# Approaches to Infinity

Computer Graphics Presentation Sabih Ahmed Khan 07-0053 Imran Jawaid 07-0037

Introduction
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Computers are particularly good at repetition. The high precesion with which the modern computers can do calculations allows an alogorithm to get closer and closer looks. Now we are jumping to infinitely, however it has the finite resolution and finite size and it must be made in finite amount of time. Thus we make the approximation to the creatures being studied.

. Self similar here means the same at every scale some curves are Exactly self similar and others are Statistically similar.Fractals and self Similarity      We want methods that takes us to infinity. This will feature Recursion. Self similar curves were called “fractal”.

The total length of one line is 4/3. K1. K2 …. To create the K1 divide the line K0 in to three equal parts and replace the middle section with a triangular bump. The zeroth is just a horizontal line. .Successive Refinement in Curves     Successive genration of KOCH curve are denoteds as Ko. Sides of length 1/3.

Successive Refinement in Curves     To form Kn+1 from Kn Sub divide each segment of kn into three equal parts and replace the middle part with a bump in the shape of an equilateral Triangle. Ki has total length of (4/3)I As I tend to infinity. the length of the curve become infinite .

Drawing Koch Curve and Snow Flake .

Drawing Koch Curve and Snow Flake .

String Production and Peano Curves   A large number of curves can be generated by Refining the line Segments. L-systems) Turtle Graphics Reads the String and interprets each character a command to perform some operation. (to generate these curves. „F‟ means forward(1.1) „+‟ means turn(A) „-‟ means turn(A) (Go forward 1 m the current direction) (turn right through angle A degrees) (turn left through angle A degrees) .

.String Production and Peano Curves  “F-F++F-F “ with an angle of 60 the turtle would draw an the first genration Koch curve.

String Production and Peano Curves How to generate a simple String in to the Longer one that will generate Rich curve?  This is based on the String Production Rules . „F‟->”F-F++F-F”  In the first stage the initial string is called the atom. S1=“F-F++F-F”(1st curve) S2=“F-F++F-F-F-F++F-F++F-F++F-F-F-F++F-F”(2nd curve)  .

.String Production and Peano Curves  Call Produce String Function and read a string from the Input file which contains the atoms and finally writes it in the Output file the Desired Curve.

String Production and Peano Curves  Where in each string is repeatedly fed back into same function and produce the next higher order object. .

For Example X and Y in FX+YF is interpreted as F+F+ . + and – are interpreted as before.Extending the Language     A richer set of curves can be generated by adding more rules to string production process The rule is that any X and Y characters are ignored where as F . The atom is FX here.

.Extending the Language   For the second order Dragon the turtle Responds to F+F++-F-F+ instead of S2=FX+YF++-FX-YF+. The Resultant Curve is shown Below.

Producing String Recursively and Drawing in a program. For + and – the turtle turn accordingly but if the order is zero the turtle moves forward for F.   To do this we store the variable called Order. the number of times to apply the rule to the String. else it calls the Function it self to produce the desired string .

F-string. X-String.Curves based on String Production  The five key intergradient's for each curve (atom. angle in degrees) . Y-String.

Curves based on String Production .

cd]. .Allowing Branching  We need a character that commands the turtle to save its current state   State of turtle = [cp. A turtle Stack is maintained.

F-> “FF-[-F+F+F]+[+F-F-F]” .Fractal Trees   The bush is based on the atom F an angle of 22 and the F string.

. covering the Entire Plane The notion is to take many copy of some shape .Tiling the Plane   Another way to move towards the infinity is to repeat a shape again and again.

covering the Entire Plane The notion is to take many copy of some shape . .Tiling the Plane   Another way to move towards the infinity is to repeat a shape again and again.

.Monohedral Tiling    Those based on a single Polygon The polygon in question is called the prototile of the tesselation Only three possible regular tiling can be shown. A square . Hexagon and triangle.

Monohedral Tiling   Famous polyominoes formed by connecting unit squares Edge to edge Polyimanoids are formed by connecting congruent triangles together. ..

Dihedral Tiling  It permits the use of two prototiles and therefore offer many more possiblities. .

Dihedral Tiling  The most famous dihedral tiling are the Archmedian tilings. .

Reptiles   Reptiles are class of non periodic tilings that are most Easily described Recursively. Different replicas of a reptile fit together to form a large reptile of the same shapes .

Reptiles   Reptiles are class of non periodic tilings that are most Easily described Recursively. Different replicas of a reptile fit together to form a large reptile of the same shapes .

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