibility is a commitment to improve community well-being through discretionary business practices and contributions of corporate resources” (Kotler & Lee. CSR is the "continuing commitment by business to behaving ethically and contributing to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the community and society at large" (R. and natural act. it is also argued that organisations should take steps to protect and improve the welfare of society. appropriate. Therefore.3 Overview of CSR Concept The conduct of business has been an increased concern for society and subject to continuous criticism over the years. Against this background of rights and obligations." ♦ ♦ 12 . Some have even suggested that organisations exist to serve the needs of society. 2003). Definition The definitions provide some insight into the ideal of CSR. Furthermore. Out of such criticism has grown the notion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). but also from the perspective of the greater good. many organisations have responded to the challenge with a commitment to social responsibility that has led to increased corporate responsiveness to stakeholders and improved social (stakeholder) performance. organisations must evaluate their decisions and actions not merely from the perspective of organisational effectiveness. ethical and discretionary (philanthropic) expectations that society has of organisations at a given point in time. 2005).
CSR has rapidly grown in the last 20 years. provides strong evidence that “those clearly committed to ethical behaviour perform better financially over the long term than those lacking such a commitment” (Alison Maitland. with the belief that this will contribute to both the medium-and long-term success of their business. raise productivity and improve staff recruitment and retention rates. Rowntrees and Hersheys who sought to improve their employees' standard of living as well as enhancing the communities in which they lived” (Hancock. cut environmental cost. Furthermore. Even where there is a more business-based approach a great deal of what passes as CSR at top companies has been described as merely ‘passive box ticking’ driven by external pressures rather than a genuine desire to do business in an ethical way. The current world business climate is positive for CSR. At its most passive. Many companies now back and organize specific schemes. A global CEO survey undertaken in the year 2002 found that 70 per cent of chief executives globally agree that CSR is vital to profitability. Andersen and WorldCom scandals. moving up the boardroom agenda of even the most hard-headed companies. often in conjunction with the not-for-profit sector. there is a greater recognition by businesses that CSR can help to restore public trust in the corporate world. Moreover. comparing companies in the FTSE 250. more than 70 per cent of business leaders believe that integrating responsible business practices makes companies more competitive and profitable. there is the 'hands-off' approach. according to Business in the Community. It is also argued that CSR strategy can help manage the effects of globalization. following the Enron. 2005). 13 . Moreover. with charitable giving and patronage of charities decided by the chairman or a board committee. research published by the UK's Institute of Business Ethics. 3 April 2003). But increasingly there is support for more active CSR involving a range of stakeholders. “Traditions of corporate philanthropy date back to the Victorian era with the activities of Quaker families such as the Cadburys.History Elements of corporate social responsibility (CSR) are not a new phenomenon nor indeed are the business practices associated with it. Financial Times.
who may be exploited by the company's operation. 2005). ♦ Realist view The view that gathers the greatest following is the realist view. fulfils its mission. frustrating business focus on its purpose of wealth creation. and especially the vulnerable. a utopian view and a realist view. it is also about the integrity with which a company governs itself. ♦ Utopian view The utopian view of CSR reflects the idea that companies have a prior duty to any-one touched by their activity. WorldCom and the like have undoubtedly increased the perception of greed among senior business officials in the corporate world. measures its impacts and reports on its activities. the notion of CSR is inimical to democracy and freedom. The Key Drivers There are many drivers of CSR programmes namely: ♦ Bottom line effect: By far the most relevant driver of CSR programmes is the bottom-line effect of incorporating a socially responsible element into corporate practice. As a result. their stakeholders rather than their shareholders. ♦ Influence of the corporate disasters: The corporate scandals affecting Enron.Views on CSR According to Hancock (2005). lives by its values. engages with its stakeholders. CSR is not simply about whatever funds and expertise companies choose to invest in communities to help resolve social problems. CSR is important in counteracting allegations of corporate greed. in the US as in the UK there has been a 14 . will lower a company's equity risk premium. as argued by some ratings agencies. Milton Friedman best defines the approach: “Few trends would so thoroughly undermine the very foundations of free society as the acceptance by corporate officials of a social responsibility other than to make as much money for their stockholders as they possibly can”. ♦ Reputation management: A model designed by the global public relations company Bell Pottinger illustrates a direct correlation between reputation and financial outcome measures – share price and credit rating (Hancock. ♦ Lower equity risk premium: A comprehensive CSR programme. there exist 3 views on CSR namely: a sceptic view. According to this view. ♦ Sceptic view According to this view.
Some of the key trends are illustrated below. CSR may give the opportunity for business to inform shareholders of potential risks and issues. ♦ Further investment case: A strong investment case exists for the avoidance of expensive action suits and the ability to attract. ♦ ♦ ♦ As shown above. to efforts aimed at engaging the core competencies of the company and building mutually beneficial partnerships between the company and NGOs. including shareholders.shift away from philanthropy in approaches to CSR and a movement towards the greater alignment of CSR to business strategy and corporate governance. better. motivate and retain a talented workforce. In terms of a proactive strategy. with full-fledged department overseeing CSR activities. 15 . Any dialogue engaged in allows companies to understand their stakeholders. focused on one-way disbursement of charitable funds. ♦ Customer loyalty: A CSR programme can build loyalty with customers and offer a competitive advantage in a marketplace where consumers demand goods and services ethically delivered or produced. it is now integrated into corporate strategy. CSR evolution Organisations have moved away from traditional philanthropic approaches. CSR is no longer confined to one-off philanthropic activities.
feel better. business colleagues. do better. These sorts of actions from eco-efficiency can produce concurrent environmental and economic benefits for the company and thereby contribute to stronger financial performance and more positive profitability. Managing potential risks and liabilities more effectively through CSR tools and perspectives can also reduce costs. Operational efficiencies can be achieved in other facets of CSR such as streamlining the way that information is provided to the investment community as well as to other stakeholders that demand increased transparency. financial analysts.Moreover. in annual reports and in the news” (Kotler & Lee. Wastes can also be reduced and materials can be recycled. operational efficiencies can be achieved through reducing energy and materials as input factors for production. Using corporate responsibility and sustainability approaches within business decisionmaking can result not only in reduced costs but can also lead to recognizing new 16 . For example. investors. It appears that such participation looks good to potential consumers. 2005). CSR proffers a number of advantages to organisations namely: ♦ Stronger financial performance and profitability Businesses can use CSR and corporate sustainability to produce direct benefits for the bottom line. There are many who say that participation in corporate social initiatives has similar potential benefits. breadth of CSR strategies and initiatives has also evolved immensely over recent years as follows: Advantages “Most health care professionals promise that if we engage in regular physical activity we’ll look better. and live longer.
retain employees. EcoValue 21). suppliers. ♦ Stronger relations within communities through stakeholder engagement A key feature of CSR involves the way that a company engages. communities. and encourage employees to pursue learning. and collaborates with its stakeholders including shareholders. the FTSE4 Good indices. and its capacity to access capital from that community. and the Jantzi Social Index) that companies that embrace the essential qualities of CSR generally outperform their counterparts that do not use features of CSR. An increasing number of mutual funds are now integrating CSR criteria into their selection processes to screen in sounder companies and/or screen out businesses that do not meet certain environmental or social standards. regions or markets. and governments. being prepared to form effective partnerships. debtholders.market opportunities such as when new manufacturing processes are developed that can be expanded to other plants. to find innovative ways to not only reduce costs but to also spot and take advantage of new opportunities for maximizing benefits. This information is being translated into action within the investment community (e. a company’s stock market valuation. Thus. To the extent that stakeholder engagement and collaboration involve maintaining an open dialogue. employees. motivate employees to develop skills. Domini Social Equity Fund. There are various studies that have examined the relationship between CSR and corporate financial performance and most of the evidence suggests that the links are positive. ♦ Improved relations with the investment community and better access to capital The investment community has been exploring the links between corporate social responsibility and financial performance of businesses. There is growing evidence (through indices such as the Dow Jones Group Sustainability Index (DJGSI). These conditions can serve to help to recruit employees. customers. non-governmental organisations.g. Companies that employ CSR related perspectives and tools tend to be businesses that provide the pre-conditions for increased loyalty and commitment from employees. reduce absenteeism. a CSR approach by a company can improve the stature of the company in the perspective of the investment community. and may also translate into marginally less demands for higher wages. ♦ Enhanced employee relations. productivity and innovation A key potential benefit from CSR initiatives involves establishing the conditions that can contribute to increasing the commitment and motivation of employees to become more innovative and productive. with creation of funds such as Socially Responsible Investment. involves. and 17 .
Indeed. CSR is often viewed as acts that stretch beyond what is prescribed by the law. CSR as a concept with various tools can help a company to position itself in the marketplace as a company that is more responsible and more sustainable than its competitors. Companies can use stakeholder engagement to internalize society’s needs. illegal and responsible. irresponsible and legal. circumstances into their corporate views and decision-making. and improves their capacity to be more sustainable. This is a potentially important benefit for companies because it increases their "licence to operate". While there are many questions about how far a company’s responsibilities extend into communities relative to the roles of governments and individual citizens. and legal and responsible” (Sims. many believe that certain existing laws do not promote socially responsible behaviour. and reporting practices). hopes. there is a strong argument that CSR can effectively improve a company’s relations with communities and thereby produce some key features that will improve business prospects for its future. 2003) 18 . ♦ Improved reputation and branding A potential benefit of CSR is that it can improve a company’s reputation and branding and this in turn improves the prospects for the company to be more effective in the way that it manages communications and marketing in efforts to attract new customers and increase market share. Corporate Social Responsibility and the Law The issues of "social responsibility" and "legality" are not one and the same. “Thinking about legality and responsibility identifies four distinct organisational approaches to social responsibility: illegal and irresponsible. enhances their prospects to be supported over the longer term by the community. the relationship between the business and the community in which it operates is likely to be more credible and trustworthy. accounting.demonstrating transparency (through measuring.
4. 3. Ben & Jerry's gives 7.Approaches 1. Dumping this type of material into the river is prohibited by law. For example. the Audubon Society. Irresponsible and legal For example. they attempted to block French nuclear tests in the South Pacific by illegally occupying French territory and harassing French military operations. These organisations are acting within the letter of the law but not the spirit of the law. These charitable acts on the part of Patagonia. 19 . and it was clearly irresponsible to further contaminate the water. during the mid-1990s. while the Hallmark Corporation for the past 80 years has donated more than 5 percent of its corporate pretax profits to charitable causes. Legal and responsible Since 1984 Patagonia has given 10 percent of its pretax profits to such groups as the Wolf Fund. Illegal and irresponsible Examples (Sims. and Hallmark are both legal and highly socially responsible. beer companies produce commercials that appeal to underage drinkers. and casinos sometimes make special offers that encourage people to trade their Social Security checks for gambling chips. Ben & Jerry's. and the Nature Conservancy. 2003) An investigation was launched to examine claims that some companies took advantage of the catastrophic Pennsylvania Ashland Petroleum tank collapse by dumping their own toxic wastes into the already polluted Monongahela River. 2. Illegal and responsible Greenpeace has on many occasions engaged in illegal acts in an effort to protect the environment.5 percent of its pre-tax profits to charity.
Community. support human rights.Examples of CSR in the workplace It is widely agreed that CSR is a concept that is theoretical and basically meaningless to practice unless it is applied in some organisational context. standards to Some examples of Policies and practices 1. or other contributions. donations. consumer. Some organisations use being responsible simply as a marketing ploy. Environmental protection. social responsibility can be categorized into four major areas of impact or performance: (i) human resources—development and protection of people. in which the organisation resides. restore biodiversity. cultural and societal involvement and philanthropy ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 3. waste reduction and sustainability ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 20 . and enhance sustainability Adoption of recognized environmental guidelines Seek to introduce environmentally friendly processes and practices though continuous improvement policies Identifying and reducing in every way possible the overall damage the organisation does to the environment Purchase only energy saving and recyclable equipment and materials Applying environmental and sustainability purchasing and vendor relationships. volunteerism. Supporting educational. and sustainability. Generally speaking. and service contributions and protections. (ii) community. Human resources: development and protection of people ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 2. Participate in community environmental programs and forums that seek to protect the environment. clean. Obeying all applicable laws and regulations. and societal involvement and philanthropy. and pleasant work environment Providing equal opportunities in hiring and promotion Provide employees with adequate training and educational opportunities in a timely manner that enhances organisational and personal career goals. Giving back to the community. foundations. Social responsibility area of impact Helping employees with family responsibilities Providing employees a safe. healthy. cultural. and/or environmental causes with financial donations or volunteer assistance or other socially responsible investments. humanitarian. waste reduction. does business or impacts on stakeholders in terms of philanthropy. (iii) environmental protection. Just wearing the CSR badge does not necessarily mean that an organisation is responsible. and (iv) product.
Social responsibility area of impact Some examples of Policies and practices 4. service contributions and protections ♦ ♦ Provide guidelines and means for consumer protection in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Provide truthful information on the known environmental impacts of the organisation and its products and services. consumer. ♦ ♦ 21 . Design products to minimize consumption of energy and production of wastes. Product. including reduction in packaging requirements. Design products and services for the environment that use fewer raw materials and less energy in production or implementation.
22 . In order to assess the history of CSR and its trend over time. CSR has become embedded into the organisational culture. 25% of companies engaged in CSR activities since recently only (less than 3 years) confirming the belief that CSR is an emerging trend in the country. At that time. companies were surveyed on their engagement in CSR activities. up to 20 years back. Involvement in CSR has started at varying points in time for the companies surveyed. It is interesting to note that the highest percentage of respondents (39%) have started CSR activities since their starup. Chart 1 History of the company's engagement in CSR Others (include vague answers and undisclosed answers) 19% Since start-up 39% Recently (~3 years) 25% About 10 years back 10% About 20 years back 7% CSR initiatives go quite a long way back in Corporate Mauritius as well. CSR activities were mainly confined to compliance with prevailing laws and regulations.1 Findings – large organisations Strategic approach to CSR History of CSR in Mauritius CSR across the modern world traces its origin back to governmental regulation shaping personnel and environmental issues back in the 1970s. Since then. strategy and operations across frontiers.4 4.
corporate reputation and image. Different firms may be at different stages of awareness of and work on CSR. thus. Most organisations initially engaged in CSR activities mainly to enhance their image vis-à-vis (i) the internal community (60. compulsory banking guidelines.Introduction of CSR in Mauritian companies Chart 2 Why did you start at all? Enhance image vis-à-vis external co mmunity 54. 23 . However.9% Glo bal P o licy 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% CSR seeped into Mauritian enterprises for various reasons. if not reconcile.3% 15. In its most basic application. Other reasons put forward by organisations include: transparency. preservation of jobs. Others may wish to make strategic forays into particular areas. their obligations to shareholders with explicit contributions to the external community. Multinationals engaged in CSR not only to enhance their image but also because they have to abide by their global policy. which will dictate the contents of their strategy: some may decide to adopt a "minimum necessary" stance.3%) and (ii) the external community (54%).0% Enhance image vis-à-vis internal co mmunity 60. These codes: ♦ Set forth norms for corporate behaviour and behaviour to be observed by each director and employee. the way they make these contributions differs greatly. overwhelming evidence that private sector firms across the world and in Mauritius and Rodrigues are aware that they have to balance. Evolution of CSR There is. The CSR adoption was thus mainly for image building. CSR may be viewed as compliance with laws and the presence of corporate ethics as laid out in codes of ethics / codes of conduct / codes of corporate governance. employee retention and loyalty.
Despite the long history of CSR in Mauritius & Rodrigues. allowing the organisation to be successful by using its resources within its unique environment to meet market needs and fulfil stakeholder objectives. there is no formal framework for CSR initiatives in Mauritius and Rodrigues. As such. A good CSR strategy identifies the following: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ overall direction for where the firm wishes to go in its CSR work a basic approach for proceeding specific priority areas immediate next steps. more than 80% of them engage in strategic CSR partnership at community level while more than 60% do so at national level. However. Yes Does your company have a formal policy towards CSR? Engagement in Strategic CSR Partnership at community level Engagement in Strategic CSR Partnership at national level 22% 85% 64% No 78% ♦ ♦ Out of the 22% of respondents that have a formal CSR policy. This is evidence that CSR is not yet embedded in the culture of many organisations in Mauritius and Rodrigues. the fact that more than one quarter of large organisations surveyed does not have any code demonstrates that there is room for improvement to populate this practice. It sets the direction and scope over the long term with regard to CSR. This finding conveys other strong messages such as: ♦ A proper CSR structure is not a priority for many organisations in Mauritius and Rodrigues. CSR policy A CSR strategy is a road map for moving ahead on CSR issues. Hence. The majority of organisations do not realise the importance of a coherent and systematic CSR undertaking on their organisational performance. their approach will not be planned and formal. This implies a strong positive correlation for existence of a 24 . in the future. The survey has revealed that more than 73% of large organisations have a code of conduct/ethics/corporate governance. and Shape organisational behaviour towards employees and society at large.♦ ♦ Set the rules for outlining the responsibilities of or proper practices for all in the organisation. only 22% of organisations surveyed have a formal policy towards CSR. This is positive as the existing knowledge on codes and their applications by large organisations can be a stepping stone towards the adoption of good CSR practices. while many organisations will continue to engage in CSR.
♦ Motives behind developing a CSR policy The organisations which have developed a formal CSR policy were asked about the real motives driving this policy adoption. Out of these. from originally to improve corporate image. This is a key finding as it reveals that organisations that have a structured and disciplined approach to CSR find it easier to engage in strategic partnerships both at community and national level. 62% have reviewed their policy/policies Out of these 85% of the organisations developed their own policies and the rest having recourse to external consultants ♦ ♦ Yes 30% Firms having a formal CSR policy No 70% Out of these 54% have a designated person to ensure compliance with law and international codes 25 . 14% aim to enhance the general well-being of the society. It is clear that there has been a shift in CSR motives.formal CSR policy and an engagement in strategic CSR partnership at community and national level. Chart 3 Motives behind developing CSR policy Others 14% Image of company 14% Enhancement of society 14% Social reponsibility 58% ♦ More than 50% of companies have done so (either formal or informal) in order to be socially responsible. 14% to enhance the image of their organisations. Other reasons include welfare of employees and stakeholder value as shown in the above chart. to achieving social objectives. Organisations with CSR policy/policies have had to adapt such policy/policies over time as shown below.
This clearly shows that a lot of companies may not really understand what CSR encompasses and are underestimating its importance. and thus fail to see CSR as a key tool for risk management. However the remaining 35% of companies not having risk management policies shows that there is still room for improvement in this area. As mentioned earlier in the literature review. only 52% of the companies surveyed were able to appreciate the bearing CSR may have on risk management. This confirms the belief that CSR is still in its most basic application: compliance with laws. 65%.Coupled with CSR policies. 26 . fraud amongst others. It is encouraging to note that a majority. The current Mauritian business community wants to be known by its international counterparts as a clean jurisdiction to do business. Furthermore. Risk management is a positive indication that large companies are well geared to protect themselves against risks such as money laundering (predominantly in the financial sector). unethical behaviour by employees and clients. of companies surveyed have risk management policies. organisations surveyed were prompted on the existence of any risk management policies. some rating companies have argued that an organisation’s equity risk premium may be lower with the implementation of a comprehensive CSR programme.
equal opportunity and environment protection measures. the survey revealed that all companies surveyed engage in one way or the other in internal CSR as depicted in chart 4 below. Despite the fact that few companies have an internal CSR policy. created standards for responsible corporate business practices which became thresholds for minimal internal CSR behaviour. 27 . traditionally defined as a corporation’s giving program. The current business trend is to establish codes of corporate governance and codes of ethics as well as inculcating shared values at the corporate level and engaging fully in internal CSR initiatives. The issue of internal CSR pertains to “people management”.4. to name a few. Internal behaviours refer to the way an enterprise conducts the day-to-day operations of its core business functions. External behaviours refer to a corporation’s engagement outside of its direct business interest. Occupational health and safety. which has a fundamental bearing on organisational performance. This confirms that internal CSR is yet to be integrated in the management culture of companies in Mauritius. This would be erroneous in that CSR has evolved into two perspectives: one related to internal corporate behaviours and the other related to external corporate behaviours. Strategic approach to internal CSR The approach to internal CSR is somewhat similar to CSR in general with 65% of organisations without any formal policy on internal CSR. These dimensions range from the regular conduct of training to the less regular employee satisfaction surveys or social climate surveys.2 Internal CSR The myriads of CSR initiatives are so much hyped about and made visible by media today that it may lead to the fallacy of interpreting CSR as social activities external to private enterprises. Dimensions of internal CSR Internal CSR encompasses a vast range of dimensions pertaining to good modern human resources practice.
Benefits of internal CSR Chart 5 How do y ou benefit from internal CSR? Higher pro ductivity B etter staff retentio n Higher staff mo rale 70% 75% Training/Career Advancement 80% 85% Occupational Health & Safety 90% Employee satisfaction surveys Collective Bargaining Workplace Diversity Incentive Programs Work-Life Balance 95% 28 . training and development has the highest rating (87%) followed by occupational health and safety (76%) and incentive programs (76%). important dimension of internal CSR. employee satisfaction surveys and collective bargaining score relatively low (37%. Workplace diversity (73%) is another Profit sharing/share options. 41% and 43% This indicates that employers tend to arm their employees with the necessary tools in order to become more productive. respectively).Chart 4 What does internal CSR encompass for the company? 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 87% 73% 56% 43% 37% 41% 76% 67% 76% Employee Participation in decisionmaking Profit sharing/share options When companies surveyed were asked what internal CSR encompass for them.
The organisations benefit in multifold ways: higher productivity.8%) believe that commitment of top management is fundamental for inculcating CSR in the organisational culture of companies. The majority of respondents (96. these organisations stress that the promotion of CSR is dependent on several factors. Therefore. Other key factors that are important to promote internal CSR include: integration of internal CSR in the core values of organisations. internal CSR has a positive impact on human resource and should be considered as an investment for companies and not a cost. in that it contributes to organisational performance. 29 . it is very important for top management of companies to be sensitised to the benefits of internal CSR in order to have their support.Organisations have come to realise that people are their most important assets and CSR does have a positive bearing on their performance and/or attitude. commitment of employees. Thus. Whilst there is a general consensus amongst organisations that benefits are indeed reaped from CSR. which would cascade down the organisation. employee participation in CSR activities and communication of CSR undertakings within the organisation. better staff retention and higher staff morale as illustrated in the above chart.
Indeed. Induction is a key activity in that it is the process of receiving and welcoming employees when they first join a company.Chart 6 Does CSR form part of the induction program and/or training? Yes 30% No 70% Chart 7 Are employees evaluated upon their CSR undertakings during their performance appraisal? Yes 21% No 79% It is interesting to note that 70% of organisations surveyed do not have CSR in their induction programs and training activities and that 79% do not evaluate their employees upon their CSR undertakings during performance appraisal. CSR framework. Disclosure of CSR during induction may lead new employees to developing a favourable attitude to the company. they do show concern about CSR undertakings of their organisations. As for top management. the survey has revealed that 87% of organisations have This consolidates the finding that the majority of organisations do not have a solid internal 30 .
reported that CSR undertakings are important for members of top management. They are aware of CSR’s impact on corporate performance. This is a key finding in that top management can be convinced to formalise and structure their CSR policies in order to benefit further from CSR. The Government of Mauritius can capture this opportunity and capitalise on the interest and willingness of firms to engage in CSR activities. 4.3 Framework for external CSR activities
Despite the fact that Mauritian organisations have been involved in one way or the other in CSR undertakings, the country still lags behind the western countries when it comes to CSR being integrated in organisational strategy, structure and operations. The future evolution of CSR rests upon the organisational framework within which CSR takes place: - how is it carried out? - who is involved and responsible? - how much is spent on CSR? - what time frame is considered? - what is being devoted, what is being done? - with whom is CSR being carried out? - is there any control? - are CSR activities communicated? The organisations have been assessed on the above framework.
Approach (how) Chart 8
Do you carry out CSR activities in a formal or informal way?
The majority of respondents (63%) carry out CSR activities in an informal way. This demonstrates that CSR is not carried out in a structured way. This may be due to the fact that the majority of companies (70%) do not have a formal CSR policy. Hence, formalisation and structuring of CSR will bring more discipline and consistency on how CSR activities are conducted in Mauritius. Responsibility and involvement (who) Implementation of CSR activities calls on for internal resource deployment, unless the organisation is involved in charity works (donations) or outsources its CSR responsibilities. The majority of respondents (54%) have someone to overlook CSR activities. This is a positive signal as it shows that there is an increasing commitment to CSR.
Who oversees C SR activities?
Others (Board, top management, finance) 12% Dedicated team/person 16%
No answers 5% HR, Personnel, Administration 39%
C ompliance 5% Marketing, C ommunications, External Affairs, Business Development 23%
Whilst a majority of organisations do have a designated person for CSR, it is interesting to note that for a significant percentage, that person is in human resource (39%) and marketing/communications (23%) departments respectively. This is one indication that to many organisations, compliance with laws and regulations is the primary concern of CSR. There is someone who is fully involved in CSR activities on a daily basis in only a few companies. Almost all companies interviewed have demonstrated that their management team engage more substantially than their employees in CSR undertakings as shown in the chart 10. This shows that employees in companies do not take initiatives to conduct CSR which is rather driven by Management.
34 . This is a very positive signal as it shows that there is a financial commitment on the part of these companies to conduct CSR activities.Chart 10 Who is/are actually involved in the CSR activities? Emplo yees M anagement 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Budget (how much) However. 70% of companies surveyed set budgets for conducting CSR activities. despite the fact that organisations conduct CSR in an informal way.
Timeframe (when) Chart 11 Which time frame do you devote to such activities? Ad Hoc 71% Full Time 10% Limited 16% Others 3% When it comes to the frequency of CSR activities. It also indicates that the CSR culture is yet to be embedded in Mauritius. Resource allocation (what) Chart 12 Which resources do you devote to your CSR activities? 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Funds Products Skills Premises People 33% 17% 54% 60% 90% 35 . most companies surveyed (71%) carry out CSR activities on an ad hoc basis. This is because the majority of companies do not have a full fledged CSR committee or department nor have formal CSR policies.
Companies carry out various CSR activities.4% 93.6% 28.A majority of companies (90 %) allocate funds to CSR.Internal CSR 20. 36 . These various resources may be linked to demand by NGOs. More than 90% of companies carry out internal CSR activities and external CSR activities to the community and broader society.7% 92.6% 27.0% 38.1% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Nearly all companies surveyed engage in internal and/or external CSR as illustrated in chart 13. This triggers a positive signal that companies are indulging in CSR activities.7% 60. especially in priority areas.1% 66. More than 60% of respondents carry out CSR activities in areas of environment and governance/code of ethics. A substantial percentage (60%) also provides employees for organisation and participation in CSR activities. Types of CSR undertakings (what) Chart 13 What are the activities that you conduct? Suppliers Stakeholder Engagement Shareholders Public Reporting Environment Governance / Code of ethics Customers Community & Broader Society Employees .3% 52.
These partners can be: ♦ ♦ ♦ Other private firms. NGOS. The survey revealed that around one third of respondents (35%) prefer to carry out their CSR activities on an individual basis. This may be due to the fact that they carry out those activities on an adhoc basis at their own pace and convenience.Forms of action (with whom) Chart 14 What form do your activities take? Collective actions only 19% Individual actions only 35% Both individual and collection actions 46% Another important consideration which often determines the success or failure of CSR undertakings is whether organisations partner up with other organisations or not. and Governmental bodies. Chart 15 What form do your activities take? Both individual and colletcive actions 46% C ollective actions only 19% Individual actions only 35% 37 .
This may be explained by the following: ♦ ♦ ♦ Absence of CSR policy. The attention devoted by management gurus. and CSR is done in an informal way and on an ad-hoc basis. This shows that partnerships between NGOs and companies do exist and work and. Such communication is common practice in Mauritius as well. function of control to ensure that objectives have been met efficiently and effectively.The remaining 65%% conduct CSR either (i)through collective actions only (19%) or (ii) through both individual and collective action (46%). Private sector – NGO partnership may be developed using existing ones as showcases. No full-fledged CSR Department. It is also observed that only 9% of respondents that communicate their CSR activities do so through a social report as shown in the following chart 38 . This is in line with their objective of enhancing their image vis-à-vis the external community as previously mentioned. Controlling CSR activities A proper organisational framework comprises the essential. organisations even publish regular CSR reports or social reports. 65% of companies do not measure the impact of their CSR activities. The majority of A few companies surveyed (68%) communicate about their CSR activities mainly through their annual report and Newspaper/Magazine. though often neglected./Committee. the theses and academic papers and the columns in corporate newsletters allotted to CSR undertakings all indicate that there is currently much written material on the subject. by informing the general public about their social responsibilities. can be enhanced. Communication about CSR Communication is yet another aspect of a proper organisational framework for CSR undertakings. Indeed. The survey has confirmed that this crucial function is often neglected in corporate Mauritius in their CSR undertakings.
However.4. if not as an imperative. the impact of CSR on their trading partners was less apparent. organisations face a number of constraints and challenges. 29% are not sure that they have benefited by undertaking CSR activities. Challenges Despite the multifold advantages attached to CSR.4 Evaluation of implementation of CSR activities Benefits The way CSR has seeped. However. Absence of proper measurement does not reassure and convince organisations of the benefits proffered by CSR. in corporate Mauritius is insightful in that organisations have come to recognise the many benefits which can be derived from such undertakings. lack of audit). Chart 16 How has your organisation benefited from conducting CSR? Better public relations 79% Better relations with clients Better relations with suppliers Better motivation amongst employees 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 27% 48% 79% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Companies which have benefited from CSR enjoy enhanced employees motivation (79%) and better public relations (79%). most of the companies (69%) surveyed have reported having benefited from CSR activities. This is in line with the finding that a majority of respondents do not measure the impact of their CSR activities. In other words. This may be a motivation to further engage in CSR activities and encourage others to follow suit. 40 . as a reality.g.g. companies are achieving their desired objectives by carrying out both internal and external CSR activities. lack of information) or during the implementation (e. These may crop up before the start of the CSR activity (e. lack of proper partnership or coordination) or after implementation (e.g. Indeed.
This is the result of conducting CSR in an unstructured way. The next important challenge is lack of audit after implementation of CSR (22%). and should. The challenges faced by organisations obstruct the evolution and expansion of CSR. the majority of companies do not measure the impact of CSR activities. deterred by the practical challenges faced before. faced by as many as 33% of companies. The way these two opposing forces would interact and dealt with would greatly influence the future of CSR undertakings. Lack of information No proper partnership 41 . on the other hand. on one hand allured by the multifold benefits derived from CSR undertakings and. from their perspective and that of the targeted group. Future of CSR undertakings Organisations are. They pointed out that the government has to communicate more on areas requiring urgent focus and actions and their strategies to address these so that the private sector could be in a better position to know how they may help and target priority sectors. thus be dealt with at root source. In fact. as previously mentioned. during and after carrying them out.Chart 17 Did you encounter the following challenges when implementing your CSR activities? 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 1 9% 22% 1 9% 33% Lack of audit after implementation Lack of coordination The survey has reported that the lack of information on specific areas where CSR activities had to be conducted is an important challenge.
42 . or engage into new activities in the future. one should address the identified challenges in order to entice other organisations on CSR board and thus creating a snowball effect. the survey tried to investigate into the foreseeable trend of CSR activities.Chart 18 Do you foresee to continue conducting CSR activities? Expand C SR activities 51% Engage into new C SR activities 11% C ontinue C SR activities 38% C ease C SR activities 0% C urtail C SR activities 0% Given these opposing forces. or expand their activities. Whilst the survey has indicated a favourable response for CSR activities in the future.e. These are clear indications that companies are increasingly sensitised to the importance and impact of CSR. The prospective surge in CSR undertakings would benefit both internal and external stakeholders. More than 50 % of companies surveyed stated that they would expand their CSR activities while some 38% mentioned that they would continue as usual implying that companies are more concerned about the many benefits reaped by CSR activities than deterred by the challenges they face during or post-implementation. None would curtail or cease their CSR activities. Factors promoting CSR The above results convey a strong message that companies would maintain the status quo (i. continue the same CSR activities).
the two most important factors that surfaced were: the guarantee that the targeted groups are indeed benefiting from those activities and the need for transparency in implementation of activities at NGO level. Role of government The role played by the government impacts directly on CSR. it is impending to review the role of the government in CSR undertakings.Chart 19 Factors that would encourage your organisation to increase its CSR activities Positive outcomes for the organisation A forum whereby pressing needs (economic. after all. vested interests in whatever CSR undertakings they carry out and seek some rewards. almost all companies would consider a revision of tax policy regarding CSR activities as a very important to somewhat important factor encouraging them to increase CSR. actual policy are other factors which would promote CSR. As shown in the above chart. social etc) can be identified The guarantee that targeted groups are indeed benefiting Transparency in implementation of activities at NGO level Partnership with other PS firms or NGOs A better information dissemination about NGOs A revision of the actual tax policy regarding CSR activities 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very Important Important Somehow Important Not important at all When further prompted for factors which would encourage them to increase such activities. Companies have thus indicated that they indeed would want value for money and there may be a perception of lack of transparency from the NGO perspective. This indicates that companies do have. Another important result is that all companies consider positive outcomes to them when deciding whether to expand CSR or not. More information on NGOs. a forum whereby pressing needs are identified and a revision of the 43 . Thus.
intermediary and regulator. Yes No Do you engage in philanthropic activities? 90%: health and safety. 4. education and community (sports) Yes Are you satisfied with your philanthropic activities? No 10% 91% 9% 44 . A significant proportion of them (30%) mentioned that the government policy could encourage them in conducting CSR activities by way of fiscal incentives. these two concepts are not the same. The latter is more embedded in corporate strategy.Chart 20 How can the government assist companies in the implementation of CSR No answer 17% Others 6% By providing tax incentives 30% By acting as a facilitator 47% Almost half of the companies surveyed pointed out that the government could be of help by acting as a facilitator. lack of information is one of the main challenges faced by companies in their CSR endeavour.5 Philanthropic and sponsorship activities Philanthropic activities Many organisations have started their CSR journey by initially indulging in philanthropy. structure and operations. Over time. the government could assist in bridging that gap. Therefore. their approach has evolved and they have adopted a more strategic one. The former is the practice of performing charitable or benevolent actions. In fact. Despite the use of philanthropy and CSR interchangeably by management gurus. as mentioned previously.
An overwhelming majority. The organisations are already participating in give-aways. A matching study may be carried out in order to ensure that NGOs needs and requirements are really met. 90%. the majority of them (91%) are satisfied with their activities. thus enhancing the chances of sustainable CSR initiatives. to a company’s bottom line. however the method adopted may be wanting in that there are debates as to whether philanthropy is sustainable or not. Nonetheless. and The organisation should engage in strategic CSR. education and community (including sports). Among those companies that are involved in philanthropic activities. an organisation engaged in philanthropic activities represents a good opportunity to a natural move towards strategic CSR. in return for financial support. It is a business tool used by many companies as part of their communications. the reasons put forward include: ♦ ♦ The organisation has the potential and resources to contribute more to CSR. Sponsorship activities Yes Do you engage in sponsorship activities? No 83%: sports and education Yes Are you satisfied with your sponsorship activities? No 17% 94% 6% Sponsorship is another concept close to CSR and philanthropy. with proper education and sensitisation. The fact that most of those engaged in philanthropy are satisfied from such undertakings may represent a formidable resistance to adopt a more strategic approach by actually engaging in CSR. For those organisations that are not satisfied with their philanthropic activities. of companies surveyed carry out philanthropic activities which tend to revolve around 3 main areas namely health and safety. Sponsorship usually requires a service. or action. The existence of philanthropy indicates an opportunity to develop and refine a CSR framework. This shows that these companies are achieving their philanthropic objectives. so this frequently has clear marketing benefits and is therefore directly linked 45 . advertising and public relations budget to associate the company name/brand/people with dynamic events and images for their media broadcast and audience.
it has been found that the majority of collaborations (76%) are on a long-term or short-term basis and 24% on a one-off basis. The survey investigated into whether companies partner up with other organisations in their CSR activities. and ultimately global goals. In view of the fact that the majority of collaborations are not just one-off.It is very encouraging to note that 83% of companies surveyed indulge in sponsorship activities. having achieved their set objectives. Therefore. 46 . Indeed many international institutions are drivers of such integrated effort such as the UN Global Compaq and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As such. this is an opportunity of which both NGOs and the community at large could take full advantage. sustainable benefits to the community may be achieved. Such partnerships may take multifold forms and involve different timeframes. Among those companies that are involved in sponsorship activities.6 Partnerships with other organisations There has been much convergence between CSR initiatives of private organisations and civil society actions with a view to identifying opportunities to leverage corporate investment for the benefit of NGO programs. The 8th MDG is to “develop a global partnership for development”. sports and education top up the list. very often more efficient vehicle to achieve national. as much as 94% are satisfied with their activities. there is consensus around the world that partnership is a quicker. Among the priority sectors in which companies indulge in sponsorship activities. 54% of companies surveyed partner up with other organisations in their CSR activities while 36% are not involved in any partnerships. Popularity of collective action Awareness about the multiple benefits to be reaped from collective actions has already arisen in corporate Mauritius as well. 4. Timeframe of partnership When prompted for the timeframe concerned. Those existing partnerships may prompt other companies to partner with others for CSR activities.
Chart 21 Are you collaborating with this/these organisation/s? Long term (beyond 2010) 44% One-off 24% Short term (2007-2010) 32% Initiating step An important finding yielded by the survey is that partnerships between companies and NGOs started by the latter approaching the former in an overwhelming majority of cases. Chart 22 How did that relationship begin? 76% The NGO approached us 24% My company approached them 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 47 . 76%.
with clear objectives and transparency. A 48 . political. 4. There are over 6. or have resulted in incongruent goals and ultimately overall dissatisfaction. to the benefit of the community. sports. and religious in Mauritius. Chart 23 Are you satisfied with that partnership? Yes 97% No 3% Almost all companies that partner with NGOs have reported that they are satisfied with their partnerships. and thus achieved common and desired goals. This sheds light on an Civil society engagement present since the 19th century now pervades most if not all spheres of activities: social. important player in CSR undertakings.This shows that there is a willingness of the private sector to partner with NGOs for a common cause. This is a compelling finding in that when partnerships do take place. the NGOs.7 Corporate views on NGO They have actively The proactiveness of NGOs has yielded many satisfactory partnerships. sought and found assistance and participation from the private sector. NGOs should thus be more proactive in looking for potential partnerships with companies and buying them in. Satisfaction derived from partnerships Whilst there are national and global efforts to promote partnership. it is also imperative to evaluate such partnerships to assess whether they have brought satisfaction. economic.000 voluntary organisations with non-profit making goals. the actual outcome portends well for the private sector and that existing partnerships between companies and NGOs do work and can lead to a surge in private sector / NGO Partnership. environmental. cultural.
M auritius M arine Conservation Society A useful classification of NGOs is categorising them into advocacy and operational. These NGOs have developed for a variety of purposes humanitarian issues. improving the welfare of the disadvantaged. the Mauritius Wildlife Fund is both an operational and advocacy NGO as shown below: ♦ To conserve and manage the indigenous flora and fauna of Mauritius and its ♦ Operational aims ♦ Operational/ advocacy territories.majority of these are community-based whilst around 300 are termed “non-governmental organisations”. ♦ To inform. Major sources of NGO funding include membership dues. Friends in Hope. The primary purpose of an operational NGO is the design and implementation of development-related projects. ♦ ♦ ♦ Evolutionary stages of development NGOs Focus on relief and w elfare Deliver relief services directly to beneficiaries Examples: distribution of food. Befrienders ♦ ♦ ♦ Terre de Paix ♦ ♦ ♦ PILS. self-reliant local development Build capacities of local communities to meet needs through “ self reliant local action” Focus on sustainable systems development Try to advance changes in policies and institutions at a local. national and international level ♦ United Way. For instance. Advocacy NGOs are set up to defend or promote a specific cause. ACIM . improving the state of the natural environment. grants from 49 . M ental Health Association. the sale of goods and services. PAWS. emergency aid. sustainable development. educate and involve the Mauritian people in this vital work. shelter or health services Focus on small scale. developmental aid. encouraging the observance of human rights. ♦ To co-ordinate and administer these projects. M auritius Wildlife Fund. aim ♦ Operational aim ♦ Advocacy aim Another important aspect when considering NGOs is the funding of these NGOs. M auritius. APEIM . acceptance and knowledge by lobbying. Lizié dans la M ain. The focus of the NGOs varies as well in that the ways the NGOs reach their target beneficiaries are different. ♦ To raise and supply funds necessary for the conservation projects undertaken by the MWF and its associate organizations. or representing a corporate agenda. These organisations typically try to raise awareness. press work and activist events.
the respondents have named at most 6 NGOs. Bearing the ultimate objective of the survey in mind. it becomes imperative to investigate into the following.international institutions or national governments. when prompted to enumerate NGOs in Mauritius. RED CROSS 50 United Way NATRESSA CARITAS MACOSS . and private donations. This may be due to a combination of factors such as the topical nature of the cause it defends. Several EU-grants provide funds accessible to NGOs. ♦ ♦ ♦ Which are the popular NGOs in corporate Mauritius? How does corporate Mauritius view the NGO sector? Which characteristics do companies seek prior to entering into partnership/s with NGOs? NGO popularity Chart 24 NGO popularity 40% % of companies listing these NGOs 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 6% 6% 5% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 0% 6% 5% 5% 3% 5% 5% 5% 1 0% 8% 8% 1 0% 1 9% 1 9% 1 6% 1 3% 35% 5% 0% APEIM Blood Donors Association Lizié dans la main Mauritius Wildlife Foundation Save the children Rotary club SOS Femmes Les Enfants d'un rêve Friends in hope Étoile Esperance SOS Pauvreté Lois Lagesse SOS Village Terre de Paix Ti Diams MPRB APSA PAWS PILS Centre de solidarité NGO listed by companies Surprisingly. PILS is the most popular NGO amongst the respondents. a meagre response.
whilst not able to evaluate the big majority. however noble. Terre de Paix.its visibility due to its wide press coverage. in a position to assess them. when prompted to provide a rating of the overall NGO sector. the majority of respondents had either good or fair opinion of NGOs in Mauritius while very few companies rated NGOs as excellent/very good as shown below: Chart 25 How would you rate NGOs in Mauritius? Performance towards goals Mobilisation of resources Membership and quality of resources C ommunication C ommitment and professionalism Structure and organisation Aims and mandate of the NGOs 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Good 70% Fair 80% Poor 90% 100% Excellent Very Good A better evaluation of each of the above criteria can be made by analysing the mean score as shown below: 51 . are seldom reported in the media or when covered are often presented as matters of course. Companies know a few NGOs very well. Other popular NGOs include: Association des Parents d’Enfants Inadaptes de l’ile Maurice. thus. NGO rating It was difficult to obtain a good rating of the NGO sector because of the following: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ The population is so big and disparate. Mauritius Wildlife Foundation. However. Activities of the NGOs. SOS Village amongst others. The NGOs function so differently. the endorsement of Government to its cause and the stated achievements to combat AIDS and its stigma. There is so little information available on all of them. and They are not regulated.
e. Perception is as good as reality – NGOs should reverse this perception by addressing the above dimensions. the way NGOs are structured. all the other criteria listed have means below 3 (i. good). 52 . resources mobilisation.Apart from the aims and mandate of the NGOs which achieves a mean of 3 (i.e. This implies that they are perceived as being fair to poor by the majority organisations surveyed. Hence. fair). level and quality of communication. while the aims and mandates of NGOs might be noble and interesting. their commitment and professionalism. membership and quality of resources and performance towards goals are perceived to be below expected standards by Mauritian organisations.
civil society.0% 60.0% 20.NGO characteristics encouraging partnership Lastly.0% 90. This may explain why PILS top up the popularity list of companies since they successfully satisfy the above dimensions.0% 50.8 Potential partnerships Tri-sector partnerships that engage private sector.0% 40.0% 100.0 % Aims and mandate of NGOs. 4.0% 80.0% 70.0% 30. commitment and professionalism and performance towards goals are the most important factors that companies consider when partnering with an NGO. These multi-stakeholder partnerships have become an established form of actualising corporate commitments as shown in the following table: 53 . respondents were invited to pick the characteristics of NGOs which count most in their partnership search decision. Chart 26 Which factors would you consider when partnering with an NGO? Performance towards goals Mobilisation of resources Membership & quality of resources C ommunication C ommitment & Professionalism Structure & Organisation C ommunity Outreach Brand C redibility Aims and mandate of the NGOs 10. and the government are very much in vogue currently and have become particularly powerful engines of change in recent years.
org IT Transportation Seedco (USA) UNICEF UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Union Mondiale pour la Nature Environment protection IBM DHL Poverty Disaster management TOTAL Energy Environment protection Coca Cola Consumer Business United States Agency for International Development Manufacturing heavy Environmental Assistance Center Green Earth Center Environment protection Toyota Procter and Gamble Body Shop Consumer Business Children’s Safe Drinking Water Children health promotion Consumer Business British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection Animal protection MTV Network International Health promotion Consumer Business World Food Programme Poverty Unilever Wal-Mart Retail Red Cross Fighting AIDS Gap Inc Manufacturing (PRODUCT) RED Fighting AIDS NOKIA Electronic business UN Children’s Fund Children welfare L’Oreal Consumer Business CSR Europe Gender equality Singapore Airlines Aviation Singapore Chinese Orchestra Promotion of arts BBC Media Countryside Agency National Trust Forestry Commission Environment protection Indeed partnership models that link private. economic and environmental challenges as well as benefiting the partnership agencies.Multinational company BNP Paribas Sector of activity NGO/Company Banking GoodPlanet Agence de L’Environnement et de la Maitrise de l”Energie Pomozte detem Foundation (Czech Republic) SOS Children’s Village (Morocco) Cue Kids (Oceania) Plan International Partnership area Environment protection Accor Group Hotel Children’s welfare Ben and Jerry’s Consumer Business Dave Matthews Band SaveOurEnvironment. 54 . public and civil society contain the twin possibilities of both addressing pressing social.
This survey will ultimately have to recommend potential multi-stakeholder partnerships. locally and/or globally. 75% of them were aware of such partnerships in Mauritius. 55 . and their level of satisfaction with such partnerships. However. the interest shown by Corporate Mauritius in such partnerships. almost half of them were not satisfied with them. Only then can they provide valuable and novel contribution to such partnerships. This high rate of dissatisfaction may be due to the perceived standalone position of each stakeholder in CSR activities resulting in a lack of coherence and goal congruence. Key to such an endeavour is: ♦ the assessment of whether the respondents possess adequate benchmarking information. ♦ ♦ ♦ Awareness of private sector/NGO/government partnership Respondents were asked about their awareness of partnerships which exist between the private sector. the interest demonstrated by private companies in engaging in policy dialogues. and identification of areas of CSR where private firms lack information. NGOs and the Government.
who? 54. then the state of CSR in Mauritius could drastically improve.0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 56 . with the result of an embedded CSR culture in Mauritius. who would they wish to partner up with.0% Private Firms 76. Types of partners sought This high interest shown by large firms in future partnership triggered the following question.Interest in partnership Respondents were asked whether they would be interested to partner up with other organisations to conduct CSR activities. This is a key finding in that if such intent is materialised into meaningful and long-term partnerships.0% Government NGOs 88. Chart 27 Would your organisation be interested to partner up with other organisations to conduct CSR activities? Yes 79% No 21% 79% of respondents have shown interest to partner up with other organisations to carry out CSR activities. Chart 28 If yes.
in general. In fact. 88% of companies are interested to partner with them. Hence.Although there is a perception that NGOs have significant room for improvement. they aspire to partner with certain specific NGOs which seem to perform well such as PILS. In fact. 76% with other private sector firms and only 54% with the government. there is an urgent need to bridge this information gap. Areas for potential private sector and NGO partnership The survey has revealed that private sector firms are willing to partner up in varied areas ranging from promoting children welfare and health to protection of environment and promoting education. 57 . Education. Chart 29 Is there an area(s) where you would like to conduct CSR activities but have limited information? No 56% Yes 44% 44% of companies surveyed would like to conduct further external CSR activities but have limited information in areas of need. CSR Areas with limited information The respondents were then prompted to share areas where they would like to conduct CSR activities but have limited information. environment and poverty are the main areas where organisations are keen to engage in but lack information. Mauritius Wildlife foundation amongst others. as previously mentioned. lack of information was one of the main challenges of companies in their CSR endeavour. for NGO-private firm partnership.
health. environment. 58 . and health. What are the areas where resources should be devoted.g. and poverty recurs both under “humanitarian” and “community and society”. etc Therefore. education. hunger and homelessness). community and society. Companies wishing to help children may wish to intervene in areas as diverse as education. empowerment and Number of private sector (large) firms showing interest in this field* 17 15 12 11 10 6 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 Drug/alcohol Criminality Women Sports and culture Children Civic life Elderly people Animal welfare Development * These areas of interest are not necessarily mutually exclusive. What should be the role of each stakeholder: the private sector. 4. respondents were probed to identify any interest in engaging policy dialogues. civil society and the government. The above table shows that certain areas interest a large number of respondents such as: humanitarian (poverty. dru/alcohol.9 Interest in policy dialogues Engaging in policy dialogue is another form of activity which can shed light into various aspects of CSR: ♦ ♦ ♦ What should be done to promote a CSR culture. a firm may wish to engage in CSR to help women with drug problems.Areas of potential partnership Education Environment/wildlife Humanitarian Health Community and society Business training conduct. e. Poverty is an area where companies would like to intervene.
discussion forums. 4. health and safety. and criminality) Moreover. This can be achieved by bringing major stakeholders together at workshops.Chart 30 Would you be interested to participate in policy dialogues initiatives involving NGO/PS/Government? Yes 79% No 21% The majority of companies surveyed (79%) are interested to participate in policy dialogues initiatives involving NGO/Private Sector/Government. the main criterion for partnership between private sector. partnerships can best happen if there is a shared vision. Provide the trend that they foresee in CSR activities. drugs. education. This could be a stepping stone for possible partnerships between the private sector.10 Concluding comments The respondents were invited to: ♦ ♦ Share the benefits that their engagement in CSR has brought about. NGOs and Government is congruence of ideas. social flaws (AIDS. etc. 59 . violence. In other words. poverty. alcoholism. NGO and the Government. Organisations willing to participate in such policy dialogues are of the view that areas of focus should be on the following: community.
♦ This indicates that companies are achieving their objective of enhancing their image vis-à-vis both the external and internal community. higher employee productivity and satisfaction.e. A few respondents have reported that they derive a sense of satisfaction for “doing good in society”. public at large.Benefits of CSR Chart 31 Main benefits reaped by engaging in CSR 40% 35% 30% % of Companies 25% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Internal stakeholders External stakeholders Personal satisfaction Benefit category Other No answer 10% 8% 33% 35% Most companies mentioned that the main benefits of CSR undertakings are twofold: ♦ Affecting internal stakeholders. better employee retention. team building sessions etc. attract more customers. i. customers.e. Nearly half of the respondents (49%) surveyed believe that CSR trend will be increasing in Mauritius. government. there is better brand recognition and awareness amongst others. This may create a snowball effect to the benefit of the 60 . CSR trend The companies were invited to share their views on trends for companies with respect to adopting CSR practices. sense of belongingness. employees – there is better employee relations. the corporate image is enhanced. i. Companies benefit directly in that employee productivity increases and indirectly by avoiding costs such as recruitment. Companies have cited that they are able to retain customers. Affecting external stakeholders. training.
However.community. there is an increasing interest and sensitisation to the CSR cause. procedures and planning in most organisations. While many organisations will continue and/or expand their CSR activities in the future. 61 .11 Summary of key findings CSR culture ♦ CSR culture is not yet embedded in Mauritius. Moreover. need for the government to act as a facilitator. 25% of respondents have started their CSR undertakings in the past 3 years only. Endword Chart 32 Endw ord The players should be more credible 6% 0% Government There should be should act as a more concrete facilitator commitment from 21% the Private Sector 14% CSR is important and is a must 59% 59 % of companies concluded that CSR is important and must be practised for the benefit of both the internal and external community. this reinforces the finding that the majority of companies will continue and/or expand their CSR activities. 4. Other reflections and arguments included: more commitment from the private sector. ♦ The majority of organisations do not realize the importance of a coherent and systematic CSR undertaking on their organisational performance. their approach will not be planned and formal. Around 9% of the companies have however indicated that they anticipate CSR to remain stagnant or to decrease. ♦ A proper CSR structure is not a priority for many organisations. CSR policy ♦ CSR is not structured and formalised in terms of policy.
goodwill and corporate image. Most organisations in Mauritius communicate about their CSR activities mainly through their annual report and/or newspaper/magazine. ♦ The 2 major challenges that organisations encounter when conducting CSR activities include: lack of information on needy CSR areas and lack of audit after implementation of CSR initiatives. Framework for external CSR activities ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ The majority of organisations in Mauritius conduct CSR activities in an informal way. ♦ The majority of companies in Mauritius will continue and/or expand their CSR activities in the future. 62 . and believe that CSR is important and must be practised for the benefit of both the internal and external community. Evaluation of implementing CSR activities ♦ Most companies surveyed have reported having benefited from CSR undertakings in terms of goodwill. Organisations in Mauritius tend to arm their employees with the necessary tools in order to become more productive while neglecting the social and family life aspects. productivity. the Government can help in the promotion of CSR by acting as a facilitator. intermediary and regulator. ♦ Very few organisations have internal CSR dynamics embedded in their Human Resource systems. 70% of organisations surveyed set budgets for conducting CSR activities. A large proportion of organisations do not measure the impact of their CSR activities. ♦ Organisations have benefited from conducting internal CSR activities in terms of higher productivity. The majority of organisations conduct CSR on an individual level. 68% of respondents have a person/team designated to overlooking over CSR activities. Internal CSR ♦ ♦ Internal CSR is yet to be integrated in the management culture of companies in Mauritius. higher staff morale. better staff retention. employee and client satisfaction.♦ A significant proportion of respondents (i) do not consider CSR as a key tool for risk management and (ii) fail to appreciate the bearing that CSR may have on risk management. ♦ According to organisations in Mauritius.
health. Policy dialogues ♦ The majority of companies surveyed (78%) are interested to participate in policy dialogues initiatives involving NGO/Private Sector/Government. 79% of large companies surveyed have shown interest to partner up with other organisations to carry out CSR activities in the future. 63 . environment.Philanthropic and sponsorship activities ♦ 90% of respondents carry out philanthropic activities while 83% indulge in sponsorship activities. alcoholism. education. and criminality). structure and organisation and performance towards goals when partnering with NGOs in the future. and empowerment and training. sports and wildlife. poverty. health and safety. drugs. the way they are structured and governed are perceived to lack excellence and professionalism. ♦ Organisations willing to participate in such policy dialogues are of the view that areas of focus should be on the following: community. violence. Partnerships with other organisations ♦ ♦ 54% of respondents partner up with other organisations in their CSR activities. ♦ Organisations will lay much emphasis on aims and mandate of NGOs. NGO in Mauritius ♦ While the aims and mandates of NGOs in Mauritius might be noble and interesting. social flaws (AIDS. commitment and professionalism. poverty. ♦ Fields of potential partnerships include: education. humanitarian.
SMEs Strategic approach to CSR Overview Although CSR undertakings are generally attributable to large organisations and multinationals. ♦ ♦ ♦ One person may cumulate various. History of CSR Chart 33 History of the com pany's engagem ent in CSR <10yrs 13% >10yrs 33% Since start up 54% The introductory question aimed at gaining information about the engagement of the SMEs in CSR. This is in harmony with the fact that in SMEs. Many SMEs are micro-businesses (often one-man show) so that aspects such as risk management are only considered. and 86% do not consider CSR as a key tool for risk management. 64 . and not formalised as policies and procedures. often ad-hoc.5 5. When prompted further. SMEs play a growingly significant part considering their economic role in creating employment and their social embedding. The survey revealed that 54% of them have been carrying out CSR activities since start up. Work is carried out in an unstructured way. and 86% do not have risk management policies. functions.1 Findings . if not all. 33% trace their CSR commitment to a long time back (more than 10 years) and the rest have started less than 10 years ago. it emerged that most of them conduct CSR in an informal way: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 97% do not have a CSR policy. 54% have not designated someone to oversee compliance with law and international codes.
SMEs have been probed for their internal CSR undertakings. Strategic approach to internal CSR Chart 35 Do you have an internal CSR policy? Yes 17% No 83% When asked whether they have an internal CSR policy in place. 83% of the respondents answered negatively.♦ Often carry out CSR as an integral part of their operations Chart 34 Why did you start at all? Global Policy Enhance image vis-à-vis internal community Enhance image vis-à-vis external community Others 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% Upon inquiring into the motives for engaging in CSR activities. 5. these were mostly done for image building purposes.2 Internal CSR As for large companies. 65 . This is probably because they are too small and lack the means for implementing internal CSR policies.
with little. written policies and procedures. Benefits of internal CSR Chart 37 How do you benefit from internal CSR? Higher pro ductivity B etter staff retentio n Higher staff mo rale 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 66 . These dimensions are considered the basic ingredients for business success.Types of internal CSR Chart 36 What does internal CSR encompass for the company? 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Occupational Health & Safety Incentive Programs Training/Career Advancement Profit sharing/share options Employee Participation in decision-making Employee satisfaction surveys Workplace Diversity Work-Life Balance Collective Bargaining 35% 27% 16% 11% 51% 51% 54% 32% 24% When asked about what internal CSR encompassed for them. Training/career advancement of employees and Incentive programs are other forms of CSR adopted by SMEs. it was evident that all the SMEs engage in at least one form of internal CSR. The most popular form of internal CSR activities was provision of good occupational health and safety atmosphere for their employees (54%). This confirms that SMEs still operate in a very informal way. not to say none.
g Newsletter) or informally (e.g through emails) People commitment surveys 68% 59% 65% 62% 22% 22% 5. 68% of companies stated that “Commitment of top management to inculcating CSR in the organisational culture ” was a powerful promotional dimension in SMEs. The most important benefit is higher staff morale for 65%.The survey inquired in detail about the benefits the SMEs reap from engaging in internal CSR. Important factors for the promotion of internal CSR Percent Commitment of top management to inculcating CSR in the organisational culture Having shared values emphasising an internal CSR culture Allowing and encouraging employees to participate in community CSR activities Commitment of employees to CSR Communication about CSR commitments. The following question concerned the factors that were important to promote internal CSR in SMEs. Communication about CSR commitment and people commitment surveys were brought up as less important factors. followed by better staff retention for 60% and higher productivity 46%. formally (e.3 Framework for external CSR activities Responsibility and involvement (who) Chart 38 Who overlooks CSR activities? 38% 31% 31% Owner Appointed person Appointed team 67 .
38%. a team was allocated that responsibility. This is probably because SMEs are small by nature and they have limited resources for CSR endeavour. Resource allocation (what) Chart 40 Which resources do you devote to your CSR activities? 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Funds Products Skills Premises People 76% 73% 30% 22% 68 . Employees generally are not involved in CSR activities. Chart 39 Who is/are actually involved in the CSR activities? 16% Emplo yees 84% M anagement 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% In the majority of SMEs surveyed (84%).The next question aimed at identifying who assumed responsibility for CSR in SMEs. It was also interesting to see whether there was a clear demarcation in involvement of management and employees in CSR. the management team is involved in CSR activities. Most SMEs. appointed a third party to conduct CSR. In 31% of SMEs the owner assumed the CSR responsibility and in the remaining 31%.
It is interesting to note that SMEs contribute to CSR activities more in kind than in funds. they are less involved on topical issues such as the environment and governance/code of ethics. This confirms that SMEs have a great social embedding. Types of CSR undertakings (what) Chart 41 What are the activities that you conduct? Suppliers Stakeholder Engagement Shareholders Public Reporting Environment Governance / Code of ethics Customers Community & Broader Society Employees . It is noted that due to their sheer size. Furthermore. NGOs may thus gear their demands accordingly.Internal CSR 14% 0% 3% 0% 27% 5% 35% 89% 81% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% The CSR undertakings of most SMEs feature a strong focus on society and employees. skills. Forms of action Chart 42 What form does your activities take? Collective Action 14% Individual Action 86% 69 . SMEs do not allocate their premises for CSR undertakings.The survey tried to identify resources which SMEs allocated to CSR: funds. Most SMEs contribute to CSR activities by funding activities and donating their products. premises or people. products.
14% carry out CSR activities by partnering up with NGOs and 16% with the private sector. The underlying reason for such a decision would seem that they encounter unequal participation from other organisations in which they have collaborated in the past. This is explained by the fact that SMEs’ contribution to CSR is too minimal on one hand 70 . Most organisations prefer to act individually when they undertake CSR activities (86%). Out of the remaining 14% which do CSR through collective action.SMEs were also asked whether they conduct CSR individually or by partnering up with other organisations. Chart 43 Collective Action C ollective Action with International Bodies C ollective Action with Governmental Bodies C ollective Action with NGOs C ollective Action with PS firms 0% 0% 3% 14% 16% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Controlling CSR activities Chart 44 Do you measure the impact of your CSR activities? Yes 19% No 81% Only 19% of SMEs ensure that the targeted groups have benefited from CSR activities.
conducting CSR. SMEs lack the necessary personnel and time to go on site to evaluate the backdrop of their CSR undertakings.4 Evaluation of implementation of CSR activities There are a number of areas pertaining to implementation of CSR activities requiring further probing: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ What benefits do SMEs reap. and What should be the role of the government? Benefits Chart 45 How has your organisation benefited from conducting CSR? Better public relations Better relations w ith clients Better relations w ith suppliers Better motivation amongst employees 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 11% 32% 49% 59% 60% 70% The engagement of SMEs in CSR activities clearly indicates that there are many benefits to be reaped. 71 . This would definitely encourage them to carry more of such activities.and on the other. Companies are thus achieving their desired objectives by carrying out both internal and external CSR activities. 5. These firms were asked how they have benefited from Most companies surveyed reap benefits of CSR activities through enhanced employees motivation (59%) and better public relations (49%). What challenges they face. How they foresee the future of CSR undertakings. Which factors promote CSR according to them.
Future of CSR undertakings Chart 47 Do you foresee to continue conducting CSR activities? Expand C SR activities 11% Engage into new C SR activities 16% C ontinue C SR activities 59% C urtail C SR activities C ease C SR11% activities 3% Respondents were required to indicate whether they foresee to continue conducting CSR activities. Many companies pointed out that the government has to intervene by identifying on needy CSR areas and devise strategies to address these issues. More than 85% of the organisations are willing to further their This is positive as although the impact of their CSR 72 engagement in CSR activities. during and after implementing CSR activities. . This is attributed to the fact that SMEs have limited structure and resources to carry out CSR activities. Lack of coordination and information are the main challenges that the organisations have to face.Challenges Chart 46 Did you encounter the following challenges when implementing your CSR activities? 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% Lack of audit after implementation Lack of coordination Lack of information No proper partnership 5% 8% 1 4% 1 4% It was also interesting to identify challenges facing SMEs before.
this would at least help to breed the CSR culture in the business community in Mauritius. the guarantee that targeted groups are indeed benefiting from CSR activities turned out to be the most important factor. this measure would be well appreciated and help to enlarge SMEs’ CSR activities.undertakings is not significant. However. Role of government Chart 49 Required assistance from Government Acting as Supervisor and Facilitator 20% Assistance in kind or fund 18% Fiscal Incentives 32% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 73 . during and after implementing CSR. This may be due to the many challenges they have faced before. Factors promoting CSR Chart 48 Factors that would encourage your organisation to increase its CSR activities Positive outcomes for the organisation A forum whereby pressing needs (economic. As regards to revision of tax policy regarding CSR. partnership with external organisations does not hold much of importance. social etc) can be identified The guarantee that targeted groups are indeed benefiting Transparency in implementation of activities at NGO level Partnership with other PS firms or NGOs A better information dissemination about NGOs A revision of the actual tax policy regarding CSR activities 0% Very Important Important 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Somehow Important Not important at all When prompted to share what would encourage them to increase CSR. On the other hand. it is interesting to note that 14% of SMEs foresee to curtail or cease their engagement in CSR.
Chart 51 Philantrophy: priority areas supported Social evils Community Environment Education Religious Poverty 0% 2% 45% 5% 29% 8% 27% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 74 . 5. This is an opportunity which the community at large could take advantage. 32% of the SMEs surveyed welcome fiscal incentives from the government. 86% are involved in philanthropic activities.5 Philanthropic and sponsorship activities Philanthropic activities Chart 50 Do you indulge in philanthropic activities? Yes 86% No 14% Respondents were also required to state whether they indulge in philanthropic activities. have nevertheless reported that the government may play a more active role.SMEs. having reported that they do not necessarily wish to partner up with others in their CSR undertakings. This demonstrates that the willingness for CSR endeavour is present among SMEs but they lack funding to carry out such activities.
Sports is the most common area which SMEs provide sponsorship. Again this may be due to a quest for more visibility. most probably due to lack of funds. 51% are not involved in sponsorship activities. Sponsorship activities Chart 52 Do you indulge in sponsorship activities? No 51% Yes 49% In addition to philanthropic activities. 75 . Only 49% of the SMEs surveyed undertake sponsorship activities. Chart 53 Priority areas sponsored Community in general 24% Religious 16% Sports 27% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Priority areas sponsored by SMEs are mainly in sports. It is interesting to note that large companies have also earmarked these two areas as the most important to carry CSR activities. This may be with a view to enhance their visibility. the general community and in religious activities. we also investigated whether SMEs in Mauritius indulge in sponsorship activities.Community and Education are the two most common priority areas in which SMEs conduct CSR activities.
Many SMEs have also encountered organisations.5. This is because they are not well structured and like to do their CSR activities in their own way and in their own pace.6 Partnerships with other organisations Chart 54 Are you collaborating with this/these organisation/s? One-off 50% Long term yond 2010) 33% Short term (2007-2010) 17% A key finding from our study reveals that 84 % of SMEs do not partner up with other organisations for CSR activities. Those SMEs that collaborate with other organisations do it on a one-off basis. This is probably because they carry CSR activities in an informal way and due to limited resources. Chart 55 unequal participation during previous partnerships with other NGO popularity 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 35% 19% 10% 5% 10% 5% 13% 5% 76 .
5 2. Perception is as good as reality – NGOs should reverse this perception by addressing the above dimensions. The mean score gives a better evaluation of each of the above criteria. SMEs consider PILS to be the most popular NGO. just like for large companies. Very few rate NGOs as excellent/very good.5 2.We also queried the respondents on NGO popularity. This implies that they are perceived by SMEs as being fair to poor.5 2. It is important to note that PILS is also the most popular NGO among large companies. 77 . the majority of SMEs rate NGOs in Mauritius as good/fair.6 2.6 2.6 Aims and mandate of the NGOs obtains the highest mean score but all of the above criteria obtain a mean score of less than 3. Chart 56 How would you rate NGOs in Mauritius? Performance towards goals Mobilisation of resources Membership and quality of resources C ommunication C ommitment and professionalism Structure and organisation Aims and mandate of the NGOs 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Good 70% Fair 80% Poor 90% 100% Excellent Very Good Furthermore. Mean Score Aims and mandate of the NGOs Structure and organisation Commitment and professionalism Communication Membership and quality of resources Mobilisation of resources Performance towards goals 2.8 2.
Chart 58 If yes. who? Government 38% NGOs 94% Private Firms 56% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Those SMEs that are interested to do partnerships with other organisations are not keen to partner with the Government. This is mainly due to their small size and limited resources. hence substantiating the fact that SMEs are not prepared to devote significant funds and time to the provision of CSR activities. They prefer to partner with NGOs to carry out CSR activities.Chart 57 Would your organisation be interested to partner up with other organisations to conduct CSR activities? No 57% Yes 43% Another key finding is that more than 50% of SMEs reject the idea of a partnership with other organisations to conduct CSR activities. 78 .
but they lack information on this sector. Moreover. credibility of partners is the most important criteria for SMEs prior to partnering up. Therefore. there is an urgent need for the government and the NGOs to provide all necessary information on education in order to allow business organisations to carry out their CSR activities properly. This is because SMEs funds are limited and they want to ensure that 79 . the majority of SMEs consider Education to be the most important area to have partnerships. Chart 60 Areas for NGO/PS/Govt partnerships Poverty 38% Health 21% Education 41% The main areas which SMEs consider important to partner with NGOs. Poverty and Health. This is also the case for large companies. private sector and the government are namely in Education.Chart 59 Ares where organisations lack information Environment 13% Poverty 40% Education 47% It is also to be noted that SMEs favour education as an area for potential collaboration. Just like for large companies.
communication and formal CSR structure. employee satisfaction. This demonstrates that SMEs are adopting a positive approach to CSR activities. CSR activities have helped to make their name known to the general community and have thus enhanced their visibility. there will be an upward trend. To an overwhelming majority of them. Therefore. An upward trend may also prompt other SMEs to indulge in CSR. goodwill and personal satisfaction. We also queried SMEs on CSR trend in Mauritius. Chart 61 Benefits derived from CSR undertakings Personal satisfaction Public relations Employee satisfaction Goodwill 0% 5% 10% 10% 22% 14% 10% 15% 20% 25% Our study also investigated whether SMEs in Mauritius are deriving benefits from CSR activities. 80 . Other criteria include: goal congruence. The findings reveal that the main benefits that SMEs have obtained from CSR undertakings are public relations. Public relations is considered to be the most important benefit for SMEs since they are small in size and thus lack visibility.their partners will make good use of their funds.
SMEs mentioned that in order to enhance CSR development.7 End word Chart 62 End word Increased commitment from Private Sector 53% Government should act as a facilitator 47% As an end word to the interview.5. there must be an increased commitment from the private sector in general and the government must reinforce its role as a facilitator. 81 .
5. 82 . Evaluation valuation of implementing CSR activities ♦ ♦ More than 75% of SMEs will maintain/increase/start CSR activities in the future. However. the majority of SMEs in Mauritius indulge in internal CSR activities mainly in the form of training/career advancement and occupational health and safety. It is also worth noting that SMEs that are willing to partner up with other organisations are not keen to partner with the Government.8 Summary of key findings CSR culture ♦ Though not formalised and structured. employee satisfaction. Framework for external CSR activities ♦ 87% of SMEs surveyed prefer to carry out their CSR activities on an individual basis. Partnerships with other organisations ♦ ♦ Only 20% of SMEs partner up with other organisations in their CSR activities. The major benefits that SMEs have derived from CSR undertakings are public relation. NGO in Mauritius ♦ SMEs perceive NGOs in Mauritius to lack excellence and professionalism. CSR policy ♦ 97% of respondents do not have a formal policy towards CSR Internal CSR ♦ ♦ 80% of SMEs surveyed do not have an internal CSR policy. Philanthropic and sponsorship activities ♦ 87% of respondents carry out philanthropic activities while 60% indulge in sponsorship activities. goodwill and personal satisfaction. More than 50% of SMEs reject the idea of a partnership with other organisations to conduct CSR activities. CSR culture and interest is very much present among SMEs in Mauritius.
83 . ♦ SMEs favour education as an area for potential collaboration.Policy dialogues and areas for potential collaboration ♦ 53% of SMEs are interested to participate in policy dialogues initiatives involving NGO/Private Sector/Government. health and environment. Other interest areas include poverty.
♦ Current philanthropic and sponsorship activities by organisations in Rodrigues are concentrated on the following areas: environment. teenage pregnancy. o ♦ Companies do not communicate about their CSR activities. poverty and health. companies intend to continue and/or increase their CSR undertakings in the future. ♦ Companies have not elaborated codes of conduct/ethics/corporate governance or risk management policies. ♦ Major problems in Rodrigues – water supply. ♦ Companies engage more readily in philanthropy and sponsorship than strategic CSR. ♦ Areas of potential partnership include: education. Despite the ad-hoc nature of CSR in Rodrigues. ♦ NGOs have reported lack of funding from Private Sector and Government as being a major cause for lack of integrated CSR projects in Rodrigues. unemployment. ♦ ♦ None of the companies surveyed in Rodrigues have a formal CSR policy. Internal CSR practices are not common in Rodrigues showing that the concept of organisational development is yet to gain popularity. lack of leisure activities. handicapped persons. health. Shoals of Rodrigues. education. sports. big or SMEs. ABRO. sports.6 ♦ Findings – Rodrigues CSR in Rodrigues is carried out in an informal way. ACIR. and ♦ The well-known NGOs in Rodrigues include: Craft Aids. pharmacy). 84 . health care (lack of doctors. Engagements in CSR are mostly carried out through individual action. ♦ CSR is carried out in an ad-hoc way: o o o o Responsibility for CSR is not assigned to anybody or team. combat against teenage pregnancy. environment. education (lack of teachers). alcoholism. equipment. No budget is set for CSR. The concept has not yet seeped into the vision and strategy of companies. juvenile delinquency. Time is also allocated to CSR activities on an ad-hoc basis. Red Cross.
Some of the principles laid out in the Constitution of Mauritius are namely: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ The right to freedom. Protection of right to life.1 Existing regulatory framework The applicable laws and regulations are listed hereunder: 7. Provisions to secure protection of law. Protection from deprivation of property.1.1 Fundamental Rights 7. 7. Protection of freedom of expression. Strength ♦ The principles laid out in the Constitution of Mauritius take precedence over laws and are at the highest level of the legal hierarchy. Protection of freedom of movement.1 The Constitution of Mauritius The Constitution of Mauritius is a framework of fundamental human rights.1. The Constitution of Mauritius further contains provisions for the enforcement of those rights.1.7 Legal review We have carried out a high level overview of relevant laws and codes that may affect CSR directly or indirectly and have identified improvement areas to them. Protection of privacy of home and other property. Protection of right to personal liberty. 85 . Protection from inhumane treatment. Protection of freedom of assembly and association. Protection from slavery and forced labour. and Protection from discrimination. Protection of freedom of conscience.
♦ The Commission is also empowered to review any factor or difficulties that would inhibit the enjoyment of human rights. 7.1. ordinary citizens are in practice often deprived of those remedies. 86 . improve substantially the help given to normal citizens who want to take redress for breaches of the Constitution and ease the system where breaches of the Constitution are dealt with. the Commission is empowered to visit places of detention.Weaknesses ♦ The recourse to remedies for breaches of the Constitution of Mauritius is a heavy one as it necessitates a lot of efforts and funds and for the said reasons. ♦ The Commission works quite independently but at the same time has to report each year to the President. resolve any complaint/ matter subject of an enquiry.2 The Protection of Human Rights Act The Act puts into place a Commission to deal with any complaints pertaining to human rights violation. summon witnesses and examine them on oath. ♦ Once the above measures are in place. ♦ The Ombudsman is there in theory. but ordinary citizens are not aware of same. Recommendations ♦ There is a need to improve the system for reporting breaches of the Constitution. Strengths ♦ The Act provides that the Commission will enquire into any complaint not only from anyone alleging that his rights are being violated but also when there is a likelihood of his rights being violated. call for the production of documents. ♦ There is a set time limit of a maximum of 2 years within which the Commission will enquire. which are only left to persons of means or persons with considerable support behind them. In the execution of its duties. adequate information campaigns must be done so that ordinary citizens are aware of the existence and mechanism of those systems.1.
1. ♦ Though the Commission has quite vast powers. Weaknesses ♦ The Ombudsman has no sanctioning powers and no powers to implement his decisions. The Commission should have powers to act immediately and without notice in case where celerity is needed. For example where a complaint deals with the commission of an offence. which provides for the protection of children against ill treatment. He could also be given sanctioning powers. the matter is referred to the DPP. child trafficking.Weaknesses ♦ The Act is limited to complaints relating to acts or omission of anyone acting in the performance of any public function conferred by law or in the performance of the functions of any public office or public body only. which provides for general safety requirements for consumers.1. 7. it still cannot deal with any complaint subject to its enquiry and has to refer the matter to the appropriate body based on the matter at issue. 87 . Strengths ♦ The Act provides for a definite set procedure to deal with complaints and sets up an amicable way of resolving same. and the Consumer Protection Act 1991.1.4 Other legislations There are also some specific legislative enactments for special situations such as the Child Protection Act 1994. 7.3 Act Sections 96 and following of the Constitution and Ombudsman The above provide for the setting up of the office of an Ombudsman who shall. the legal power to revoke any of those safety regulations. with his officers. Recommendations ♦ The Commission could be given more powers so that it could deal directly with any matter without having to have recourse to other institutions. Recommendations ♦ The Ombudsman could be given powers to implement his decisions directly. sexual offences.1. have the responsibility to investigate any complaint made to it mainly regarding persons employed in the public sector.
1.1. Moreover.2 This Act caters for aspects of good relationship between management and workers and contains a code designed to promote better relationship between the various players of the workplace. education.3 Sex Discrimination Act 2002 The Sex Discrimination Act 2002 provides for the elimination of all forms of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in certain areas of public activity. employment.1 Labour Act 1975 This Act governs all employer-employee relationships and deals with issues such as the payment of remuneration. conditions of work. trades or occupation. It also provides for the recognition of trade unions and relationships between the unions and management.2 Labour 7. It includes provisions against discrimination. Strength ♦ The Labour Act provides positive measures such as the prohibition of employing children or even young persons in dangerous environment. the modes of payment of remuneration. This law also provides for internal working conditions such as hours of work. ♦ Penalties against workplace violence are very low.1.2.2. it Weaknesses ♦ The Act does not make provision for enforcement agent to check the employment of children or any employment of young persons in a dangerous environment. provides penalties against violence at the place of the work. services or facilities. any advances or deductions. 7. measures against workplace violence and includes provisions on termination of employment as well as payment of severance allowance. Recommendations ♦ Provision for enforcement agent to verify and to sanction employment of children or any employment of young persons in a dangerous environment. inter alia in.2. provision of goods. including overtime. Industrial Relations Act 1982 7.7.1. in 88 . profession. ♦ Increase penalties against workplace violence. both normal and punitive and other related matters.
Strengths ♦ The Act imposes a duty on every employer having in its employ 35 or more people to recruit a percentage of disabled persons. infringements relate. seminars must be organised to cover the main provisions of the Sex Discrimination Act. in clubs on grounds of sex. Strength ♦ The Act establishes a Sex Discrimination Division which : a) Receive and enquire into any written complaints related to alleged infringements of this Act.1.accommodation.4 The Training and Employment of Disabled Persons Act 1996 This Act caters for the training and employment of disabled persons. ♦ The division must also play a more proactive role in the provisions of sexual education.2. It establishes the Training and Employment of Disabled Persons Board which provide for the welfare of disabled persons and prevent discrimination in employment. b) Cause such enquiries to be made into a complaint in such a manner it thinks fit. in companies. c) Endeavour by conciliation to effect a settlement of the matters to which the alleged. d) Make recommendations as it deems appropriate to any relevant authorities. the above Act. ♦ Moreover. It has to undertake research and educational programs and other relevant programs for promoting the objects of Recommendations ♦ It is suggested that the Sex Discrimination Division must show more visibility and thus encourages victims of sex discrimination to come forward for the necessary protection. marital status. This may be by disseminating guidelines to the public starting from schools to work places. Weakness ♦ There is the need for the Sex Discrimination Division to promote understanding. acceptance and compliance of the Act. partnerships or other associations. 89 . or pregnancy. 7.
The Act includes tax incentives or other incentives to employers to recruit disabled persons. to plan for environmental management and to coordinate the inter-relations of environmental issues.3 Environment 7.1 The Environment Protection Act 2002 The Environment Protection Act 2002 has been enacted to provide for the protection and management of the environmental assets of Mauritius so that their capacity to sustain the society and its development remains unimpaired and to foster harmony between quality of life. environmental protection and sustainable development for the present and future generations. ♦ Seminar / campaigns should be organised to promote the awareness of the rights of disabled persons.1. and appeal procedures before the Environment Appeal Tribunal are provided for. and to ensure the proper implementation of governmental policies and enforcement provisions necessary for the protection of human health and the environment of Mauritius. the Act provides for the legal framework and the mechanism to protect the natural environment. Recommendations ♦ An enforcement body must be set up to verify any potential infringements of the Act and ensure that the rights of disabled persons in employment are safeguarded. a unit of the Mauritius Police Force whose task would be to enforce environmental law. Weakness ♦ The Training and Employment of Disabled Persons Act does not make any provisions in respect of enforcement agents at work places.♦ The Act provides that a disabled person shall not be employed in a work which is unsuitable having regards to the nature of the disability. The law includes: ♦ The provision of a “Police de l’Environnement”. 7.1. More specifically.3. Opponents can contest the project. ♦ ♦ Breaches of any obligations under the Act is considered to be an offence. ♦ The obligation to supply an Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) before undertaking works which are listed under the Act and can have an impact on the environment. 90 .
♦ Powers of entry and arrest on its authorised officers in the enforcement of its objects. Appeals before Environmental Appeal Tribunal are not efficient. ♦ Land management principles should be better adhered to. ♦ Fines should be substantially increased for instance large companies should be requested to pay fines of up to several million rupees in major cases. 91 . manufacturing. with more means given to the enforcement authorities. Recommendations ♦ Prosecution of offenders should be facilitated. ♦ Fines under the Act are not severe. Strengths ♦ The obligation to supply an EIA compels big projects to adhere to environmental norms in various sectors such as hotels. ♦ The impact of such projects on the environment is assessed prior to the carrying out of the project. For example. effluent discharge. water. ♦ Regulations in relation to hazardous waste. A clearer demarcation between the various zones is necessary. Weaknesses ♦ ♦ ♦ The enforcement aspect can be greatly improved. The frequent change in the Chairmanship of the Tribunal is often the cause of delays in the processing of appeals. disposal of used oil and so forth. factories should not be allowed to be present in residential zones. and measures to mitigate any possible environmental effect are laid out in the EIA report. No proper Land Management. ♦ Appeals before the Environment Appeal Tribunal can be more efficiently dealt with. etc. air. ♦ Obligations on a person responsible for an activity discharging a pollutant into the environment to provide for monitoring of such discharge and provide records of such monitoring.
7.1. on public beaches Provision of leisure facilities on public beaches The enhancement of the quality of sea water Day to day cleaning of public beaches ♦ Regulate activities on public beaches and ensure the security and safety of users of public beaches ♦ Issue beach traders' licence for activities at such places on public beaches as may be specifically reserved for that purpose ♦ Set standards and establish guidelines for beach management so as to enable users of public beaches to derive maximum enjoyment from clean.3.3. safe and well equipped beaches whilst safeguarding the environment ♦ Advise the concerned Minister on all matters relating to the management and development of public beaches 7. to apply to a Magistrate for a warrant to enter and search any premises and seize any material kept in contravention of the said Acts. 92 . This enables police officers who have reasonable grounds to believe that an offence has been. is being or is likely to be committed in breach of this Act.Caution must however be exercised as too much protection is also not good since sometimes actions under the Environment Protection Act can block projects of national interest which provide create employment. The Beach Authority has the duty to: ♦ Implement projects relating to • • • • • • The conservation and protection of the environment of public beaches Uplifting and landscaping works of public beaches Infrastructural development.3 Biological And Toxin Weapons Convention Act 2004 and The Chemical Weapons Act 2003 This law gives effect to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development. Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction and to the Convention of the Prohibition of the Development.1.2 Beach Authority Act 2002 The Beach Authority Act 2002 establishes a Beach Authority to ensure the proper control and management of public beaches in Mauritius and Rodrigues. Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction. Production. including provision of amenities for the use of the public and their maintenance.
It confers the powers of search on the enforcement agency where it suspects that there is imminent danger to the public health. 7.1. contract or other instrument which has the effect or is likely to have the effect of preventing. restricting or distorting competition or of promoting.1 The Fair Trading Act 1979 The Fair Trading Act is one of the cornerstones of our consumer protection law. ♦ Except as otherwise provided by any enactment or as approved by the Minister.4 Trading 7. agreement. members of the public and the environment against dangerous chemicals. Two of the main provisions of the Act are that. establishing or observing any exclusive sales agreement or monopoly in connection with the production and supply of goods branded or otherwise. The Act protects consumers by prohibiting misleading or deceptive conduct in trade . b) otherwise misleading or confusing consumers with respect to any matter in connection with any consumer transaction. public safety or environment.1. no trader shall enter or induce another trader to enter any undertaking.7.3. their rights and obligations under any consumer transaction.1.4. 93 . or of services. c) subjecting consumers to undue pressure to enter into any consumer transaction. no person shall for the purposes of trade or promotion carry on a consumer trade practice which has the effect or is likely to have the effect of a) misleading consumers as to. ♦ Some consumer trade practices are prohibited. By virtue of the said Act.4 Dangerous Chemicals Control Act 2004 The Dangerous Chemicals Control Act 2004 provides for the prevention of damage to health and to the environment caused by dangerous chemicals and for better protection of the workers. Any persons suspecting the illegal handling of dangerous chemical by any one should have a duty to report to the enforcement agencies established under the Act. or withholding from them adequate information as to. d) causing the terms or conditions on which consumers enter into any consumer transaction. to be so adverse to them as to be detrimental to their interests.
Failure to make such an adaptation will be detrimental to the country. ♦ Section 6 promotes the spirit of fair competition and restricts any unlawful and prohibited agreements made with a view to prevent.The Act also : ♦ ♦ provides for Codes of Practice to be introduced. ♦ Any goods which is the subject matter of an offence under the Act may be seized and detained. restrict or distort competition. We are a small country. and an adaptation of the norms prevailing in other countries is necessary. ♦ The Act provides for the protection of consumers but in too general terms. gives powers to officers of the Minister to make searches to ensure compliance with the Act. limited resources. 94 . with a limited market. No channel of complaint or any powers of the consumer is expressed for the protection of the consumer to operate. no direction is available to customers as to the form or tenor of their respective complaints. ♦ The Codes have not been published. Strengths ♦ The Act prohibits unlawful consumer trade practice and upholds consumer protection. General views The issue of competition cannot be viewed in Mauritius in the same way as it is viewed in large countries. ♦ Specific codes of practice may be prepared and regulated by the Minister or his designated officers. This may cause prejudice to customers in as much as in case of non compliance with the Act. Weaknesses ♦ An adaptation of the concept of “fair competition” and of norms prevailing in other countries to the local context is necessary. whilst expressly providing for traders not to mislead or confuse customers . ♦ The Act provides that non-compliance with any compulsory code of practice or any other contravention of the Act will constitute an offence and may be punished by a fine or a term of imprisonment.
Many regulations have been fixed in relation to several products. one for toys and another for laser pointers. which is frequently applied. like.2 The Consumer Protection Act The purpose of the Act is to promote protection of safety and quality of goods supplied.1. for example.5. Several traders interviewed complain about the effects of this law and of the regulations passed thereunder. Only two regulations have been published.5 Business 7. gives wide powers to the Minister of Commerce to fix maximum prices. fertilizers. The Act further provides that the Minister may make regulations under the Act. fix maximum mark-ups and recommend maximum prices. the obligation to keep goods in specific places and the obligation to sell gods exposed or kept for sale. the scope of the Act is limited. bread. etc.1.1 The Companies Act 2001 The Companies Act 2001 provides for: ♦ The duty of directors to act in good faith and in the best interests of the company ♦ ♦ ♦ The exercise of powers of directors in relation of employees Indemnity and insurance relating to directors Measures against the falsification of records 95 . 7. Penalties apply if traders do not comply with the Act or with the Regulations.4. second hand motor vehicles. petroleum products.7. The Minister has quite wide enforcement powers. The Act further imposes obligations on traders. the obligation to display goods traders have on sale. The Consumer Protection (Price and Supplies Control) Act This Act. Weaknesses Only two regulations having been passed under the Act. the Ministry’s position being that the regulations are justified. such as milk.1. Strengths The law provides for powers of search and prohibition notices.
There is also a need to improve awareness of the public on the importance of the Companies Act. Very few directors and officers are prosecuted. for instance prosecution of directors and officers for breaches of duties must be enhanced. better enforcement of prohibition to act as directors or officers. although the breaches are more frequent than the number of actions against directors and officers. Recommendation ♦ Better enforcement methods are necessary. better facilitation of measures to enable victims to take actions against directors. 96 .♦ Framework for the protection of minority shareholders Strength ♦ It is a well-drafted piece of legislation which covers the major areas of Company law. ♦ The poor results tend to cause victims to be very reluctant to take actions against directors and officers. Weaknesses ♦ There are very limited practical recourses for breach of duties under the Companies Act 2001.
and imposes on them an obligation to take all necessary precautions to prevent money laundering. and prosecutions do not bring the desired results. put into place to combat the offences relating to money laundering. ♦ The Act also provides for mutual assistance with overseas bodies in relation to money laundering and for matters connected therewith and incidental thereto. ♦ imposes specific duties on banks. in order to avoid money laundering Strength ♦ The Act penalizes not only instances where a person deals with property which represents the proceeds of a crime. ♦ The setting up of the Financial Intelligence Unit having wide powers and acts as an independent body to scrutinize the issue of money laundering and terrorist financing. but also where the person suspects or has reasonable grounds to suspect that the property represents the proceeds of a crime. ♦ ♦ punishes all persons who are involved in money laundering. ♦ deals with offences involving proceeds of crime as well as putting into place a Financial Intelligence Unit which has wide powers to deal with financial information relating to proceeds of crime. The prosecution side can be improved. exchange and dissemination of information and exchange of information. limits payment in cash to a fixed amount. ♦ ♦ The Act penalizes individuals as well as financial institutions. financial institutions and cash dealers.7. The penalties set out in the Act appear quite stringent and in our view constitute a strong deterrent.1. issues of money laundering and transactions related to terrorism financing.2 The Financial Intelligence and Anti-Money Laundering Act 2002 The Act. reporting of suspicious transactions and so on. ♦ The Act provides for a series of measures such as reporting obligations. The said persons must report any case in which they consider that there has been money laundering. inter alia.5. Recommendation 97 . Weakness ♦ Very few offenders are prosecuted.
the inquiries so far have not been carried out at the right places.5. An improvement of the prosecution side is necessary to improve the deterrent effect. The Act provides for protection to a borrower who is unable to meet his obligations under a credit agreement as a result of illness. Better methods of collaboration between Mauritius and foreign States are necessary.3 The Income Tax Act 1995 The Act caters for individual and corporate taxation policies as well as the international aspects of income tax. 7.5. 7. loss of employment. and the legal framework for such international collaboration can be improved (e. It puts into place the PAYE system of taxation. effects are mitigated with the fall in income tax rate to 15% for both corporates and individuals. injury. The Act further establishes the office of the Commissioner of Income Tax and gives vast powers to request for production of books and records and other information. Recommendation ♦ Incentives could be granted on an ad hoc basis in relation with expenditure made on specific CSR projects of national importance. 98 . for frauds involving several jurisdictions).1.1. However. which affects his capacity to repay the debt and who reasonably expects to be able to discharge his obligations if the terms of the credit agreement are revised.♦ In our view. Strength ♦ A variety of penalties are available for various offences relating to Income Tax from minor ones such as failing to submit tax returns to failing to pay tax.g. rebates for projects prompting a better environment or inversely heavier taxes should be levied on projects which are not environment-friendly. of inspection as well as to waive penalty to the Commissioner.4 The Borrower Protection Act 2007 This Act regulates credit agreements for a sum not exceeding 2 million rupees and to provide for the establishment of the Office of the Commissioner for the Protection of Borrower. Weakness ♦ Tax deductions in respect of donations to charitable institutions are no longer available. death of working spouse or other reasonable cause of hardship.
It covers any lending institution such as banks, insurance companies, and such other prescribed financial institutions. It also contains some good ideas but tends to go too far in protective measures. Such over-protection can have a counter-effect and constitute a handicap for a category of persons who can be deprived of credit due to the unwillingness of lending institutions to grant loans due to the obstacles of the Act. 7.1.6 Security 126.96.36.199 The Prevention of Terrorism Act 2002
The Prevention of Terrorism Act 2002 provides for measures to combat terrorism and for related matters. Under the Act, an offence shall also be committed if a person who participates in terrorist meetings, harbours terrorists, do not disclose information about acts of terrorism or even obstruct terrorist investigation. Under the Act, an act of terrorism would include an act which in a large sense may seriously damage a country, its population or an international organisation. This encompasses acts such as:
Seriously intimidating a population Unduly compelling a Government or an international organisation to perform or abstain from performing any act
Seriously destabilising or destroy the fundamental political, constitutional, economic or social structures of a country or an international organisation
♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦
Influencing such government, or international organisation Attacking upon a person's life which may cause death Attacking upon the physical integrity of a person Kidnapping of a person Extensive destruction to a Government or public facility, a transport system, an infrastructure facility, including an information system, a fixed platform located on the continental shelf, a public place or private property, likely to endanger human life or result in major economic loss
The seizure of an aircraft, a ship or other means of public or goods transport.
The manufacture, possession, acquisition, transport, supply or use of weapons, explosives or of nuclear, biological or chemical weapons, as well as research into, and development of, biological and chemical weapons
The release of dangerous substance, or causing of fires, explosions or floods, the effect of which is to endanger human life
Interference with or disruption of the supply of water, power or any other fundamental natural resource, the effect of which is to endanger life.
Moreover under the Act, an offence shall also be committed if a person who participates in terrorist meetings, harbours terrorists, do not disclose information about acts of terrorism or even obstruct terrorist investigation. 188.8.131.52 The Convention For The Suppression Of The Financing Of Terrorism Act 2003 This Act provides that any person who by any means whatsoever, wilfully and unlawfully, directly or indirectly, provides or collects funds with the intention or knowledge that they will be used, or having reasonable grounds to believe that they will be used, in full or in part, to commit in Mauritius or abroad terrorist activities shall commit an offence. The Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism Act 2003 gives effect to the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism. 7.2 Local voluntary codes of conduct and ethical standards
7.2.1 Joint Economic Council – Model of Conduct The code provides for observance of the laws of Mauritius, whilst at the same time providing for straight, fair, honest and efficient dealings in business. Disclosure of unauthorized company information and non observance of rules could result in disciplinary action. Shareholders will benefit from Company growth and profits and the financial records should be true, accurate and up to date. Generally, the code covers aspects of the personal conduct of directors and employees, relations with suppliers and contractors, relations with customers and consumers, responsibilities to shareholders and the financial community, employment practices and responsibilities to the community. Strengths
The Company operates within a framework of fair and open competition where competitors are treated fairly and trade is done to the highest ethical standards in order to ensure and maintain long terms business relationships.
The Company must function with the aim of increasing growth and profits for the benefit of shareholders and all financial records must be kept in the most concise, complete and up to date manner.
The Company shall be an equal opportunity employer and shall offer high health, safety and welfare to its employees.
Care for the environment is one of the Company's main concerns. The manufacture, handling and disposing of materials is done in such a way that risks to human health and environment is minimised.
Directors and employees are encouraged to participate in community activities in charitable organizations.
Channels of complaints are open to everyone and all complaints are considered impartially and efficiently.
A very efficient and courteous service is offered to customers, who at the same time have the privilege of benefiting from products that meet a high standard of safety, quality and reliability.
The code provides for strict adherence to the laws of Mauritius whilst at the same time not trying ‘to bribe any public official in any circumstances anywhere’. It would seem that from this section it could be inferred that officials ‘other than’ public officials could be bribed or induced! This section, as it is presently worded, would not apply to officials employed by private companies or private banking institutions for example, as they do not fall within the category of ‘public officials’.
The code fails to provide for the type of penalty for those who act in breach of it.
The code may provide for penalties and punishment in case there is any breach of the code. This will ensure a better compliance with the code. Moreover it should provide for a unit whereby complaints may be made by any person.
7.2.2 Mauritius Code of Ethics The code provides for the standards of correct conduct expected of public officers. It emphasizes the importance of a responsible, responsive and caring public service and is intended to promote effective administration and responsible behaviour. The code applies to all officers irrespective of grade or rank. It rests on a number of values and
principles which guide the behaviour and action of public officers so as to inspire public confidence and trust and those values and principles are Integrity, Objectivity, Conscientiousness and Loyalty to the Government of the day. Strengths
The code provides for the relationship between public officers and ministers to be based on mutual trust and confidence. Public officers should work with their ministers to the best of their ability with integrity, courtesy and respect.
In their relations with the public, public officers must always act in a courteous and careful manner. Every member of the public must get an equal and efficient treatment, irrespective of their social class. Officers must always act with a view to enhance the reputation of the public service.
Public officers should ensure that public assets and other resources are used for official purposes only and are managed scrupulously, properly, efficiently and effectively. Waste and extravagance in the use of resources must be avoided.
Officers must be careful in what they do, say or in the way they behave or dress and they should operate in a proper work environment where respect and mutual understanding prevails between colleagues.
The code does not provide anything in case of breach or failure to abide by its provisions nor does it make any mention about any penalties to those who contravene its provisions.
The code contains only the general applicable principles, and is not a detailed one. More details of what is expected from the public officers, or of what they should not do, could be given.
This code is not known to the public in general, so that members of the public do not know when public officers trespass the code. No mention is made of where breaches of the code should be reported by members of the public. Moreover, there is no specific form on which complaints can be made.
Principles contained in the code should be more disseminated in the public service.
7.2.3 Code of Corporate Governance The Code of Corporate Governance for Mauritius is a major advancement in modern business life and has brought several major changes in boardroom day to day life.
In this Code, various functions of the different players of a company are detailed, and their roles are carefully defined to protect investors and the other stakeholders of the market. The Code applies to all companies with turnover exceeding Rs250M and these companies have to comply or else furnish explanations for non-compliance. The Code covers a number of key areas of CSR which are as follows : 184.108.40.206 Risk Management
Risk Management includes systematic identification and evaluation of risks pertaining to the organisation. According to the Code of Corporate Governance, companies in Mauritius are called upon to have sound risk-management policies. The objective of risk-management is not to completely eliminate risk but to reduce it to an acceptable level, having regards to the objects of the company. Risk-management should include reporting, consideration and taking of appropriate action on risk exposure of the organisation in the following areas: (1) Physical; (2) Operational; (3) Human Resources; (4) Technology; (5) Business Continuity; (6) Financial; (7) Compliance; and (8) Reputational 220.127.116.11 Accounting
The Code of Corporate Governance for Mauritius also lays emphasis on preparation and presentation of accounts which fairly represent the state of affairs of the company and the results of its operations. Companies are also required to select appropriate accounting policies supported by reasonable judgements.
♦ Additional CSR principles can be introduced in the Code for example the obligation to introduce a report on CSR activities.3.3 Integrated Sustainability Reporting It is in the long-term economic interest of a company to conduct itself as “a responsible corporate citizen”. 104 . for all companies of a certain size or of a certain turnover. Weaknesses ♦ The enforcement of the Code is not really effective. and some principles applied internationally may be adapted to the local context. and Social Issues. Corporate Governance should be viewed in the local context. with the Code since it is not legally binding. especially state-owned enterprises. whether its legal effect should not be restricted to a certain category of companies only. some principles contained in the Code should be rendered compulsory. and if it is made legally binding. strategies and policies in the annual report. Health and Safety. do not comply ♦ It is open to debate as to whether it is necessary to render the Code legally binding. and changed quite substantially the day-to-day life of boardrooms.7. Every company should report regularly to its stakeholders on: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Ethics. Strengths ♦ The Code introduced several new principles. The Code can introduce the requirement of a new full time officer. Many companies with turnover exceeding Rs250M. a CSR officer. Environment.2. Recommendations ♦ At any rate.
the United Nations Environment Programme. Under the Compact. The United Nations Global Compact Office is supported by six UN agencies: the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation. Principle 4: Principle 5: the elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory Labour. and to report on them. 1999. and was officially launched at UN Headquarters in New York on July 26. labour groups and civil society. labour.3 International codes and guidelines 7.7. and Principle 2: make sure that they are not complicit in human rights abuses. companies are brought together with UN agencies. the effective abolition of child labour. The Global Compact’s ten principles in the areas of human rights. and 105 . 2000. Labour Standards Principle 3: Businesses should uphold the freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining. the environment and anti-corruption enjoy universal consensus and are derived from: ♦ ♦ The Universal Declaration of Human Rights The International Labour Organisation’s Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work ♦ ♦ The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development The United Nations Convention Against Corruption The ten principles include: Human Rights Principle 1: Businesses should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights. the United Nations Development Programme. The Global Compact was first announced by the then United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in an address to The World Economic Forum on January 31.1 United Nations Global Compact The United Nations Global Compact is an initiative to encourage businesses worldwide to adopt sustainable and socially responsible policies. the International Labour Organisation.3.
The Global Compact is not a regulatory instrument. and Principle 9: encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies. The Compact’s goals are intentionally flexible and vague. but rather a forum for discussion and a network for communication including governments.Principle 6: the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation. SOMO and Berne Declaration. including extortion and bribery. believe that in the absence of any effective monitoring and enforcement provisions. ♦ Labour Standards: 2) The freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining must be upheld by businesses. the Global Compact fails to hold corporations accountable. these organisations argue that companies can misuse the Global Compact as a public relations instrument for bluewash. Anti-Corruption Principle 10: Businesses should work against corruption in all its forms. representing its stakeholders. such as Greenpeace. whose actions it seeks to influence. and civil society organisations. companies and labour. Global Policy Forum. However many NGOs. but can promote local networks and policy dialogues. and as an entry door to increase corporate influence on the policy discourse and the development strategies of the United Nations. Strengths ♦ Human Rights: 1) Businesses should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights and make sure they are not complicit in human rights issues. Environment Principle 7: Businesses should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges. 106 . Principle 8: undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility. Moreover. CorpWatch. ActionAid. as an excuse and argument to oppose any binding international regulation on corporate accountability.
♦ Transparency and Anticorruption: 8) Businesses should work against corruption in all its forms. ♦ Moreover. 7.3. the Global Compact fails to hold corporations accountable. 5) Discrimination in employment and occupation must be upheld in businesses. as an excuse and argument to oppose any binding international regulation on corporate accountability. 7) Businesses should undertake initiatives to promote environmental responsibility and encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies. even though the general principles contained in the Global Compact are known to most Mauritian businesses. without any effective monitoring and enforcement provisions. Their aim is to ensure that multinational enterprises operate in harmony with the policies of the countries where they operate and with some standards set out in the Guidelines.3) Elimination of all forms of forced labour and compulsory labour must be a primary aim. 4) Child labour must be effectively abolished. ♦ the Global Compact has no legal effect in Mauritius. ActionAid. Weaknesses ♦ Many NGOs. such as Greenpeace. CorpWatch and Berne Declaration believe that.2 OECD Guidelines The OECD Guidelines are recommendations to enterprises made by the governments of OECD member countries. 107 . including extortion and bribery. ♦ Environment: 6) Businesses should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges. and as an entry door to increase corporate influence on the policy discourse and the development strategies of the United Nations. these organizations argue that companies can misuse the Global Compact as a public relations instrument for 'bluewash'. and is not known by most companies of Mauritius.
to encourage (where applicable) business partners to apply principles of corporate conduct compatible with the Guidelines.and compliance with company policies. to cooperate with the local community. Consumer Interests. to refrain from discriminatory or disciplinary action against employees who make bon fide reports to management. Environment. as well as several non-governmental organisations. labour. as well as several nonmember countries and are supported by businesses and labour organisations. General comment on the Guidelines ♦ The guidelines are the only comprehensive. Nonetheless. not legally enforceable. ♦ The guidelines are supported by OECD governments. to develop and apply effective self-regulatory practices and management systems. to have sustainable development. does not imply less commitment by OECD governments to encourage their observance. Science and Technology. governments and society as a whole. to encourage human capital formation. Competition. multilaterally endorsed code of conduct for multinational enterprises. i e. and Taxation. including te need to protect human rights. enterprises and not the government themselves.The Guidelines are voluntary and consequently. General Policies The General Policies: contain the first specific recommendations. Employment and Industrial Relations. 108 . several Governments have committed themselves to promote their observance and effective implementation. and to abstain from any improper involvement in political activities. to support and uphold good corporate governance principles. ♦ ♦ They establish principles covering a broad range of issues in business ethics The guidelines are non binding for enterprises. ♦ They are designed to prevent misunderstandings and build an atmosphere of confidence and predictability between business. supply chain responsibility. to promote employee awareness of . The Guidelines contain provisions on Disclosure of Information. to refrain from seeking or accepting exemptions not contemplated in the statutory or regulatory framework. Combating Bribery. This however. The Guidelines contain a set of Concepts and Principles. The guidelines address private parties.
while taking into account the practical considerations related to disclosing information across a diverse range of organizations. environmental and social performance. environmental and social performance. 109 . Management can use GRI indicators to encourage employees to make good progressive performance. ♦ ♦ They guide an organization’s approach to 'proving' its impact. ♦ Organisations can use the GRI reporting to help measure and benchmark performance. promote comparability of sustainability reports.Strengths With Mauritius moving into the global sector.3 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines (GRI Guidelines) The Sustainability Reporting Guidelines are not a code or set principles of conduct. environmental . assist organizations in presenting a balanced and reasonable picture of their economic. Strengths ♦ The guidelines provide a holistic framework that addresses broad performance social. GRI is used widely internationally as a generally accepted reporting framework and as such provides a method for increased comparability. The guidelines present reporting principles and specific content to guide the preparation of organizational-level sustainability reports.as to how an organization is reporting to stakeholders. and wanting to attract more and more international investments. economic.3. support benchmarking and assessment of sustainability performance with respect to codes. the OECD guidelines are a good example of the standards that should be achieved by the MNEs investing in Mauritius and the Mauritian companies which want to extend their activities by foreign investments. many with extensive and geographically dispersed operations. Weaknesses The OECD guidelines are not legally enforceable and do not contain any penalties in case of breach. 7. both against their own targets and externally. They are a framework for reporting on an organization’s economic. ♦ The Guidelines are flexible and can be used in different sectors and geographical contexts. performance standards and voluntary initiatives and serve as an instrument to facilitate stakeholder engagement.
♦ Their main focus is 'sustainability' for example. such as an assurance standards. ♦ They provide guidance. Women. Enforcement provisions and mechanism of control There are a myriad of provisions for penalties in the Environmental Protection Act (EPA) for infringement of environmental laws. 7.Weaknesses ♦ Adhering to the Guidelines may be labour intensive and full reporting may represent a challenge for smaller organizations. 7. There is a unit at the Ministry of Environment. “Police de L’environment’ authorised officers of the Ministry have powers to prosecute offenders. the Registrar of Companies and the Office of Ombudsmen. ♦ Their history of use in the social enterprise sector is limited and some of the language and approaches are more familiar and appropriate for multinational corporations. The Ministry of Environment has a compliance division that assess EIAs and consultation is made with various Ministries and Authorities prior to granting EIA certificates to promoters.1 Ministry of Environment and National Development Unit The Ministry of Environment is primarily responsible for the administration of the environmental protection legislations and the design and development of environmental guidelines and standards for the country. a mark or external evaluation unless combined with other tools. that addresses all the environmental problems encountered by the public in general and 110 .4. Labour. but not accreditation. reporting external impact but not necessarily focusing on positive outcomes or impacts. The EPA stipulates that certain projects have to obtain an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) or Preliminary Environment Report (PER) prior to obtaining approval from the Government for their implementation stage.4 Mechanisms of control from the State and civil society We have undertaken a review of the existing mechanism of control from the state through meeting with various Ministries and Authorities namely the Ministry of Environment.
Issues ♦ There is a lot of abuse on behalf of business organisations in respect of non conformance to local environmental regulations since fines in the EPA are not severe enough and do not therefore act as a deterrent. ♦ There is a dire lack of sentisation campaigns on environmental issues especially in the business community. ♦ The ‘Police de L’environment” unit of the Ministry lacks visibility throughout the country. Enforcement provisions and mechanism of control The compliance department of the Ministry does regular checks in companies to ensure that the rights of workers are not infringed. ♦ The “Police de L’Environnement” must be spread throughout the country through the recruitment of additional manpower. ♦ The Ministry of Environment must invest more in sensitisation campaigns on the protection of the environment so that this may be embedded in their work culture. Recommendations ♦ A manifold increase in fines is required in order to prevent business organisations from damaging the environment and sensitise the public in general. For instance. Officials of the Ministry also interview employees of Companies in respect of their working conditions. 111 . 7. Issues ♦ ♦ The Ministry of Labour lacks legal assistance to the detriment of prosecutions The penalties in the labour Act are too lenient and the legal procedures are not user-friendly for employees. The ministry handles issues such as working conditions.4. salary and health and safety of employees.2 Ministry of Labour and Industrial Relations One of the core duties of the Ministry of Labour and Industrial Relations is to ensure that the rights of workers are respected. they must be present in some pertinent police stations. Regular payroll checks are conducted to ensure that salaries are paid according to the applicable renumeration order.
fire crackers. The CPU also indulges in information campaigns by distributing brochures on consumer rights to the general public. Issues ♦ The absence of a legal person acts as a constraint to the effective prosecution of infringers. Family Welfare & Consumer Protection The Consumer Protection Unit (CPU) has the responsibility of enforcing the various consumer legislations. Its main objectives are as follows : ♦ ♦ ♦ To protect the rights of consumers To educate consumers of their rights and responsibilities To settle disputes between traders and consumers Enforcement provisions and mechanism of control The CPU ensures that imported products (steel. toys. etc) are safe for consumers and are in line with local and international standards.♦ There is a lack of sensitisation campaigns from the Ministry of Labour that inform and educate employees about their rights Recommendations ♦ The Ministry of Labour could be assisted by a full time legal person to improve prosecutions. 7. ♦ It is impending for the government to review the Labour Act and make it become more user-friendly for employees. Surprise checks are carried out at trading outlets to check on any overpricing and to ensure that all products on display have a price tag and indication of the country of origin.4. Penalties must be increased substantially to act as a deterrent to labour law infringement. They also ensure that retailers do not sell stale products. 112 .3 Ministry of Women’s Rights. ♦ ♦ The Ministry of Women Rights is not the appropriate Ministry for the CPU. of providing overall consumer satisfaction and security and probing on consumer complaints. The CPU lacks visibility. ♦ The Ministry of Labour must invest more on sensitisation campaigns. Child Development.
5 The Office of the Ombudsman The role of the Ombudsman in Mauritius is to ensure that the human rights of all citizens of the country are respected. Enforcement provisions and mechanism of control The compliance department of the Registrar of Companies(ROC) has a monitoring system that ensures that companies fulfill their statutory obligations such as payment of annual registration fees. filing of annual return. ♦ The ROC must play a dual role in organising regular training sessions to the entrepreneurs (especially the family businesses) to ensure proper statutory compliances by companies. Issues ♦ ♦ ROC lacks prosecution powers ROC needs to sensitise more the business community (especially the family businesses) about the legal implications of non-compliance with their statutory obligations.4. etc. ♦ The CPU must make more use of the Media in order to show more visiblity and provide insightful advices to both retailers and consumers.4. The CPU must be under the aegis of an appropriate Ministry say the Ministry of Commerce in order to ensure better coordination and concerted actions by the government in their endeavour to enhance consumer rights.Recommendations ♦ ♦ The CPU could be assisted by a full time legal person to improve prosecutions.4 Registrar of Companies The core function of the Registrar of Companies is to enforce companies to comply with company law requirements. Recommendations ♦ The ROC must have a better control over the prosecution aspect in order to speed up legal cases and bring more cases to a positive result. 7. 113 . Companies that do not comply with the Registrar of Companies are automatically struck off the companies register. 7.
Recommendations ♦ The office of Ombudsman must have prosecution powers in order to slash bureaucracy and speed up legal cases. They usually work under close collaboration with the police Issues ♦ ♦ The office of Ombudsman lacks prosecution powers. ♦ The ombudsman must play a linchpin role in reinforcing its presence in the country through media for instance in order to encourage the general public to come to them for assistance. The Office of Ombudsman and his powers are not sufficiently known and userfriendly. 114 .Enforcement provisions and mechanism of control The Office of Ombudsman carries out regular inspections for instance in prisons to ensure that the rights of prisoners are respected.
The NGO Forum today is the key vehicle for engaging key national NGOs in the planning and delivery of all future social marketing enhanced national programmes and campaigns. social and environmental impacts of their activities. exchange of experiences and development of tools that can help companies to analyze their management practices and deepen their commitment with corporate responsibility.2 million people.1 Recommendations Overview Partnership models for CSR initiatives Case 1: Ethos Institute – Business and Social Responsibility is a nongovernmental organization created with the mission of mobilizing. public power. organization of knowledge.economic. The Forum is sponsored by the Department of Health and is managed by the Royal Society of Health.8 8. It is today an international reference in the issue and develops projects in partnership with several bodies worldwide. Case 3: NGO Forum . suppliers.The UK Government has a vision for UK businesses to consider the economic. Conceived by businessmen and executives from the private sector. making them partners in the construction of a fair sustainable society. and the environment. Membership is open to any national NGO and interested orgnisations can sign up for the monthly email news bulletin to be kept regularly informed of developments. which account for annual revenues of approximately 30% of the Brazilian GDP and employ roughly 1. sensitizing and helping companies to manage their businesses in a socially responsible manner. social and environmental . shareholders." 115 .The government's 1999 white paper 'Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation' established the National Forum of Non-Governmental Public Health Organisations (subsequently known as the NGO Forum) as part of its developing public health strategy. community. Case 2: UK Government . customers. Ethos Institute is a center for mobilization. wherever they operate in the world and has set a role in promoting continuous improvement in the business contribution to the three pillars . health & safety and employment rights. Its 907 members comprise companies of different segments and sizes. The base level of responsible behaviour for any organisation is legal compliance and the Government has a role to play in setting standards in areas such as environmental protection.of sustainable development. Their main characteristic is their interest in establishing ethical patterns for the relationship with employees.
116 .2 An enabling framework for partnerships The survey has revealed that 79% of companies have demonstrated interest in diverse partnerships for CSR initiatives. the initial.The main finding of the survey was that CSR is not embedded in corporate culture. 8. However. companies have reported the following factors as very important to important in encouraging CSR: ♦ A forum whereby pressing needs can be identified (by more than 75% of companies). CSR has been gaining momentum gradually in Corporate Mauritius as companies engage more and more into multi-stakeholder initiatives. Thus. and ♦ A better information dissemination about NGOs (by more than 75% of companies). encouraging. The above findings are strong signals that there is a missing enabling framework to bring these three stakeholders together. crucial initiative which should be envisaged should be to elaborate a policy framework with representatives of all three stakeholders with the aim of promoting. facilitating and supporting CSR initiatives within a broader social and economic integration so as to address national development challenges. ♦ Partnerships with other companies and/or NGOs (by more than 60% of companies). Interest in partnership with private sector Interest in partnership with Government 43% 2% 30% 22% 11% 2% 53% Interest in partnership with NGOs In addition. It has become the force behind and very often the enabler of sustainable development whether companies act alone or in joint partnerships with other stakeholders in their CSR initiatives.
2 Private sector initiatives Coordinated CSR activities “A vision of development that leaves out the private sector is only vision.” said a UNDP official. Companies would hold similar expectations from partnerships. the private sector is playing a vital role through the CSR endeavours to address national development issues at the national and/or community level. Government and NGO sector. However. 8. The rationale for this interest in private sector partnership resides in the fact that companies understand their counterparts better than they do NGOs and Government. and ♦ By providing a platform for the three-sector partnership. coordinated and concerted actions by the private sector may be more fruitful than individual actions and CSR initiatives. Indeed. ♦ At joint partnership level by ensuring a Private Sector NGO sector better liaison between the various stakeholders (between Government and private sector. and they are more compatible in terms of culture and work ethics. The survey has revealed that around three quarters of the companies would wish to team up with other private sector companies in conducting CSR.3 Initiatives at individual sector level 8. at at the Government the civil society level Government level. private sector and NGO sector).3.This policy framework will provide the required impetus to CSR by addressing issues at various levels: ♦ At Mauritius and Corporate level.3. sector CSR initiatives offer a number of benefits: Coordinated private 117 . it is imperative that reform be initiated on an individual player level and on an individual sector level. care and diligence.1 Overview In order for each stakeholder to be able to fully play their role in this tripartite partnership and discharge their responsibilities with commitment. 8.
Agreeing on a budget at the start of the calendar year. and human and financial resources devoted to philanthropy. and d. their project implementation capacity. It should also be able to promote the link between corporate citizenship . wealth. productivity and creation of The time. sponsorship and ad-hoc CSR can fruitfully be translated into more meaningful strategic CSR by: a. 118 . in CSR. and strategise about such partnerships by : a. ♦ Private companies may partner up with NGOs in their CSR activities. Strategic approach Our survey has revealed that there is a strong positive correlation for existence of a formal CSR policy and an engagement in strategic CSR partnership at community and national levels. b. both management and employees. ♦ ♦ Allowing joint formulation of CSR thematic strategies. Incorporating an aspect of CSR in employee induction and performance appraisal so as to promote employee initiatives in CSR. Allowing promotion of implementation synergies by combining support and common services. their accountability. implementation and best practices. c. ♦ Allowing information sharing on experiences. and knowledge sharing on technical issues. CSR design. Involving more people. The organisational vision and mission call for inclusion of the CSR concept so as to demonstrate commitment to overall national development. Another area of focus for the private sector would therefore be to improve their approach to CSR and give more structure to CSR initiatives by: ♦ Private companies would benefit from adopting a more strategic approach by mainstreaming CSR into management practice. Designating a dedicated person or team to carrying CSR activities. Agreeing on a set of criteria for potential partnership. ♦ Sharing information on NGOs.♦ Rationalising resource utilisation and improve projects' complementarities while reducing intervention overlap by ensuring coordination amongst the various counterparts through joint programming.
The report also identifies ten government 119 . regroups the main business organisations of the country: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Mauritius Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Mauritius Export Processing Zone Association.whether market or non-market failures . The JEC qualifies as an appropriate organisation to take on the CSR promoter responsibility. & Howard.b.3.3 Government initiatives The Government plays a vital role in CSR. Mauritius Sugar Producers’ Association. Mauritius Insurers’ Association Asociation des Hôteliers et Restaurateurs de l’île Maurice . According to Peter Vass “governments have to take overall responsibility for ensuring that conduct failures . activity areas to support CSR: A World Bank report on CSR has identified four roles for governments (Fox. taking account of each of the three pillars of sustainable development: the economic. Proposed mechanism The coordination of CSR initiatives requires instituting some kind of formal or informal body as facilitator or assigning the responsibility to an existing representating body of the private sector. 8. 2002): mandating. The Joint Economic Council (JEC). Communicating more about their past and forthcoming CSR activities – this may attract eligible NGOs. Mauritius Employers’ Federation. Ward. Mauritius Chamber of Agriculture.are regulated appropriately. Establishing key performance indicators (KPIs) for each project so as to be able to monitor performance. facilitating. partnering and endorsing. c. “the coordinating body of the private sector in Mauritius”. and Association of Mauritian Manufacturers. Establishing a partnership charter so as to establish the roles. and d.” Other schools of thought preach that governments should do nothing and allow market forces to dictate the world and national order. Mauritius Bankers’ Association. social and environmental pillars. responsibilities of each party for more accountability and better coordination of effort.
Pro-CSR certification. areas that are focal points of CRS agenda. the intervention of the government could have a three-tier focus: ♦ ♦ ♦ Regulation and legislation. and Best practice demonstration. industrial laws amongst others. Pro-CSR production and consumption. philanthropy and community development. “beyond compliance” standards and management systems. such as the environment. directives. Please refer to Section 7 for more information. Non-regulatory activitism. if not all. labour. ♦ ♦ Pro-CSR reporting and transparency. Stakeholder engagement and representation. operation and reporting). Corporate sector representatives interviewed would welcome a clearer legal framework that provides for more accountability of NGOs across the board through introducing a public benefit status (or minimum standards for governance. Furthermore. regulation guiding private sector practices and these soft laws include a myriad of national. and Multilateral processes. if not missing. education. “soft laws” bring in additional. Responsible investment. Regulation and legislation (mandating) The Government already possesses various legislative instruments that regulate corporate behaviour in most. 120 . One area that would promote the development of CSR is to improve accountability of NGOs through new regulation as proposed in the Assessment Report of the legal and Regulatory framework affecting NGOs in Mauritius. health and safety. Corporate governance. Public policy role of business. regional and international codes. agreements and standards.♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Setting and ensuring compliance with minimum standards. The need for more regulation of corporate behaviour is caught in the debate of voluntarism versus regulation. conventions. guidelines and conventions. In the Mauritian context.
despite the abolishment of this incentive.S. The government can however. and in fact should. ♦ ♦ ♦ Assist smaller and medium sized firms apply corporate citizenship practices. Promote the link between corporate citizenship and productivity. The 3-day (26-28 October 2007) training sessions on CSR by experts from Business of Social Responsibility from the U. In addition. following public policy framework: ♦ Ensure coordination of CSR and corporate citizenship policies and activities across the whole of government. provided a forum to stakeholders to share experiences on CSR design. We would tend to agree that the prevailing low tax rate for the both individuals and corporate should counter balance the abolishment of previous tax incentives and therefore the interventions in CSR should not be tax incentive driven. 30% of companies have stated that the Government assistance should be in terms of fiscal incentives. getting internal commitment (from top management) and external The British government’s approach may be one of the best example of non-regulatory activism model with the 121 . Non-regulatory activities (facilitating and partnering) The survey and discussions with stakeholders have revealed that CSR should remain as a voluntary activity. limit its role to being a facilitator in supporting the development of CSR.There are mixed views regarding tax incentives for donations to registered charitable institutions which have been abolished. Activities which may promote CSR include: ♦ Having recourse to key resource persons facilitating working sessions aimed at corporate leaders. ♦ ♦ ♦ Raise the profile of CSR and corporate citizenship. Assist in the development of CSR and corporate citizenship skills through the provision of education and training. However. companies have more to spend. with the recent introduction of a lower corporate tax rate. Fund research into corporate citizenship. and Create a range of “soft” or “enabling” legislation of relevance to corporate citizenship. The Financial Secretary has expressed the view of the Government in that. As such. almost 70% of companies surveyed reported that a revision of the actual tax policy would encourage them to increase their CSR activities. for the Government this measure should not be interpreted as a deterrent to CSR.
benefits reaped from CSR. challenges faced. the Mauritius Banking Association. the Mauritius Employers Federation. ♦ Organising telecast debates regrouping all stakeholders (e. exchange and disseminate best practices and tools on CSR – studies and reports . and stakeholder participation. ♦ Organising information and awareness campaign for a period of time long enough to allow stakeholders to appreciate the business case for CSR on a national level with heavy media coverage. from the vision to the action plan. on CSR. and Promoting public-private partnerships (PPP) amongst others. the Government may: ♦ ♦ ♦ Adopt principles of triple bottom line reporting. amongst others. ♦ Introducing a module on CSR at degree-level courses at the University of Mauritius (as is the case for MBA programs). Best practice demonstration (endorsing) The Government should “lead by example” and act as demonstrators of best practice in corporate citizenship. the Joint Economic Council). Business Watch) or a series of documentaries on the subject. on a website devoted to the subject in the local context with the possibility of links to international websites for best practice and quick and easy benchmarking. implementation issues including monitoring of CSR activities. 122 . ♦ Producing CSR guides providing practical advice on how to introduce CSR in the organisation. or through their empirically researched ideas assist in improving such initiatives. and Encouraging researchers through grants to do more research. For instance. ♦ Offering information resources to collect. Apply procurement and tender policies in all instances requiring same. through their thesis.g.commitment (other stakeholders). ♦ Encouraging targeted workshops by business groups (e. ♦ ♦ Introducing national awards for big companies and SMEs on CSR. Young graduates joining the labour market may more easily start and implement CSR activities. the various Chambers of Commerce.g.
This leads to a vast majority of NGOs being unknown. Membership and quality of resources. albeit from the corporate viewpoint. NGOs cannot achieve proper communication to various stakeholders. The survey itself revealed the following: ♦ Individuals responsible for CSR initiatives in companies can enumerate a select few NGOs at most (6).Advisory Body to Government The Government could draw from such best practice and institute an advisory group to oversee and promote CSR and providing the required framework to support multistakeholder dialogues on the subject. and Its activities.4 Reform at NGO level Whilst this study has not surveyed NGOs. amongst others. 3. companies provided average ratings for all charateristics. ♦ Rating the whole of civil society was difficult because the population is so big. Aims and mandates of NGOs. with experts from other relevant Ministries and The UK government has gone one step ahead by conferring the responsibility of CSR to the Minister of State for Competitiveness and Consumer Affairs. Structure and organisation. to assist and provide support in capacity building initiatives aimed at NGOs and private companies etc. showing a need for 123 . when prompted for such a rating.3. financial and equipment). 8. Commitment and professionalism. 2. However. This indicates that because of their lack of competences (how to communicate efficiently with modern means such as the internet and e-newsletters) and resources (human. 4. 5. there have been multi-stakeholder discussions whereby the major weaknesses and limitations of NGOs surfaced. This advisory group could operate under the aegis of the Ministry of Social Security. ♦ ♦ Its members. Communication. should establish the following: ♦ Its objectives – to promote CSR at corporate level. these are not regulated. improvement: 1. there is so little information available on NGOs.
. The logical step would be a review of civil society in Mauritius. The following recommendations are based on views opiniated by Corporate Mauritius and limited consultation with NGOs. to move away from the “charity” approach of helping beneficiaries to a “social change” approach of empowering beneficiaries to take their lives into their own hands. 124 .g.g. In terms of how this capacity building can be implemented. The NGO sector should imperatively reform itself. and .Reporting and other accountability mechanisms. their most urgent needs include: ♦ On the attitude level: to develop a deeper and more holistic understanding of social problems and possible responses.6. ♦ All of these dimensions are taken into consideration by companies when they are solicited by NGOs for funding or partnerships.Increasing their capacity to fundraise (e. ♦ the UNDP and other international actors may take on this task within their range of competence. Mobilisation of resources.Communication skills. Capacity building The greatest need that was revealed during the research for this project was to build the capacity of NGOs so as to become more reliable partners for the corporate (as well as the government) sector. . ♦ On the skill level: . Performance towards goals.Developing their financial management systems. there are several interconnected ways: ♦ some companies interviewed are doing such capacity building already for the NGOs they choose to work with (e.Project development and project management. write a grant proposal). NGOs need support to develop in several fronts but from the point of view of intersectoral cooperation. and 7. . ♦ On the knowledge level: more up-to-date knowledge in professional development they are concerned with (strongly related to the above two levels as well).. helping them develop grant proposals or reports).
♦ MACOSS is engaged in capacity building for NGOs though not at the level that would be demanded based on the sheer volume of the needs of the organizations. Networking of NGOs The multitude of NGOs in Mauritius could be more effective if organised in various networks and federations so as to avoid fragmented efforts and goal incongruence. Sensitising community/national leaders in the Government and private sector about the social issues. ♦ Buying in active support from the government and private sector for their integrated network activities. ♦ ♦ Building management capacity and allowing organisational development. the government could consider to embark on an NGO capacity building program. their aims and mandates and their specific projects. ♦ ♦ Allowing joint formulation of sectoral/thematic strategies. which if properly designed could lead to great and measurable benefits in the ability of NGOs to cater for social problems as partners to the corporate sector and to the government. their wish to retain a certain level of autonomy and at time even rivalry. ♦ There are some NGOs already who possess one or another skill mentioned above and who could serve as a resource for others. their specific organisational characteristics. Allowing promote implementation synergies by combining support and common services. knowledge sharing on technical and policy issues. ♦ Extending target population reach by supporting activities of multiple community-based NGOs. Such networks are usually developed on the basis of thematic response. as in other countries. The major barriers to such network grouping are the unique program strategies of individual NGOs. ♦ Allowing information sharing. 125 . and ♦ Allowing sharing of standards for self-regulation. The rationale for this network approach is that grouping allows: ♦ Rationalising resource utilisation and improve projects' complementarity while reducing intervention overlap by ensuring coordination amongst the various counterparts through joint programming. and ♦ In addition.
conferences and training courses for voluntary social workers. Religious and cultural. Elderly. the Mauritius Social Council (MACOSS). MACOSS The umbrella organisation in Mauritius. Natural and other disasters. seminars. ♦ Promote. personnel of voluntary organisations. Gender and family. and Youth. should be proactive in trying to increase its affiliation from the current 220 (approximate) member NGOs (the unofficial figure of some 6. encourage and undertake experimental work. amongst its objectives. Poverty alleviation. the MACOSS should: ♦ Assist in the planning and coordination of the activities of Member Organisations. Training and human resource development. Environment and sustainable development.Representation body. Education. Community development. Indeed. Alternately. The MACOSS has already classified its existing members into the following 16 categories: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Advocacy. MACOSS could encourage NGOs to initiate networks and build bottom-up representation. Children. Material help and support. 126 . Disabled. ♦ Organise workshops. nongovernmental organisations and professionals to strengthen their organisational and managerial capabilities.000 civil society organisation (CSOs) has been echoed regularly). Service clubs. Health and quality of life.
1 Government and private sector dialogue Government and private sector. fund raising activities. Government and NGO sector. financial management.4 Joint partnership initiatives There should be liaison and concerted efforts between the various stakeholders: between Government and private sector. should explore: 127 .4. through the Advisory Body and the JEC. 8. there already exist formal and informal mechanisms of interaction between the two stakeholders: Formal ♦ ♦ ♦ Government/JEC meetings Tripartite wage negotiations Proposals for the National Budget Representation in a number of committees Informal ♦ ♦ ♦ Regular meetings between Private Sector organisations and relevant Ministries on sectoral issues Joint promotional activities Ad-hoc committees CSR could be taken in the agenda of the JEC as a major business endeavour to contribute to the socioeconomic development of Mauritius. project management.4.. Two of JEC’s main objectives are: ♦ to provide for joint consultation among the various organisations of the Private Sector. through the JEC and the MACOSS and other stakeholder groupings. E.g. 8. private sector and NGO sector.Several stakeholders interviewed asserted that MACOSS should aim to become more effective in achieving its objectives. the existence of MACOSS should not deter other emerging networks from organizing themselves into their own representational bodies and assist their members in becoming better partners for the corporate and government sectors. and ♦ to liaise with Government and other bodies on matters relating to the socioeconomic development of Mauritius. In addition. Such two-stakeholder dialogues and coordination allow a better focus on specific needs of the stakeholders. should engage in exploring opportunities to encourage more CSR. it could rationalise efforts of NGOs on a grouping basis and as mentioned above assist in their capacity building (project proposal writing. 8.2 Private sector and NGO sector dialogue The private sector and the civil society. communications etc). In addition.
The project(s) impacts(impact) on targeted groups. Such mutual assistance may take the form of partnerships as follows: 1. should the NGO service delivery be contractual and remunerated. 128 .♦ The funding support for projects and/or overheads private sector can provide to NGOs. NGOs as Consultant partnership model Characteristics ♦ NGO is contracted for identifying target group needs. Credit for the projects may be wholly taken by the NGOs so that the company(nies) do not benefit from enhanced image in the external communities. aptly identified by NGOs. and ♦ The technical assistance NGOs can provide to companies in project implementation. and technologies transfer. Such partnership contributes to the fund generation activities of NGOs. Limitations ♦ ♦ The efficiency of the program would depend on the professionalism of the NGO. Benefits ♦ ♦ ♦ There is efficient delivery of company’s CSR programs whilst at the same time the ability to focus on business activities. project concept development.
aptly identified by NGOs. aims and mandates and principles. Large-scale projects can be implemented when more than one player from the private sector team up. Benefits ♦ ♦ ♦ Both the private sector and the NGO focus on their competitive advantage. NGOs as Project Manager partnership model Characteristics ♦ The management of the project is outsourced to an NGO. The project(s) impacts(impact) on targeted groups. NGOs as Strategic Partners partnership model Characteristics ♦ ♦ ♦ A working group including NGO staff members and representatives from the private sector is established. The role of the government is limited. Limitations ♦ Efficiency of programs is dependent on the professionalism of the NGO and all resource limitation at NGO level will impact directly on efficiency of project implementation. The group may include government at least on the local level. Both the company and the NGO gain recognition for service rendered in the external communities. Such partnership contributes to the fund generation activities of NGOs. Limitations ♦ ♦ The working group may lack structure and roles and responsibilities may not be explicitly spelt out so that the partnership may suffer. based on its sectoral expertise. The partnership allows efficient deployment of resources. should the NGO service delivery be contractual and remunerated. Benefits ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Both the private sector and the NGO focus on their competitive advantage.2. 129 . The partnership allows efficient deployment of resources. These groups work on concept development and/or project implementation. 3.
. painting the school etc. Cisco. and in turn Yoplait donates 10 cents for each 130 . One example of cause-marketing would be the partnership of Yoplait's "Save Lids to Save Lives" campaign in support of the Susan G. e. Vodafone developed a whole program around this called World of Difference and they implemented it in several countries. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation. or just to help out with its work depending on skills and interest. with more than 1500 volunteers planting native tree and shrub seedlings.4. The company lid.). packages specific products with a pink lid that consumers turn in. usually some kind of event which is fun and helping at the same time (cleaning the beach.Cause related marketing – when the company co-brands a product with an NGO and a (small) percentage of each product sold goes to the NGO.g. Under the Leadership Fellows programme.Payroll giving – initiatives when the employees agree that a small part of their salary will be directed by the company to an NGO. . Western Power in Australia teams up with the National Heritage Trust in a volunteer-based revegetation project. Employee volunteering programs – when the company organises volunteer involvement for its employees with an NGO. Other innovative forms of corporate –NGO partnerships: . Already one hour per week can already be of big help to an NGO but the World of Difference program even funds a Vodafone employee being “deployed” to an NGO for six months to a whole year to help the NGO develop and strengthen its capacities. to improve communications or financial management of the NGO. the US technology group.Secondment – when the company sends usually a senior or middle manager to help an NGO. is sponsoring employees who live in Louisiana and Mississippi to work on a 21st Century Schools initiative that is rebuilding and improving educational institutions in areas that were affected by Hurricane Katrina. Examples United Way and the Save the Children (UK).
.3 Government and NGO sector dialogue Government and civil society. financial management. each selected NGO gets two months and during those two months T-Com actively promotes them to its clients to call in. First. not just 131 .Joint project implementation – similar to the “strategic partnership” model.g. . Within the Empowerment Programme there is a chance to further explore and encourage solutions based on three sector partnership. enterprise development etc. Or we can mention the British Airways “Good for Change” campaign when they collect the left-over coins and small change from passengers on-board to help UNICEF. A case in point is the Empowerment Programme. E. Similar campaigns are done to prompt people to send text messages to raise funds for NGOs. A very good example for this internationally is the Citigroup – Junior Achievement cooperation.. who have been working together for years to design and implement training of children and young adults in life-management. JA organizes it and local Citigroup companies provide not only financial support but also teaching expertise as needed. 8.the company actively promotes the NGO either through its regular services or in other ways and sometimes even matches the funds collected. should engage in exploring opportunities for provision of funds and subsidies and/or capacity building support by Government. In every country where this is run.4. 8. which was initiated by the government to create employment and bring social justice but both other sectors are increasingly involved in its operation.Corporate collections – similar to the previous but even more flexible . in Hungary T-Com (Deutsche Telecom owned Hungarian phone company) provides a fundraising hotline to NGOs throughout the year. key actors in all three sectors should build on existing good practice and boost the potential of already established initiatives to advance three sector partnership. through the Advisory Body and the MACOSS. Or in another example. Tesco awards the “Charity of the Year” each year with a serious amount of money based on the votes of its employees (they do this locally and nationally as well).5 Towards a three-sector partnership model A three-tier approach is suggested for this three-sector partnership model.
a Body with a clear Charter enabling the three-sector partnership. company = funder. Its work would be aimed at one priority area (at least initially) to be determined by the participants. take part in conducting or commissioning the research. it would likely address an issue outside the competence of the Empowerment Programme. (See the examples above on strategic 132 . to help reach the objectives in implementing government policies.e. a more concrete area where reform is needed and where the actors can deliver tangible results. its mission. the stakeholders may adopt an informal Policy Round Table approach as a self-initiated platform for stakeholders from the three sectors to undertake joint policy planning and implementation. This approach could be applied to other initiatives as well. and donor and NGO review mechanisms. and address national development challenges. the government making separate partnerships with companies and with NGOs to realize the Fund’s goals). NGO = project implementer) but could also result in innovative and efficient public policies that involve ongoing cooperation and build on the respective strengths of each sector. government endorsed structure. and includes the provision of a midday meal of bread.two-way engagements as is the current trend (i. The “division of work” would not necessarily resort to the classic roles of the partners in relation to each other (i. A small three-sector policy planning expert group could be set up and work out new methods One successful existing partnership is the Zone d’Education Prioritaire which regroups the UNDP. the modus operandi. the various roles and responsibilities.) The group could over time decide to become more formalised but could also be in existence only for the duration of successful delivery of its concrete objectives. elect its leadership etc. (However..) The group would then determine the need for research and needs assessment in this area. may be instituted to provide a forum for the three-sector participatory process whereby the private sector. cheese and fruit/juice to every pupil. its specific objectives. caters for the special needs of the pupils. the NGO sector and the Government can meet to discuss about economic and social opportunities and issues. partnerships. Third.e. Second. government = regulator. housing or extreme poverty. The Charter will clarify in detail the membership of the Body. but with considerably less cost and bureaucracy than a permanent. the Government of Mauritius (Ministry of Education and Human Resources) and private sector companies to give special support and compensatory education in schools in deprived and underprivileged localities. The group would of course set up its own internal modus operandi. such as education. and based on the data would devise strategies involving all three sectors to address the identified root problems. reporting duties.
support for overheads 2. Funds and subsidie 2. 8. and Representatives from the civil society. Registration Accountability regulations 3. Issues which may have to be addressed with respect to membership areas are as follows: ♦ Representation of the private sector may be worked out faster and more easily than representation of the civil society. 133 . tax incentives? JEC GOVERNMENT ♦ Needs focus on: 1.5. networking and self-regulation MISSING Key mechanisms: 1. Finding competent partners in the private sector and NGO sector. 2.Key mechanisms: 1. Representatives from the private sector. fund raising and partnership o increased accountability (vision and results) o coordination. Corporate Governance code 3. Pooling of funds 8. Capacity building MACOSS support PRIVATE SECTOR ♦ Needs focus on: o Assistance in CSR design and implementation especially in extending the CSR culture beyond the top level of the organization o Finding more information on NGOs and more accountable NGO partners o Coordination Policy Round Table NGO SECTOR ♦ Needs focus on: o Capacity strengthening in organizational development.1 Mission The mission of the Body would be to provide a forum for policy dialogue and a framework to coordinate three-sector participatory activities for addressing national development challenges. Funding support. achieving more transparency and efficiency in its relations to its partners Key mechanisms: 1.2 Membership The Body would be made up of the following members: ♦ ♦ ♦ Representatives from the Ministries. communication. IRS 2. Technical assistance in implementation 3.5.
Operations staff and support staff will have to be recruited. Identify and prioritise social projects and issues for tripartite action.5.♦ Another issue pertaining to membership may be the chairing or co-chairing responsibility. It is recommended that an independent person. 8. Representatives from NGOs.5. 134 . Representatives from the Advisory Group. Administration staff. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Capacity development for all stakeholders. 8. chair the Body. and c. and Finance social projects. trusted and respected by each stakeholder. Identify and seek funding. Representatives from the JEC. Documentation Operations – Research and Finance Support staff ♦ The Executive Committee should consist of representatives from all three sectors: a. ♦ A Secretary General. b.3 Specific objectives The specific objectives of the Body would be to: ♦ Engage in policy dialogue on broad issues pertaining to sustainable national development.4 The modus operandi Structure and operations We propose the following structure for the Body: Executive Committee Secretary General Administration – Liaison.
approved projects. The Body may adopt the call of funds during the initial phase. Evaluation proposals. the main advantage would be to have a large fund available for many small scale projects or larger projects. The credibility of the NGO. However. 135 . Project funding The Body may select any of two modes of funding project: ♦ Proceeding by a call of funds as and when required. etc The Body will evaluate various projects for part or full funding. Private companies contribute a set percentage of their profits to the fund. and these may include: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Whether the area of intervention is a priority area or not. would be the selection of the fund manager. ♦ Adopting a pooling of funds approach. The major disadvantage of pooling of funds might be the lack of trust shown by private sector firms. Project selection criteria will be established. The project proposal. These funds are then applied to This approach would require the management of the Another issue Commission may be designated to evaluate A Project project the funds to optimise cash flows. However. The targeted beneficiary group.CSR project initiation The three-sector partnership would identify social issues and draw up a list of priority areas for intervention. and once trust has been built and instilled move to a pooling of funds phase. ♦ ♦ The amount of funds brought in by the NGO. The advantage of this approach is that funds are collected only when required so that there should be fund administration only (no fund management issues). with milestones for project monitoring and post project review. The fund required. the major disadvantage of this approach is that should many projects get approved simultaneously. the amount of funds that need to be collected may be colossal.
Enabling Body Initially. ♦ ♦ Training and supporting NGOs to improve their practices in reporting. and ♦ Identifying strengths and weaknesses of projects and making recommendations (post implementation).Monitoring and review mechanism During the survey. For specific projects implemented by NGOs. human and technical resources with a view to evaluate whether funds allocated have been judiciously utilised. pending the instituting of the Body and finalisation of its Charter. development. ♦ Monitoring financial. the NESC can provide a temporary platform for the three-sector partnership given its mission and objects. an independent body Auditing the accounts of the Body. a resource person from the Body ♦ Assessing the cost effectiveness of the projects and identifying possible constraints that could impede implementation (prior to disbursement. this may be carried out during project evaluation phase). The NESC’s mission is to: ♦ promote dialogue as a means to achieving consensus for social integration to keep pace with economic development. and ♦ express its opinions for the and make of appropriate social recommendations and to Government. promotion integration national 136 . proper voucher system and relevant authorities have been obtained before payment and whether funds allocated have been judiciously utilised. Transparency can be ensured through: ♦ ♦ ♦ For operations at the Body level. ♦ Ascertaining whether projects are being implemented in accordance with the agreement between the Body and the NGO (during project implementation). Ascertaining that appropriate books of records. clear signals were obtained that transparency and credibility at the NGO level were a major concern for private companies.
physical resources. the major functions of the Council are to: ♦ ♦ undertake studies on socio-economic issues of national importance. ♦ formulate its opinions and make recommendations to Government regarding economic and social policies.4 (Reform at NGO level) are valid and applicable in Rodrigues as well: 137 .3 (Government initiatives). encourage. The NESC already has in place a Secretariat and a research team. facilitate and support CSR initiatives within a broader social and economic integration so as to address national development challenges is valid in Rodrigues as well. 8. as well as a commission for economic affairs. a commission for infrastructure. and 8. 8. environment and sustainable development and a commission for social affairs and human resource development.6 The Rodrigues case The policy framework approach with representatives of all three stakeholders to promote.3. given the specificities of the island. ♦ ♦ ♦ Limited resources. The reform at individual sector level highlighted in Sections 8. ♦ undertake such studies as it deems fit and give its opinions and recommendations.3. ♦ ♦ examine and express opinions on any proposed legislation. a small close-knit business community. and promote industrial relations at large to ensure social harmony.3. Different areas of partnership from those identified in Mauritius. and a small civil society. with a different implementation though. The specificities of Rodrigues ♦ A small economy. Difficult communication. build consensus through a permanent and sustained social dialogue for a greater participation of civil society in the democratic process with the aim of ensuring that social harmony keeps pace with economic development.Furthermore.2 (Private sector initiatives). both infrastructural and human.
register and support NGOs in Rodrigues). reduced intervention overlap. the following form: ♦ NGOs represented by the Rodrigues Council of Social Service (which should aim to identify. skill level and knowledge level. coordination in project development and implementation. formal representation at individual sector level would require rigid structures and deployment of resources. ♦ More facilitation by the Government though the various Commissions in Rodrigues: Arts and Culture Social Security Education and Training Youth and Sports Health and Others ♦ Capacity building of NGOs at the attitude level. with regular tripartite partnership working sessions to serve as a forum for discussion. Three sector partnership Given the small size of the island and the close-knit communities. ♦ Adoption of a strategic approach to implementing CSR by the private sector with private companies mainstreaming CSR in management practice. and need identification. and ♦ Networking of NGOs leading to rationalisation of resource utilisation and projects’ synergy. ♦ Private sector represented by one representative from a large company and one from a SME. Recommended informal representation may take 138 .♦ More coordinated and concerted CSR actions leading to rationalisation of resource utilisation and better projects’ complementarity. and ♦ Government representatives from the different Commissions to attend meetings as appropriate. Two sector partnerships can also be applied in Rodrigues as highlighted in Section 8. and role sharing. experience sharing. reduced intervention overlap.4. A more informal approach may be warranted in Rodrigues. classify.
Assist NGOs to implement projects approved by relevant parties in various ways (Section 8. Design CSR strategies and initiatives to contribute to development challenges 2. and chart out a capacity building plan specifically for Rodrigues during regular missions to the island.4.project implementation: assist NGOs and private sector to implement projects in selected thematic areas Government Support role 1. Eventually.2) 3.project development: based on needs assessment findings of NGOs. It is specifically recommended that the specialists be those who have been engaged and active in the Mauritian context. provide assistance in developing an action plan and/or assist in matching NGOs needs with privates sector CSR initiatives . Facilitator role 1. the tripartite partnership would function as an independent cell in Rodrigues.♦ It is recommended that specialists from Mauritius facilitate the tripartite partnership initially. Engage in needs assessment 2. Manage and implement projects 139 . Facilitates: . Assist NGOs by building capacity Private Sector NGO sector Implementer role 1. The specialists would support and train interested parties from all three sectors. Seek appropriate support from private sector 3.
health and quality of life. etc). community development and sports. poverty alleviation and community development. 140 . the greater the lack of information they face. The two main areas where companies have reported lack of information are education and environment and quality of life. .9 Thematic areas of potential partnerships Findings The survey has revealed the following: ♦ Corporate Mauritius intervenes in a number of areas for CSR activities. government assistance in such areas. Popular thematic areas are: education. poverty alleviation. The more companies wish to intervene in one area. about NGOs activies in such areas. environment and sustainable development. ♦ Companies have demonstrated interest in partnering up with other stakeholders in the future in a number of thematic areas among which the following come first: education. health and quality of life. environment and sustainable development. ♦ There is general lack of information (about the area of focus.
current areas of intervention.Thematic areas . areas where there is a lack of information and areas of potential partnership 45% 41% 40% 35% 30% % of companies 25% 25% 21% 21% 24% 21% 19% 17% 21% 20% 15% 10% 6% 14% 13% 13% 14% 13% 10% 8% 6% 5% 2% 2% 0% 0%0% 5% 3% 2%2% 2% 0% 0%0% 2% 0% 0% 5% 3% 3% 2% 6% 5% 3% 2%2% 3% 2% 0% 2% 0%0% 6% 5% 5% 5% 8% 6%6% 5% 0% Training and human resource development Community development Religious and cultural Poverty alleviation Health and quality of life Drugs and alcohol Education Material help and support Environment and sustainable development Disabled Natural and other disasters Youth Gender and family Animal welfare Advocacy Children Elderly Thematic areas Current areas of intervention Areas where there is a lack of information Areas of potential partnership 141 Criminality Sports .
The Rodrigues Case During the first mission of the specialist in Rodrigues. and health. poverty. Areas where SMEs lack information are education. education. have shown the utmost interest are: 1.5. c. Environment. The survey has clearly indicated that the four areas in which companies. environment and poverty. teenage pregnancy. ♦ ♦ Sponsorship by large companies are mainly in sports and education. ♦ Areas of potential partnership include: education. etc). Areas of potential partnership are education. 3. health. health. For SMEs. and religious activities. Poverty alleviation. community. environment and social flaws (drug. religious activities. ♦ In Rodrigues. priority areas are: a. and 4. This “demand and supply” matching would allow a number of significant 142 . environment. poverty. Health and quality of life. Priority areas for philanthropy are community. the companies conduct philanthropic and sponsorship activities in the following areas: environment. Priority areas for sponsorship are sports. poverty and health. Education. leisure. Immediate actions Immediate actions with respect to a matching of areas of CSR interest reported by companies to the needs of NGOs (matching demand and supply) could be envisaged pending the elaboration of the three-sector partnership model as developed in Section 8. b. education. education. d. large and small.♦ Large organisations carry out philanthropy in the following areas: health and safety. alcohol. sports. 2. there could be a national workshop to match private sector initiatives and areas of interest and NGOs’ sector of intervention. and community (mainly sports). This may be carried out during the next national workshop where companies would meet with relevant NGOs.
and 3. Social ills – teenage pregnancy. juvenile 2.partnerships to take form and bear fruitful projects. equipment. pharmacy) and quality of life (water supply). delinquency. Education (lack of teachers) 143 . interest have been noted as follows: Three major thematic areas of 1. Health (lack of doctors. alcoholism.
144 . For CSR to become the national development tool. employee (of private firms) volunteering programs. corporate collections.10 Conclusion CSR is not embedded in the corporate culture in Mauritius. Government and NGO level – explore opportunities for provision of funds and subsidies and capacity building support by Government. However. funding support for projects and or overheads of NGOs. payroll giving. reduce intervention overlap and facilitate information and experience sharing. Partnerships. cause related marketing. e. A three phased approach is recommended to implement three sector partnership bringing together the Government. This will allow rationalising resource utilisation. in the civil society and at government level. A myriad of two-sector partnership models exist which can adopted immediately at the following levels: 1. it is important that coordinated and concerted efforts be undertaken at the private sector level. 2. secondment in private firms. with NGOs as Consultant for thematic areas. and f. 3. Private sector and NGO level – exploring the following a. or NGOs as Strategic Partner for long term joint project implementtaion. NGOs as Project Manager for specific projects. It has yet to be integrated in mainstream management whereby private sector firms adopt a strategic approach to CSR from policy making to implementation to resource allocation. whether at a two sector level or a three sector level should be well thought out. recent corporate undertakings show the increasing awareness about the concept and relevance and applicability of CSR to address national development challenges and the gradual engagement in CSR. Government and private sector level – exploring opportunities to encourage more CSR to contribute to the national socio-economic development. Firstly. d. b. the three players should build on existing good practices and boost the potential of already establish initiatives to advance three sector partnership. the private sector and NGOs . c.
145 . It is also recommended that the NESC be designated temporarily as the body with this responsibility initially. pending the institution of the more permanent body to oversee CSR. the three sectors should institute a three-sector partnership model based on sound representation and should aim at group synergy It is recommended that a private-sector-driven body with representatives from the three sectors be set up to promote CSR.Secondly. Thirdly. the players may engage in a self-initiated platform and adopt an informal policy round table and focus on one theme at a time.
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