1. Palestine a. Balfour Declaration (1917) said the Jews could live in Palestine as long as they didn tdisturb b.

Violence in Palestine during 1920-30 s 2. Violence continued post WWII a. Both arabs and Jews attacked the British b. British withdrew (1947) c. US and USSR supported creation of Israel (1948) d. Pan-Arab nationalism led to repeated wars with Israel i. Created huge Palesitinian refugee problem 1. Many Palestinians were forcibly displaced or fled (to Jordan, Lebanon, etc) 2. At first, seemed like these camps would be temporary, but turned into permanent settlements a. Palestine Liberation Organization Leader: Yasser Arafat b. Leader of PLO until his death i. Extremely controversial figure: was seen as a terrorist (PLO launched attacks onto Israel), but was seen as wanting to negotiate with the Jews and create a two state solution ii. Intifada: 1. PLO (Sunni) and new organization (Shiite) were launching attacks onto Israel from Lebanon so Israel attacked Lebanon a. Very violent and confusing conflict 2. The youth occupying the camp began attacking the Israelis a. Was an uprising iii. **continuous conflict between Arabs and Israel iv. Camp David Accords (1980) 1. Compromise between Arabs and Israel (Jordan and Egypt) a. Syria, Egypt, Lebanon, etc all went to war with Israel (Israel won them all) i. Israel s problem is that they usually respond very militarily 1. Disproportionate and radicalizes 3. Iraq a. Arabs revolted post WW1 b. British negotiated with King Faisal created Sunni monarchy i. SUNNIS ARE A MINORITY ii. Very corrupt led to a coup c. Coup overthrew the monarchy was overthrown by Saddam Hussein i. He was from the Baath Party (Pan-Arab Nationalist) ii. Saw himself as the heir to Nasser 1. In 1980, Iraq declared war on Iran 2. Fought a 10 year war ended in a stalemate a. US provided assistance during this war i. in Iran British wanted to keep Iran from falling into the hands of the Russians

1. Ruler: Mossadegh (Socialist/Nationalist) like Nehru and Nasser a. British, with the help of the US, staged a coup and put in place, a shah (ally to US) i. SHAH was extremely repressive and had a secret police that would go around and arrest people and stuff public resistance to the shah b. In 1979, the shah is overthrown by conservative religious leaders and students i. Religious leader: Ayatollah Khomeini ii. Institutes a theocracy in Iran (Shiite) iii. President of Iran: Ahmedinajav iv. Real power is within religious leaders d. In 1980, Hussein believed that it would be beneficial if he attacked Iran i. Iran is Shiite, majority is Sunni ii. In 1979 Iranian Hostage Crisis 1. The population attacked the US Embassy and took them hostage because they believed that the oppressive government was directly correlated with the US a. Another reason why US supports Iraq-Iran war and a reason why Hussein attacks Iran i. After the war, he basically bankrupts his country, and needs money 1. Goes after Kuwait in 1991 a. Triggers the first gulf war b. US (George Bush)+ Saudi Arabia successfully gets Iraq out of Kuwait i. But doesn t depose Saddam Hussein c. Saudi Arabian Muslims were extremely pissed because they re extremely conservative and there were woman soldiers i. However, the government was afraid that Iraq would attack d. One of the people who were really pissed = Osama Bin Laden i. Beginning of Al Qaeda iii. Saddam Hussein was pissed, US attacked Iraq in 2003 1. Now there s no leader in Iraq and there s internal issues in Iraq

a. Saddam Hussein was Sunni and the Sunnis were ruling over the majority (Shiites) i. Was extremely repressive s Africa 1. Ghana was one of the first places to become independent a. Strikes and protests broke out after WWII i. British response: repression then peaceful independence (1957) b. Leader: Kwame Nkrumah i. Saw himself as being a broader leade ii. Organization of African Unity (1963) 1. Goal: prevent conflicts, avoid intervention by colonial powers a. Create stable new countries particularly over boundaries b. Strong anti imperialist group c. Supported existing territorial boundaries d. They have peacekeepers 2. Overthrown in 1966 a. Replaced with one party dictatorship i. Allied with Britain and the US in the Cold War 2. Kenya a. Colonial government controlled by white farmer settlers i. Different from Ghana ii. Seized best farmland in 1930 s-40 s b. British allowed local assemblies i. Dominated by the settlers and were excluding the Africans c. Militant Kikuyus began attacks on settlers and government i. At first, the British brutally suppressed all nationalist groups (1956) 1. Leader: Jomo Kenyatta d. Finally allowed independence (1963) i. Believed that the Africans should have the voice in the government 1. Couldn t support radical white supremacist farmers 2. First president = Kenyatta 3. Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) a. Self governing colony of white settlers b. Didn t achieve full independence until 1980 i. Britain wanted African representation in government ii. Whites refused, declared unilateral independence 1. 1% of the population held 70% of arable land 2. Communist backed insurgency lasted 10 years a. Took power c. Replaced by Violent African nationalist Robert Mugabe i. Expropriated white land, gave to his political supporters 1. Completely crazy and a thug ahhaha .(still in power) 2. Zimbabwe used to be super rich and had an amazing economy a. Took the land of the white settlers i. The people had no idea how to farm, and their economy went down 1. Country went from being a food exporter to food importer

a. Today, it is the poorest country in south Africa b. 2000% a year (inflation)

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