STAG2003

Sedimentologi
Batu sedimen

Batuan sedimen klastik
Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM

PENDAHULUAN
Proses luluhawa akan menghakis batuan yang terdedah menjadi serpihan atau pecahan batuan yang lebih kecil, dan pecahan baru ini akan dibawa oleh agen pengangkut (air dan angin) ke kawasan lain. Pecahan batuan ini akhirnya akan terkumpul di lembangan pengendapan baru, iaitu membentuk sedimen baru. Sedimen sebegini dipanggil sedimen terrigenous atau sedimen klastik. Klastik (clastic) bermaksud pecahan atau serpihan. Sedimen klastik mempunyai tekstur yang dipanggil;
contohnya pasir dan kelikir

Klas (Clasts) - pecahan yang besar,

Matrik (Matrix) - lumpur atau sedimen halus lain yang mengelilingi butiran klas
memegang atau mengikat klas dan simen

Simen (Cement) - bahan / mineral yang

Kehadiran matrik menunjukkan sesuatu batuan tersebut tidak matang dari segi tekstur dan kehadiran klas yang stabil (contohnya kuarza) menunjukkan batuan tersebut mempunyai kematangan kimia yang tinggi.

Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM

klas berasal daripada lembangan pengendapan yang sama Ekstraformasi .sokongan butiran Parakonglomerat .sokongan lumpur/matrik Polimiktik .PENGELASAN BATUAN KLASTIK Batuan sedimen berklas / klastik (terrigenous) dikelaskan berdasarkan kepada beberapa parameter. komposisi dan juga punca. •Tekstur atau saiz butiran •Jenis sokongan butiran •Komposisi atau jenis butiran •Bentuk butiran •Punca atau asalan butiran Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM KELIKIR (GRAVEL): Saiz butiran lebih besar daripada 2 mm Jika klasnya bulat = Konglomerat (conglomerate) Jika klasnya bersudut = Breksia (breccia) Konglomerat boleh dinamakan mengikut tekstur.klasnya terdiri daripada satu jenis batuan Intraformasi . Tekstur Ortokonglomerat .klas berasal / dibawa daripada luar lembangan pengendapan Konglomerat Komposisi Punca Bresia Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM .klasnya terdiri daripada beberapa jenis batuan Oligomiktik .

are not imbricated). The theory is right. In context of the outcrop this rock was deposited subaqueously (below water). indicating they were probably deposited during mass transport (e. Lithic fragments include chert. the large size of the particles. There is some yellow-brown iron staining present. It was deposited either in a river or proximal submarine fan environment . and the concentration of quartz in this sample originally formed in tectonically calm conditions. Butiran klas cuma terdiri daripada jenis kuarza sahaja.Quartz Sandy Conglomerate Ortokongkomerat jenis oligomiktik yang puncanya daripada jenis ekstraformasi. As the quartz rich source-land rock weathered out it released a volume of quartz pebbles and sand that washed down the rivers more or less together to be deposited in the clastic wedge. The matrix (material filling the spaces between the granules) is mostly sand. This rock is extremely immature. Rounded gravel particles mostly toward the upper size range of granules (4-64 mm). It is part of the Catskill clastic wedge. The paucity of quartz. a high energy environment. but it is secondary from the weathering of the rock. where we found this specimen. high in gravel.in any case. This specimen. Because these are outcrop pictures they are not as clean as a lab specimen. Formation & Environments This particular specimen comes from the Greenland Gap formation (old Chemumg) of eastern West Virginia. about the conditions required to *generate* such rocks. milky (metamorphic) quartz. and in between the gravel you can see the quartz sand. the natural world is just to complex to always fit our simple models. and poorly sorted. Description The quartz pebbles are obvious in this specimen. comes from the middle of a clastic wedge. The rocks are covered with lichen and dirt. and the poor sorting speak of short time of weathering and short distances of transportation. Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM Ortokongkomerat jenis polimiktik yang puncanya daripada jenis ekstraformasi. Tectonic Association Conglomerates this immature are associated with regions of high tectonic activity. Rocks such as this are often deposited in "fan deltas" Formation & Environments This particular specimen is the Fincastle conglomerate from the Ordovician Taconic orogeny of Virginia. The reason this rock is now found in a clastic wedge is that the quartz sand and gravel was weathered and eroded from a quartz dominated formation in the sourceland that itself was generated under tectonically quiet conditions. The gravel fragments tend to be elongated. and occasional igneous rocks and micrite limestones. The next two images (click pictures) show the outcrop the rock came from. poor in sphericity. meta-sedimentary rocks.g. It requires tectonic stability to generate 100% quartz sediments. and an extreme closeup of the outcrop. typically relatively close to the sourceland. and clay. debris flow such as a landslide or underwater avalanche).e. surrounded above and below by immature sediments. Tectonic Association Quartz rich sands and conglomerates are theoretically associated with periods of greate tectonic stability. theory is not always right about the specific conditions in which we *find* such rocks. however. but do not show a preferred orientation (i. mixed with silt. and generally it requires those conditions to generate such rocks. So. Butiran klas terdiri daripada berbagai jenis pecahan batuan. But that does not change the fact that on close inspection they are quartz sandy conglomerates. From the context where it was collected it is known to have been deposited proximally in a submarine fan very near a complex volcanic arc Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM . however. Lithic Conglomerate Description This is a sawed slab of rock that has been wet with water before photographing. being low in quartz.

Therefore. dan mempunyai jenis sokongan butiran. dan juga jenis komposisi butiran yang membentuk batu pasir tersebut. terdiri daripada pecagah batu pasir kuarzit. It does not take much transportation to begin to round these particles into conglomerates. so they are usually very proximal to the sourceland. the breccia fragments are quartzite. a metamorphic rock. we classify this as a lithic breccia. or of tectonic brecciation (that is. Technically. Angular gravel particles in the granual size range (4-64 mm) with a quartz sand matrix. however. Breccia fragments are composed of quartzite (metamorphosed quartz sandstone). Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM .Breksia yang mempunyai butiran klas bersudut.mempunyai butiran yang bersaiz pasir (1/16 – 2mm garis pusat). Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM PASIR (SAND): Saiz butiran 1/16 hingga 2 mm Batu Pasir (Sandstone) merupakan antara batuan sedimen yang paling dominan di atas permukaan bumi. Breksia Composition Because the composition of this rock is dominantly quartz one might be inclined to call its QFL quartz. Tectonic Association Breccias are associated with mechanical weathering in regions of high tectonic activity. Ciri utamanya . Formation & Environments Breccias are the result of either mechanical weathering. the rock is shattered and crushed along fault zones). Description This is a sawed slab of rock. Pecahan batu pasir bergantung kepada jenis sokongan matrik atau butiran. typically relatively close to the sourceland. Rocks such as this are often deposited in talus slopes or alluvial fans at the base of slopes.

Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM Quartzarenite Subarkose all sandstone with 95% of greater quartz (Q-pole material) quartz ranging from 75% to 95% and the ratio of feldspar (F-pole) to rock fragments (RF-pole) being greater than 1 quartz 75% to 95% and the ratio of feldspar to rock fragments less than 1 quartz less than 75% quartz feldspar to RF ratio greater than 3:1 quartz less than 75% quartz feldspar to RF ratio greater than 1:1 and less than 3:1 quartz less than 75% quartz feldspar to RF ratio greater than 1:3 but less than 1:1 quartz less than 75% quartz feldspar to RF ratio less than 1:3 Sublitharenite Arkose Lithic Arkose Feldspathic litharenite Litharenite Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM .

Complete chemical weathering is required to remove all feldspars and lithics. Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM Batu pasir arkos Jika butiran feldspar yang dominan = arkos (arkose). Arenit kuarza Description Pure. form in areas of great tectonic stability. probably in a braided river system. The course grain size and relatively good sorting of this sediment implies water transportation. coarse grained quartz sand with cross bedding.e. jika kandungan feldsparnya terdiri daripada butiran ortoklas. The absence of virtually any other grains other than quartz and feldspar indicate the immediate source of this rock was not a mixed sourceland. Formation & Environments A sandstone this clean (i. typically beach environments. especially when abundant. and was not part of the original composition. Quartz sandstones are often associated with carbonate rocks. Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM . there is little matrix) placing this in a sand category. Tectonic Association Pure quartz sandstones. Tectonic Association Arkoses with abundant feldspar such as this come from the weathering of a sourceland rich in alkali granite. Batu pasir arkos. warna batuan ini akan kelihatan pink. but the final removal of the clay takes place in high energy environments. some even drifting over into the granule size range (2-4 mm) which would technically make this a gravel (conglomerate). This is because if any clastic sourcelands are available they will weather to produce at least shales. Mature quartz sands such as this are not common in the geologic record because the required conditions are difficlt to achieve. Description A sandstone with a mixture of quartz and orthoclase feldspar (pink). We put it here since most of the grains fall into the sand category. The sand grains here are very large. The slight pink color staining along the cross bedding is iron contamination.Jika butiran kuarza yang dominan = Batu pasir kuarza (quartz sandstone) atau arenit kuarza (quartz arenite). although other high energy situations such as tidal sand bars can accumulate large bodies of quartz sand. Formation & Environments Quartz sandstone results from the extreme weathering and sorting of a sediment until everything that can be removed has been removed.e. Batu pasir ini biasanya berwarna keputihan sebab cuma kuarza sahaja yang membentuk batuan ini. The cross beds are probably large scale trough type resulting from the migration of large ripples. The sand grains stand out in high relief in this specimen (i. without matrix) indicates a source where chemical weathering was not extreme. and possibly feldspars and lithics.

if the rock is distinctly gritty feeling. This specimen is toward the upper end of the silt size range. dan tidak mungkin dikenali komposisinya dengan mata kasar. Generally it is ignored. an underwater avalanche) deposited in a submarine fan Batu lodak (Siltstone) berbutir halus. rapid transportation. such as in a wacke sandstone. and rapid burial relatively close to the sourceland. a lot closer. This rock (from the Ordovician Martinsburg formation) comes from a Bouma sequence (deposit of a turbidity current. and at the upper size end it grades into sandstone. Formation & Environments Semi-quiet depositional environments. or fine sandpaper. also masks the composition. In other words. any depositional environment with these conditions may form silt deposits. Silt is a common component with other deposits. and they form the TD unit in a Bouma sequence. Tectonic Association Lithic wacke sandstones. Coarse silt is capable of forming cross laminations in a current. We have to saw cut the rock. to submarine fans and basins. For this reason QFL cannot easily be determined except with a very good microscope. maka batu pasir litik akan mempunyai warna kelabu gelap. especially those containing feldspar are associated with regions of great tectonic activity. while the finer-end particles generally deposit from suspension. or is interbedded with other deposits. to the rock. As a practical matter. and they range from river systems. We can only know by getting closer. below visible range. and wet the surface to see the qfl. darker in the actual rock than in this picture. generally below visible range. . At the lower size end it grades into mud (shale). Formation & Environments Sandstones like this come from incomplete weathering. that is. then the rock is a siltstone. Commonly together they form the matrix in a rock. Disebabkan kandungan pecahan batuan yang paling banyak. For example. like a very fine sandstone. In this specimen the grains are small enough and the matrix abundant enough it can be difficult at first to notice the sandstone nature of the rock. Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM Description Fine grained sandstone with 25-50% matrix (making it a wacke). to deltas. just about anywhere. to shelves. yet under the microscope it is difficult or impossible to distinguish the individual grains. It feels very gritty.Batu pasir litik Jika pecahan batuan bersaiz pasir yang dominan = batu pasir litik (lithic sandstone) atau arenit litik (litharenite) atau grewak litik. The gray color. A more proximal lithic conglomerate equivalent of this rock in Conglomerate #1. A typical tectonic occurrence for a rock of this composition. It was deposited as a turbidity current in a submarine fan. however. but under a handlens or a general laboratory microscope you cannot see the individual particles (they all seem to run together). Often. silt beds are common in flood plain deposits above the point bar sands. Description Silt is a size range of particles between 1/16 mm and 1/256 mm. Batu lodak boleh dibezakan dengan batu lumpur atau syal dengan merasanyakan dengan menggunakan kuku atau gigi. LODAK (SILT): Saiz butiran 1/256 hingga 1/16 mm (kasat) Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM Composition Silt is a size category of particles below 1/16 millimeter. Thus. silt and clay are mixed together in varying proportions. This specimen was eroded from a volcanic arc system that collided with eastern North America during the Taconic orogeny. dan biasanya pecahan batuan berbutir halus (syal) berwarna gelap. that is the finer material among the larger particles.

shelves. For example. deltas. but out of context of other rocks with which it was deposited nothing can be confidently said about tectonic associations. the detail picture shows its true coloration). quiet. Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM . Mudstone is made of the same stuff as shale. Shale shows up in many environments in many tectonic situations. See color link for further description. This image is looking at the side of the rock. Technically that makes this a mudstone. Often the disruption is caused by bioturbation. Formation & Environments Shale = quiet water deposition. From its geologic context we know it was a relatively deep water. but it has been distrupted by something that destroyed the laminations. Pure clays (such as kaolinite) tend to be white or tan. The dark color of this specimen respresents the presence of incompletely decayed organic matter (humus) making the rock dark gray (the rock looks light colored because of the way light is reflected. etc. and you will note no layering or laminations visible. shales are common in basins. Other components may be iron oxides or organic matter. Tectonic Association From the shale alone no tectonic interpretations are possible. flood plains. marine basin. Aside from this it is hard to say anything definitive about the environment of a shale since most environments have periods and places of quite water deposition.LEMPONG (CLAY): Saiz butiran kurang daripada 1/256 mm (licin) Syal (Shale) (jika ada satah serpih)) Batu lempong atau batu lumpur (Claystone) (jika masif)) Description Fine grained rock composed of lithified clay making the rock shale. although varying amounts of other components are usually present. meandering rivers. The dark gray of this specimen indicates a low oxygen environment. Shales normally have a fine lamination structure. organisms burrowing through the sediment and ingesting it to extract food.

Sekian… Kamal roslan mohamed Geologi UKM .

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