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update on March 5, 2007

Stator

Stator

μ =∞

μ0

Rotor

R

Rotor

μ =∞

μ0

g

Stator

μ =∞

L

Fig. 1 Model representing electric machine structure. Use the same assumptions of the electric machine model as in the lecture notes. Question 1 When a current i passes through the rotor winding, it produces a surface current density distribution K = u z k (ϕ )i at the rotor-airgap interface. Apply Ampere’s Law and Gauss’

Law to find the radial B-field in the airgap, when k(ϕ)=+C for 0 < ϕ <π and k(ϕ)=-C for π < ϕ <2π

C represents the constant number of conductors per radian. The positive and negative sign represents the direction of flow of the current i through the rotor winding. Sketch the distribution of k(ϕ) for 0 < ϕ <2π. Sketch the distribution of the radial B(ϕ) field for 0 < ϕ <2π. [Hint: Use the technique in the class notes.

S

T

W

ϕ'

O

P

Q

R

]

The rotor winding of dc machines, which will be in ECSE 462, has the same conductor distribution. It produces a triangular B-field, which you also should get. Question 2 The conductor distribution in Question 1 is a square wave, since k(ϕ)=+C for 0 < ϕ <π and k(ϕ)=-C for π < ϕ <2π

∞

**Apply Fourier analysis to obtain K = u z i ∑ Ak cos kϕ + Bk sin kϕ .
**

k =1

**Therefore, from the result obtained in the lecture notes, the radial B field is iR ∞ ⎧ A sin kϕ Bk cos kϕ ⎫ B = u r μ 0 ∑ ⎨− k + ⎬. g k =1 ⎩ k k ⎭
**

provided you have computed the Fourier coefficients Ak and Bk for k=1,2,.. [Check: Ak’s are all zero. Even Bk’s are all zero. ] Write a program (MATHLAB or alternate) to compute N iR N ⎧ A sin kϕ Bk cos kϕ ⎫ K = u z i ∑ Ak cos kϕ + Bk sin kϕ and B = u r μ0 ∑ ⎨− k + ⎬ using g k =1 ⎩ k k ⎭ k =1 summations of k=1,3..N.

Plot the distribution of K(ϕ) for 0 < ϕ <2π. Plot the distribution of the radial B(ϕ) field for 0 < ϕ <2π. In order to know at what value of N you can terminate the summation, make plots for N=9, 19, 199. [This question is intended to make you revise your Fourier Series also.]

Question 3 For a new winding, the B-field in the airgap has this Fourier Series representation: iR N ⎧ B cos kϕ ⎫ B = u r μ0 ∑ ⎨ k ⎬ . For practical reason, the infinite series is terminated at N. g k =1 ⎩ k ⎭

What is magnetic energy of the current i? [ You need to compute Wm = where Magnetic energy : wm =

∫w

volume

m

dv = ∫ wm Rdϕdrdz in the volume of the airgap.

1 B ⋅ H per unit volume. 2

i 2 R 2 N ⎧ Bk cos kϕ ⎫ N Bn cos nϕ ∑ ⎨ k ⎬∑ { n } 2 g 2 k =1 ⎩ ⎭n consists of the product of the 2 summations and yields NxN terms, each term having the function coskϕ.cosnϕ. In evaluating

The magnetic energy density w m = μ0

Wm =

2 3 ∫ wm dv = ∫ wm Rdϕdrdz = {μ0i R L / 2 g}∑ volume k =1

N

∑∫

n

N

2π

0

{Bk Bn / kn} cos kϕ cos nϕ dϕ

Because

∫

2π

0

coskϕcosnϕdϕ = πδ kn

δ kn = 1, when

k =n and

δ kn = 0

otherwise. the NxN terms reduce to N terms. The above is the orthogonal property of harmonic functions. After you have completed the derivation, you have revised Parseval’s Theorem.

Question 4 Show that the inductance of the winding in Question 3 is

L=

πμ0 R 3 L

gk

2

∑

k

N

Bk2

Question 5 The B-field in the airgap is: iR N ⎧ B cos kϕ ⎫ B = u r μ0 ∑ ⎨ k ⎬ g k =1 ⎩ k ⎭ The current is i = I cos(ωt ) where ω=2πf, the frequency f being 60 Hz. Resolve the Bfield into forward and backward travelling waveforms for each harmonic number k. What are the speeds of rotation in rpm (rotations per minute) for each k ?

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