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define and discuss each of these concepts. Match the scholars with their theories.
1. CULTURE (who defined it? Give 3 characteristics of it.) ± Edward Tylor defined culture. Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man[kind] as a member of society. 2. ETHNOLOGY ± more scientific ± the comparative and theoretical study of human society at large ± the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the ethnic, racial, and/or national divisions of humanity 3. ETHNOGRAPHY ± more humanistic ± the study of an individual society or community, usually by a single anthropologist ± a science that studies people, ethnic groups and other ethnic formations, their ethnogenesis, composition, resettlement, social welfare characteristics, as well as their material and spiritual culture; immersion in culture for 18 months. 4. HOLISM/HOLISTIC APPROACH ± examining all aspects of a culture in order to understand the dynamic interrelationships between them ± the idea that all the properties of a given system cannot be determined by its component parts alone; instead, the system as a whole determines in an important way how the parts behave. Every kind of evidence must be surveyed, such as artifacts, religious rituals, culinary habits, world view, etc. (All of these factors are potentially related!) 5. CULTURAL RELATIVISM ± the belief that each culture should be judged only on its own terms 6. CULTURAL DIFFUSION ± the process by which a cultural trait, material object, idea, or behavior pattern is spread from one society to another 7. CULTURAL INTEGRATION ± Where, through technology and trade, a seemingly borderless world is created. 8. PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION ± founded by Franz Boas ± Its aim is to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or sub cultural group, or a particular community) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment, usually over an extended period of time 9. SYMBOL VS. SIGN SIGN: a ³signifier´ which commonly co-occurs with something else (the ³signified´) in time and space, and may be taken as an indication of it. SYMBOL: 10. DISPLACEMENT ± to use your senses to describe something that isn¶t perceived with the senses (such as an emotion?) 11. (French) STRUCTURALISM ± defined by Mary Douglas (and Claude Levi-Strauss) ± a method of analyzing phenomena chiefly characterized by contrasting the elemental structures of the phenomena in a system of binary opposition 12. CULTURAL PATTERN VS. CULTURAL TRAIT Pattern: recurring abstract elements which fit together into a larger functional system, which is generally not understood by the people who use it. Trait: the minimum piece of culture. If you further divide it, it loses its meaning or function. 13. CULTURAL EVOLUTIONARY PARADIGM ± Lewis Henry Morgan proposed it. Anthropologists assumed that culture had evolved from simple to complex very similarly. It was proved to be wrong. Culture is actually very complex and has evolved in many different ways« 14. CULTURAL MATERIALISM VS. MATERIAL CULTURE CULTURAL MATERIALISM is a theoretical research strategy identified with Marvin Harris. Placing primary emphasis on the role of the environment, demography, technology, and economy in determining a cultures mental and social conditions, he argued that anthropologists can best explain ideas, values, and beliefs as adaptations to economic and environmental conditions. MATERIAL CULTURE is the stuff that humans have. 15. LINGUISTICS ± The scientific study of all aspects of language structure, history, and use 16. PHONEME VS. ALLOPHONE PHONEME ± Smallest classes of sound that change the meaning of a word. (bit vs. pit) The b and the p make different sounds and change the meaning of the word completely. ALLOPHONE ± One of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds used to pronounce a single phoneme. (pin vs. spin)
tree. ENCULTURATION ± the process by which a person learns the requirements of the culture by which he or she is surrounded. and acquires values and behaviors that are appropriate or necessary in that culture 28. PASTORALISM ± the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock 32.The market principle is that of buying and selling on a set price of supply and demand. The rate of divergence is 14-19% each millennium. balanced. or outside of. 36. CODE SWITCHING ± Process of changing from one level of language to another 24. 42. MORPHEME VS. MODAL PERSONALITY ± the personality characteristic held by the most people in the group 27. counted. 33. TRIBE ± consists of a social formation existing before the development of. generalized. SWIDDEN AGRICULTURE ± Slash and burn consists of cutting and burning of forests or woodlands to create fields for agriculture or pasture for livestock. sun. negative.chief factor behind all systems universal way of assessing culture 39. generally consists of a small kin group. and the work arrangements involved in applying those techniques to the local environment 30. and body motions that convey messages. FRAME SUBSTITUTION ± Method used to identify syntactic units of language 22. kula is another word for generalized reciprocity . SAPIR-WHORF HYPOTHESIS ± Language predisposes people to see the world in a certain way guiding behavior 19. ACCULTURATION ± the exchange of cultural features that results when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first hand contact. Indigenous peoples that have been granted legal recognition and limited autonomy by the state. CULTURE CORE ± Cultural features that are fundamental in the society¶s way of making its living-including food production techniques. facial expressions. CHIEFDOM ± any community led by an individual known as a chief. work on the reciprocity principle (the exchange of products of equal value).The exchange of goods and services. ride) 18. 40.e. MARKET PRINCIPLE . GLOTTOCHRONOLOGY ± Method of dating divergence in branches of language families through time. the original cultural patterns of either or both groups may be altered.Peripheral markets don¶t operate on the market system. many people use the term to refer to any non-Western or indigenous society. KULA/KULA RING ± A form of balanced reciprocity that reinforces trade relations among the seafaring Trobriand Islanders and other Melanesians. CORE VOCABULARY ± a list of 200 words (items) that are universally used and understood. where they are sorted. LANGUAGE FAMILY ± Group of languages ultimately descended from a single ancestral language 23. states. 43. PERIPHERAL MARKETS . KINESICS ± System of notating and analyzing postures. more complex than a tribe and less complex than a state.) 25. i. 20. CARRYING CAPACITY OF A NICHE .17. REDISTRIBUTION ± A form of exchange in which goods flow into a central place. etc. cattle are moved to water sources every season. LEVELING MECHANISM ± Societal obligations to distribute goods so that no one accumulates substantially more wealth than anyone else 44. DIALECTS AND CODE SWITCHING DIALECTS ± forms of a language reflecting regions or social classes. 21. and reallocated 41. or for a variety of other purposes. BAND ± the simplest form of human society. SUBSTANTIVISM (most like IDEOGRAPHIC?) ± cultures operate of substantive systems different based on economic principles. FORMALISM (most like NOMOTHETIC?) ± law of supply and demand. 26. 35.the number of people that the available resources can support at a given level of food getting techniques 29. and extended. no larger than an extended family or clan 34. Mother. PROXEMICS AND KINESICS PROXEMICS ± the study of set measurable distances between people as they interact. not being subject to any higher political authority 37. STATE ± a geographic political entity possessing political sovereignty. but the groups remain distinct. 31. (rode vs.highly integrated depending on religion tech 38. ALLOMORPH MORPHEME ± Smallest unit of sounds that can carry a meaning ALLOMORPH ± Occurs when a unit of meaning can vary in sound (phonologically) without changing meaning. (Ex. knowledge of available resources. of approximately equal value. They do not bargain for a higher price. between two parties. TRANSHUMANCE ± the movement of cattle to a different place. RECIPROCITY (name some types) .
provide for sexual partner 55. HOUSEHOLD FAMILY ± group of related people living together HOUSEHOLD ± group of people living together functioning to economic benefit (not necessarily related. COGNATIC TIES CONJUGAL TIE: that between a husband and a wife COGNATIC TIE: ties between blood relatives 48.) SET ± people that move through the years together (same birth year) 65. etc. EXOGAMY ENDOGAMY ± rules for specifying marriage within a group EXOGAMY ± rules for specifying marriage outside a group 49. POLYANDRY (multiple husbands) VS. PARALLEL VS. AGE GRADE VS. it can be translated into labor and it comes in specific units and is portable. (mothers sister/fathers brother) CROSS COUSIN ± Marrying cross cousin is considered marrying one outside of your clan. etc. CLASS/CASTE CLASS ± you can rank people by their cultural traits CASTE ± you can rank social groups based on religious or occupational specialization 66. create children. PRIMITIVE MONEY ± can only be traded in a sphere of exchange (brass rods. etc. etc. CONSANGUINAL FAMILY ± blood relatives 51. senior. ENDOGAMY VS. BILATERAL DESCENT ± every biological ancestor and descendant is a socially recognized relative. VARNA/PANCHAYAT JATI ± local castes ± localized occupational groupings. INCEST TABOO ± the prohibition of sexual intimacy between people defined as close relatives 47. RAMAGE KINDRED ± All of your living consanguinal kin. (mothers brother/fathers sister) 53. MOIETY PHRATRY ± unilineal descent group composed of two or more clans of common ancestry MOIETY ± descent group that makes up a half of a society 62. calculated on both sides of your family. 54. junior. UNILINEAL DESCENT ± calculated through ancestors and great grandparents. IROQUOIS VS. CLAN LINEAGE ± corporate descent group that can trace back to a common ancestor CLAN ± non-corporate descent group. 57. KINDRED VS.provide household. NUCLEAR VS. siblings) EXTENDED ± added by marriage. JATI VS. FAMILY VS. dad.) 46. TOTEMISM ± the totem is a creator of a clan. members claim descent from common mythical ancestor. 60. uncles. FUNCTIONS OF THE FAMILY/KINSHIP GROUP . socialize children. totemism involves the worshipping of a nonhuman clan creator (Ex. (calculated through cousins measured out to a certain degree) 56. PHRATRY VS. cross cousins are referred to separately ESKIMO ± lineal.) 50. there may be several in a single Varna VARNA ± nation-wide classes of occupations PANCHAYAT ± a local council of elected members for each Jati and for each village . cattle. MATRILOCAL RESIDENCE (who has it?) MATRILINEAL ± tracing your decent from your mothers side MATRILOCAL ± living with the family of the wife 59. Kangaroo) 61. parallel cousins are referred to as bro and sis (single term). CROSS COUSIN MARRIAGE PARALLEL ± Marrying a parallel cousin is considered marrying one of your own clan. CONJUGAL VS. ESKIMO KINSHIP IROQUOIS ± bifurcate merging. fungible. cousins. MONEY: TRUE/PRIMITIVE TRUE MONEY ± universally accepted.45. everyone is a member of both his or her father's and mother's families. RAMAGE ± A bilateral kinship group limited by degree. POLYGYNY (multiple wives) 52. 58. totemism involved. MATRILINEAL KINSHIP. EXTENDED FAMILY NUCLEAR ± close family (mom. LINEAGE VS. AGE SET GRADE ± classes of people of a certain year (sophomore. aunts. beans. only close relatives are referred to as relatives (all cousins are referred to separate) 63.
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION. CULTURAL ECOLOGY (SCHOOL) ± relates status of a culture to its ecology. methods. SILENT TRADE VS. it may involve hard bargaining. FUNCTIONALISM ± Functionalists seek to describe the different parts of a society and their relationship through the organic analogy 76. nor is the time of repayment specified Balanced ± a mode of exchange in which the giving and the receiving are specific as to the value of the goods and the time of their delivery Negative ± a form of exchange in which the aim is to get something for as little as possible. PRIMITIVE WAR (its causes±2 theories) ± war that occurs in two spheres. HUMANISM ± an approach in study. EPISTEMOLOGIES ± a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin. and then. (Ex: the warfare of people such as the Yanamamo Indians. 83. philosophy. the system as a whole determines in an important way how the parts behave. Fundamentalism--Doctrine Relativism (postmodernism) Rationalism (Science) 77. GENDER ± the sexual identity of an individual. especially one of a public. Government) INFRASTRUCTURE: economic base. higher upper class) SOCIAL MOBILITY: is the upward and downward change in ones social class in a stratified society. Institutions. ASSOCIATION INSTITUTION: are organizations. and limits of human knowledge. RECIPROCITY: NEGATIVE/ BALANCED/ ETC. LEOPARD SKIN CHIEF ± part of the Nuer tribe (a tribe with no proper government. Neither fair nor balanced. lore. society. NORMS ± rules that guide behavior 70. and the Mardi Gras Indians«) 75.67. 80. INFRASTRUCTURE. Instead. created by Julian Steward 79. Yacht Club. a headless system of organization). and the world around us SOCIAL STRUCTURE: a patterned social arrangements of individuals within a society (Social organization. ceremonies. manipulation. an epideictic ritual 72. SOCIAL MOBILITY SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: has 6 class systems (lower lower class. WORLD VIEW ± the beliefs about the limits and workings of the world shared by the members of a society and represented in their myths. BARTER Barter ± a form of negative reciprocity in which one party gets an unfair deal Silent trade ± barter without verbal communication. NORMS LAW ± formal rules of conduct that when violated effectuate negative sanctions. PARTICULARISM: a tendency to explain complex social phenomena in terms of a single causative factor 73. LAW VS. societies. ASSOCIATION: a group of individuals who enter into an agreement as volunteers to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. nature. or practice that focuses on human values and concerns 78. 71. who gives to C. establishments. a ³hand´ (horse-height) ETIC ± a universal system of classification which can be applied to all cultures 81. lower middle class. Generalized ± a mode of exchange in which the value of what is given is not calculated. rituals that have consequences that we don¶t understand. male or female. PARALANGUAGE ± the non-verbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion 84. the mode of substinence (Techno-environmental adaptations. the leopard skin chief was like the mediator and priest of the tribe ± a position created to prevent violence within the tribe 68. social conduct. perhaps back to A 74. the perception of the self. lower upper class. educational. and general values. higher lower class. SEGMENTAL OPPOSITION ± no government over clan level due to allying self with closest relatives 69. CULTURAL IDEALISM ± great cultures are the way they are because of great ideas 85. Indicates mistrust between the trading parties . and outright cheating Extended ± A gives to B. Economy. higher middle class. foundations. or charitable character. EPIDEICTIC RITUALS ± above direct proof. INSTITUTION VS. Subsistence Technology. EMIC VS. HOLISM AND PARTICULARISM HOLISM: the idea that all the properties of a given system cannot be determined or explained by its component alone. specific to a single culture ± gumbo. when they have war they don¶t realize that they are keeping population in control as to not stress their econiche) 86. Demography) 82. ETIC EMIC ± a native system of classification. SUPERSTRUCTURE SUPERSTRUCTURE: worldview. devoted to the promotion of a particular cause or program. (associated with complex societies. such as the PTA. who gives to D.
CREOLIZATION/SYNCRETISM (when cultures come into conflict. 93. children usually remain with the mother 90. . ANCESTOR SPIRITS ± Humans made up of a body and a soul or vital spirit. ETC. and states. ACEPHALOUS KINSHIP ORGANIZATION ± kinship without a head. They are sacrificed to and worshiped in clan temples. GOVERNMENT POLITICAL ACTION is organization of broadly-based communities for political purposes« GOVERNMENT is the political direction and control exercised over actions of the members. citizens. STIMULUS DIFFUSION ± The spread of an idea without the corresponding material invention. whereby developing societies acquire some of the cultural characteristics of Western industrial societies 101. Emile Durkhiem is an important part of the mechanisms. ROLE Status ± rules which guide one-half of a bipolar social relationship. 102. such as organic and mechanical. 100. or inhabitants of communities. societies. slums where goods and services sold or bartered are unregulated by formal institutions 99. SERIAL MONOGAMY ± person lives with a series of spouses in succession.] Spurred by the threat of new ideas (welfare). GLOBALIZATION/MODERNIZATION globalization: worldwide interconnectedness. stem-cell research) ± These are seen as threatening to the established way of life. . NEOLOCAL RESIDENCE Neolocal ± living away from both families (on their own) Ambilocal ± living with either the husband or wife¶s family 92. Appeals to Supernatural Forces for aid. ETHNOSCIENCE (shared cultural cognitive systems) ± determinization of categories through which people categorize their world 96. 94. finance capital. STATUS VS. society in which political power is diffused to the degree that they lack institutionalized political leadership roles such as chiefs and kings 95. BRIDE PRICE/DOWRY/BRIDE SERVICE Bride price ± Where abundant wealth in livestock is provided to the wife¶s family in exchange for the loss of her services as an economic provider Bride service ± labor substitutes for wealth Dowry ± a woman¶s inheritance from husbands family upon marriage 91. Ancestor Spirits retain an active interest in their descendants. 88. AMBILOCAL VS. MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION ± a corporation or an enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country. ANIMISM/MANA (anamatism) ANIMISM: a belief that nature is animated by distinct personalized spirit beings separable from bodies MANA: a belief that nature is enlivened or energized by an impersonal spiritual power or supernatural potency 104. Role ± the behavioral aspect of status 89. creolization creatively blends cultures in ways they can live better than they would otherwise SYNCRETISM ± blending past cultures with future cultures 103. human labor. attempts to construct a more satisfactory culture. MECHANISMS OF INTEGRATION ± includes various types of solidarity.87. new technologies (WW Web) and new values (cloning. trade goods. 98. ³TSU´ THE CHINESE CLAN ± Chinese kinship organization ± patriarchal ± ancestor worship practiced through Tsu in a shrine they keep in the house ± part of a larger clan organization. REVITALIZATION MOVEMENT ± religiously based social movement with the purpose of reforming society. CREOLIZATION ± occurs by political control of one society by another and forces one culture upon another. They provide supernatural protection for the people of the clan or lineage. Patrilocal ± living with the family of the husband Matrilocal ± living with the family of the wife Neolocal ± living away from both families (on their own) Ambilocal ± living with either the husband or wife¶s family. one dominates the other ± this results in a new culture that borrows from both cultures. information. evidenced in global movements of natural resources. [Rapid Innovation. INFORMAL ECONOMY ± the economy common to shanytowns. 97. Organize and integrate production across political boundaries motivated by financial profits. POLITICAL ACTION VS. RESIDENCE PATTERNS: MATRILOCAL. and infectious diseases modernization: the process of political and socioeconomic change.
power. such as irrigation. people producing onlyenough offspring to replace themselves when they die 111. and economic systems 112. Sometimes divided into four broad stages of social organization: band. they use bias to what will happen and they aren¶t concerned with the consequences. STRUCTURAL POWER/SOFT POWER STRUCTURAL POWER: power that organizes and orchestrates the systematic interaction within and among societies. and unjust social. FOUR FLAWS IN FUTURE-ORIENTED WRITINGS ± in future oriented writing. and state-organized society. It involves using technologies other than hand tools. method. STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE ± physical and/or psychological harm caused by impersonal. exploitative. and behaviors 110. invention. or device SECONDARY INNOVATION: the deliberate application or modification of an existing idea. ANTHROPOLOGY/APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGY: the study of humankind in all times and places APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY: the use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems. values. and beliefs on the other. MYTH/LEGEND/FOLKTALE MYTH ± sacred story set in the remote past that solicits belief WITH supernatural or religious overtones LEGEND ± sacred story set in the remote past that solicits belief WITHOUT supernatural or religious overtones FOLKTALE ± a story told for entertainment that does not solicit belief but is instead for humor or pleasure 115. FOLKLORE ± a term coined by 19th century scholars studying the unwritten stories and other artistic traditions of rural peoples to distinguish between folk art and the fine art of the literate elite 116. beliefs. chiefdom. SHAMAN/PRIEST SHAMAN: a person who enters an altered state of consciousness at will to contact and utilize an ordinarily hidden reality in order to acquire knowledge. fertilizers. PRIMARY/SECONDARY INNOVATION PRIMARY INNOVATION: the creation. CULTURAL PLURALISM/ORGANIC SOLIDARITY CULTURAL PLURALISM: Social and political interaction among people with different ways of living and thinking. ETHNOCIDE/GENOCIDE ETHNOCIDE: the violent eradication of an ethnic group¶s collective cultural identity as a distinctive people. 109. often for a specific client 117. directing economic and political forces on the one hand and ideological forces that shape public ideas. MULTILINEAR EVOLUTION ± A theory of cultural evolution that sees each human culture evolving in its own way by adaptation to diverse environments: different µpathways¶ of evolutionary development followed by different societies. HORTICULTURE/AGRICULTURE HORTICULTURE: cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes AGRICULTURE: the cultivation of food plates in soil prepared and maintained for crop production. occurs when a dominant society deliberately sets out to destroy another society¶s cultural heritage GENOCIDE: the physical extermination of one people by another. SOFT POWER: cooptive power that presses others through attraction and persuasion to change their ideas. or device 106. values. people often take narrow views. and to help others. power and basic human rights based on race and place 113.105. PRIEST: a full-time religious specialist formally recognized for his or her role in guiding the religious practices of others and for contacting and influencing supernatural powers . or chance discovery of a completely new idea. 121. PANTHEON/POLYTHEISM PANTHEON: the several gods and goddesses of a people POLYTHEISM: belief in several gods and/or goddesses 120. tribe. 118. method. and the wooden or metal plow pulled by harnessed draft animals. within the same society or multinational state ORGANIC SOLIDARITY: differentiation and mutual interdependence 119. either as a deliberate act or as the accidental outcome of activities carried out by one people with little regard for their impact on others 107. political. REPLACEMENT REPRODUCTION ± the point at which birthrates and death rates are in equilibrium. CULTURE LOSS ± the abandonment of an existing practice or trait 108. GLOBAL APARTHEID ± a system of inequality that dictates access to wealth. they don¶t look far enough into the future. ETHNOMUSICOLOGY ± the study if a society¶s music in terms of its cultural setting 114.
PSYCHIC UNITY OF MANKIND ± doctrine in anthropology that humans are basically psychologically equivalent everywhere in any culture. THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM ± (Max Weber) It is the influence of religion on the development of capitalist society. 135.122. Males dominate Females ± warfare is a serious concern 133. a term from Emile Durkheim¶s sociology. MECHANICAL/ORGANIC SOLIDARITY MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY: shared enculturation ORGANIC SOLIDARITY: differentiation and mutual interdependence 130. SORCERY VS. THREE TYPES OF GENDERED ECONOMIC ROLES 1. COLLECTIVE REPRESENTATION ± refers to a symbol having common-shared meaning (intellectual and emotional) to members of a social group or society. Rite of passage. and the magical arrival of utopian riches. IMITATIVE/CONTAGIOUS MAGIC IMITATIVE MAGIC: magic based on the principle that like produces like. marriage. such as goats. IDEOGRAPHIC/NOMOTHETIC IDEOGRAPHIC: a tendency to specify. and rivalry COPPER: is the media of exchange and was most valuable unit of exchange between northwest coast native Americans. WITCHCRAFT VS. MAGIC Witch ± has some kind of power within. SOCIAL ENTROPY VS. RITES OF PASSAGE/RITES OF INTENSIFICATION RITES OF PASSAGE: a ritual that makes an important stage in an individual¶s life cycle. cattle. can use their power to harm others (intentionally or unintentionally) Sorcerer ± EVIL. POTLATCH/COPPER POTLATCH: a ceremonial event in which a village chief publicly gives away stockpiled food and other goods that signify wealth. PASTORALISM ± breeding and managing large herds of domesticated grazing and browsing animals. face-saving. SCAPULAMANCY ± divination of the shoulderblades 127. CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION ± a showy display of wealth for social prestige 138. SEPARATION/TRANSITION/INCORPORATION SEPARATION: in the rite of passage. such as birth. Separate but Equal ± women have certain rights 3. ANTI-ENTROPY: comparing all the replicas of each piece of data that exist (or are supposed to) and updating each replica to the newest version 129. title-claiming. and is expressed in the natural sciences 134. LIMINAL STATE ± being on the "threshold" of or between two different existential planes 124. 132. promising resurrection of deceased relatives. 139. Equal ± women can do men¶s jobs and men can do women¶s jobs (women are hunters) 2. 137. uses magic for evil or harming others. llamas. the ritual removal of the individual from society TRANSITION: in a rite of passage. REVITALIZATION MOVEMENT/CARGO CULT REVITALIZATION MOVEMENT: a movement for radical cultural reform in response to widespread social disruption and collective feelings of great stress and despair CARGO CULT: a spiritual movement in reaction to disruptive contact with western capitalism. destruction or enslavement of white foreigners. and death RITES OF INTENSIFICATION: a ritual that takes place during a crisis in the life of the group and serves to bind individuals together 125. 126. ANTI-ENTROPY SOCIAL ENTROPY: a measure of the natural decay within a social system. or camels. sometimes called sympathetic magic CONTAGIOUS MAGIC: magic based on the principle that things or persons once in contact can influence each other after the contact is broken . sheep. and is expressed in the humanities NOMOTHETIC: a tendency to generalize. 131. reincorporation of the individual into society in his or her new status 123. It can refer to the decomposition of social structure or of the disappearance of social distinctions. 136. isolation of the individual following separation and prior to incorporation into society INCORPORATION: in a rite of passage. DEFINITIONS OF RELIGION ± an organized system of ideas about the spiritual sphere or the supernatural along with associated ceremonial practices by which people try to interrupt and/or influence aspects of the universe otherwise beyond their control 128.
SOULS (theories of) ± One theory is that we dream (soul wanders) and other is death rattle (soul escapes) 145. must sew up the lips to keep soul from escaping. it makes people be generous and social and be kind to elders (who can turn into witches) 141. CLAUDE LÉVI-STRAUSS ± Founder of French to live in reserves. and social identity 3. you have to walk sideways to go through and it is pie shaped. developed symbols for the phonetic alphabet. 154. 156. LEVIRITE/SORORATE LEVIRATE: widow marries the brother of her deceased husband-provides social/economic security for the widow-preserves previously established family relationships SORORATE: widower marries the sister of the dead wife-preserves previously established relationships-ex: the Tiwi 153. C. Defined status. He studied American Indians in northeast. PUKIMANI ± the Tiwi word for anything sacred. and that alphabet was created for higher accuracy and systems can be used to distinguish languages. Wrote some books. CULTURAL THEMES ± dominant institutions in a society. 11. you have to kill someone to get a warrior soul. MULTICULTURALISM ± public policy for managing cultural diversity in a multi-ethnic society. MANA ± a belief that nature is enlivened or energized by an impersonal spiritual power or supernatural potency 144. 4. EDWARD TYLOR ± defined culture 6. culture ultimately based in cognitive dualistic oppositions such as Nature vs. a real one has a wound on the back of the head. role. MARY DOUGLAS ± structural anthropology 5. MARGARET MEAD ± studied under Frank Boaz. POSITIVE SANCTIONS ± (or rewards) are pleasant things we can do to try to make people conform and behave in a routine. ANTHONY F. like the classical Greeks. like gerontacracy for the tiwi people. OCCULTED/ENDURING CREATORS OCCULTED CREATORS: some religions. Buying a child an ice cream to make him stop crying) PEOPLE AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS: 1. CULTURAL PLURALISM ± social and political interaction among people with different ways of living and thinking. 147. forbidden or untouchable. and also influential in structural functionalism. He also introduced the terms status and role to social science. within the same society or multinational state 146. witches 151. 150. The creator remains remote from mankind and is not worshipped in popular rites ENDURING CREATORS: others combine the role of the Creator with that of a deity who takes a strong personal interest in the affairs of mankind. (Ex. He is a theorist on religion and invented concept of revitalization movements. and where we are going RITUAL: CULT INSTITUTIONS: 149. 2. built very close together. CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE NICHE . NAVAHO SKIN WALKERS ± shape-shifters that kill at a distance and practice cannibalism. officially stressing mutual respect and tolerance for cultural differences within a country¶s borders 148. Culture.140. TSANTSA ± a shrunken head. SHABANO ± Name of a Shuar house. defined unilineal evolution 7. LEWIS HENRY MORGAN ± best known for his work on kinship and social structure.the number of people that the available resources can support at a given level of food getting techniques 157. MYTH/RITUAL/CULT INSTITUTIONS MYTH: a sacred narrative that explains the fundamentals of human existence where we and everything in the world come from. (Wrote The Golden Bough) 8. she did her study in the Pacific around New Guinea and she looked at . WALLACE ± a psychological anthropologist. BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI ± widely considered one of the most important 20th-century anthropologists. it protects your soul. EDWARD SAPIR ± Co-creator of the linguistic relativity theory. his pioneering ethnographic fieldwork made a major contribution to the study of Melanesia and of phenomena relating to reciprocity. 10. hold that the creator of the universe did his/her job and then retreated. predictable. 155. 9. GERONTOCRACY ± society ruled by the older men of the tribe 143. SIR JAMES FRAZER ± a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. Along with Edward Tylor-³Marry out or die out´ structuralism. RALPH LINTON ± American anthropologist who has a marked influence on the development of cultural anthropology. RUTH BENEDICT ± student of Franz Boaz who was influential who wrote book and was involved with evaluating Japanese culture during WWI saying the emperor should not be executed because it would cause chaos. POSITIVE FUNCTIONS OF WITCHCRAFT ± tends to shape people¶s norms. fashion. why we are here.
28. MORRIS OPLER ± talks of how specific institutions come to have a dominant place in society (called overriding institutions). redistribution. Is British. 15.R. like gerontacracy. Yali was brought to Australia for further special forces training in jungle warfare and for further reinforcement of his allegiance to the British Crown. FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS (Joseph ben Matthias) 31. religion and entrepreneurship. R. ARNOLD VAN GINNEP ± talked about the rites of passage. MAX WEBER ± spirit of capitalism.reincorporation) 25.child-raising techniques and asked questions like why are American teens so rebellious.sociologist. KARL POLANYI ± economist who talked about different types of economic distribution in the world: reciprocity. economist. Specific technologies are responsible for shaping life ways in similar environments. He believed that religion was really about the holding together of society. EMILE DURKHEIM ± a sociologist and anthropologist who studied the Australian Totemism 18. Symbolic nature of culture created creativity to occur which other animals couldn¶t do. 19. articulated the conception of (magical pre-animism) an impersonal force. 29. . 3. (separation-transition. identified with the Melanesian term of mana. NOAM CHOMSKY ± a linguistic mathematician who established new mathematical basis for understanding the rules of grammar 22. has a set of customary beliefs and practices that set up a special system of relations between a society. RADCLIFFE-BROWN ± defined totemism. The parallel evolution of different cultures to similar ecosystems 2. which is the proposition that diverse interpretations of reality embodied in language structures yield demonstrable influences on thought. animals and other objects that are important. Was interested in how Americans use wealth socially to display wealth to show off social importance. A. YALI ± an important and long-standing cargo prophet from New Guinea. Culture core 20.R. 13. MARETT ± dealt with religious ethnology. phonology and morphology 21. SHAKA ± founded the Zulu nation in the early 19th century and reformulated the Zulu into a highly organized military clan 14. 12. JULIAN STEWARD ± cultural ecology school: 1. the plants. and the market principle. BENJAMIN LEE WHORF ± he was a student of Edward Sapir and he used his experience with the Hopi Indians to develop the theory linguistic relativity. LESLIE WHITE ± One of the first anthropologists to take up study of symbols. PANINI ± one of the most innovative intellectuals in all of history who developed a comprehensive scientific analysis of Sanskirt phonetics. (kinda like a big potlatch) 27. the leopard skin chief was like the mediator and priest of the tribe ± a position created to prevent violence within the tribe 30. MARVIN HARRIS ± defined cultural materialism 17. a headless system of organization). A sergeant major in the Australian army during WWII. 16. Came to conclusion that child-raising techniques have much influence.THURSTEIN VEBLEN ± wrote tongue in cheek book. 26. LEOPARD SKIN CHIEF ± part of the Nuer tribe (a tribe with no proper government. 23. CLIFFORD GEERTZ ± known mostly for his strong support for and influence on the practice of symbolic anthropology . JU/¶HOANSI ± people that were called bushmen in the past ± small stature ± dark skin ± found in the northern part of south Africa ± forced into preserves due to various types of violence 24.
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