Oral Basic Gas Turbine

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Questions

Standard Definitions: MASS: Mass is a quantity of matter in a body. Units MKS – kg; CGS – gm; FPS – lb(mass). Scalar quantity. MATTER: RATIO: MOLECULE: COMPOUND: MIXTURE: Anything that occupies space (volume) and have mass One magnitude divided by another magnitude of the same kind Molecule is a combination of two or more atoms. It is a chemical combination of molecules. E.g. NACL It is a physical combination of molecules. E.g. Brine

ALLOY: An alloy is a partial or complete solid solution of one or more elements in a metallicmatrix. Complete solid solution alloys give single solid phase microstructure, while partial solutions give two or more phases that may be homogeneous in distribution depending on thermal (heat treatment) history. Alloys usually have different properties from those of the component elements. ION: Ions are the charged particle

PLASMA: Plasma is an ionized state. It is a combination of liquid and solid state of matter and occurs at very high temperature FLUID: COHESION: ADHESION: molecules. Anything that can flow. It is a force of attraction between same type of atoms and molecules It is a force of attraction between different type of atoms and

SPECIFIC GRAVITY: It is the ratio of a density of a substance to the density of water. Density of water is 1000 kg/m3

1 NAUTICAL MILE: The arc along the circle of the earth if the angle substanded is equal to one minute. 1 KNOT: A knot is one nautical mile covered in one hour. It is a unit of speed and is used in aviation. MINUTE: In astronomy, the minute is a unit of angle, the minute of right ascension. It is equal to 1/60th of an hour of right ascension and can be further divided into 60 seconds of right ascension. DISPLACEMENT: Shortest distance between two locations or points. It is a vector quantity. DISTANCE: It is the amount of travel. Scalar quantity.

SPEED: Distance covered in a unit time or rate of change of distance. Speed = Distance / time. Units MKS – m/s; CGS – cm/s; FPS – ft/s. Scalar quantity VELOCITY: Rate of change of displacement. Units MKS – m/s; CGS – cm/s; FPS – ft/s. Vector quantity. V=s/t (Difference between speed and velocity is of distance and displacement) INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY: Velocity at some instance. ACCELERATION: Rate of change of velocity. Units MKS – m/s2; CGS – cm/s2; FPS – ft/s2. Vector quantity. a= vf-vi /t. REST: If a body doesn’t change its position wrt to its surrounding the body is said to be in rest MOTION: be in motion. If a body changes its positin wrt to its surrounding the body is said to

TYPES OF MOTION: 1. Translatory Motion: A motion in which every particle of a body is being displaced by the same amount is called Translatory motion. E.g. a car. 2. Rotational Motion: A motion in which a body rotates about a fixed point or axis. E.g. a fan. 3. Oscillatory or Vibratory Motion: to and fro motion of a body about a mean position. E.g. Pendulum.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION: 1. Vf = Vi + at 2. S = Vit + ½ at2 3. 2as = Vf2 – Vi2 NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION: 1. First Law of motion: A body at rest will remain at rest and a body in motion will continue its state of uniform motion unless some force is applied. 2. Second Law of motion: When an external force acts on a body it accelerates the body in the direction of force. Acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force acting on it and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. 3. Third Law of motion: To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. FORCE: Force is that agent which produces or tends to produce, stops or tends to stop motion in a body. Units MKS – Newton (kg.m/s2); CGS – Dyne (g.cm/s2); FPS – Pound (force) (lb(mass). ft/s2. Vector quantity. F=ma. WEIGHT: Weight is a force with which earth attracts a body towards its center. Units MKS – Newton (kg.m/s2); CGS – Dyne (g.cm/s2); FPS – Pound (force) (lb(mass). ft/s2. Vector quantity. W=mg. NEWTON’S LAW OF GRAVITIATION: Everybody in the universe attracts every other body with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of distance between them. F=G m1.m2/r2. G=6.67x10 power -11. SCALER QUANTITIES: Scalar quantities are those quantities that have magnitude only but no direction. E.g. mass, speed, time, volume, temperature, work, density, distance. Scalars can be added subtracted, multiplied and divided according to ordinary arithmetic rules. VECTOR QUANTITIES: Vector quantities are those quantities that have both magnitude and direction. E.g. Force, velocity, weight, displacement, acceleration, momentum. Graphically a vector can be added or subtracted by head to tail rule. TRIGNOMETERY: 1. Sin theta = Prependicular / Hypotenuse 2. Cos theta = Base / Hypotenuse 3. Tan theta = Perpendicular / Base ENERGY: POWER: Energy is the capacity to do work. It is inherent Power Power is the rate of doing work. P= F x D T It is calculated in foot pounds per second Or Watts.

TORQUE: the Propeller. · Gauge pressure is equal to absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure. IDEAL GAS LAW: The combined gas law or general gas equation is formed by the combination of the three laws. · Ram or Dynamic Pressure is the pressure of the air or gas cause by motion is called Ram or Dynamic pressure. Aneroid barometer measures static pressure. the volume of a given mass of an ideal gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. P=egh. RPM: Act of performing a productive operation by some mechanical Torque is the twisting or rotary force exerted by the engine to turn Number of Revolutions per minute BOYLE’S LAW: Boyle’s law states that at constant temperature. It is never negative. P=F/A Pressure is a force per unit area. It is zero referenced against ambient air pressure. Static pressure is the true pressure of a gas. · Atmospheric Pressure is the pressure of the outside air which is 14. · Hydrostatic Pressure is the pressure due to the height of the fluid.7 psi at sea level. Its unit in MKS is Pascal (N/m2) and FPS is Psi. V @ T PRESSURE: Psi. volume and temperature for a fixed mass of gas: Three earlier gas laws: . the absolute pressure and the volume of a gas are inversely proportional. It can show the negative reading. It is zero referenced against a perfect vacuum. and shows the relationship between the pressure. · Static Pressure in fluid dynamics. It is the actual pressure of a fluid on surface because of the force exerted by the molecules. PV = K CHARLES LAW: At constant pressure. also bar.WORK: means. static pressure is the pressure at a nominated point in a fluid. Its unit in MKS is N/m2 and FPS is KINDS OF PRESSURES: • Absolute pressure is the sum of gauge pressure & atmospheric pressure. · Total Pressure is the sum of Dynamic pressure and Static Pressure. so Negative signs are usually omitted. · Differential pressure is the difference in pressure between two points.

If the number of gas molecules and the temperature remain constant. volume and temperature for a fixed mass of gas: There is also Avogadro's Law.• Boyle's law (1662. and uses the molar volume of a gas: 22. then the pressure is inversely proportional to the volume. the combined gas law developed into the ideal gas law: This law has the following important consequences: 1. 4. . • Charles' law or law of volumes (1787. the ratio of Liters of the gas to moles of the gas is: . relating pressure and volume): .4 Liters. If the temperature changes and the number of gas molecules are kept constant. then the pressure of the gas changes is directly proportional to the number of molecules of gas present. a simplified equation of state. relating volume and temperature): • Pressure law or Third gas law (Gay-Lussac in 1809. and shows the relationship between the pressure. which is particularly useful in chemistry: For any gas. then either pressure or volume (or both) will change in direct proportion to the temperature. relating temperature and pressure) The combined gas law or general gas equation is formed by the combination of the three laws. If the temperature and volume remain constant. 3. If temperature and pressure are kept constant. The ideal gas concept is useful because it obeys the ideal gas law. With the addition of Avogadro's law. IDEAL GAS: An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of a set of randomlymoving point particles that interact only through elastic collisions. 2. and is amenable to analysis under statistical mechanics. ENTROPY: It is the degree of molecular disorder. then the volume of the gas is directly proportional to the number of molecules of gas.

Mathematically. PASCAL: Pascal is a force of one Newton on an area of one meter square. then it is observed that the pressure at every point within the system is changed by the same amount. N/m2. PASCAL’S LAW: When a fluid is confined in a container or a system and its pressure is increased or decreased by means of a piston or some other mean. Materials for which Hooke's law is a useful approximation are known as linear-elastic or "Hookean" materials. HOOK’S LAW: Hooke's law of elasticity is an approximation that states that the extension of a spring is in direct proportion with the load added to it as long as this load does not exceed the elastic limit. One bar is equal to 10 power 5 Pascal. DALTON’S LAW of Partial Pressures: The pressure of a mixture of gases simply is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual components.TEMPERATURE: It is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body. 14.103 x 10 power 5 Pascal.7psi = 1. TEMPERATURE SCALES: Marks Min Max Parts Conversion Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin Degree Celsius 0 100 100 Degree Celsius 9/5 C + 32 +273 Degree Fahrenheit 32 212 180 Degree Fahrenheit 5/9 (F-32) +273 Degree Kelvin 273 373 100 Degree Kelvin +273 +273 Degree Celcius – Degree Farenhiet – Degree Kelvin COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR EXPANSION: It is change in length per unit length per degree rise in Kelvin. COEFFICIENT OF VOLUME EXPANSION: It is change in volume per unit volume per degree rise in Kelvin. Hooke's law states that where .

Continuity of flow is when the mass flow rate is constant m = eAV e=density. they are also called Kirchhoff's rules or simply Kirchhoff's laws (see also Kirchhoff's laws for other meanings of that term). VENTURI: Venturi is a streamline duct through which air will flow without turbulence. It depends upon the weight of the volume of the fluid displaced by the body. provided that the temperature remains constant. F is the restoring force exerted by the material. A=Area. and k is the force constant (or spring constant). .[1] The mathematical equation that describes this relationship is:[2] KRISCHOFF’S LAW: Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the conservation of charge and energy in electrical circuits. V=Velocity. Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference or voltage across the two points. CONTINUITY OF FLOW: Fluids in steady motion pass each cross-section of the streamline duct in identical amount in each second. STREAM LINE FLOW: When a fluid flows through a duct in such a way that there is no turbulence in the flow. Floating bodies have a greater buoyancy force then their weight. It is used in hydrometer to determine the specific gravity of the liquids.g. battries. Aircrafts that fly due to buoyancy force are balloons and airships.x is the displacement of the end of the spring from its equilibrium position. Widely used in electrical engineering. and inversely proportional to the resistance between them. The bore of venture converges upto throat and diverges towards the outlet. the flow is said to be streamline. and were first described in 1845 by Gustav Kirchhoff. E. COLOUMB’S LAW: The magnitude of the electrostatic force between two point electric charges is directly proportional to the product of the magnitudes of each of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two charges BUOYANCY FORCE: Buoynacy force is an upward thrust. OHM’S LAW: In electrical circuits.

the American engineer who developed it. isentropic process . Some of the work extracted by the turbine is used to drive the compressor. One Horse Power is 550 foot-pounds of work accomplished in one second. It is named after George Brayton (1830–1892). lbs / sec = 33. the sum of Kinetic Energy. BRAYTON CYCLE: The Brayton cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the workings of the gas turbine engine.Heat Rejection (in the atmosphere). where it is pressurized. isobaric process .The heated. time and distance elements are zero. The term Brayton cycle has more recently been given to the gas turbine engine. cycle.BERNAULI’S THEOREM: In streamline flow of ideal fluid (invicid – nonviscous fluid). adiabatic process .Expansion. pressurized air then gives up its energy. isobaric process . since the chamber is open to flow in and out. basis of the jet engine and others. Horse Power is not used for turbo-fan or turbo-jet engines because time and distance elements are not always involved. This also has three components: • • • A gas compressor A burner (or combustion chamber) An expansion turbine Ideal Brayton cycle: • • • • isentropic process . Both time and distance are necessary to compute Horse Power. HORSE POWER: Horse Power is a unit of Power. The term. expanding through a turbine (or series of turbines). heating that air—a constant-pressure process.Ambient air is drawn into the compressor.000 ft.The compressed air then runs through a combustion chamber. although it was originally proposed and patented by Englishman John Barber[1] It is also sometimes known as the Joule in 1791.Compression. Potential Energy and Pressure Energy remains same. .Heat Addition. since when a turbo-jet or turbo-fan is not moving forward as like a plane standing on ground with engines running. isobaric process . where fuel is burned.Heat Rejection. isobaric process . (375 mile pound per hour = 550 ft. lbs / min). Actual Brayton cycle: • • • • adiabatic process .

lbs / sec 375 mile pound per hour = 550 ft. They are machines which give momentum to the mass of air & fuel. Thrust Horse Power = Thrust (lbs) x Aircraft Speed (ft / sec) 550 ft. PRESSURE THRUST: Pressure thrust is an additional thrust obtained when the engine operates with the propelling nozzle in a choked condition.000 ft. GAS GENERATOR: A gas generator is a gas producing section of a gas turbine engine. lbs / sec = 33. because this engine delivers power through thrust generated by the reaction force. Power of a gas turbine engine is given by: Power = Drag (lbs) X Aircraft speed (ft / sec) OR Since at a constant aircraft speed Thrust = Drag so. It is obtained by the change of momentum of gasses within an engine. THRUST: Thrust is a forward acting force and is a reaction force to the force applied to accelerate the mass of air rearward in case of a gas turbine engine. MOMENTUM THRUST: Momentum Thrust is the Majority of the thrust. GAS TURBINE ENGINES: Gas Turbine Engines are simple heat engines that convert heat energy of fuel into mechanical work. when thrust is opposing drag & propelling the aircraft at a constant speed. It is measured in pounds. It excludes inlet duct. propelling nozzle of a turbo jet & propeller shaft and reduction gear of turbo-prop engines.POWER OF A GAS TURBINE ENGINE: Power of a gas turbine engine can only be calculated if the aircraft is moving. It is obtained by the pressure difference at the propelling nozzle and the outside atmosphere. Pressure Thrust = (Pressure at the jet nozzle Pj – Ambient Pressure Pam) x Jet nozzle area. . lbs / min Power of a Gas Turbine engine is calculated as THRUST HORSE POWER.

lbs / sec the thrust of one pound is equal to one horse power.5 pounds of thrust.5 plus the SHP supplied to the propeller.000 ft. lbs / sec 375 mile pound per hour = 550 ft. THRUST HORSE POWER: Thrust Horse Power is defined that at an aircraft speed of 550 ft. because this engine delivers power through thrust generated by the reaction force. Likewise if aircraft speed for a given thrust is doubled.5 . For a Turbo-prop engine: Thrust Horse Power = Shaft Horse Power x Propeller efficiency Thrust horse power developed by a turbo-prop will always be less than its Shaft horse power because the propeller is less than 100 percent efficient (it is usually 80 % efficient). lbs / sec = 33. If the aircraft speed is zero THP is also zero. One SHP supplied to the propeller is assumed to produce 2. The static Equivalent Shaft Horse Power is the static jet thrust in pounds divided by 2.GROSS THRUST: Pressure Thrust added to Momentum thrust provides Gross Thrust. SHAFT HORSE POWER: Shaft Horse Power is the measure of power supplied to the propeller in a turbo-propengine. ESHP (static) = SHP + Fn (Jet) 2. Power of a Gas Turbine engine is calculated as THRUST HORSE POWER. EQUIVALENT SHAFT HORSE POWER: Equivalent Shaft Horse Power is the power produced by a Turboprop engine. converting only part of the horse power output into thrust. For a Turbo-jet & turbo-fan engine: Thrust Horse Power = Thrust (lbs) x Aircraft Speed (ft / sec) 550 ft. lbs / min Thrust Horse Power is proportional to both engine thrust and aircraft speed. Equivalent Shaft Horse Power is Shaft Horse Power supplied to the propeller plus the amount of thrust produced by the engine. THP is also doubled.

Temperature to which the air is heated. Over – all Efficiency is a product of Thermal efficiency and Propulsive efficiency Over-all efficiency = Thermal efficiency x Propulsive efficiency MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY: Mechanical efficiency is the ratio of the useful work output of a machine to the work or energy input. Thermal efficiency = Useful work output Heat of combustion of the fuel Thermal efficiency is affected by the temperature drop across the turbine. Actual efficiency is always less than the ideal. Each part of an engine such as compressor. OPERATING CYCLE EFFICIENCY: Operating cycle efficiency is the ratio of the amount of useful work obtained from a jet engine’s actual cycle to the amount of useful work obtained from the same ideal cycle. turbine. Mechanical efficiency = Useful work output Work Input The difference between the two values is chiefly due to the mechanical frictional losses and losses like air leakages etc.EFFICIENCY: Efficiency is the effectiveness with which a machine. THERMAL EFFICIENCY: Thermal efficiency of an engine is the ratio of useful work output to the heat of combustion of the fuel. the more will be the energy to do work or more will be the Thermal Efficiency. Pressure Ratio 2. To assess the engine or over-all efficiency of an engine Thermal or internal efficiency and Propulsive or external efficiency of the installed engine must be considered. combustion chamber. jet nozzle has its own efficiency. It is the ratio of the energy obtained from a machine to the energy put into the machine. . piece of equipment. The more is the Turbine Entry Temperature (TET). process or a person operates. All of these combine to produce one single Over-all or Engine efficiency. Mass of Airflow 3. Thermal efficiency (Or Turbine Entry Temperature TET) is a function of (or depends on): 1. ENGINE EFFICIENCY: Engine efficiency is the over-all efficiency of an engine which is usually between 70-80%.

eff = 2Vi/(Vj+Vi) Question: Why does Propulsive efficiency increases when difference between the aircraft speed and Jet speed decreases? Answer: Because the purpose of the engines is to propel the aircraft as much as it can. Thrust will be zero in that case. Propulsive efficiency can also be defined as the amount of thrust developed by the jet nozzle compared with the energy supplied to it in the usable form. TSFC = fuel flow in lbs / lb of thrust / hour Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) is the amount of fuel required to generate one Shaft Horse Power (SHP) in one hour for a turbo-prop engine.PROPULSIVE EFFICIENCY: Propulsive efficiency can be defined as that proportion of the engine work that can be converted into aircraft work. Propulsive efficiency increases as the difference between the aircraft speed and the jet velocity decreases. If the aircraft is stationary. Propulsive efficiency = twice aircraft speed x 100% aircraft speed + Jet speed prop. Propulsive efficiency = Work done on the aircraft x 100% Work done on the gas stream Or. Propulsive efficiency is related to an engine installed on the airframe. But if aircraft speed becomes equal to the jet speed the Propulsive efficiency would be 100%. and the energy put into the jet stream performs more useful work. The more they are closer to their purpose the more will be the propulsive efficiency. infact the propulsive efficiency would be zero. Propulsive efficiency is said to increase when at higher throttle settings the nozzle becomes choked so there is a very little increase in the jet velocity (Vj). regardless of the amount of thrust produced. the fuel consumed is wasted as far as the aircraft propulsion is concerned. SFC = fuel flow / SHP / hour Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) is the measure of an engine’s thermal efficiency and . Propulsive efficiency indicates how effective an engine is as a propelling unit. SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (SFC) OR THRUST SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (TSFC): Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) is the amount of fuel required to generate one pound of thrust in one hour for a turbo-jet & turbo-fan engines. The faster the aircraft flies the closer the jet speed and the aircraft become. so the gap between the jet velocity and the aircraft speed narrows.

SFC increases. It depends on compressor / turbine efficiencies. Thus an aircraft needing 80% throttle setting to maintain a speed of 350 knots at 15. SFC & Forward speed of an Aircraft: As the aircraft speed increases the Intake momentum drag also increases thus decreasing the thrust.000 ft. consequently SFC rises. but a higher thrust is obtained as compared to the addition of the fuel. for the same Pressure Ratio. C). SFC improves. The pounds of thrust obtained by the addition of the pounds of fuel is high. may only require 65% of the throttle setting at 28000 ft. SFC & Pressure Ratio: SFC decreases as the Pressure Ratio increases. With more Pressure at the outlet of the compressor means more addition of the fuel. EQUIVALENT SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (ESFC): It is the rate of fuel flow in pounds per hour divided by a turbo-prop’s ESHP. When the conditions are colder at higher altitude. SFC & Altitude: With an increase in the altitude the SFC improves or decreases. EQUIVALENT SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (ESFC) is therefore used instead FACTORS AFFECTING THE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION: · SFC & RPM: SFC is high at reduced RPM. because the compressor and turbine efficiencies are high at higher altitude. and necessities more fuel energy to compress the mass. but on the other hand there is more MAF due to Ram Pressure. Low Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) means better thermal efficiency.performance. because the compressor / turbine efficiency is poor. BYPASS ENGINE: . the compressor has to do a lesser work on MAF for the required Pressure rise thus less fuel is required. on a colder day. Turbo-props cannot be compared on the basis of TSFC. but on a hot day the compressor will need more MAF to compress and has to do more work for the required Pressure rise. SFC improves with the increasing RPM and is lowest in the designed cruising speed RPM. At higher altitude there is less density and lesser Intake momentum drag. the compressor has to do a lesser work on the MAF that has a little volume thus less fuel is required. SFC & Temperature: For the same thrust to be obtained as on a standard day (15 deg. to keep the same speed. thus more fuel is required.

BYPASS RATIO: The ratio of the cold stream to the hot stream. while most of the thrust is developed by the fan which handles a greater mass moving it rearward slowly. (more fuel burnt more RPM and hence more acceleration imparted to the MAF by the fast moving compressor) . Question: How does a Turbo-fan has a better propulsive efficiency than a Turbo-jet engine? Answer: Turbo-fan has a better propulsive efficiency than a turbo-jet because it has a lighter core that handles a lesser mass airflow which gives reduced jet stream velocity. Less mass flow to handle Dis-advantages of a bypass engine: · Extra weight involved in the LP section that has to handle a greater mass airflow in order to develop the same thrust. one flow passes through the core engine and the other is bypassed through a bypass duct which is an annular space between the core and the outer casing. Advantages of a bypass engine: · · · · Higher propulsive and overall efficiency Low specific fuel consumption Lower noise level due to reduced velocity of the jet stream Lighter core engine. FACTORS AFFECTING MASS OF AIRFLOW: · · · · · Design of the compressor Compressor RPM or speed (more RPM more MAF) Density (more Density more MAF) Temperature (more Temperature less MAF) Altitude (more Altitude less Density less MAF) · Forward speed of the aircraft (more Forward speed more Ram effect and more MAF) FACTORS AFFECTING ACCELERATION OF AIRFLOW: · Amount of fuel burnt in the combustion chamber. The ratio of the secondary air to the Primary air by weight is called Bypass Ratio.Bypass engine is a dual flow system engine in which the single incoming flow of air is divided in two flows.

Ram does not affect the engine thrust as much as it affects the thrust in supersonic conditions. i.· Choking or the limitation of compressor to handle the MAF. The difference between the two velocities narrows and the thrust output decreases. Net Thrust = Gross Thrust – Intake Momentum Drag Net thrust is Maximum when aircraft is stationary with engines running. · Jet Nozzle Velocity: Thrust increases as the Jet Velocity (Vj) increases. Also at higher throttle settings the nozzle becomes choked and there is a vey little increase in the jet velocity (Vj) in comparison with the forward aircraft speed (Va). there is a large increase in thrust for a relatively small RPM increase. As the aircraft speed increases the dynamic or Ram pressure of the air in the engine intake increases. Net thrust increases as the forward speed rises above 300 mph. Under subsonic conditions. After this an increase in the Jet velocity is only possible if the EGT is further increased. The nozzle becomes choked because of the high EGT that increases the speed of sound and thus the exhaust gas velocity reach sonic thus choking the nozzle. The result will be an increase in GROSS THRUST as the forward speed increases. With the increases in air density the MAF through the engine will rise. · Altitude: Thrust decreases with increasing altitude. however at high throttle settings the nozzle does becomes choke due to the high EGT that increases the speed of sound and thus the exhaust gas velocity becoming sonic thus choking the nozzle. while on the other hand the propulsive efficiency increases. . Majority of the thrust is obtained in the last 25% of the RPM change. or it is said to be equal to Gross Thrust. Gross Thrust does not take into account the Intake Momentum Drag. In the designed operating range. In the higher RPM range when the compressor and turbine efficiencies are high. · Mass of Airflow: Thrust increases with the increase in MAF · Ram Effect: The pressure of the air or gas cause by motion is called Ram pressure or Ram Effect. Ram also compensates the loss of thrust due to intake momentum drag because of reduced pressure at high altitude. With the increase in the forward speed of an aircraft the Intake momentum Drag and Ram Effect both raise at the same time and will tend to cancel each other.e. FACTORS AFFECTING THRUST: · Forward speed of the aircraft: Net thrust decreases with the forward speed of an aircraft due to intake momentum drag. No more acceleration can be imparted to the MAF after the compressor begins to choke. · Engine RPM: Thrust increases with the increase in RPM.

The temperature drop thus increasing the MAF and thus increasing the thrust. To maintain constant RPM. If only engine is considered. this makes 36000 ft the optimum altitude for long range cruising at nominal airspeeds. we need to decrease the fuel flow. the MAF into the engine at a given RPM is determined by the density of air going into the compressor. Higher temperature means reduced air density. but decreases on a hot day when temperature is high. density increases. Density is the number of molecules per cubic feet or mass per unit volume. The overall compensating effect is that the thrust falls with an increase in altitude. This will put the compressor under load and it will run at reduced RPM but at constant thrust. Thrust increases with the fall in temperature i. Reduced Ambient Temperature – Thrust Increases With the reduced OAT the density of air rises thus increasing the weight of the air or the MAF. under this condition we need more fuel flow and thrust will increase. Though the reduction of thrust is compensated by the decrease in temperature till only 36090 ft. RAM EFFECT: or Ram Effect. Density fall with the increases in altitude and increase in Temperature. & Lower temperature means higher density. Ambient Temperature: 1. Increased Ambient Temperature – Thrust Decreases With the increased ambient temperature the density of air decreases thus decreasing the weight of the air or the MAF.There are two things with the increase in altitude: 1. To maintain (decrease) the RPM to constant. Thrust increases with an increase in Pressure. (Note that the MAF is also high) 2. 2. Thrust increases as density increases. the density decreases thus reducing the thrust. Unless an engine has a variable inlet-area. (Note that the MAF is also less). When the pressure (Ram) increases with an increase in the airspeed or decreased altitude. This will put the compressor off-load and it will run at higher RPM and constant thrust.e. The pressure of the air or gas cause by motion is called Ram pressure . This will cause the thrust to drop. after which the temperature remains constant while density continues to fall thus making the fall ion thrust more pronounced. on cold days and on higher altitudes. Density affects thrust proportionally. § Air Density and the effect of Temperature and Pressure.

This is done to enhance the engine life. Its RPM cannot be further increased by a further increase in fuel flow because of the surge factor. . In fully rated the EGT does not exceed its maximum limit at full throttle. Ram Ratio = P1 P0 RAM RECOVERY: The amount of Static Pressure recovered from the moving airstream or Ram by the Intake is called Ram recovery. It is the Ratio of the Compressor Inlet pressure to the Ambient Pressure. By adjusting fuel flow (decreasing it) in the flat rated engine. FREE TURBINE: It is a turbine which alone rotates the single staged Fan. it is called Total Ram Recovery. In such type of duct the inside area or the configuration of the duct is changed by a mechanical device as the speed of the aircraft increases or decreases. FULLY RATED ENGINE: A Fully rated engine is one which will give maximum thrust at a specified OAT.RAM RATIO: The pressure rise in the intake due to Ram Effect. the thrust starts decreasing. Lets say that it will give maximum thrust at 25 degree C. In flat rated engines the EGT may exceed than its prescribed limit at full or rapid throttle movement. after this specified OAT the thrust will decrease. VARIABLE GEOMETERY DUCT: A Variable Geometery Duct is used in very high speed supersonic aircrafts. RAM TEMPERATURE RISE: The temperature rise due to Ram Compression Effect is called Ram Temperature Rise. when the throttle is full. TOTAL RAM RECOVERY OR TOTAL PRESSURE RECOVERY: If all of the available Ram pressure is converted into Static Pressure. FLAT RATED ENGINE: A flat rated engine gives maximum thrust upto a specified band of OAT by increasing the fuel flow and after the range of the band. Fully Rated Engines will give maximum Thrust at ISA condition. it could be derated from a higher thrust at a given band of temperature to a lower thrust for the same band of temperature.

A Buzz can cause violent fluctuations in pressure through the inlet which may result in damage to the inlet structure or possibly to the engine. The angle of attack tends to increase above 15 degree where the lift is completely destroyed. CASCADE EFFECT: In Cascade effect before the air can completely separate from the trailing edge of one blade is affected by the leading edge of blade which follows. BUZZ: Buzz is airflow instability and occurs when a shockwave is alternately swallowed and regurgitated by the inlet. Variable geometry method eliminates Buzz. That is the Relative Airflow Speed is too (MAF is low) low. It occurs at high Mach numbers and can be avoided by changing the amount of inlet area variation that takes place when variable geometry inlet system is in operation. density and temperature undergo a sudden change. during which the speed. or by the use of variable airflow bypass system which extracts part of inlet airflow from the duct ahead of the engine. . The word stall applies to the instability of airflow on a compressor blade or a stage. Cascade effect is the primary consideration in determining the aerofoil section. when the MAF in a compressor is too low the blade stalls. and the spacing between blades to be used for the compressor blade design for any given axial compressor. COMPRESSOR MAP: A compressor Map is a tool to visualize compressor performance by the designer & the operator. or by incorporating some form of movable restriction such as ramp or wedge inside the duct.The geometry may be changed by a movable spike within the duct. Pressure Ratio developed across the compressor is plotted against the corrected weight of airflow (MAF) through the unit. SHOCKWAVE: Shockwave is a thin region of discontinuity in a flow of air or gas. COMPRESSOR SURGE & BLADE STALL & CHOKING: · Compressor Blade Stall: Compressor Blades are tiny aerofoil just like the aerofoil of a wing. We need to increase the angle of attack to avoid stalling upto 15 degrees with the help of flaps and slats. The shockwave results in the diffusion of the airflow and its velocity is decreased. An aircraft wing stalls when the aircraft flies below the stalling speed. Devices of this type are rigged to operate without the attention of the pilot. Similarly. pressure. A shockwave is intentionally setup in the supersonic flow of air entering the duct by means of some restriction of small obstruction. angle of attack.

It’s Oxygen in the air within the compressor that burns. PNEUMATIC DUCTS AND ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS AND TO PREVENT COMTAMINATION BY FOREIGN BODIES. ASSOCIATED DOORS OR ANY MOVING COMPONENT. BLANK OFF THE LINES. The situation is such that flame in the combustion chamber also finds an area of low pressure in the front stages of the compressor and tends to move towards that area. DUCTS AND CONNECTORS WITH PROTECTIVE CAPS. IN ORDER TO AVOID DAMAGE TO LINES. This condition occurs when there is less MAF within the compressor while the RPM are very high. WHAT DO WE DO IN THE COCKPIT BEFORE AN ENGINE REMOVAL? We pull out the squib CB and pull the fire handle. Commonly Asked Questions: Q. Q. and Squib CB is pulled so that fire bottle be not discharged on pulling the fire handle. CHECK THAT LANDING GEAR GROUND SAFETIES INCLUDING WHEEL CHOCKS ARE IN POSITION.· Compressor Surge (Axi-Symmetric Stall): Axi-Symmetric stall or Compressor or pressure surge is a complete breakdown in compression within a compressor resulting in a reversal of air flow. B_E_F_O_R_E_ _P_R_O_C_E_E_D_I_N_G_ _W_I_T_H_ _M_A_I_N_T_E_N_A_N_C_E_ _W_O_R_K_ _O_N_ _O_R_ _N_E_A_R_ MECHANICAL FLIGHT CONTROLS OR PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES. · Choking: When the compressor is not operating at its optimum rpm while the MAF within it is very high. The forward compressor blades are not be able to bite off enough air to be able to compress it sufficiently and to force it on through the rear stages of the compressor. MAKE CERTAIN THAT GROUND SAFETIES AND/OR . The fire handle is pulled so that no fuel or hydraulic or electrical supply be available to the engine. 4. 2. LANDING GEARS. The air piled up in the rear stages of the compressor tends to have a reverse flow following the low MAF in the front stages of the engine. Surge results from a condition of instable airflow within a compressor. WHAT ARE THE GENERAL PRECAUTIONS FOR AN ENGINE REMOVAL? 1. BEFORE ATTEMPTING MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS ON THE FUEL SYSTEM MAKE CERTAIN THAT FIRE EXTINGUISHING EQUIPMENT IS READILY AVAILABLE IN PROXIMITY TO WORK AREA. 3. resulting in a fire situation in the compressor.

05-57-00 Q1. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DRY MOTORING AND WET MOTORING? In Dry motoring an engine is cranked via the bleed air taken from the APU to the engine.WARNING NOTICES ARE IN CORRECT POSITION TO PREVENT INADVERTENT OPERATION OF CONTROLS. WHAT ARE THE TWO POSITIONS OF A THRUST REVERSER? Stow and Deployed Q2. WHAT IS MIC? Major Item change sheet. LONG EXPOSURE TO HYDRAULIC FLUID CAN CAUSE SKIN DEHYDRATION AND CHAPPING. CHECK AIRCRAFT STABILITY. The FADAC will be sensing that the Thrust Reverser is in deployed position and will not allow an power output by the engine when throttle is moved forward. 5. OBSERVE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHEN WORKING ON THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM. B_E_F_O_R_E_ _P_R_E_S_S_U_R_I_Z_I_N_G_ _H_Y_D_R_A_U_L_I_C_ _S_Y_S_T_E_M_S_. . MAKE CERTAIN THAT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM UNDER MAINTENANCE HAS BEEN ISOLATED. B_E_F_O_R_E_ _P_O_W_E_R_ _I_S_ _S_U_P_P_L_I_E_D_ _T_O_ _T_H_E_ _A_I_R_C_R_A_F_T_ MAKE CERTAIN THAT ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS UPON WHICH WORK IS IN PROGRESS ARE ISOLATED. Q4. And in wet motoring HP fuel valve is opened momentarily during cranking just to pressurize the fuel lines for the purpose of leak test. REF. 7. 9. 8. 29-00-00. 6. WHAT WILL HAPPEN? A. MAKE SURE THAT PYLON AFT HOIST FITTINGS ARE IN GOOD CONDITION BEFORE YOU INSTALL AND AFTER YOU REMOVE THE BOOTSTRAP REAR MAIN BEAM. Q3. IF A THRUST REVERSER IS NOT PROPERLY RIGGED.

. WHAT ARE WARNINGS. FAN-REVERSER COWL AND EXHAUST NOZZLE? Q7.1 in cockpit . 1 to the tail.. WHAT DOES A NACELLE COMPRISES OF? AN engine nacelle comprises of air-inlet..... the steering system to be unlocked and breaks should be working properly. core cowl. U_n_s_c_h_e_d_u_l_e_d_ _M_a_i_n_t_e_n_a_n_c_e_ _C_h_e_c_k_s_ (05-50-00) .. WHICH LIGHTS ILLUMINATE IN STOW AND DEPLOYED POSITION OF THRUST REVERSERS? Deploy Position – Green Light Stow Position – No light... anti-collision light Q9....N_O_T_E_ : Calls attention to methods which make the job easier or provide supplementary or explanatory information Q10.. Q6.. landing gear grnd lock pin. PROCESSES. PRECAUTIONS WHEN BRINGING AN AIRCRAFT IN HANGAR? A good care must be take during towing an aircraft to hanger . WHAT ARE SCHEDULED AND UN-SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE CHECKS S_c_h_e_d_u_l_e_d_ _M_a_i_n_t_e_n_a_n_c_e_ _C_h_e_c_k_s_ (05-20-00) The initial Scheduled Maintenance Checks are those prescribed by the Maintenance Review Board Report (MRBR).. reversal cowl.... pressurize hyd B for brakes. fan cowl.... . 2 mechanics on each wing . Q8.. . nose steering by-pass pin..C_A_U_T_I_O_N_ : CALLS ATTENTION TO METHODS AND PROCEDURES WHICH MUST BE FOLLOWED TO AVOID DAMAGE TO EQUIPMENT. WHAT PRECAUTIONS BE TAKEN BEFORE THE REMOVAL OF NOSE COWL... FAN COWL. PROCEDURES OR LIMITS WHICH MUST BE FOLLOWED PRECISELY TO AVOID INJURY OR DEATH TO PERSONS.Q5. CAUTIONS AND NOTES? W_A_R_N_I_N_G_ : CALLS ATTENTION TO USE OF MATERIAL. METHODS..

..............................Inspections .................................... 49 ................... 23 Electrical Power ........... 27 Fuel ........... 12 AIRFRAME SYSTEMS Standard Practices .............................................................................. 26 Flight Controls ...............................The Unscheduled Maintenance Checks section covers Maintenance Checks to be performed whenever a flight in abnormal conditions has been reported by the flight crew.............................................. 32 Lights ....................................................................... 28 Hydraulic Power ..........Airframe ........................ 30 Indicating/Recording Systems ................... 10 Placards & Markings ............................Checks Q11.......... 22 Communications ........................... 8 Towing & Taxiing .............................. 35 Pneumatic ..... 20 Air Conditioning ....... WHICH CHAPTER OF THE AMM TELLS US ABOUT THE TIME LIMITS AND MAINTENANCE CHECKS? Chapter 00 Q12............................................................................................. 7 Leveling & Weighing ................................................... 29 Ice & Rain Protection ................... 33 Navigation .. This section has been divided into two categories of information : ..... 9 Parking & Mooring . 34 Oxygen .. LIST THE ATA CHAPTERS? AIRCRAFT GENERAL CHAPTER Time Limits/Maintenance Checks ....... 6 Lifting and Shoring .......................................................................................... 36 Water/Waste ......................................................................... 38 Airborne Auxiliary Power ...... 25 Fire Protection .................. 5 Dimensions & Areas ..................................................... 21 Auto Flight ............................................... 31 Landing Gear .................... 24 Equipment/Furnishings ..... 11 Servicing ........................................................................................................

........................ 79 Starting ........ 78 Oil .............................................29-20-00 – Auxiliary 29-00-00 CHAPTER (hydraulic) 29-10-00 SECTION / SUBSYSTEM (combinations of functional/physical groups).................................. 73 Ignition ................... 53 Nacelles/Pylons ......Hydraulic Power .......... 56 Wings ..........29-10-00 .................. 52 Fuselage ........ 54 Stabilizers .... 75 Engine Controls ..Main ............................................................29-10-00 ........................................ 57 POWER PLANT Standard Practices ................. 55 Windows .. 51 Doors .......... WHAT IS A CHAPTER BREAKDOWN POLICY? Each Chapter/System is broken down into sections/subsystems (combinations of functional/physical groups).................................................................................. 74 Air ......... 72 Engine Fuel and Control .... 70 Power Plant .................................... 29-11-00 SUB-SUBSYSTEM (main) 29-11-11 SUBJECT (unit or component) Each Section/subsystem is broken down into sub-subsystems (Installations/Circuits)........Engines ............................................ 80 Q13........................................................... 77 Exhaust .... Example : ........................................................................General .................................................... Example : ...... 71 Engine ............... 76 Engine Indicating .............................................Main .....................................................STRUCTURE Structures ........................29-00-00 .

Green Main Hydraulic Power .Green Main Hydraulic Power .Green Hydraulic Pump N_O_T_E_ : The subjects 01 to 08 are used in the Illustrated Parts Catalog (IPC) only in order to split the sub-subsystems of the aircraft into zones.Hydraulic Reservoir . (2)Mechanical FIN Mechanical equipment is identified by 6 numerals. the first two are the . . A500.29-12-00 . A501. A2. A503 etc. WHAT IS DTMSRAICAD? (D) Description and Operation – Page 001-099 (T) Trouble shooting (Refer to TSM) – Page 101-199 (M) Maintenance Practices – Page 201-299 (S) Servicing – Page 301-399 (R) Removal and Installation – Page 401-499 (A) Adjustment Tests Page 501-599 (I) Inspection Checks – Page 601-699 (C) Cleaning and Painting – Page 701-799 (A) Approved Repairs – Page 801-899 (D) Deactivation and Reactivation Page 901-999 N_O_T_E_ : When the quantity of pages for any one sub-heading will exceed 99 the next pages will be numbered : .Blue Main Hydraulic Power . Q15. Functional Item Numbers (FIN) Equipment on the aircraft is generally allocated a unique identifier known as a Functional Item Number (FIN).29-11-11 . Q14. Each subject represents a unit or component..599. A502.29-13-00 ..Yellow Main Hydraulic Power Each sub-subsystem is divided into subjects.99. A3 etc.29-11-12 .29-11-00 . A00..Green Assembly Reservoir .29-11-13 .29-11-00 . A1. Example : ...

with ground hydraulic. This test may require supplemental ground support equipment and be more specific and detailed than an operational test. e. Below are definitions of the three categories : 1_ Operational test This test is required to ascertain that an item (system. electrical and/or air conditioning connections made to the aircraft. functional test. It is not intended that the operational test of the unit shall meet the specifications and tolerances ordinarily established for overhaul. subsystem component) is fulfilling its intended purpose. It contains all necessary information to perform proficiency tests to maintain system or unit reliability at an acceptable level without reference to additional documents. where : 27 : ATA Chapter/System (Flight Controls in this example) 1198 : equipment number N_O_T_E_ : The third numeral may identify a specific system to which an equipment belongs. TYPES OF ADJUSTMENT TESTS? e)Adjustment/Test (A/T) (Pages 501 to 599) Test information is divided into three categories .operational test. This test requires no special equipment or facilities other than that installed on the aircraft and is comparable to the tests performed by the flight crews.Blue 293XXX = Hydraulic System . 2_ Functional test This test is required to ascertain quantitatively that a system or unit is functioning in all aspects in accordance with minimum acceptable system or unit design specifications. system test. A test can be carried out where appropriate. A typical mechanical FIN is 271198. It does not require quantitative tolerances and it can include readings using aircraft instruments.Yellow Q16.g. 291XXX = Hydraulic System . or major maintenance periods. .ATA Chapter/System prefix and the last four the equipment number.Green 292XXX = Hydraulic System .

WHAT IS A HEAT ENGINE? WHAT ARE ITS TYPES? A heat engine is a device which converts thermal energy into mechanical output. Q19. It is self-contained and may duplicate other tests. under this condition we need more fuel flow and thrust will increase. Q18. IGV’s. Reduced Ambient Temperature – Thrust Increases With the reduced OAT the density of air rises thus increasing the weight of the air or the MAF. Increased Ambient Temperature – Thrust Decreases With the increased ambient temperature the density of air decreases thus decreasing the weight of the air or the MAF. Bleed valves Q20. we need to decrease the fuel flow. To maintain (decrease) the RPM to constant. WHAT ARE ANTI-STALL DEVICES? VBV.3_ System test This test contains all adjustment specifications and tolerances required to maintain system and/or unit performance at maximum efficiency and design specifications. Q17. At high power setting when there is a need of more airflow the VBV’s are closed so as to provide as much of the airflow to the rear compressor stages as it can while the VSV’ are at their optimum angle (open) to facilitate the airflow to the later stages. (Note that the MAF is also less). To maintain constant RPM. But at low power settings VBV’s are open to bleed off the excessive airflow to avoid surging and VSV’s are closed (means at the zero degrees of their angle). Twin Spool. . WHAT EFFECT OF OAT ON ENGINE THRUST? 1. (Note that the MAF is also high) 2. HOW DOES VBV’s AND VSV’s WORK? WHAT IS THE FEEDBACK OF THEIR OPERATION? VBV’s and VSV’s work automatically and in relation with each other. This will cause the thrust to drop. Gas Turbine Engines are simple heat engines that convert heat energy of fuel into mechanical work. This will put the compressor under load and it will run at reduced RPM but at constant thrust. VSV. This will put the compressor off-load and it will run at higher RPM and constant thrust.

Pulse jets may be started and operated at a considerably lower speeds than Ramjets. which might be the case for an air-to-air and air-to-ground ram-jet missile. it may be stored in tanks that is piped to the combustion chamber.Q21. Ram jet relies upon the ram effect to build up the pressure of the air entering the engine to the amount that will enable the engine to operate. . PULSE JET AND ROCKET MOTOR? HOW DO THEY WORK? Ram Jet. Solid fuel or propellant. It is a breathtaking engine. First. it must deliver air to the compressor inlet under all flight conditions with as little turbulence and pressure variation as possible. Q22. They could be called members of reaction family engines. The gases produced by combustion are forced out of the jet nozzle by the pressure that has build up within the combustion chamber. Rocket Motor: A rocket motor or a rocket operates on jet propulsion principle and carries its own fuel and an oxidizer to burn with the fuel within itself or aboard the vehicle that the rocket propels. ram air pressure forces the shutters to open. it must be able to recover as much of the total pressure of the free airstream as possible and deliver this pressure to the front of the compressor with minimum loss. It is a breathtaking engine. When the pressure in the combustion chamber is less than the ram pressure the shutters open admitting more air and the cycle repeats itself. After a pulse jet is launched. Secondly. and is burned. Pulse Jet was used as Buzz Bombs by the Germans in the second world war. while in case of liquid propellant. motors carry the propellants stored in their combustion chamber. fuel is injected into the combustion chamber. It is only a large open-ended piece of pipe with a fuel injection and fuel metering system. Pulse Jet and Rocket motors are not gas turbine engines but they work on the same principle that is the reaction propulsion. Pulse Jet: A pulsejet is a ramjet with an air inlet which is provided with a set of shutters that is spring loaded to remain in the closed position. It may ride piggy-back on a rocket to operational altitude or it may be borne to the proper height and speed as a dropable external store on a conventional airplane.The fuel and the oxidizing agent together. FUNCTIONS OF NOSE COWL. WHAT IS A RAM JET. constitute the propellant. Ignition is intermittent and goes on and off as the shutters open and close. A rocket motor is not a breathtaking engine and can operate in complete independence in outer space. Ram Jet: Ram jet is the simplest jet engine and does not have any moving parts. Hence a Ram jet must be carried aloft and accelerated to operating speed by some means other than its own thrust. The acceleration of the gases through the nozzle generates thrust. and it is possible to design a Pulse jet that would hardly require any initial velocity.

which it itself creates. Easy removal of cans from the engine without major disassembly for inspection or repair. 3. Disadvantages . Q24. 2. Individual units can be removed from the engine for inspection. What happens is the transfer of velocity energy into pressure energy. Because mixing of fuel with uncompressed air will not create enough expansion of the gases to do any useful work for the engine operation. Use on large turbo-jet & turbo-fan engines. Proper distribution of hot gases at the face of the turbine. Also the length of cans is reduced. Use on centrifugal compressor type engines. while the stators they actually slow down the air. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF A COMPRESSOR? HOW DOES IT WORKS? Purpose of compressor is the compression of air. 4. TYPES OF COMBUSTION CHAMBERS? Can Type combustion chamber (Small Turbo-props) Annular Type – (Large Turbo-fan engines) Can Annular Q25. It uses limited space without any increase in length or dia. they are made larger in length. it must hold minimum drag. they speed up the air going through the engine. Annular: 1. Degradation within the combustor liners require a major engine disassembly to rectify. Better mixing of fuel and air within a relatively simple structure. Q26. WHAT DO WE DO IN THE COCKPIT BEFORE AN ENGINE REMOVAL? . 2. 4. Structural strength (Due to smaller size and lesser diameter) 2. What the rotors do. – Improper gas distribution on the face of the turbine. A compressor stage consists of a set of rotating blades called rotor followed by a set of stationary blades called stator. Light weight structure 3. Use in high bypass turbo-fan engines Disadvantages – Fuel spray patterns with the combustors are difficult to achieve. Can-Annular: 1. 3.Also. It is more efficient in respect of power output. 4. ANNULAR AND CAN-ANNULAR TYPE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS? Can Type: 1. Q23.Due to their shorter dia. STATE THE ADVANTAGES OF CAN.

We pull out the squib CB and pull the fire handle. equipment and cargo is well clear of the rear of the aircraft during an engine ground run • A supervisor must be appointed over the engine ground run to ensure the safety of the operation and all airside users in the vicinity. EPR will decrease N1 & N2 RPM N1 and N2 will be offloaded due to warmer air ingestion that has a lesser density and lesser MAF. Q27. EGT 3. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS OF ENGINE RUN-UP? Safety precautions • Anti-collision beacons must be switched on throughout the engine ground run • Aircraft maintenance organisations must ensure that all personnel. The engine ground run must be stopped immediately if a dangerous situation arises • To improve visibility for airside drivers. WHY AN AIRCRAFT IS INTO THE WIND FOR RUNUP? ALSO ITS EFFECTS ON ENGINE PARAMETERS? An aircraft is faced to the wind direction for run-up because: 1. and Squib CB is pulled so that fire bottle be not discharged on pulling the fire handle. also if an engine is tested in tail wind there is probably a chance of exhaust gas ingestion through the intake again and will lead the engine to surge. will experience an abnormal rise. all ground service equipment must be moved well away from the aircraft during the operation . EPR will increase N1 & N2 RPM N1 and N2 Rpm will be within the operator’s designed limits for normal operation and the difference between the speed of two compressors will not be greater EGT operation will be within the operator’s designed limits for normal 2. maximum amount of mass of airflow is available through the Ram pressure for the engine. but the difference between their speed will be much greater. Reverse wind-milling may also happen if engine is tested in the tail wind. The fire handle is pulled so that no fuel or hydraulic or electrical supply be available to the engine. Q28.

Q30. and of the conditions relating to their use. Q33. IN CASE OF FIRE INDICATION (INTERNAL ENGINE FIRE OR TAIL PIPE FIRE) WHEN DO WE OPERATE FIRE EXTINGUISHER? . Q34. The signs should state. Engine ground run signs must be removed immediately following the end of the aircraft ground run activity to signal to apron users that it is safe to pass behind the aircraft. WHAT IS MAXIMUM MOTORING SPEED? The maximum motoring speed is defined as the rate of increase in N2 rpm is less than 1% in approximately 5 seconds. In wet motoring we do the same but with HP fuel valve open for not more than 30 seconds to pressurize the fuel lines and thus do a leak check.• Before commencement of aircraft ground run activity at Site 1 (Terminal and Freight Apron areas). Q29. WHY DO WE DO A DRY MOTORING? To clear off any accumulated fuel to clear off an engine after failed attempt to normal start. • Maintenance organisations must ensure the person towing an aircraft to a ground running location is a holder of a current Airside Driver Authority Level 3 and the vehicle has a current Authority for Airside Use (Airside Vehicle Permit). WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DRY MOTORING AND WET MOTORING? In dry motoring we run the HPC via bleed through the APU to the starter. A copy of all documentation must be supplied to the Airside Standards Supervisor. the maintenance organisation must take such steps as necessary to publish details of the sites and procedures in whatever form of internal documentation is most appropriate. Q32. warning signs must be placed on the edge of the Apron Service Road directly behind each aircraft wing tip to warn other apron users that aircraft ground run activity is in progress. ‘Caution: Engine Ground Run in Progress’. WHAT ARE THE REQUIREMENTS OF A MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION COMMENCING A GROUND RUN? Requirements of Maintenance Organisations • To ensure that appropriate maintenance personnel are aware of the ground running sites. AT WHAT N2 SPEED DOES THE STARTER CUTS OUT? 45-47% rpm. Q31.

Passenger and Fuel) Q. Q36. if the engine is too hot. CLIMB & CRUISE AND DESCENT? WHAT FACTORS ARE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION? The required EPR is determined by the flight operations just before the flight consulting a Flight Manual or Operation Manual. The factors are considered are as follows: · · · · · · · · Aircraft Type Engine Types Outside Air Temperature Wind Direction Runway selected Humidity Altitude Pay Load (Cargo. The turbine case that cools faster may shrink down on the on the rotating turbine blades. IN CASE OF A TURBO PROP. USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER ON THESE FIRES ONLY IF THE DRY MOTOR CANNOT CONTROL OR EXTINGUISH THE FIRE. WHAT WILL YOU DO AFTER ENGINE FIRE BOTTLE DISCHARGE? .DRY MOTOR THE ENGINE TO EXTINGUISH AN INTERNAL ENGINE FIRE OR TAILPIPE FIRE. At all other times a constant propeller speed is maintained automatically by the PCU for any given Propeller control lever setting. THE ENGINE WILL BE DAMAGED IF A FIRE EXTINGUSHER IS USED. WHAT DETERMINES EPR OR N1 BEFORE A FLIGHT FOR TAKE-OFF. AND YOU MUST REMOVE THE ENGINE Q35.38. CAN ENGINE OPERATION WITH OPEN COWLS BE DONE TO OPERATE THRUST REVERSERS? No Q37. which is used for ground handling and in-flight approach. IN WHICH RANGE IS THE POWER CONTROL LEVER CONTROLLED MANUALLY? · In Beta range. Q39. In extreme cases the blades squeal and sieze. WHY DO WE GIVE A TIME OF 5 MINUTES AT IDLE BEFORE ENGINE SHUT DOWN? Because turbine case and turbine rotor do not cool at the same rate after shut down.

speaking in subsonic terms. Then there is a steady decrease in the velocity through the compressor. Similarly Velocity drops as the Kinetic energy is again converted into mechanical work. Exhaust: After the turbine the gas passes through the exhaust section where the Pressure in the exhaust duct drops slightly due to frictional losses and a further drop in pressure occurs in the propelling nozzle where the pressure energy is converted into Kinetic energy. Combustion Chamber: Combustion occurs at constant Pressure. Here the velocity highly increases and the temperature drops.Phase 2 : is a more detailed inspection and is mainly internal. when air enters the intake it is diffused due to the divergent shape of the intake where its velocity is decreased along with an increase in the static pressure. Q40. After the air leaves the Q41 INSPECTION SEQUENCE? · To permit simultaneous inspection of several areas of the aircraft the inspection has been divided into a number of _Packages_. . The temperature is at its highest in the Primary section of combustion chamber. Diffuser: The air then enters the diffuser. It has a divergent shape and due to this shape the static pressure rises while the velocity is further decreased so that it could sustain the flame in the combustion chamber. The outlet of a combustion chamber is convergent in shape and this is to provide expansion as the air leaves the combustion chamber following with an increase in velocity. Though practically a slight decrease in pressure has been observed due to air friction and turbulence. Turbine: After the NGV as the air passes on the turbine a large drop in pressure occurs as the pressure energy is converted into mechanical work. though the axial velocity is maintained constant. FROM INTAKE TO EXHAUST…WHAT HAPPENS WITH THE AIR? · Air Intake: Well. Some component . The velocity keeps on decreasing here.· Washing with engine being dry motored and water with detergent Zok-27 sprayed at the inlet.Phase 1 : is a general inspection for primary damage and indications of remote damage and is mainly external. Compressor: After it enters the compressor a continuous steady rise in the pressure is witnessed but as compared to the compressor inlet and outlet there is a slight decrease in pressure due to frictional losses. and also the Temperature drop occurs as heat energy is again converted into mechanical work. · · · · The inspections are divided into three phases : . NGVs: There is a sudden expansion of gasses as they pass through the nozzle guide vanes where the velocity is at its highest.

Phase 3 : is a very detailed inspection involving component removal and strip down. . Power assurance check is a functional test · It determines that the engine can go to takeoff power while the EGT and engine RPM stay in operation limits. · This check compares engine performance to other power assurance runs. other quality check procedures can give a more accurate estimate of margin. · This test is not performed to accept or reject an engine · This check becomes necessary after engine maintenance that could change engine operation. These other quality checks include a test stand run as given in the Engine Manual. You can get a more reliable performance analysis by doing a test cell operation or onwing performance trend monitoring. WHAT IS MAXIMUM POWER ASSURANCE TEST? STATE ITS PURPOSE? WHEN DOES A POWER ASSURANCE TEST BECOMES MANDATORY? AMM 71-00-00 (3) Power assurance check. modular installation etc. This check compares engine performance to other power assurance runs. and/or review of flight data received during takeoff and analysis done with algorithms from the OEM. Do this check after engine maintenance occurs that could change engine operation. The difference in power assurance run data tells you if there are large changes in engine operation margin and if the margin where the engine operates is permitted. like after engine installation. Do not use only the Power Assurance Check to accept or reject an engine. The Power Assurance Check is not a good test for the performance analysis of the engine. The Power Assurance run is usually not sufficiently stable to accurately calculate the engine’s health. (a)The function of the power assurance check is to make sure that the engine can go to takeoff power while the EGT and N2 speed stay in operation limits. (b)Because a power assurance run is usually not sufficiently stable. The difference in power assurance run data tells you if there are large changes in engine operation margin and if the margin where the engine operates is permitted. Q42. The check can also examine flight crew concerns.· · · removal may be called up. .

WHAT IS SHUNT? Shunt is installed to give a false EGT signal Q50. It is done because at the time of manufacture there are manufacturing tolerances due to which two engines may produce different level of thrust at the same RPM setting. Q47. 4. WHAT IS ENGRAVED ON ENGINE DATA PLATE? AND WHERE IS IT INSTALLED ON AN ENGINE? 1. WHAT IS ENGINE TRIM SPEED? IS TRIM SPEED AND DATA PLATE SPEED IS SAME? The adjusted compressor RPM . Data plate speed is then stamped on engine data-plate in terms of both actual RPM and percent RPM. WHAT IS ENGINE TRIMMING? AND WHY IS IT DONE? The fuel control adjustment is called engine trimming. Data plate speed is determined at the time of the manufacture when the engines are adjusted to produce their exact rated thrust on calibrated engine test stand. WHAT IS FLAT RATE CORNER POINT? . both are same. Yes. 3. Engine Trim Speed Engine Gross weight Engine Serial Number Engine Rated Thrust Q49. This is done by an adjustment on the fuel control that governs the N2 speed. CAN RECOMMENDED GRADE OF FUEL BE MIXED? Yes Q44. Q48. CAN OIL OF DIFFERENT GRADES BE MIXED? No Q46. corrected to standard day conditions at seal level is known as the engine trim speed.Q43. So by adjusting the fuel control the Thrust is maintained the same with a slight change in the RPM. 2. CAN ALL OF THE FUEL BE TRANSFERRED FROM ONE FUEL TANK TO ANOTHER DURING FLIGHT? No Q45.

WHAT IS FOG? Visibility of less than 3280 ft due to moisture. Faulty fuel nozzles.Flat rate corner point in flat rated engines is the OAT limit after which the Thrust will tend to fall. Q51. 2. WHAT IS MAXIMUM CONTINEOUS? This is the maximum thrust that may be used continuously and is primarily intended for emergency use at the discretion of the captain. Abnormal signals to FCU of CIT (high CIT). Inadequate fuel flow. but a thrust lever position obtained by fully retarding the thrust lever. Q55. EGT though becomes constant after this point. WHAT IS IDLE? It is not a thrust rating. 2. Effects: Deterioration of the NGV’s and the Turbine area. BP (high burner Pressure signal). . EGT & RPM Q56. 5. Q52. Accumulated fuel in the combustion chamber. 4. This rating is normally continued to only 5 minutes time period and is to be used for take-off only. WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE CAUSES & EFFECTS OF A HUNG AND A HOT START? Hung Start: 1. we cannot increase the Thrust or the EGT will go beyond its limit. Effects: Deterioration of the Starter Hot Start: 1. Minimum thrust suitable for ground operation is called ground idle and that in air is called flight idle. Ceased Main engine bearing. Q54. Inadequate bleed pressure to the starter. A faulty starter 3. Q53. Ambient Pressure (Low ambient pressure). WHAT ARE THE COMPRESSOR SURGE PARAMETERS? EPR. WHAT IS TAKE OFF THRUST? This is the maximum thrust that can be used without over boasting the engine.

but in low thrust operation mode. VBV itself doesn’t receive signal directly from the MEC Q62. CONT. the burner pressure will be sensed high by the MEC and it will signal VBV to open and VSV towards close. IN WHICH ENGINE OPERATION MODE. THRUST M/1M13 SERIAL # FRENCH CERTIFICATE Q60. . Fan frame denotes the actual engine TYPE CERTIFICATE Engine MODEL # CF680-C2A8 T/O THRUST 57860 48080 695-408 RATING MAX. so the air is being bled off via VBV…and when the engine is stopped the position of VBV remain the same that is in open. because it is during when the gas flow moment is changed against it course Q59. the burner pressure will be sensed low by the MEC and it will signal the VBV to close and VSV to open. WHERE IS AN ENGINE DATA-PLATE LOCATED? WHAT ARE THE PARTICULARS OF ENGINE DATA-PLATE? Data-Plate is located on the left side of the fan frame. THE ENGINE EXPERIENCES THE MAXIMUM MATERIAL AND THERMAL STRESSES? During Thrust reverser mode. because on ground there is a low thrust operation mode. MEC SIGNALS VSV OR VBV TO CLOSE OR OPEN? MEC signals VSV to close or open. Q61.Q57. WHAT IS NORMALLY THE POSITION OF VBV ON GROUND OR WHEN THE ENGINE IS SHUTTED OFF? Its position is towards open. Q58. WHAT SENSE GOES TO MEC THAT ENABLES TO OPEN AND CLOSE VBV AND VSV? During high thrust operation. which is linked with the VBV. IS ENGINE OPERATION WITH HINGED COWL IS PERMISSIBLE? Yes it is permissible but its is normally done with closed cowls.

Q70. . Why is a turbo-prop inefficient at height as above as 30000 to 35000 ft?? The higher you go. for ignition in the fuel nozzles 2. For the hydraulic actuation of VSV Q64. Average OAT 3. For the operation of MEC 4. WHERE IS FUEL USED IN ENGINE? 1. the faster you must go to maintain the same lift because of air thinning. you need to push around air with more thrust. Now if you want to go faster. Q67. EFC 2. EFH:EFC Ratio 4. THROUGH WHICH PORTS DO YOU DO THE BSI OF 1ST STAGE NGV? Through ports in Combustion Chamber. in order to calculate true Engine Maintenance Cost: 1. Annual Utilization-EFH. more air rushes into the engine compressor thus increasing the velocity of air…now with an increase in velocity the angle of attack decreases taking away the engine compressor from stall. TREND MONITERING (ETMS – Engine Trend Monitering Software) SOFTWARE IN TSE-LM SAGE – System Analysis for Gas Turbine Engine Q66. WHAT ARE THE UNITS OF VBV ON TEST BENCH AND VSVs? VBV – volt DC VSV – in degrees and volts Q65.Q63. How one can reduce / optimize Engine Maintenance Cost per Flight Hour? There are four basic parameters to calculate severity factor. For cooling in the fuel oil heat exchanger 3. %age Derate Q68. When weight is to be measured than the specific gravity of the fuel on that particular day considering the pressure and temperature must be known. BUT WHEN IT DUMPS THE MAF…IT DECREASES WITH AN INCREASE IN ANGLE OF ATTACK…THIS SHALL TAKE THE ENGINE TO STALL. THEN WHY IS IT CALLED AN ANTI STALL DEVICE? Actually when it dumps the almost air or mass of airflow. Q69. What is important for the weight calculation of Jet A-1 fuel? A. VBV IS AN ANTI-STALL DEVICE.

you might as well cowl the blades of your 'prop' to increase the air speed. 4. Now you have a turbo-fan. reduce noise and increase the compression of the blades.74 WHAT ARE THE CATEGORIES OF SBs? 0-9 Categories Q75. Spare parts Standard Alert Other N/A Q. You will need to add more blades to the prop. The more blades you add. TYPES OF BEARINGS Ball bearing: takes thrust and radial loads. GEAE – CWC stands for: Customer Web Center Types of GEAE SBs? 1. at some stage . This is where you find a prop fan design.. 2. The high / faster you want to go. the more blades you add. IN GROTOR TYPE OF PUMPS.. You'll need to add more blades to the prop. Q73. 5. It has lesser friction due to point contact Rollar bearing: takes radial load only. WHICH GEAR HAS MORE TEETH? Internal Gear Q72. The higher/faster you want to go. . This is where you find a prop fan design. At some point. Tapered bearing are roller bearings. Now you have a turbo fan. . the more blades you add. 3. The more blades you add.But you can't just turn the prop faster. Q71. It has relatively more friction due to line contact. the more your prop will look like a fan. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PACKING AND SEALS? Seals are used in stationary parts and packings are used in rotary parts. reduce noise and increase the compression of the blades. as a prop tip speed at the speed of sound induces wave drag which dramatically reduces thrust. you might as well coel the blades of your prop to increase the speed. the more your prop will look like a fan.

2. PRIMARY MAINTENANCE 1. PRIMARY MAINTENANCE | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------| Preventative | -------------------------------------------------------------------| | Hard Time Monitoring On-condition | Engine Health Monitoring: Following Parameters -Engine Oil systems -Engine airborne vibration monitoring -Boroscope inspections | Trend | | | Condition . CLASSIFICATION OF BEARINGS? One dot Two dot Three dot Q77. WHAT IS HARD TIME MAINTENANCE? A. 3. Hard time maintenance (Preventative) On-condition (Preventative) Condition monitoring (Trend) Q78.Q76.

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