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Small Business Handbook

Small Business Safety and Health Management Series OSHA 2209-02R 2005

Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthful workplace for their employees. OSHA’s role is to assure the safety and health of America’s workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health.

About this Handbook
This handbook is provided to owners, proprietors and managers of small businesses by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), an agency of the U.S. Department of Labor. For additional copies of this publication, write to the U.S. Government Printing Office, (GPO), Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SDE, 732 N. Capitol Street, NW, Washington, DC 20401, or call the OSHA Publications Office at (202) 693-1888, or fax (202) 693-2498 for ordering information. Please note that the entire text of the Small Business Handbook is available on OSHA’s website at http://www.osha.gov/Publications/ osha2209.pdf. The handbook should help small business employers meet the legal requirements imposed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (the Act), and achieve an in-compliance status before an OSHA inspection. An excellent resource to accompany this information is OSHA’s Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines, (54 Federal Register 3904-3916, January 26, 1989), also available on OSHA’s website. This handbook is not a legal interpretation of the provisions of the Act and does not place any additional requirements on employers or employees. Employers cannot be cited under the General Duty

Clause in Section 5(a)(1) of the Act for failure to follow recommendations in this handbook. The materials in this handbook are based upon Federal OSHA standards and other requirements in effect at the time of publication and upon generally accepted principles and activities within the job safety and health field. They should be useful to small business owners or managers and can be adapted easily to individual establishments. It is important to point out that 24 states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands operate their own OSHA-approved safety and health programs under Section 18 of the Act. While the programs in these State Plan States may differ in some respects from Federal OSHA, this handbook can be used by employers in any state because the standards imposed by State Plan States must be at least as effective as Federal OSHA standards. A list of states that operate their own safety and health programs can be found on OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov. Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced, fully or partially, without permission. Source credit is requested but not required. This information will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request by voice phone (202) 693-1999 or teletypewriter (TTY) (877) 889-5627 . Please Note: The small business employer seeking information on procurement or contracting with the Department of Labor or OSHA should contact the Department of Labor’s Office of Small Business Programs, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Room C2318, Washington, DC 20210.

Small Business Handbook
Occupational Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor OSHA 2209-02R 2005

U.S. Department of Labor
www.osha.gov

Contents
PREFACE Office of Small Business Assistance Cooperative Programs State Plans Office of Training and Education OSHA’s Website Safety and Health Add Value INTRODUCTION: The Value of a Safety and Health Management System A Profit and Loss Statement Developing a Profitable Strategy for Handling Occupational Safety and Health A FOUR-POINT WORKPLACE PROGRAM: The Basis of a Plan Using the Four-Point Program MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT AND EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT WORKSITE ANALYSIS HAZARD PREVENTION AND CONTROL TRAINING FOR EMPLOYEES, SUPERVISORS AND MANAGERS Documenting Your Activities Safety and Health Recordkeeping INJURY/ILLNESS RECORDS EXPOSURE RECORDS AND OTHERS STARTING A SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Creating a Plan Decide to Start Now Designating Responsibility Ask for Help Organize the Workplace Start Gathering Specific Facts About Your Situation Establish a Four-Point Safety and Health Program Develop and Implement Your Action Plan SELF-INSPECTION Self-Inspection Scope Self-Inspection Checklists EMPLOYER POSTING RECORDKEEPING SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM MEDICAL SERVICES AND FIRST AID FIRE PROTECTION PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING GENERAL WORK ENVIRONMENT WALKWAYS FLOOR AND WALL OPENINGS STAIRS AND STAIRWAYS ELEVATED SURFACES EXITING OR EGRESS - EVACUATION EXIT DOORS PORTABLE LADDERS HAND TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT PORTABLE (POWER OPERATED) TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT ABRASIVE WHEEL EQUIPMENT GRINDERS POWER-ACTUATED TOOLS MACHINE GUARDING LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROCEDURES WELDING, CUTTING AND BRAZING COMPRESSORS AND COMPRESSED AIR 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 8 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 11 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 26 27 28

COMPRESSORS/AIR RECEIVERS COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS HOIST AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS - FORKLIFTS SPRAYING OPERATIONS ENTERING CONFINED SPACES ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL EXPOSURE HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES COMMUNICATION ELECTRICAL NOISE FUELING IDENTIFICATION OF PIPING SYSTEMS MATERIALS HANDLING TRANSPORTING EMPLOYEES AND MATERIALS CONTROL OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES BY VENTILATION SANITIZING EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING TIRE INFLATION ASSISTANCE IN SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR SMALL BUSINESSES OSHA Assistance OSHA’S OFFICE OF SMALL BUSINESS ASSISTANCE ON-SITE CONSULTATION OTHER COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAMS (VPP) OSHA STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM (OSPP) OSHA ALLIANCE PROGRAM States with Approved Plans OSHA Publications Other Sources of Assistance VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAMS PARTICIPANTS’ ASSOCIATION (VPPPA) SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH) WORKERS’ COMPENSATION CARRIERS AND OTHER INSURANCE COMPANIES TRADE ASSOCIATIONS AND EMPLOYER GROUPS TRADE UNIONS AND EMPLOYEE GROUPS THE NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL AND LOCAL CHAPTERS PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS SPECIFIC MEDICAL CONSULTATION YOUR LOCAL LIBRARY FINANCING WORKPLACE IMPROVEMENT ADDITIONAL WEB PAGES OF INTEREST TO SMALL BUSINESSES Appendix A: Overall Action Plan Worksheet Appendix B: Model Policy Statements Appendix C: Codes of Safe Practices Appendix D: OSHA Job Safety and Health Standards, Regulations and Requirements Appendix E: Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (SBREFA)

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OSHA Regional Offices OSHA’s Non-Retaliation Policy

regulations and red tape. OSHA believes that providing workers with a safe workplace is central to their ability to enjoy health.42. to facilitate information sharing and to help in finding and achieving regulatory compliance. State Plans OSHA has important partnerships with the 24 states.gov/dcsp/smallbusiness/index. 200 Constitution Avenue. the Voluntary Protection Programs. making safety and health training and education more accessible Cooperative Programs Years of experience show us that voluntary collaborative relationships between OSHA. As a result. These OSHA education centers operate in conjunction with universities. effective and fair enforcement. and facilitates opportunities to comment on OSHA’s regulatory agenda. Washington. sector and other government entities lead to improved safety and health. N. OSHA seeks to cut unnecessary rules. injuries and illnesses. For a more detailed description of each of these programs. DC 20210. See OSHA’s website for a list of State Plan States. Detailed information on each program is also available on OSHA’s website at www. Office of Training and Education OSHA’s Office of Training and Education provides training and instruction in all facets of occupational safety and health.W. security and the opportunity to achieve the American dream. State workplace safety and health programs frequently lead the way in developing innovative approaches to making America’s workplaces safer and healthier. there are 32 additional education sites located throughout the country. In addition to OSHA’s Training Institute.. States that operate their own worker safety and health plans must provide worker protection that is “at least as effective as” the Federal program. However. Room N-3700. It is eliminating thousands of pages of outdated regulations and continues to rewrite standards in plain English. please see pages 40. the Strategic Partnership Program and OSHA’s newest addition.osha. the private OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . IL. businesses should become familiar with their state regulations and agencies. by contacting any OSHA office. provides training for OSHA compliance safety and health officers as well as for the general public and safety and health staff from other Federal agencies. Small businesses are encouraged to investigate the full array of cooperative programs offered by OSHA. located in Arlington Heights. Office of Small Business Assistance. The Office of Small Business Assistance maintains OSHA’s specialized small business web pages found at http:// www. Office of Small Business Assistance OSHA wants to provide quality service to our small business customers. OSHA created the Office of Small Business Assistance to provide small business direction. OSHA continues to expand its cooperative programs which currently include the free and confidential Consultation Program. They want everyone on the job to go home whole and healthy each day. The office also works to educate small businesses on using up-to-date tools and materials. OSHA is developing new strategies to reduce occupational fatalities. Participation can be on an individual company basis or through an industry association. Confronted by the realities and demands to keep pace with the workforce and problems of the future. Alliances. or by calling (800) 321OSHA. Coupled with strong.osha. In October 2002. OSHA is committed to assuring – so far as possible – that every working man and woman in the nation has safe and healthful working conditions. OSHA is paring down its regulatory agenda so that it more accurately reflects realistic goals that best serve the needs of American employers and employees.4 PREFACE American employers and workers want safe and healthful places in which to work. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands that operate their own OSHA-approved safety and health programs. colleges and learning centers to conduct OSHA courses for the private sector and other Federal agencies. OSHA’s Training Institute. The Office of Small Business Assistance can be contacted by telephone at (202) 693-2220 or by writing to: Director. OSHA strives to provide improved outreach. education and compliance assistance to America’s employers and employees.html. because their standards and other procedures may vary. Determined to make that dream possible.gov.

OSHA invites citizens to email questions that can be routed to appropriate agency officials for response. s lower costs for job accommodations for injured workers. easy-to-understand and up-to-date guidance on regulations. including expert advisors and e-tools. our communities. which allows users to create their own personalized OSHA web page with customized content and links. s better use of human resources. s their family lives are not hindered by injury. OSHA’s extensive website provides employers and employees with practical.gov. and many posters and some publications are also available in Spanish. s higher quality products. Any communication conducted via the “Contact Us” link on the OSHA website is considered an informational exchange rather than an official communication with the Department of Labor. OSHA’s Website OSHA has made every effort to continuously expand and improve its website. or to obtain training catalogs with course schedules. our fellow workers and our families. protecting people on the job is in everyone’s best interest–our economy. s fewer faulty products.5 to those who need it. Safety and health add value to businesses. standards. Safety and Health Add Value Addressing safety and health issues in the workplace saves the employer money and adds value to the business. Several pages are devoted to small business. subscribe to the agency’s e-news memo. web-based training tools on occupational safety and health topics. best practices and other useful information. s smaller expenditures for return-to-work programs. Recent estimates place the business costs associated with occupational injuries at close to $170 billion–expenditures that come straight out of company profits. Simply put. tools. Safety and health also make big reductions in indirect costs.osha. inquiries should be submitted in writing. Through its website. write the OSHA Training Institute. the direct cost-savings to businesses include: s lower workers’ compensation insurance costs. s increased morale. QuickTakes. publication lists and an inventory of compliance assistance tools. There is a Spanish version of the OSHA website. s reduced medical expenditures. directives and interpretations relating to OSHA can be found as well. For an official response to a question or concern. You can subscribe to OSHA’s QuickTakes at www. due to: s increased productivity. When workers stay whole and healthy. Occupational Safety and Health Administration . Regulations. If you would like to receive regular updates from OSHA about new programs. s reduced turnover. The information is also fully accessible on the Internet at www. compliance assistance and learning how to identify and control hazards. IL 60005 or call (847) 297-4810. technical links. QuickTakes is issued twice monthly to subscribers and is always available online.gov. workplaces and lives. For more information about OSHA’s Training Institute. s their stress is not increased. 2020 South Arlington Heights Road. Each OSHA cooperative program has individual web pages describing program elements and highlighting successes of the participants. Employees and their families benefit from safety and health because: s their incomes are protected. Quick Start is another tool on OSHA’s Compliance Assistance web page that allows the user to identify many of the major OSHA requirements and guidance materials that apply to their individual workplaces or industry sectors. There are tuition fees for private sector students. s better labor/management relations. news items. OSHA’s education centers. OSHA’s web pages include MyOSHA. E-tools are “stand-alone” interactive. s less money spent for overtime benefits.osha. Arlington Heights.

inspections. many owners or managers do not understand why there is controversy about the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). You also need a plan–a plan to prevent accidents. We believe that. They have learned that prevention is the only real way to avoid this loss. You need a plan that includes prevention of these health hazard exposures and accidents. The manager or management team leads the way. 3. And. A serious fire. But how often does an owner or manager like you actually see or even hear about work-related deaths. The worksite is continually analyzed to identify all existing and potential hazards. they have experienced a loss. you don’t have to turn your business upside down. There are reasons why accidents happen. of course. These are as follows: 1. Reducing losses is a goal that you as an owner or manager share with us in OSHA. by nature. then chances are that the very size of your workplace will promote the closeness and concern for one another that small businesses value. There are four basic elements to all good safety and health programs. For this reason. or the death of an employee or owner can cause the loss of profit or even an entire business. You may not realize the extent of the exposure or harm that you and your employees face. you may employ family members and personal acquaintances. if you don’t know your employees before they are hired. job safety and health standards. it remains a common bond. you are. serious injuries or illnesses in the businesses with which you are familiar? How often has your business actually sustained this type of loss? In most small businesses. setting an example and involving employees. OSHA wants to work with you to prevent all losses. assigning and supporting responsibility. Once you know why an accident happened. You need a safety and health management system. These owner/managers will tell you that it is too late to do anything once a serious accident happens. You do need to use good business sense and apply recognized prevention principles. Not all dangers at your worksite depend on an accident to cause harm. a permanent injury. by setting policy. But others have learned why. Management Commitment and Employee Involvement. You may not have to spend a lot of money. Like many small businesses. to figure out what went wrong. self-employed individuals like yourself. either. when you make job safety and health a real part of your everyday operations. Hazard Prevention and Control. Basically. and maybe the help of friends or other trained people. you will not lose in the long run. While we may see this goal in a slightly different light. Assuming that you are committed to safe and healthful work practices. There is excitement and challenge in such a venture. 2. Unfortunately. your program should address your specific needs and requirements. but an accident always has a cause–a reason why. Something goes wrong somewhere. perhaps more heavily financed corporate groups and other free-spirited.6 INTRODUCTION: The Value of a Safety and Health Management System A Profit and Loss Statement As a small business owner. It may take some thought. Worksite Analysis. it is possible to prevent future incidents. the answer is rarely. You wager your business acumen against larger. like you. citations. We have learned from small employers. your plan should address the types of accidents and health hazard exposures that could happen in your workplace. Methods to pre- OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . a risk taker. The effect may not be immediate. but to succeed you need good management information. many more suffer injury or illness from conditions at work. an ability to be a good manager of people and the intelligence and inner strength to make the right decisions. You need some basic facts and perhaps some help from others who already know some of the answers. Because each workplace is different. Worker exposure to toxic chemicals or harmful levels of noise or radiation may happen in conjunction with routine work as well as by accident. To prevent such losses. It is not difficult to develop such a plan. Thousands of workers die each year and many. etc. Developing a Profitable Strategy for Handling Occupational Safety and Health Nobody wants accidents to happen in his or her business. that you place a high value on the well-being of your employees. Investing in safety and health activity now will better enable you to avoid possible losses in the future.

Regardless of the size of your business. Developing a workplace program following these four points is a key step in protecting you and your workers’ safety and health. the approach will help you toward full compliance and beyond. If you already have a program. Supervisors and Managers. supervisors and employees are trained to understand and deal with worksite hazards. Managers. This approach usually does not involve large costs. you should use each of these elements to prevent workplace accidents and possible injuries and illnesses. Safety and health can be integrated into your other business functions with modest effort on your part.7 vent or control existing or potential hazards are put in place and maintained. especially in smaller businesses. are pressed for time. Developing a health and safety protection plan does not have to be expensive and generally does not require additional employees. Since most employers. like you. 4. It will certainly give you a way to express and document your good faith and commitment to protecting your workers’ health and safety.Training for Employees. While having a safety and health plan based on these four elements does not guarantee compliance with OSHA standards. these descriptions will assist you in getting started on your own approach. As you implement the plan and incorporate it into your business culture. The key to the success of a safety and health plan is to see it as a part of your business operation and to see it reflected in your day-to-day operations. Occupational Safety and Health Administration . safety and health awareness will become second nature to you and your employees. It may help you reduce insurance claims and other costs. reviewing it in relation to these elements should help you improve what you have. The next section provides short descriptions and illustrations of each element. Following this four-point approach to safety and health in your business may also improve efficiency.

Model Policy Statements. personally review all inspection and accident reports and ensure that followup occurs when needed. DC 200013-7535. NW. or call (202) 693-1888.S. safety glasses and/or safety shoes in an area.osha. Washington. If you seriously involve your employees in identifying and resolving safety and health problems. (For a free copy of the guidelines. for instance. The men and women who work for you are among the most valuable s s s OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . Don’t forget your safety and health program s s Using the Four-Point Program As you review this publication. your employees will probably not give safety and health much thought either. Here are some actions to consider: s Post your policy on worker safety and health next to the OSHA Workplace Poster where all employees can see it. or investigate accidents. U. Your policy must be clear. Noting those actions as you go along will make it easier to assemble the total plan you need. You can demonstrate the depth of your commitment by involving your employees in planning and carrying out your efforts. DC 20210. they will bring their unique insights and energy to achieving the goals and objectives of your program. Washington. For example. (202) 693-2220.) Although voluntary. write to OSHA Publications. your attitude toward job safety and health will be reflected by your employees. MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT AND EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT s s As the owner or manager of a small business.S. U. 200 Constitution Avenue. Only you can show its importance through your own actions. Therefore. health and goodwill are essential to the success of your business. and discuss your objectives for safety and health.O. A good rule of thumb is to assign safety and health responsibilities in the same way you assign production responsibilities. training. time.gov.8 A FOUR-POINT WORKPLACE PROGRAM: The Basis of a Plan The Four-Point Workplace Program described here is based upon the Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines issued by OSHA in January 1989. it is essential that you demonstrate at all times your personal concern for employee safety and health.) Hold a meeting with all employees to communicate your safety and health policy. money and authority to get the job done. even if you are only in an area briefly. Box 37535. and make sure everyone understands them. wear them yourself when you are in that area. the better. Make sure that your support is visible by getting personally involved in the activities that are part of your safety and health program. Give those with safety and health responsibility enough people. we encourage you to use the Action Plan Worksheet in Appendix A to jot down the things you want to do to make your workplace safe for your employees. The guidelines are based heavily on OSHA’s experience with its Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP). Ensure that you. contact OSHA’s Office of Small Business Assistance. If. these guidelines represent OSHA’s policy on what every worksite should have in place to protect workers from occupational hazards. Having them cooperate with you in protecting their safety and health not only helps to keep them healthy–it makes your job easier. you require a hard hat. Make it a special part of everyone’s job to work safely. conduct safety training. P . Their safety. Department of Labor. If you are not interested in preventing employee injury and illness. Take advantage of your employees’ specialized knowledge and encourage them to buy into the program by having them make inspections. Department of Labor. and the priority you place on them in your workplace. (See Appendix B. which recognize excellence in workplace safety and health management. Room N-3700. Make clear assignments of responsibility for every part of your safety and health program. go to OSHA’s website at www. For more information on these guidelines and OSHA’s cooperative programs. your managers and your supervisors follow all safety requirements that apply to all employees. The more people who are involved. assets you have.

HAZARD PREVENTION AND CONTROL s s It is your responsibility to know what items or substances you have in your workplace that could hurt your workers. Extensive information can be found on OSHA’s website under “Accident Investigation” in the index. Review several years of injury or illness records to identify patterns that can help you devise strategies to improve your safety and health program. OSHA’s booklet. Learn how to conduct a thorough investigation when things go wrong. s s s s Occupational Safety and Health Administration . Recognize and reward those who do well and correct those who don’t. Job Hazard Analysis. Find ways to keep current on newly recognized hazards in your industry. (See OSHA Publications at page 42 for ordering information. WORKSITE ANALYSIS Make sure your employees feel comfortable in alerting you or another member of management when they see things that look dangerous or out of place. may be helpful. (See Appendix C. When you cannot eliminate hazards. hazards should be eliminated. Whenever possible. to ensure that the changes are not introducing new hazards into your workplace. Where necessary. Worksite analysis is a group of processes that helps you make sure that you know what you need to keep your workers safe. You can also contract for such services from expert private consultants if you prefer. For help in getting started with these processes. Establish a way to get professional advice when you make changes to procedures or equipment. The checklists (at pages 18-39) provide a starting point. analyzing it step-by-step to see if there are any hidden hazards in the equipment or procedures.9 after you make assignments. you can call on your state on-site Consultation Program and have an experienced health and safety professional visit your workplace for free and confidentially. Sometimes that can be done through substitution of a less toxic material or engineering controls. Periodically review several months of experience to determine if any new patterns are developing. s At least once a year. Ask your employees to help you establish a disciplinary system that will be fair and understood by everyone. make sure the job gets done. Institute an accountability system where all personnel will be held accountable for not following work rules designed to promote workplace safety and health. Codes of Safe Practices. Also. review what you have accomplished in meeting your objectives and re-evaluate whether you need new objectives or program revisions. systems should be established to control them. you are ready to implement the systems that prevent or control those hazards. Your state consultant can assist you in establishing an effective system.) Here are some actions to consider: s s Request a consultation visit from your state on-site Consultation Program covering both safety and health to get a full survey of the hazards that exist in your workplace and those that could develop. Here are some actions to consider: s s Set up safe work procedures based on an analysis of the hazards in your workplace and ensure that employees understand and follow them. Locations for each state are listed on OSHA’s website. how to use it and how to maintain it. This will help you develop ways to prevent recurrences. Set up a self-inspection system to check your hazard controls and evaluate any new haz- Once you have identified your existing and potential hazards. ensure that personal protective equipment (PPE) is used and that your employees know why they need it.) Be ready to enforce the rules for safe work procedures. Your state Consultation Program can help you do this. Periodically review with employees each job. It is a good idea to involve employees in the analysis that results in those procedures. s ards.

including fire and natural disasters. heating and ventilating operations and any corrosive materials areas to make sure the required eye-wash facilities and showers are operational. s s s Check battery charging stations. Also. known hazards and how to control the hazards. Involve nearby doctors and emergency facilities by inviting them to visit your workplace and help you plan the best way to avoid injuries and illness during emergency situations. first aid. laboratories. you are required to ensure that adequately trained personnel are available to render s s OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . You may be able to combine safety and health training with other training. The consultant may be able to conduct training while he or she is there. you must ensure that all employees know about the materials and equipment they work with. Ask your state consultant to help develop a medical program that fits your worksite. transport ill or injured workers and notify medical facilities. Here are some actions to consider: s s Ask your state consultant to recommend training for your worksite. If your business is remote from medical facilities. As an owner or manager. Arrangements for this training can be made through your local Red Cross chapter. your insurance carrier. Ensure that your procedure for reporting injuries and illnesses is understood by all employees. This does not mean that you must provide health care. Ensure that preventive and regular maintenance are tracked to completion. Pay particular attention to your new employees and to employees who are moving to new s s Perform routine walkthroughs of the worksite to identify hazards and to track identified hazards until they are corrected. but you must be prepared to deal with medical emergencies or health problems connected to your workplace. Make sure you have trained your employees on every potential hazard that they could be exposed to and how to protect themselves. • no employee should undertake a job that appears unsafe. Consider retaining a local doctor or an occupational health nurse on a part-time or asneeded basis for advice on medical and first aid planning. your local safety council. Each employee needs to know that: • no employee is expected to undertake a job until he or she has received job instructions on how to do it properly and is authorized to perform that job. Then verify that they really understand what you taught them. maintenance operations. SUPERVISORS AND MANAGERS s s To fulfill the above requirements. and others. depending upon the types of hazards in your workplace. First aid supplies must be readily available for emergency use. consider the following: s Develop an emergency medical procedure to handle injuries. TRAINING FOR EMPLOYEES. Posting emergency numbers is a good idea. Cooperative agreements may be possible with nearby larger workplaces that have on-site medical personnel and/or facilities. Plan for emergencies. Survey the medical facilities near your place of business and make arrangements for them to handle routine and emergency cases. Conduct frequent drills to ensure that all employees know what to do under stressful conditions. Ensure the ready availability of medical personnel for advice and consultation on matters of employee health.10 s Provide for regular equipment maintenance to prevent breakdowns that can create hazards. s An effective accident prevention program requires proper job performance from everyone in the workplace.

for showing “good faith” in reducing any proposed penalties from OSHA inspections. These records can help you to identify high-risk areas that require your immediate attention. Essential records. Post it no later than February 1. Keeping records of your activities. including those legally required for workers’ compensation.11 jobs.osha. Because they are learning new operations. if they are used in the same way.gov/recordkeeping/index. Success can be measured by a reduction or elimination of employee injuries and illnesses during a calendar year. s INJURY/ILLNESS RECORDS Train your supervisors to understand all the hazards faced by the employees and how to reinforce training with quick reminders and refreshers. The OSHA recordkeeping system has five steps: 1. finance. service. and aid efficient review of your current safety and health activities for better control of your operations and to plan improvements. information distributed to employees. related injuries. 2. They enable the owner or manager to learn from experience and to make corrections for future operations.4 million establishments. illnesses and property losses can serve the same purpose. insurance audits and government inspections must be maintained as long as the actual need exists or as required by law. for insurance and other audits. they are more likely to get hurt. is greatly encouraged. such as policy statements. Record each injury or job-related illness on OSHA Form 300 (Log of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses) using the instructions provided. Basic OSHA recordkeeping requirements address only injuries and illnesses. Occupational Safety and Health Administration . profits and losses are essential to all successful businesses. 4. so you might consider expanding your own records to include all Safety and Health Recordkeeping Records of sales. and keep it posted until May 1. Every year. safety and health meetings. 5. as are a number of specific industries in the retail. The primary purpose of OSHA-required recordkeeping is to retain information about accidents that have happened to help determine the causes and develop procedures to prevent a recurrence. OSHA rules for recording and reporting occupational injuries and illnesses affect 1. A good place to post it is next to the OSHA Workplace Poster. prepare an annual summary using OSHA Form 300A (Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses). costs. Obtain a report on every injury or job-related illness requiring medical treatment (other than basic first aid). Retain these records for at least five years. Small businesses with 10 or fewer employees throughout the year are exempt from most of the requirements of the OSHA recordkeeping rules.html or refer to 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1904 for the specific exceptions. 3. Prepare a supplementary record of occupational injuries and illnesses for recordable cases on OSHA Form 301 (Injury and Illness Incident Report). or with disciplinary action if necessary. insurance and real estate sectors that are classified as low-hazard. Make sure that your top management staff understand their safety and health responsibilities and how to hold subordinate supervisory employees accountable for theirs. Maintaining essential records also will demonstrate sound business management as supporting proof for credit applications. OSHA recordkeeping can help the small business employer evaluate the success of safety and health activities. Periodically review these records to look for any patterns or repeat situations. s Documenting Your Activities Document your activities in all elements of the Four-Point Workplace Program. Records of accidents. and medical arrangements made. training sessions. Detailed information about OSHA recordkeeping rules can be found at http://www.

certain OSHA standards require records on the exposure of employees to toxic substances and hazardous exposures. you will be able to determine whether these requirements apply to your workplace. OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . EXPOSURE RECORDS AND OTHERS In addition to injury/illness records. Safety councils. physical examination reports and employment records.12 incidents. Your records should be used in conjunction with your control procedures and with your self-inspection activity. insurance carriers and others can assist you in instituting such a system. They should not be considered merely as bookkeeping. As you identify hazards. Even if your business is exempt from routine recordkeeping requirements. if you are selected. all work-related fatalities or multiple hospitalizations that involve three or more employees. This information may assist you in pinpointing unsafe conditions and/or procedures. The employer is required to report to OSHA within eight hours of the accident. You will receive a letter directly from the agency with instructions. you may be selected by the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) or a related state agency for inclusion in an annual sample survey. including those where no injury or illness resulted.

Federal or state. Now you can address the practical concerns of putting these elements together and coming up with a program to suit your workplace. have the time to develop and manage the program. Who can ensure that the program will become an integral part of your business? In many cases it will be you.osha. The consultant will work with you to develop a plan for making these improvements and to keep your program effective. identify and eliminate conditions or practices that could result in injuries and illnesses. 13 Designating Responsibility You must decide who in your company is the most appropriate person to manage your safety and health system. and be willing to take on the responsibility and accountability that goes with operating an effective program. It could even be an engineer. Ask for Help Federal occupational safety and health law allows a state to develop and operate its own occupational safety and health program in place of the Federal OSHA program. Next you need to determine how and when each step will be done and who will do it. Whoever you choose should be committed to workplace safety and health. If you have difficulty deciding where to begin. personnel specialist. you have been taking notes for your action plan as you reviewed the preceding description of the Four-Point Program. many publications are available from your state on-site Consultation Program or from OSHA that spell out in greater detail the steps you can take to create an effective safety and health program for your workplace. Decide to Start Now The time to start your safety and health management system is now.OSHA 3165). he or she will determine what you need to make your safety and health program effective. You have a better picture of what constitutes a good safety and health program. (See www. Then. such as: s OSHA Workplace Poster (Job Safety and Health Protection . You will then have a program to anticipate. This poster is also available in Spanish (Job Safety and Health Protection OSHA-3167). It is possible that the regulatory aspect of the law (setting of mandatory minimum standards and conducting inspections of workplaces) is being operated by your state government as opposed to Federal OSHA. If you are not sure what agency is responsible for administering workplace safety and health in your state. The rewards for your efforts will be an efficient and productive workplace with a low level of loss and injury.STARTING A SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Creating a Plan You can use this handbook to create a basic plan of action for starting a safety and health management system at your business. A state consultant will survey your workplace for existing or potential hazards. OSHA standards that apply to your business.) s Occupational Safety and Health Administration . You will need certain Federal OSHA publications (or comparable state publications) for use in your safety and health activities. Your plan should consider your company’s immediate needs and provide for ongoing. has current jurisdiction over your business. The individual will need your full cooperation and support. or other staff member. You must display the Federal or state OSHA poster in your workplace. contact the nearest OSHA Area Office to find out. the owner. Hopefully. You need to have a copy of all OSHA standards that apply to your type of business available for reference. longlasting worker protection. (See Appendix D. if you request it. Once your plan is designed.gov). Whether you choose to work with a consultant or to develop your program yourself. a phone call to your state Consultation Program will help get you started. Sometimes it will be a plant manager or key supervisor. You should now be ready to decide what you want to accomplish and to determine what steps are necessary to achieve your goals. The action plan described in this section provides the most direct route to getting yourself organized to complete the Four-Point Program outlined in the previous section. One of the first things to learn is which branch of government. but the ultimate responsibility for safety and health in your workplace rests on you. it is important to follow through and use it in the workplace.

more healthful and more efficient. Special attention should be given to inspection schedules. You should include the following in this review: s Recordkeeping requirements and the necessary forms. Examine ongoing activities as well as those tried previously. Get everyone involved and impress upon employees that you want to make your workplace safer. If you are involved with construction or maritime operations. provide proper waste containers. to help you get a good start on creating this initial survey. and records of training programs. and discussing safety and health problems with employees. This information can help you identify problems and determine what is needed to solve them. Most safety action programs start with an intensive cleanup campaign in all areas of the workplace. make sure exits are not blocked. Accident and injury/illness history. The assessment consists of two major activities: 1. etc. Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. use the appropriate state standards. their job descriptions. See the SelfInspection Checklists (at pages 18-39). mark aisles and passageways.14 Standards are the regulations that OSHA uses to inspect for compliance and should be the baseline for your inspections in determining what to do when hazards are identified. s s Start Gathering Specific Facts About Your Situation Before making changes in your safety and health operations. you should gather information about the current conditions and business practices that comprise your safety and health program. Safety and health activities. and plant and office layouts. It should include checking on the use of any hazardous materials. Review first aid cases and workers’ compensation insurance payments and awards. what it is used for and where it is located. Equipment. too many damaged products. s Organize the Workplace Poor housekeeping can contribute to low morale and sloppy work. You may want a copy of this legislation for reference. trade asso- OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . and review your losses. store flammables properly. Your workplace assessment should be conducted by the person responsible for your safety and health management system and/or a professional safety and health consultant. Give special attention to recurring accidents. too many employees taking too much time off due to illness or injury. rules (both work and safety). types of injuries. showing the date hired. List your major equipment. A comprehensive safety and health survey of your entire facility will identify any existing or potential safety and health hazards. The second major activity is to assess your existing safety and health program and identify areas that work well and those that need improvement. Most businesses fall under OSHA’s General Industry Standards. see if any major problem areas emerge such as interruptions in your normal operations. etc. You should gather as much information as you can that relates to safety and health management in your workplace. guidelines for proper work practices and procedures. company policy statements. etc. Employee capabilities. 2. observing employee work habits and practices. General help with this kind of problem identification can often be obtained from compensation carriers.) s vey should focus on evaluating workplace conditions with respect to safety and health regulations and generally recognized safe and healthful work practices. you will need the standards that apply to these classifications. provide adequate lighting. Compare your insurance rate with others in your group. (In states with state-run occupational safety and health programs. and experience and training. maintenance activities. Get rid of unecessary items. local safety councils. Make an alphabetical list of all employees. This initial surs After gathering facts.

engineering. Use of such controls in conjunction with PPE will help reduce the hazard or exposure to the lowest practical level. s s s Establish and provide ongoing training for employees. the method. Once a problem is identified. The first step is to designate a person to be responsible for your safety and health program. Take immediate action and make a record of what you have done. Establish and regularly conduct a worksite analysis.15 ciations. includes: s Establish a Four-Point Safety and Health Program The success of any workplace safety and health program depends on careful planning. creative problem-solving and consultant resources may help you create effective controls. A good safety and health program makes it clear that each and every employee. Develop and Implement Your Action Plan Developing an action plan to build a safety and health program around the four points can serve as a “road map” to take your program to where you Occupational Safety and Health Administration . No safety and health program will work without this commitment and involvement. Establish your management commitment and involve your employees. don’t stop there. you can design a step-by-step process to take you from the idea stage to an effective safety and health management system. in order of preference. major suppliers or similarly situated businesses in the same industry. This is an ongoing process that includes routine selfinspections. The best way to create a safe and healthful workplace is to institute the Four-Point Program discussed at page 8 of this handbook. administrative. Refer to the recommended actions to take in the Worksite Analysis paragraph at page 9. Involve your employees as widely as possible from the beginning. making it more difficult for accidents to occur and for workrelated health problems to develop. From this standpoint. You will be building the foundation for a successful safety and health program. This means that you must take the time to analyze what you want to accomplish and develop an action plan in order to attain your goals. Prescribing PPE for protecting employees against the hazard and ensuring that they not only use it. A successful safety and health program depends on an accurate identification of all the hazards and potential hazards in your workplace. Eliminating the hazard from the machine. Abating the hazard by limiting exposure or controlling it at its source. administrative or work practice controls should be instituted even if they do not eliminate the hazard or reduce exposure. carries responsibility for his or her part of the program. but that they know how to use it correctly. state agencies. The basic formula for controlling workplace hazards. They are most in contact with the potential and actual safety and health hazards at your worksite and will have constructive input on the development of your program. from you through the supervisory levels to the line worker. you can work on the corrective action or a plan to control the problem. Whenever feasible. work practice and PPE. The hierarchy of controls is engineering. Make safety and health duties clear and hold every individual accountable for his or her safety. If you discover a major problem. Where no standard exists. Make sure your program assigns responsibility and accountability to all employees in your organization. The ultimate success of your safety and health program will depend on their support. Training personnel to be aware of the hazard and to follow safe work procedures to avoid it. These will help start your program off on the right track. see what can be done to solve it.and health-related duties. Create systems and procedures to prevent and control hazards identified through your worksite analysis. OSHA standards can be helpful because they address controls in order of effectiveness and preference. the material or the facility. These points are crucial to a safe and healthful workplace for you and your employees. Even if you find no major problems. supervisors and managers to ensure that everyone at your worksite can recognize hazards and how to control them. Now it is time to develop a comprehensive safety and health program to avoid any major problems in the future.

16 want it to be. An action plan can and should be changed to correspond with changes in the workplace. A detailed description of the steps required will help you keep track of your progress. Keep in mind that you can work on more than one item at a time and that priorities may change as other needs are identified or as your company’s resources change. Developing new action plans to implement these improvements will continue progress toward an effective safety and health program. why it is important to them and how it affects their work. You may save money through increased productivity and reduced workers’ compensation insurance costs. the logical order in which to do it. beginning with the highest priority item. manageable and addresses the steps you have planned for that item. Ensure that it is realistic. Each item should be prioritized. including what you want to accomplish. OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . and many local. a safety and health program is a plan put into practice. Any good management system requires periodic review. A list of major changes or improvements to make your safety and health program effective. The best way to evaluate the success of your safety and health program is to have documentation of what you have done. Once a plan is established. Remember. but is not ironclad. Putting your action plan into operation at your workplace will be a major step toward implementing an effective safety and health program. The tangible and intangible rewards for a solid safety and health program far outweigh the cost of an accident. Remember that it is important to document your activities. Their cooperation depends on them understanding what the safety and health program is all about. The more you do to involve them in the changes you are making. reduce your safety and health risks. It describes problems and solutions. You may gain increased respect in your community. Open communication with your employees is crucial to the success of your efforts. but you should be pleased with the results. A specific plan to implement each major change or improvement. who is responsible and where you want to be when you finish. and increase efficiency and profit. Employees will feel reassured because of your commitment to their safety and health on the job. Any necessary improvements can be turned into new safety and health objectives for the coming year. including the state on-site Consultation Programs and closest OSHA Area Office. which provides guidance on how you can make it work even better. the smoother your transition will be. Establishing a quality safety and health management system will take time and involve some resources. Once again. state and Federal agencies. who will be assigned to do what and a schedule for completion. your fellow business-people. An action plan tells you what has to be done. Take a careful look at each component of your safety and health program to determine what is working well and what changes are needed. A good action plan has two parts: 1. suppliers of your durable equipment and raw materials. Technical assistance may be available to you as a small business owner or manager through your insurance carrier. the steps required. have a target date for completion and identify who is responsible for implementation. the local safety council. injury or workplace fatality. a state consultant can assist you in this area. Keep your program on track by periodically checking its progress and by calling on a state consultant when you need assistance. put it into action. 2. A worksheet to help you design an overall action plan and describe specific action steps appears in Appendix A.

disposals. extensions. controls. exits. circuits. These checklists are by no means all-inclusive and not all of the checklists will apply to your business. projection of materials. Self-inspection is essential if you are to know where probable hazards exist and whether they are under control. humidity. walkways. You might want to start by selecting the areas that are most critical to your business. Begin a program of self-inspection in your own workplace. tools. This section includes checklists designed to assist you in self-inspection fact-finding. special fixtures. Then. not a definitive statement of what is mandatory. job planning. controls. spills. Machinery – points of operation. Heating and Ventilation – type. transportation. chains. grounding. controls. grounding. smoking rules. ramps. gears. adjusting. objects. amounts used. exhausting. fuses. belts. materials. temperature. Fire Prevention – extinguishers. key ways. junctions. motors. work areas. and process and equipment information to build a foundation to help you determine what problems exist. Use checklists only for guidance. Chemicals – storage. supervision. schedules. frames. stairs. couplings. cleaning methods. storage. location. purchasing standards. experience. switch-boxes. as you use the OSHA standards in your problem-solving process. use of guards. sprinklers. feeding. natural and artificial ventilation and exhausting. ceilings. floor loads. Make sure that each item is seen by you or your designee and leave nothing to memory or chance. training for material handling equipment. Don’t spend time with items that have no application to your business. driveways. Personnel – training. handling. leakage and spillage. glare and shadow control. then expanding your self-inspection checklists over time to fully cover all areas that pertain to your business. location. Remember that a checklist is a tool to help. or adjusting machinery. oiling. exits. repair. Once the hazards have been identified. warning signs. maintenance. walls. Electricity – equipment. tools. alarms. brakes. effectiveness. training. Receiving. PPE. diffusion. aisles. employee information. remote areas. tool storage. storage areas. breakers. explosion-proof fix- s s s s s s s Self-Inspection Scope Your self-inspections should cover safety and health issues in the following areas: s s Processing. work practices. Housekeeping Program – waste disposal. maintenance. Lighting – type. methods for cleaning. work space. oiling. sprockets. layout. use and handling.SELF-INSPECTION The most widely accepted way to identify hazards is to conduct safety and health inspections because the only way to be certain of an actual situation is to look at it directly from time to time. national electric code compliance. including hazard identification training. Add information from your completed checklists to injury information. heights. pulleys. shafts. lighting for tools and equipment. toxicity or other harmful effects. protective clothing and equipment. switches. lockout/tagout. s 17 Building and Grounds Conditions – floors. institute the control procedures described at page 9 and establish your four-point safety and health program. flywheels. types. Hand and Power Tools – purchasing standards. material handling and storage methods. separation of flammable materials and dangerous operations. inspection. grounding. type of clothing. platforms. personnel assigned. s Occupational Safety and Health Administration . Shipping and Storage – equipment. The checklists can give you some indication of where to begin taking action to make your business safer and more healthful for all of your employees. intensity. methods of checking machines before use. Write down what you see or don’t see and what you think you should do about it. labeling. insulation. conditions. it will be easier for you to determine the actions needed to solve these problems. hazard communication requirements.

seat belts. appropriate information concerning employee access to medical and exposure records and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) been posted or otherwise made readily available to affected employees? concerning exit routes. microwave. March and April? RECORDKEEPING s s or ❏ Are occupational injuriesonlyillnesses. age. biohazards. recorded as required on the OSHA 300 log? records and records of ❏ Are employee medical hazardous substances employee exposure to or harmful physical agents up-to-date and in compliance with current OSHA standards? s ❏ Are employee training records kept and accessible for review by employees. assignment of responsibility. Transportation – motor vehicle safety.18 tures in hazardous locations. rules of use. s Maintenance – provide regular and preventive maintenance on all equipment used at the worksite. training in care and use.) EMPLOYER POSTING ❏ Have arrangements been made to retain each records for the time period required for specific type of record? (Some records must be maintained for at least 40 years. air pressure tanks. purchasing methods. as required by OSHA standards? Self-Inspection Checklists These checklists are by no means all-inclusive. method of assignment. vehicle maintenance. storage. critical plant operations. chemical/biological incidents. room capaci❏ Are signs loading. carefully consider each item and then make your decision. employee accounting following an evacuation. maintenance. fire. standards observed.) operating ❏ Areitems suchpermits and records up-to-date for as elevators. rescue and medical duties and ways to report emergencies. size. e. repair. however. or other harmful radiation or substances posted where appropriate? s ❏ Is the Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses (OSHA Form 300A) posted during the months of February.g. liquefied petroleum gas tanks. You should add to them or delete items that do not apply to your business. exposures to xties.? SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM ❏ Is the required OSHA Job Safety and Health Protection Poster displayed in a prominent location where all employees are likely to see it? numbers posted ❏ Are emergency telephone found in case of where they can be readily emergency? be exposed to ❏ Where employees mayphysical agents. posted emergency phone numbers. safe driver programs. include escape procedures and routes. First Aid Program/Supplies – medical care facilities locations. bomb threat. waste disposal and training of personnel.toxic substances or harmful has pro❏ Do you have an active safety and healthsafety gram in operation that includes general and health program elements as well as the management of hazards specific to your worksite? ❏ Is one person clearly responsible for the safety and health program? have a safety committee or ❏ Do youup of management and laborgroup made representatives that meets regularly and reports in writing on its activities? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . etc. (Note: These checklists are typical for general industry but not for construction or maritime industries.. PPE – type. accessible first aid kits. You should refer to OSHA standards for specific guidance that may apply to your work situation. except minor injuries requiring first aid. recording all work performed on the machinery and by training personnel on the proper care and servicing of the equipment. floor ray. Evacuation Plan – establish and practice procedures for an emergency evacuation.

indicating that they are adeby a quate for a particular area or operation? sink available ❏ Is there an eye-washorstation or of the eyes and for quick drenching flushing body in areas where corrosive liquids or materials are handled? FIRE PROTECTION ❏ Is there a hospital. including and protected against their counterweights? ❏ Are fire door and shutter fusible links in place? water ❏ Are automatic sprinkler systemcheckedcontrol valves. (3) the employer must train designated first aid providers about the reporting procedure.19 ❏ Do you have a working procedure to handle in-house employee complaints regarding safety and health? advised of efforts and ❏ Are your employees the safety and health proaccomplishments of gram made to ensure they will have a workplace that is safe and healthful? incentives for employees ❏ Have you consideredexcel in reducing workor workgroups who place injury/illnesses? MEDICAL SERVICES AND FIRST AID an exposure incident ❏ If employees have hadpathogens. its location and specific hazards? fire alarm system. had hepatitis B vaccination made available to them.first aid kits easily accessible to periodically inspected and replenished as needed? first aid kits and supplies been approved ❏ Havephysician. and have available and understand how to use appropriate PPE to protect against exposure to bloodborne diseases?* *Pursuant to an OSHA memorandum of July 1. or infirmary for medical care near your workplace or is at least one employee on each shift currently qualified to render first aid? who are expected to ❏ Have all employees emergencies as part of respond to medical their job responsibilities received first aid training. air and water pressure periodically as required? maintenance of automatic sprinkler sys❏ Is the assigned to responsible persons or to a tems sprinkler contractor? metal guards ❏ Are sprinkler heads protected bydamage? if exposed to potential physical Occupational Safety and Health Administration . 1992. had appropriate training on procedures to protect them from bloodborne pathogens. (4) the employer must offer to initiate the hepatitis B vaccination series within 24 hours to all unvaccinated first aid providers who have rendered assistance in any situation involving the presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials. ❏ If you have aand tested annually?is it certified as required have interior standpipes ❏ If youinspected regularly? and valves.aare they at least once year and on routine preventive maintenance schedule? ❏ Are fire doors and shutters in good operating condition? shutters unobstructed ❏ Are fire doors andobstructions. including universal precautions. are they have ❏ If youflushedoutside privateafire hydrants. (2) the employer must comply with post-exposure evaluation. clinic. prophylaxis and follow-up requirements of the Bloodborne Pathogens standard with respect to “exposure incidents. ❏ Is your local fire department familiar with your facility.” as defined by the standard. was an iminvolving bloodborne mediate post-exposure medical evaluation and follow-up provided? personnel ❏ Are medicalconsultationreadily available for advice and on matters of employees’ health? ❏ Are emergency phone numbers posted? fully supplied ❏ Areeach work area. employees who render first aid only as a collateral duty do not have to be offered pre-exposure hepatitis B vaccine only if the employer includes and implements the following requirements in his/her exposure control plan: (1) the employer must record all first aid incidents involving the presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials before the end of the work shift during which the first aid incident occurred.

or foot protection) are present or are likely to be present? ❏ If hazards or the likelihood of hazards are found. hand. or other potentially infectious materials? See the OSHA Bloodborne ❏ Areorappropriate procedures in place to dispose of decontaminate PPE contaminated with.20 ❏ Is proper clearance maintained below sprinkler heads? ❏ Are portable fire extinguishers provided inin adequate number and type and mounted readily accessible locations? Pathogens standard. or use other medically approved precautionary procedures? aprons. cleaned up immediately and according to proper procedures? and waste ❏ Is combustible scrap.1030(b). or other ❏ Are protective gloves. are employers selecting appropriate and properly fitted PPE suitable for protection from these hazards and ensuring that affected employees use it? both the employer and the ❏ Have trained on PPE procedures.” and ❏ Are hard hats required.when and other equipment provided and used cleaning up spilled hazardous materials? ❏ Are fire extinguishers recharged regularly with this noted on the inspection tag? ❏ Are employees periodically instructed in the use of fire extinguishers and fire protection procedures? PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING ❏ Has the employer determined whether hazards that require the use of PPE (e. chemicals. or poisonous substances. and how to properly wear and adjust it? protective goggles or face shields provid❏ Areand worn where there is any danger of flyed ing particles or corrosive materials? glasses required ❏ Are approved safetyareas where thereto berisk worn at all times in is a of eye injuries such as punctures.. 29 CFR 1910. for the definition of “other potentially infectious materials. sanitary and orderly? dry and appropriate ❏ Are work surfaces kept the surfaces are slipmeans taken to assure resistant? liquids. corrosive. providedexists?worn where danger of falling objects ❏ Are hard hats periodically inspected for damage to the shell and suspension system? protection ❏ Is appropriate footfoot injuriesrequired where there is the risk of from hot. or burns? lenses ❏ Are employees who wear correctivewith harm(glasses or contacts) in workplaces ful exposures required to wear only approved safety glasses.required where employmeans provided and ees could be cut or where there is reasonably anticipated exposure to corrosive liquids.employeesPPE been i. or other potentially infectious materials? effects of occupation❏ Is protection against thesound levels exceed al noise provided when those of the OSHA Noise standard? PPE ❏ Are adequate work procedures. what is necessary for job tasks. shields. debrisfrom the worksite stored safely and removed promptly? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES .g. crushing. contusions.osha.134provided when needed? (See 29 for detailed information on respirators or check OSHA’s website at www. ❏ Are all spilled hazardous materials or infecincluding blood and other potentially tious materials. protective goggles. blood. or penetrating actions? respirators ❏ Are approvedCFR 1910.e. or reasonably anticipated to be contaminated with. PPE ❏ Is allreadymaintained in a sanitary condition and for use? ❏ Are food or beverages consumed only in areas where there is no exposure to toxic material. face.. blood.gov). falling objects. eye. when workers need it. abrasions. head. blood or other potentially infectious materials? GENERAL WORK ENVIRONMENT ❏ Are all worksites clean.

etc.146? (Permitcompliance with required confined spaces.human glass walls.? cleaned up vacuum ❏ Is combustible dustsuspension ofwith a particles system to prevent dust in the environment? prevented from ❏ Is metallic or conductive dustor around electrientering or accumulating on cal enclosures or equipment? ❏ Are spilled materials cleaned up immediately? ❏ Are changes of direction or elevations readily identifiable? aisles or walkways ❏ Areoperating machinery.072 kilograms) when located in roadways and subject to vehicle traffic? or wall openings in ❏ Are floor provided with doorsfire-resistant construction or covers compatible with the fire rating of the structure and ❏ Are all work areas adequately illuminated? ❏ Are pits and floor openings covered or otherwise guarded? spaces been evaluated for ❏ Have all confined29 CFR 1910. to possible impact. or other ❏ Are surfaceinrepaired properly. discarded according to Federal. covered.. trench covers similar ❏ Are manholetheir supports designedandcarry a covers. sidewalk. etc. asstandard (29the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens CFR 1910. and to truck rear axle load of at least 20.) WALKWAYS ❏ Are aisles and passageways kept clear and marked as appropriate? ❏ Are wet surfaces covered with non-slip materials? holes the floor. cleaned regularly? the minimum number of toilets and ❏ Are facilities provided and maintained in washing a clean and sanitary fashion? by a cover. of ficient thickness and type for the condition of use? or ❏ Are gratessuchsimilar type covers over floor openings as floor drains designed to allow unimpeded foot traffic or rolling equipment? unused portions of service pits and ❏ Are in use either covered or protected bypits not guardrails or equivalent? covers. a ❏ Are floor openings guardedall sides (except at guardrail.sufetc.000 pounds (9.. ❏ Is thesubjectin windows.20 centimeters) above any adjacent floor or the ground? bridges ❏ Are hazards?provided over conveyors and similar FLOOR AND WALL OPENINGS ❏ Are covered metal waste cans used for oily or paint-soaked waste? oil and gas-fired ❏ Are allfailure controls todevices equipped with flame prevent flow of fuel if pilots or main burners are not working? ❏ Are paint spray booths.7 glass doors. or equivalent on stairways or ladder entrances)? ❏ Are toeboards installed around the edges of permanent floor openings where persons may pass below the opening? withstand a ❏ Areatskylight screens able to kilograms)? load of least 200 pounds (90. or similar operations arranged so employees will not be subjected to potential hazards? provided ❏ Is adequate headroomwalkway? for the entire length of any aisle or ❏ Are standard guardrails provided wherever aisle or walkway surfaces are elevated more than 30 inches (76.21 defined in ❏ Is all regulated waste.1030).that pass near moving or welding operations. orwalking otherwise made safe? ❏ ❏ Is there safe clearance for walking in aisles where motorized or mechanical handling equipment is operating? Are materials or equipment stored in such a way that sharp projections will not interfere with the walkway? Occupational Safety and Health Administration . dip tanks. state and local regulations? combustible dust rou❏ Are accumulations ofelevated surfaces includtinely removed from ing the overhead structure of buildings.

” “STOREROOM. is a platform provided of the door does not reduce the width of the platform to less than 21 inches (53.36 centimeters) above the leading edge of stair treads? ❏ Is a permanent means of access and egress provided to elevated storage and work surfaces? ❏ Is required headroom provided where necessary? elevated surfaces ❏ Is materialinon manner to preventpiled.88 centimeters) in width at every 12 feet (3. stacked.16centimeter) toeboards? ❏ Are step risers on stairs uniform from top to bottom? ❏ Are steps slip-resistant? ❏ Are stairway handrails located between 30 inches (76. when notsigns? ately apparent. collapsing.70 centimeters) high and the stroke of the lettering at least l/2inch (1.20 centimeters) provided dard guardrails? all elevated beneath which peo❏ Are or machinerysurfacesbe exposed to falling ple could objects provided with standard 4-inch (10. falling.6576 meters) or landings 12 feet less? ELEVATED SURFACES handrails ❏ Do standardatstair rails orrisers? on all stairways have least four ❏ Are all stairways at least 22 inches (55. rolling.7 kilograms). passagewaysto exits.08 centimeters) of the top edge in any downward or outward direction? or stairways exit directly any ❏ Where stairsvehicles may be operated.” etc.34 centimeters)? capable of withstanding ❏ Are stairway handrails(90.? ❏ Are exit signs labeled with the word “EXIT” in lettering at least 5 inches (12. showing the capacity? than 30 ❏ Are surfaces that are elevated more with staninches (76. or spreading? when ❏ Are dock boards or bridge plates usedand transferring materials between docks trucks or railcars? EXITING OR EGRESS .” “TO BASEMENT.20 centimeters) in of travel and extend 22 inches (55.20 centimeters) and 34 inches (86.EVACUATION ❏ Do stairway handrails have at least 3 inches (7 centimeters) of clearance between the .2700 centimeters) wide? ❏ Are exit doors side-hinged? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . but could are neither exits nor access be mistaken for exits. applied a load of 200 pounds within 2 inches (5. marked with visible or stairways that ❏ Are doors.22 provided with a self-closing feature when appropriate? STAIRS AND STAIRWAYS landings have a ❏ Do stairwaydirection of traveldimension measured in the at least equal to the width of the stairway? vertical between stairway ❏ Is thelimited todistance (3. appropriately marked “NOT AN EXIT.62 handrails and the wall or surface they are mounted on? directly on a ❏ Where doors or gates open so the swing stairway.into adearea where are quate barriers and warnings provided to prevent employees from stepping into the path of traffic? ❏ Are all exits amarked with an exit sign and illuminated by reliable light source? immedi❏ Are the directions to exits. when ❏ Are elevated surface loadappropriate.88 centimeters) wide? stairs not less than ❏ Do incheshave landing platformsthe direction 30 (76. or racked a it from tipping.6576 meters) or less of vertical rise? angle no ❏ Do stairsdegrees? more than 50 and no less than 30 treads ❏ Are stairs of hollow-pan typethe panand landings filled to the top edge of with solid material? signs posted.

and moveable parts operating freely without binding or undue play? non-slip safety ❏ Arerung ladder. or other faulty equipment? ❏ Are employees instructed notastoause the top step of ordinary stepladders step? Occupational Safety and Health Administration .23 ❏ Are all exits kept free of obstructions? least two means of egress provided ❏ Are atelevated platforms. or other placing ladders on boxes. or explosive substances? is installed ❏ Where panic hardware it allow the on a to required exit door. andfeet provided on each metal or are ladder rungs and steps free of grease and oil? employees prohibited from placing lad❏ Are in front of doors opening toward thealadder der unless the door is blocked open. storm frameless glass doors. are the doors fully tempered and meet the safety requirements for human impact? EXIT DOORS ladders in condition. etc. will door open by applying a force of 15 pounds (6. pits. broken side rails. ❏ Are allbetween maintainedsidegood tight. unstable bases to obtain additional height? that are required to serve exits ❏ Are doorsand constructed so that theaspath of designed exit travel is obvious and direct? ❏ Are windows that could be mistaken for exit doors made inaccessible by means of barriers or railings? the ❏ Are exit doors able to be opened from of a key direction of exit travel without the use or any special knowledge or effort when the building is occupied? sliding. cleats. doors. corrosive.6576 meters) horizontal? exiting will be through ❏ Where glass exit doors.80 kilograms) or less in the direction of the exit traffic? ❏ Are doors on cold storage rooms provided with an inside release mechanism that will release the latch and open the door even if the door is padlocked or otherwise locked on the outside? exit ❏ Where alley. suffocating.3048 meter) vertical and 12 feet (3. and not less than 1-hour fire-resistive construction elsewhere? as required exit❏ Where ramps are usedthe part ofslope limited ing from a building.. locked. flammable. poisonous. is ramp to 1 foot (0.serving asoraoverhead exit door? hibited from required ❏ Are employees required to face the ladder when ascending or descending? ladders ❏ Are employees prohibited from usingrungs. or guarded? prohibited from ❏ Are employees barrels. or rooms where from the absence of a second exit would increase the risk of injury from hot. or other area where vehicles be operated. are adequate barriers and warnings provided to prevent employees from stepping into the path of traffic? doors in both directions ❏ Are locatedthat swingrooms where thereandfreare between is quent traffic provided with viewing panels in each door? PORTABLE LADDERS ❏ Are there sufficient exits to permit prompt escape in case of emergency? precautions taken to protect ❏ Are special during construction and repair employees operations? ❏ Is the number of exits from each floor of a building and the number of exits from the building itself appropriate for the building occupancy load? that are ❏ Are exit stairwaysparts of arequired to be separated from other building enclosed by at least 2-hour fire-resistive construction in buildings more than four stories in height. all joints steps and rails hardware and fittings securely attached. door pro❏ Is a revolving. or that are broken.doors open directly onto any may street. have missing steps.

braces. gin poles. and characteristics appropriate for the task? ground-fault ❏ Areall temporary circuit interrupters provided on electrical 15 and 20 ampere circuits used during periods of construction? and hydraulic hoses ❏ Are pneumatic checked regularly foron poweroperated tools deterioration or damage? ABRASIVE WHEEL EQUIPMENT GRINDERS adjusted to ❏ Is the work rest used and kept the wheel? within 1/8 inch (0. saws and safety guards? provided with appropriate tools used with ❏ Are power attachments.24 ❏ When portable rung ladders are used to gain access to elevated platforms. does the ladder always extend at least 3 feet (0. used while equipment that might produce flying materials or be subject to breakage? jacks checked periodically to ❏ Are in good operating condition?ensure they are ❏ Arealltool handles wedged tightly into the heads of tools? ❏ Are portable fans provided with full guards or screens having openings 1/2 inch (1.mushroomed heads during which develop use. or for other than their intended purposes? only adjust exten❏ Are employees instructed toat a base (not sion ladders while standing while standing on the ladder or from a position above the ladder)? ❏ Are tools stored in abedry. roofs. face ❏ Are appropriate using hand tools or shields.prohibited from using ladders as skids. etc.48 centimeters) centerspaced at 12 to center? HAND TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT ❏ Are all tools and equipment (both company and employee-owned) used at the workplace in good condition? such as chisels. or otherwise lash or hold it in place? ladders legibly ❏ Are portable metal “CAUTION . etc. punches. ❏ Are hand tools. secure location where they cannot tampered with? face protection used ❏ Is eye andor tempered studs or when driving hardened nails? PORTABLE (POWER OPERATED) TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT similar equipment ❏ Are grinders.. air compressors. etc.Domarked with signs reading Not Use Around Electrical Equipment” or equivalent wording? employees ❏ Areguys.. electrically operated ❏ Are alland equipment effectively grounded or tools of the approved double insulated type? guards in place ❏ Are effectiveand sprockets onover belts.9144 meters) above the elevated surface? tool ❏ Are tool cutting edges kept sharp so theskipwill move smoothly without binding or ping? ❏ Are employees required to secure the base of a portable rung or cleat type ladder to prevent slipping. or recommended the manufacturer? equipped with ❏ Are portable circular sawsthe base shoe? guards above and below ❏ Are circular saw guards checked to ensure that they are not wedged up. as proper shields. pulleys.. by guards. leaving the lower portion of the blade unguarded? or moving parts of equipment ❏ Are rotatingprevent physical contact? guarded to cord-connected.3175 centimeter) of OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . axes and similar equipment replaced promptly? ❏ Are worn or bent wrenches replaced? appropriate ❏ Are tools? handles used on files and similar caused ❏ Are employees aware of hazardstools? by faulty or improperly used hand safety glasses.? ❏ Are metal ladders inspected for damage? the rungs of ladders uniformly ❏ Areinches (30.2700 centimeters) or less? available and used ❏ Is hoisting equipmentand are hoist ratingsfor lifting heavy objects. reconditioned or replaced as necessary? ❏ Are broken or fractured handles on hammers. chains equipment such as concrete mixers. etc.

1336 ❏ Are all pulleys floorbelts within 7 feetproperly meters) of the or working level guarded? ❏ Are power-actuated tools left unloaded until they are ready to be used? ❏ Are all moving chains and gears properly guarded? Occupational Safety and Health Administration .6350 centimeters) of the wheel? guards cover spindle. set up and servicing.40 centimeters) with bold face type reading “POWER-ACTUATED TOOL IN USE” conspicuously posted when the tool is being used? ❏ Are manually operated valves and switches controlling the operation of equipment and machines clearly identified and readily accessible? ❏ Are all emergency stop buttons colored red? and (2. safety use appropriate PPE such as hard goggles. material handling and waste removal? machinery securely placed ❏ Is equipment andprevent tipping or other and anchored to movement that could result in personal injury? within reach ❏ Is there a power shut-off switchmachine? of the operator’s position at each electric power to each ❏ Canfor maintenance. ❏ Do sideand 75 percentthethe wheelnut and flange of diameter? ❏ Are bench and pedestal grinders permanently mounted? ❏ Are goggles or face shields always worn when grinding? ❏ Is the maximum revolutions per minute (rpm) rating of each abrasive wheel compatible with the rpm rating of the grinder motor? ❏ Are power-actuated tools inspected for obstructions or defects each day before use? have and ❏ Do power-actuated tool operators hats. repair.machine be locked out or security? of ❏ Are the noncurrent-carrying metal partsand electrically operated machines bonded grounded? ar❏ Are foot-operated switches guarded or by perranged to prevent accidental actuation sonnel or falling objects? ❏ Is cleanliness maintained around grinders? POWER-ACTUATED TOOLS ❏ Are employees who operate power-actuated tools trained in their use and required to carry a valid operator’s card? power-actuated tool stored in its ❏ Is each container when not being used? own locked sign at ❏ Is a10 inchesleast 7 inches (17. safety shoes and ear protectors? MACHINE GUARDING a training program to instruct employ❏ Is theresafe methods of machine operation? ees on to ensure that ❏ Is there adequate supervision machine operatemployees are following safe ing procedures? ❏ Are fixed ortopermanently mounted grinders connected their electrical supply system with metallic conduit or other permanent wiring method? ❏ Does each grinder have an individual on and off control switch? ❏ Is each electrically operated grinder effectively grounded? ❏ Are new abrasive wheels visually inspected and ring tested before they are mounted? and pro❏ Are dust collectorsused powered exhaustsprovided on grinders in operations that duce large amounts of dust? on grinders that ❏ Are splash guards mountedcoolant from reachuse coolant to prevent the ing employees? ❏ Is there a regular program of safety inspection of machinery and equipment? ❏ Is all machinery and equipment kept clean and properly maintained? around and ❏ Is sufficient clearance provided safe operabetween machines to allow for tions.78 centimeters) by (25.25 side the ❏ Is the adjustable tongue on the topwithinof1/4 grinder used and kept adjusted to inch (0.

flying chips and sparks? guards secure and ❏ Are machinecause a hazard whilearranged so they do not in use? are used for placing and ❏ If special hand toolsdo they protect the operaremoving material. adjusting. rotating parts. is the part required to be separately locked out or blocked? lines cannot be down. are the appropriate electrical enclosures identified and is a means provided to ensure that the control circuit can also be disconnected and locked out? of control circuits ❏ Is the locking out power disconnectsinstead of locking out main prohibited? equipment control valve handles ❏ Are allwith a means for locking out? provided that stored ❏ Does the lockout procedure requireetc. leased or blocked before equipment is locked out for repairs? employees provided ❏ Are appropriatepersonal safety locks? with individually keyed employees required to keep personal con❏ Are of their key(s) while they have safety locks trol in use? required ❏ Is itthe hazardthat only the employee exposed to can place or remove the safety lock? required employees safety ❏ Is itthe lockoutthat attempting acheck theafter of by startup making sure no one is exposed? instructed ❏ Are employeesstop button to always push the control circuit prior to re-energizing the main power switch? provided to identify any or ❏ Is there a meansare working on locked-out all employees who equipment by their locks or accompanying tags? sufficient number ❏ Are a or tags and safety of accident prevention signs padlocks provided for any reasonably foreseeable repair emergency? operations. ❏ Are provisions made to prevent machinesis from automatically starting when power restored after a power failure or shutdown? for equipment does ❏ If the power disconnect electrical control cirnot also disconnect the cuit.26 on machines that ❏ Are splash guards mountedcoolant from reachuse coolant to prevent the ing employees? protect the ❏ Are methods providedintothe machine operator and other employees area from hazards created at the point of operation. is air pressure controlled and PPE or other safeguards utilized to protect operators and other workers from eye and body injury? with a ❏ Are fan blades protectedl/2 inch guard having openings no larger than (1. ❏ If equipment ortagged.1336 meters) of the floor? used ❏ Are sawsdevicesfor ripping equipped with antikickback and spreaders? arm saws ❏ Are radial will gently so arranged that the cutting head return to the back of the table when released? LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROCEDURES equipment capable of move❏ Is all machinerytoorbe de-energized or disengaged ment required and blocked or locked out during cleaning. or ❏ When machine operator to leave the control size require an station and part of the machine could move if accidentally activated. servicing. ingoing nip points. configuration.) be reenergy (mechanical. barrels andinterlocked guarded by an enclosure that is with the drive mechanism so that revolution cannot occur unless the guard enclosure is in place? and mandrels have firm and ❏ Do arborsand are they free from play? secure bearings. tor’s hands? containers ❏ Are revolving drums. hydraulic. is a safe shutprocedure locked out and job established and rigidly followed? ❏ ❏ Are machines constructed so as to be free from excessive vibration when the largest size tool is mounted and run at full speed? If machinery is cleaned with compressed air. air.2700 centimeters) when operating within 7 feet (2. or setting up operations? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES .

manifolds) used? from sources ❏ Are cylinders kept awaygangways? of heat and elevators. acetylene generators. or protected by fire-resistant shields? personnel ❏ Areshock whenprotected from possible electrical floors are wet? precautions combustibles ❏ Arethe other sidetaken to protectwhen welding on of metal walls is underway? Occupational Safety and Health Administration .for the tended? of arc welding ❏ Is open circuit (no-load) voltage possible and and cutting machines as low as not in excess of the recommended limits? are automatic ❏ Under wet conditions.voltage used? controls for reducing no-load ❏ Is grounding of the machine frame and safety ground connections of portable machines checked periodically? ❏ exam❏ Are compressed gas cylinders regularlyrusting.. cutting. handles. regulators. deep or leakage? used in handling ❏ Is caresafety valves. reliefand storage of cylinders. etc. CUTTING AND BRAZING ❏ Are only authorized and trained personnel permitted to use welding. covered with damp sand. sparks and slag? watchers assigned when welding or ❏ Are fireis performed in locations where a sericutting ous fire might develop? ❏ Are combustible floors kept wet. green hose and black for inert gas and air hoses? pressure-reducing regulators used only ❏ Are gas and pressures for which they are in. ❏ Before and gas released? is the valve closed ❏ Are cable connectors adequately insulated? to be ❏ When the objecthazardswelded cannot be moved and fire cannot be removed.” the equivalent? cylinder valves. valves. or wrenches on stem valves when in service? gases stored ❏ Are liquefiedvalve covers inand shipped valveend up with place? crack a fuel ❏ Are employees trained never to of ignition? gas cylinder valve near sources a regulator is removed.and apparatuses couplings. ❏ Are cylinders. or brazing equipment? Does each operator have a copy of and follow the appropriate operating instructions? the acetylene ❏ Is red used to identifyfor the oxygen(and other fuel-gas) hose. ined for obvious signs of defects. or ❏ Is it prohibited to use cylinders as rollers or supports? ❏ Are empty cylinders appropriately marked and their valves closed? ❏ Are signs posted reading “DANGER. stairs. hoses kept free oily or greasy substances? ❏ Are electrodes removed from the holders when not in use? required that electric power to the welder ❏ Is itshut off when no one is in attendance? be ❏ Is suitable fire extinguishing equipment available for immediate use? to ❏ Is the welder forbidden hiscoil or loop welding electrode cable around body? machines ❏ Are wetuse? thoroughly dried and tested before electrode lead cables ❏ Are work and wear and damage.ofregulators. unless they are secured on special trucks? without fixed ❏ Do cylindersnon-adjustablewheels have keys. MATCHES.27 WELDING. pressure reducing valves. except of with at a burner or in a standard torch? ❏ Are only approved apparatuses (torches. andfrequently inspected for replaced when needed? ❏ Is care taken not to drop or strike cylinders? ❏ Are regulators removed and valve-protection caps put in place before moving cylinders. to prevent damage? precautions to prevent the mixture ❏ Areair or oxygen takenflammable gases. are shields used to confine heat. OR OPEN LIGHTS. NO or SMOKING.

28 and other ❏ Are used drums. cutting. or brazing operations proby Do eye protection. tankssubstances containers thoroughly cleaned of that could explode. hand shields and goggles meet appropriate standards? tected with PPE and clothing? ❏ Is a check made for adequate ventilation in and where welding or cutting is performed? ❏ When working in confined places. springloaded safety valves? total relieving the safety ❏ Is the able to preventcapacity ofin the receiver valve pressure from exceeding the maximum allowable working pressure of the receiver by more than 10 percent? with a ❏ Is every airatreceiver provided for the drain pipe and valve the lowest point removal of accumulated oil and water? ❏ Are safety devices on compressed air systems checked frequently? pressure system is re❏ Before aiscompressor’s bled off and the system paired. is of the container checked? compressed air is used with abrasive ❏ Whencleaning equipment. equipped so as uncontaminated air enters the compressor? prohibited from ❏ Are employeesclean up or move using compressed air to combustible dust if such action could cause the dust to be suspended in the air and cause a fire or explosion hazard? COMPRESSORS/AIR RECEIVERS ❏ Are air filters installed on the compressor intake? operated and lubricated in ❏ Are compressorsthe manufacturer’s recomaccordance with mendations? receiver ❏ Is everyand one orequipped with a pressure gauge more automatic. helmets. are employees trained to reduce the pressure to less than 10 pounds per square inch (psi)? ❏ Are compressed air receivers periodically drained of moisture and oil? all safety valves tested at ❏ Aredetermine whether they areregular intervals to in good operating condition? ❏ Is there a current operating permit? inlet air receivers and piping systems ❏ Is thefree ofofaccumulated oil and carbonaceous kept materials? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . is the operating blast valve a type that must be held open manually? compressed air is used to inflate auto ❏ Whenare a clip-on chuck and an inline regulatires. ignite. or produce toxic vapors before hot work begins? compressed air for ❏ When usingwear protective chip cleaning. tor preset to 40 psi required? COMPRESSORS AND COMPRESSED AIR ❏ employees exposed to the hazards created ❏ Arewelding. are environmental monitoring tests done and means provided for quick removal of welders in case of an emergency? ❏ Are compressors equipped with pressure relief valves and pressure gauges? air intakes installed and ❏ Are compressorto ensure that only clean. barrels. do employees guarding and PPE? or other ❏ Are safety chainscouplings suitable locking devices used at of high-pressure hose lines where a connection failure would create a hazard? air is used to empty con❏ Before compressedthe safe working pressure tainers of liquid. top and provide sides? employees ❏ Are compressedstrictly prohibited from directing air towards a person? ❏ Are employees prohibited from using highly compressed air for cleaning purposes? ❏ When compressed air is used to clean clothing. back. the pressure locked out? warn of the automatic ❏ Are signs postedoftothe compressors? starting feature belt drive system totally enclosed to ❏ Is theprotection for the front.

intense radiant heat. or rolling? gas ❏ Are cylinders containingaliquefied fuelthat the stored or transported in position so safety relief device is always in direct contact with the vapor space in the cylinder? rated load each hoist ❏ Is thevisible to theofoperator? legibly marked and stops ❏ Aretrolley provided at the safe limits of travel for hoists? plainly ❏ Are the controls of hoiststravel or marked to indicate the direction of motion? ❏ Is each cage-controlled hoist equipped with an effective warning device? or other suitable de❏ Are close-fittingonguardshoist to ensure that vices installed each hoist ropes will be maintained in the sheave grooves? chains or ropes long enough ❏ Are all hoistfull range of movement of the to handle the application while maintaining two full wraps around the drum at all times? points or contact ❏ Are guards provided for nipand sheaves perpoints between hoist ropes manently located within 7 feet (2. or any other defect that might indicate a weakness or render them unfit for service? the periodic check of low-pressure fuel ❏ Doescylinders include a close inspection of the gas cylinders’ bottoms? HOIST AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT ❏ Is the operator instructed to avoid carrying loads above people? INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS . be clearly heard above normal noise in the areas where it is operated? Occupational Safety and Health Administration . electric arcs. whistle. or with a collar or recess to protect the valve? cylinders legibly ❏ Are type of gas? marked to clearly identify the gas cylinders stored in areas ❏ Are compressedexternal heat sources such as protected from flame impingement. falling.FORKLIFTS ❏ Is each overhead electric hoistatequipped with a limit device to stop the hook its highest and lowest point of safe travel? each hoist automatically and hold ❏ Will load up to 125 percent ofstoprated load if any its its actuating force is removed? employees properly trained in the use ❏ Are type of industrial truck they operate? of the ❏ Are only trained personnel allowed to operate industrial trucks? overhead protective equipment ❏ Is substantialhigh lift rider equipment? provided on the required ❏ Areand enforced?lift truck operating rules posted each indus❏ Is directional lighting provided on with less trial truck that operates in an area than 2 footcandles per square foot of general lighting? truck have a warning ❏ Does each industrial or other device that can horn. ground. when the cylinder is empty and completion of each job? checked ❏ Are low-pressure fuel gas cylindersdistortion. or high-temperature lines? located or stored in areas ❏ Are cylindersbe damaged by passing orwhere they will not falling objects or subject to tampering by unauthorized persons? cylinders or transported a man❏ Are to preventstored from creating ainhazard by ner them tipping.1336 meters) of the floor. or working platform? chains ❏ Are employees prohibited from usingand pro-or rope slings that are kinked or twisted hibited from using the hoist rope or chain wrapped around the load as a substitute for a sling? ❏ Are valve protectors always placed on cylinders when the cylinders are not in use or connected for use? ❏ Are all valves closed off before a cylinderatisthe moved.29 COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS ❏ Are cylinders with a water weight capacity over 30 pounds (13. general cracks. gong.6 kilograms) equipped with a means to connect a valve protector device. periodically for corrosion.

whether loaded or empty? ❏ Are fire control sprinkler heads kept clean? signs posted in ❏ Are “NO SMOKING”paint booths and spray areas. ❏ Are spray or otherconstructed noncombustimasonry. is it arranged that it will not circulate the contaminated air? of ❏ Are confined spaces thoroughly emptiedsuch any corrosive or hazardous substances.30 the brakes industrial truck capable ❏ Arebringing the on eachto a complete and safe of vehicle stop when fully loaded? parking brake the industrial truck ❏ Does thethe vehicle fromofmoving when unatprevent tended? trucks ❏ Are industrial vapors.flash point to 100 degrees F) or more? ❏ Are motorized hand and hand/rider trucks designed so that the brakes are applied and power to the drive motor shuts off when the operator releases his or her grip on the device that controls the truck’s travel? trucks with ❏ Are industrialare operatedinternal combustion engines that in buildings or enclosed areas carefully checked to ensure that such operations do not cause harmful concentrations of dangerous gases or fumes? safe distances maintained from ❏ Areelevated ramps and platforms? the edges of prohibited from ❏ Are employeeselevated portionsstanding or passing under of trucks. or ignitable fibers may be present approved for such locations? spray surfaces and ❏ Is the20 feetarea free of hotfrom flames. as acids or caustics. operating electrical motors and other ignition sources? illuminate spray ❏ Are portable lamps usedatohazardous location? areas suitable for use in ❏ Is approved respiratory equipment provided and used when appropriate during spraying operations? cleaning have a ❏ Do solvents used for Fahrenheit (deg.096 meters) sparks. paint storage areas? ❏ Is the spray area kept clean of combustible residue? booths of metal.that operate where flammable gases. at least (6. combustible dust. substantial ble material? ❏ Are unauthorized employees prohibited from riding on trucks? from driving up ❏ Are operators prohibited of a fixed object?to anyone standing in front ❏ Are arms and legs kept inside the running lines of the truck? handled ❏ Areofloadstruck? only within the rated capacity the ❏ Are trucks in need of repair removed from service immediately? SPRAYING OPERATIONS ❏ Are spray booth floors and baffles noncombustible and easily cleaned? kept out of the ❏ Is infrared drying apparatusoperations and is spray area during spraying the spray booth completely ventilated before using the drying apparatus? ❏ Is the electric drying apparatus properly grounded? fixtures for spray booths located ❏ Are lightingbooth with the interior lighted outside the through sealed clear panels? motors for ❏ Are the electric or ducts? exhaust fans placed outside booths ❏ Are belts and pulleys inside the booth fully enclosed? ❏ Do ducts have access doors to allow cleaning? ❏ Do all drying spaces have adequate ventilation? ENTERING CONFINED SPACES ❏ Is adequate ventilation provided before spraying operations are started? ❏ Is mechanical ventilation provided when spraying operations are performed in enclosed areas? is ❏ When mechanical ventilation so provided during spraying operations. before entry? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . paint rooms.

which may cause harm by inhalation. epoxies. flammable. identified? hazards ❏ Are employees aware of thethey may involved with the various chemicals be exposed to in their work environment. ❏ Are alland equipment insideor other moving parts confined spaces locked out if they present a hazard? equipment such as salamanders. such as ammonia.? to chemicals in the ❏ Is employee exposure acceptable levels? workplace kept within ❏ Can a less harmful method or product be used? area ventilation ❏ Is the workwork performed?system appropriate for the ❏ Are spray painting operations performed in spray rooms or booths equipped with an appropriate exhaust system? to con❏ Is employee exposureusewelding fumes expotrolled by ventilation. toxic subto stances and explosive concentrations in the confined space before entry? Is either natural or mechanical ventilation provided prior to confined space entry? provided for the ❏ Is adequate illuminationconfined space? work to be performed in the inside the confined space ❏ Is the atmosphereor continuously monitored frequently tested during work? equipped ❏ Is there a trained and outside thestandby employee positioned confined space. are provisions made ensure the exhaust gases are vented outside of the enclosure? decaying ❏ Is each confined space checked for may provegetation or animal matter which duce methane? for possible ❏ Is the confined space checkedcontain toxic industrial waste which could properties? confined space is and ❏ If theareas where motorbelow groundbe opernear vehicles will ating. etc. caustics. sound an alarm if necessary and render assistance? standby employee appropriately ❏ Is theequipped to handle an emergency?trained and ❏ Are employees prohibited from entering the confined space without lifelines and respiratory equipment if there is any question as to the cause of an emergency? equipment ❏ Is approved respiratorythe confinedrequired if the atmosphere inside space cannot be made acceptable? ❏ Are all work areas properly illuminated? ❏ Are employees instructed in proper first aid and other emergency procedures? ❏ Are hazardous substances. sure time limits. of respirators. furnaces. in a confined space. etc.5 percent by volume? used ❏ Whenever combustion-type equipment is to in a confined space. is sufficient air provided to assure combustion without reducing the oxygen concentration of the atmosphere below 19. ingestion. blood and other potentially infectious materials. torches.. torches lighted only outside the confined area and the confined area tested for an explosive atmosphere each time before a lighted torch is taken into the confined space? ❏ If employees will be using oxygen-consuming Occupational Safety and Health Administration . chlorine. agitators. are hoses checked for leaks. corrosive valved off and blanked or disconnected and separated before entry? impellers. is it possible for vehicle exhaust or carbon monoxide to enter the space? ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS ❏ appropriate atmospheric tests performed ❏ Arecheck for oxygen deficiency. whose sole responsibility is to watch the work in progress. or space thatmaterials inert. or other means? ❏ Is all portable electrical equipment used inside confined spaces either grounded and insulated or equipped with ground fault protection? compressed gas ❏ Are confined space? bottles forbidden inside the ❏ Before gas welding or burning is started in a confined space. or skin absorption or contact.31 lines to a confined contain ❏ Are alltoxic.

all fixed work ❏ Wherebeen provided with have cooling or air areas spot conditioning? ❏ Are employees screened before ifassignment to areas of high heat to determine their health might make them more susceptible to having an adverse reaction? working on streets and road❏ Are employeesexposed to the hazards of traffic ways who are required to wear bright colored (traffic orange) warning vests? stacks and air intakes located so ❏ Are exhaustcontaminated air will not be rethat nearby circulated within a building or other enclosed area? ❏ Is equipment producing ultraviolet radiation properly shielded? precautions observed where ❏ Are universalexposure to blood or other pooccupational tentially infectious materials can occur and in all instances where differentiation of types of body fluids or potentially infectious materials is difficult or impossible? FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS waste ❏ Are combustible scrap. to prevent airborne asbestos fibers. including combustion? tanks used to ❏ Are approved containers andand combustible store and handle flammable liquids? connections ❏ Are allpiping. used and maintained wherever required? written standard ❏ Are there the selection andoperating procedures for use of respirators where needed? ❏ ❏ Is all water provided for drinking. and are ducts not plugged and belts not slipping? physical ❏ Are employees’assigned capacities assessed before they are to jobs requiring heavy work? employees instructed in ❏ Are for lifting heavy objects? the proper manner heat is a problem. debris and covered materials (oily rags..g.g. bloodborne pathogens)? methods used. etc.are usedcarbon ings or other are the monoxide levels kept below maximum acceptable concentration? been a ❏ Hasinthere facilitiesdetermination that noise levels the are within acceptable levels? taken to ❏ Are steps beingexcessiveuse engineering controls to reduce noise levels? ❏ Are proper precautions being taken when handling asbestos and other fibrous materials? labels and signs used to ❏ Are cautionsubstances (e.. ❏ Are wet the emission ofwhen practicable.32 welders ❏ Arewith flashand other nearby workers provided shields during welding operations? other vehicles in build❏ If forklifts andenclosed areas. silica dust and similar hazardous materials? examined and ❏ Are engineering controlsscheduled basis?maintained or replaced on a ❏ Is vacuuming with appropriate equipment used whenever possible rather than blowing or sweeping dust? that ❏ Are grinders.) stored in metal receptacles and promptly removed from the worksite? practiced to ❏ Is proper storagespontaneousminimize the risk of fire.)? ❏ Is PPE provided. saws and other machinesindustriproduce respirable dusts vented to an al collector or central exhaust system? systems de❏ Are all local exhaust ventilationflow and volsigned to provide sufficient air ume for the application. etc. parts cleaning tainers when not tanks. pans.. vapor on drums and combustible liquid and liquid tight? liquids kept in closed con❏ Are all flammablein use (e.g. asbestos)warn of hazardous and biohazards (e. washing and cooking potable? ❏ Are all outlets for water that is not suitable for drinking clearly identified? Are restrooms and washrooms kept clean and sanitary? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES .

86 meters) of outside areas containing flammable liquids and within 10 feet (3. Class C . respirators.storage tanks. eye protection.g.. etc.or vent the development of excessive vacuum pressure as a result of filling. ❏ Are all containers.. Class B . “CAUSTICS”? ❏ Are fuel gas cylinders and oxygen cylinders separated by distance and fire-resistant barriers while in storage? fire extinguishers selected ❏ Arethe types of materials in theand provided for areas where they are to be used? Class A . or atmosphere temperature changes? equipped with ❏ Are storage tanksrelieve excessiveemergency venting that will internal pressure caused by fire exposure? ❏ Are rulesofenforced in areas involving storage and use hazardous materials? HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL EXPOSURE aware of the potential ❏ Are employeessafe handling practices hazards and trained in for situations involving various chemicals stored or used in the workplace such as acids. phenols. epoxies.33 of flammable liquids grounded ❏ Are bulk drumscontainers during dispensing? and bonded to flammable and com❏ Do storage rooms forexplosion-proof lights bustible liquids have and mechanical or gravity ventilation? handled ❏ Is liquefiedinpetroleum gas stored. caustics. maintained and tagged at intervals not to exceed one year? ❏ Are all extinguishers fully charged and in their designated places? ❏ Are flammable or toxic chemicals kept in closed containers when not in use? chemical piping ❏ Aretheir content? systems clearly marked as to ❏ Where corrosive liquids are frequently handled in open containers or drawn from storage vessels or pipelines. are the nozzle so directed arranged that water will not be sprayed into operating electrical switchboards and equipment? safety cans used ❏ Arecombustible liquidsfor dispensingofflammable or at the point use? ❏ Are all spills of flammable or combustible liquids cleaned up promptly? ❏ Are storage tanks adequately vented to pre.Flammable liquid. practices and used accordance with safe and standards? signs on liquefied ❏ Are “NO SMOKING” and inpostedwhere flampetroleum gas tanks areas mable or combustible materials are used or stored? liquefied petroleum ❏ Areprevent damage fromstorage tanks guarded to vehicles? and flammable liquids ❏ Are all solvent wastescovered containers until kept in fire-resistant. ❏ Are appropriate fire extinguishers mounted within 75 feet (22. bases.Ordinary combustible material fires.)? ❏ Are extinguishers free from obstructions or blockage? ❏ Are all extinguishers serviced. they are removed from the worksite? used whenever possible ❏ Is vacuuming or sweeping combustiblerather than blowing dust? firm separators placed between containers ❏ Arecombustibles or flammables that are stackof ed one upon another to ensure their support and stability? are ❏ Where sprinkler systemsheadspermanently or installed. labeled as to e.Energized-electrical equipment fires. etc. are adequate means readily Occupational Safety and Health Administration .048 meters) of any inside storage area for such materials? ❏ Are all employees required to use personal protective clothing and equipment when handling chemicals (gloves. etc. gas or grease fires. emptying.their contents.? exposure ❏ Is employeelevels? to chemicals kept within acceptable showers ❏ Are eye-wash fountains and safety chemicals provided in areas where corrosive are handled? such as vats.

❏ If you have a respirator protection the correct are your employees instructed on usage and limitations of the respirators? Are the respirators National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)approved for this particular application? Are they regularly inspected.) labeled (i. headaches. explanation of “A Right to Know”. solvents.exhaust ventilation vapors.e. ❏ Are materials that give offfumes asphyxiant. spray painting. do you have a medical or biological monitoring system in operation? familiar with the threshold limit val❏ Are youpermissible exposure limits of airborne ues or contaminants and physical agents used in your workplace? procedures been ❏ Have appropriate controlmaterials. MSDS contents for each hazardous substance or class of substances. sanitized and maintained? ❏ If internal combustion engines are used. buffing. designed and exhausted handled in properly booths or similar locations? general dilution or local ❏ Do you usesystems to control dusts. ❏ s Is operational ventilation equipment provided for removal of contaminants from production grinding. other factors of discomfort when they use solvents or other chemicals? ❏ Are respirators stored in a convenient. labeling and employee training? substance ❏ Is each container for a hazardousetc. vats.. or sensitization of the skin? considered having an industrial ❏ Have you or environmental health specialist hygienist evaluate your operation? ❏ ❏ Is PPE used and maintained whenever necessary? written standard ❏ Are there the selection andoperating procedures for use of respirators where needed? program. suffocating. and/or vapor degreasing? s OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . nausea. with product identity and a hazard warning (communication of the specific health hazards and physical hazards)? an employee training program ❏ Is there substances that includes: for hazardous s an explanation of what an MSDS is and how to use and obtain one. cleaned. including instituted for hazardous safe handling practices and the use of respirators and ventilation systems? are hazardous substances ❏ Whenever possible. storage tanks. fumes. bottles. or mists that may be generated in your workplace? ❏ Is there a written hazard communication program dealing with MSDSs. clean and sanitary location. and are they adequate for emergencies? Are employees prohibited from eating in areas where hazardous chemicals are present? ❏ Is there a dermatitis problem? Do employees complain about dryness. smoke. where applicable? ❏ If hazardous substances are used in your processes.34 available for neutralizing or disposing of spills or overflows and performed properly and safely? operating procedures established ❏ Are standard being followed when cleaning up and are they chemical spills? ❏ Do employees complain aboutordizziness. irritation. or anesthetic stored in remote or isolated locations when not in use? HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES COMMUNICATION used in ❏ Is there a list of hazardous substancesavailable your workplace and an MSDS readily for each hazardous substance used? written exposure control ❏ Is there a currentexposure to bloodborne plan for occupational pathogens and other potentially infectious materials. is carbon monoxide kept within acceptable levels? than blowing ❏ Is vacuuming used rather possible for or sweeping dust whenever cleanup? toxic. gases. irritation.

cleaners. vending grounded? s s s s s ❏ Do extension cords have a grounding conductor? ❏ Are multiple plug adaptors prohibited? ground-fault circuit ❏ Areeach temporary 15 orinterrupters installed on 20 ampere. whenever possible? and equipment ❏ Are portable electrical toolsinsulated type? grounded or of the double as vacuum ❏ Are electrical appliances suchmachines. s s ❏ Are employees trained in: s ❏ Does the employee training program on the bloodborne pathogens standard contain the following elements: s how to recognize tasks that might result in occupational exposure. work practices and PPE. etc. how to obtain information on the types. an explanation of the basis for selection of PPE. and details of the hazard communication program. sary switches opened. polishers. ELECTRICAL s an accessible copy of the standard and an explanation of its contents. including how to use the labeling system and MSDSs. how to use work practice. 120 volt alternating current (AC) circuit at locations Occupational Safety and Health Administration . an explanation of the employer’s exposure control plan and the means by which employees can obtain a copy of the written plan. handling. a general explanation of the epidemiology and symptoms of bloodborne diseases. or adjusted. location. s location of physical and health hazards in particular work areas and the specific protective measures to be used. and their limitations. selection. information on the hepatitis B vaccine. information on the appropriate actions to take and persons to contact in an emergency involving blood or other potentially infectious materials. labels and color coding.35 s identification of where an employee can see the written hazard communication program. and an explanation of signs. maintained. proper use. s follow-up that will be made available. locked out or tagged. decontamination and disposal of PPE. an explanation of the procedure to follow if an exposure incident occurs. removal. including the methods of reporting the incident and the medical s s s s s s require compliance with OSHA ❏ Do youfor all contract electrical work? standards required to report any obvi❏ Are all employeesor property in connection ous hazard to life with electrical equipment or lines as soon as possible? s ❏ Are employees instructed to make preliminary inspections and/or appropriate tests to determine conditions before starting work on electrical equipment or lines? are to be ❏ When electrical equipment or linesare necesserviced. engineering controls and PPE. information on the types. an explanation of the use and limitations of methods that will prevent or reduce exposure. an explanation of the modes of transmission of Bloodborne Pathogens. location. including appropriate engineering controls. information on post-exposure evaluations and follow-up. handling.. an explanation of the appropriate methods for recognizing tasks and the other activities that may involve exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials. decontamination and disposal of PPE. proper use. removal. and who to contact and what to do in an emergency.

tools. provided with tight-fitting covers or plates? ❏ Are disconnectingofswitches for electrical to motors in excess two horsepower able open the circuit when the motor is stalled without exploding? (Switches must be horsepower rated equal to or in excess of the motor rating. floor. or excavations are being performed? ❏ Are all temporary circuits protected by suitable disconnecting switches or plug connectors at the junction with permanent wiring? have electrical installations in ❏ Do you dust or vapor areas? If so.. and is the cord jacket securely held in place? ❏ Are electrical enclosures such as switches. hand-lines or metallic thread woven into the fabric prohibited where they could come in contact with energized parts of equipment or circuit conductors? ❏ Is the use of metal ladders prohibited where the ladder or the person using the ladder could come in contact with energized parts of equipment. demolition. etc. drilling. other side of walls. alterations. or plates? ❏ Are flexible cords and cables free of splices or taps? clamps or other securing means provided ❏ Areflexible cords or cables at plugs.) protection provided in the ❏ Is low voltagemotors driving machines orcontrol device of equipment that could cause injury from inadvertent starting? switch or circuit ❏ Is each motor disconnecting of the motor conbreaker located within sight trol device? motor ❏ Is eachor is thelocated within sight of its controller controller disconnecting means able to be locked open or is a separate disconnecting means installed in the circuit within sight of the motor? controller ❏ Is thehorsepowerfor each motor that exceeds two rated equal to or above the rating of the motor it serves? ❏ locations. equipment. junction boxes. modifications. fixtures. are ❏ In wet or damp appropriate forelectrical tools and equipment the use or locaAre all cord.) determined before digging. underground. etc. or similar work is begun? metal measuring ❏ Aresimilar devices withtapes. plugs.. ropes. do hazardous they meet the National Electrical Code (NEC) for hazardous locations? wiring and cords frayed ❏ Are exposed insulation repairedwithreplacedor deteriorated or promptly? ❏ Are all electrical raceways and enclosures securely fastened in place? ❏ Are all energized parts of electrical circuits and equipment guarded against accidental contact by approved cabinets or enclosures? ❏ Is sufficient access and working space provided and maintained around all electrical equipment to permit ready and safe operations and maintenance? openings (including conduit ❏ Are all unusedelectrical enclosures and fittings knockouts) in closed with appropriate covers. receptacles. receptaon cles. cable and raceway connections intact and secure? tion or otherwise protected? lines ❏ Is the location of electrical powerunder and cables (overhead.36 where construction. or circuit conductors? ❏ Are all disconnecting switches and circuitequipbreakers labeled to indicate their use or ment served? ❏ Are employees who regularly work on or lines around energized electrical equipment or instructed in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)? employees prohibited from ❏ Areenergized lines or equipmentworking alone on over 600 volts? ❏ Are disconnecting means always opened before fuses are replaced? interior wiring systems include provi❏ Do allfor grounding metal parts of electrical sions raceways. equipment and enclosures? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . etc.

valve. or ❏ Are equipment prohibited nearsparking. are outlets or taps to alert employees that the water is unsafe and not to be used for drinking.containeralways metal contact between the and the fuel tank? ❏ Have work areas where noise levels make difvoice communication between employees ficult been identified and posted? ❏ Are fueling hoses designed to handle the specific type of fuel? ❏ Are employees prohibited from handling or transferring gasoline in open containers? open lights. evaporated.37 NOISE ❏ health ❏ Is there an ongoing preventivelevels ofprogram to educate employees in safe noise.arethe informaby name is tion readily visible on the pipe near each valve or outlet? substances ❏ When pipelines carrying hazardousconstructed are identified by tags.or arcing fueling transfer of fuel operations? ❏ Are noise levels measured with a sound level meter or an octave band analyzer and are records being kept? controls been used ❏ Have engineeringnoise levels? Whereto reduce excessive engineering controls are determined to be infeasible. or other personal use? ❏ When hazardous substances are transported through above-ground piping. the nozzles self-closing? IDENTIFICATION OF PIPING SYSTEMS ❏ Is approved hearing protective equipment (noise attenuating devices) available to every employee working in noisy areas? ❏ Have you tried isolating noisy machinery from the rest of your operation? ear are employees ❏ If you use and protectors. the message printed ❏ Are employees prohibited from fueling an internal combustion engine with a flammable liquid while the engine is running? ❏ Are fueling operations performed to minimize spillage? spillage occurs ❏ When is the spilled fuelduring fueling operations. are administrative controls (i. open flames.in their use? properly fitted instructed high given peri❏ Are employees intestingnoise areas that you odic audiometric to ensure have an effective hearing protection system? FUELING piped ❏ When nonpotable water ispostedthrough a facility. worker rotation) being used to minimize individual employee exposure to noise? ❏ Is smoking prohibited in the vicinity of fueling operations? fueling operations in ❏ Areother enclosed areasprohibitednot buildings or that are specifically ventilated for this purpose? is ❏ Where fueling or transfer of fuelare done through a gravity flow system. effects of noise on their health and the use of personal protection? is there ❏ In fueling operations. Are there areas in the workplace where continuous noise levels exceed 85 decibels? exposures. or are other measures taken to control vapors before restarting the engine? tank caps ❏ Are fuelstarting thereplaced and secured before engine? Occupational Safety and Health Administration . washing. is each pipeline identified at points where confusion could introduce hazards to employees? are identified ❏ When pipelines are the bandsby color painted bands or tapes. and are all visible parts of the line so identified? pipelines are the ❏ Whencode posted atidentified by color. washed away completely. or tapes located at reasonable intervals and at each outlet. isconfucolor all locations where sion could introduce hazards to employees? contents of pipelines identified ❏ When theor name abbreviation. or connection. are the tags of durable materials.e..

ropes. or similar devices. vapors. mables. valves. or gases to be controlled. with at least a 4 B:C rating maintained in each employee transport vehicle? tools or tools with sharp ❏ When cutting passenger compartmentsedges are carried in of employee transport vehicles. or other serviceable parts of the system? MATERIALS HANDLING ❏ Are securing chains. ❏ When pipelines external source. the operator’s license appropriate for the class of vehicle being driven and are there enough seats? employees ❏ Are vehicles used to transporthorns. and to convey them to a suitable point of disposal? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . windshields and turn signals. and are they in good repair? ❏ Are transport vehicles provided with handrails. when always protected by dunnage (packing material) sufficient to provide stability? when ❏ Are dockorboards (bridge plates) usedtaking loading unloading operations are place between vehicles and docks? who on public ❏ Do employees have operate vehicleslicenses? thoroughfares valid operator’s or employees are ❏ When sevenin amore bus. brakes. topple.38 clearly and permanently. in good condition. and are tags installed at each valve or outlet? are heated by electricity. is regularly transported van. mirrors. fumes. or truck. steps. placed and arranged to allow employees to safely mount or dismount? employee transport vehicles equipped ❏ Aretimes with at least two reflective-type at all flares? ❏ ❏ Are trucks and trailers secured from movement during loading and unloading operations? Are dock plates and loading ramps constructed and maintained with sufficient strength to support imposed loading? Are hand trucks maintained in safe operating condition? ❏ Is a fully charged fire extinguisher. or wise become unstable? CONTROL OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES BY VENTILATION ❏ of suffi❏ Are chutes equipped with sideboardsbeing cient height to prevent the materials handled from falling off? and gravity roller ❏ Are chutessecured to prevent sections firmly placed or displacement? provisions ❏ Arethe handled made to brake the movementof of materials at the delivery end rollers or chutes? usually ❏ Are palletsmoved? inspected before being loaded or devices ❏ Are safety latches and othermaterialsbeing used to prevent slippage of off of hoisting hooks? and velocity of air ❏ Is the volume sufficient to gatherin each exhaust system the dusts. or slings adequate for the job? that no one is ❏ Are provisions made to ensureor equipment? below when hoisting material available to ❏ Are MSDSssubstances? employees handling hazardous TRANSPORTING EMPLOYEES AND MATERIALS ❏ Is there safe clearance for equipment through aisles and doorways? permanently marked ❏ Are aisleways unhindered passage? and kept clear to allow ❏ Are motorized vehicles and mechanized equipment inspected daily or prior to use? ❏ Are vehicles shut off and brakes set prior to loading or unloading? of liquid combustibles or flam❏ Are containersstacked while being moved. chockers. or other warning signs or tags placed at unions. are they placed in closed boxes or containers that are secured in place? employees on top ❏ Areany load thatprohibited from riding otherof could shift. equipped with lamps. are suitable steam. mists. stirrups.

handle. is it done in a manner that will not contaminate non-regulated areas or the external environment? TIRE INFLATION ❏ Is adequate makeup air provided to areas where exhaust systems are operating? source point for makeup ❏ Is theonly clean. constructed and collapse or failure of any part of the system? or doors provided at ❏ Are clean-out ports12 feet (3. personal protective clothing or unless it has been properly cleaned? ❏ Are machines and equipment that process. or chemical reaction hazard in the duct? employees to change ❏ When clothing intoare requiredclothing.54 hose have a centimechuck with at inches (6. their operation one will not offset the functions of the other? SANITIZING EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING ❏ Where tires are mounted and/or inflated on drop center wheels or on wheels with split rims and/or retainer rings. free ofair located so that contaminants will enter the work environment? systems ❏ Where two orismore ventilationsuch that serve a work area. fresh air. other items are ❏ When into or removed from aorcarcinogen-regtaken ulated area. ductssupported to prevent signed. or apply materials that could injure employees cleaned and/or decontaminated before being overhauled or placed in storage? from smoking or ❏ Are employees prohibitedcontaminants are eating in any area where present that could be injurious if ingested? Occupational Safety and Health Administration .39 and plenums de❏ Are exhaust inlets. could the combination of substances involved create a fire. explosion. materials. or effective inflating tires mounted on split rims or rims using retainer rings? standing ❏ Are employees prohibited afrom while it is directly over or in front of tire being inflated? ❏ Is required personal protective clothing or equipment able to be cleaned and disinfected easily? interchanging ❏ Are employees prohibited fromequipment. rack.45 ters) of hose between the chuck and an in-line hand valve and gauge? the automati❏ Doesshuttire inflation control valve valve is cally off the air flow when the released? tire device such as a ❏ Is aotherrestrainingmeans used while cage.6576 meters)intervals not to exceed in all horizontal runs of exhaust ducts? two or more different ❏ Wherecontrolled through the operations are being same exhaust system. is a safe practice procedure posted and enforced? inflation clip-on ❏ Does each tireleast 2. is from street protective a clean change room with a separate storage facility for street and protective clothing provided? ❏ Are employees required to shower aand wash their hair as soon as possible after known contact with a carcinogen has occurred? equipment.

In rare instances. (3) a conference with management on findings. Your telephone call or letter sets the consulting machinery in motion. access compliance information. Opening Conference.a commitment that you are expected to make prior to the actual consultation visit. this safety and health Consultation Program is completely separate from OSHA’s enforcement efforts. though limited services away from the worksite are available. The service is delivered at your workplace by state governments using well-trained professional staff. Talking with employees during the walkthrough helps the consultant identify and judge the nature and extent of specific hazards. improve their occupational safety and health management systems. possible solutions and abatement periods to eliminate or control any serious hazards identified during the walkthrough. The consultant will then review detailed findings with you in a closing conference.S. In that case. He or she may suggest and even provide measures such as selfinspection and safety and health training that you and your employees can apply to prevent future hazardous situations. When the consultant arrives at your worksite for the scheduled visit. DC 20210. and (5) training and assistance with implementing recommendations. however. plus any unsafe or unhealthful working conditions that the consultant uncovers. 200 Constitution Avenue. At that time you can discuss problems. the consultant may find an “imminent danger” situation during the walkthrough. your firm’s name and any information you provide about your workplace. Your only obligation will be to commit to correcting serious job safety and health hazards discovered -. and even qualify for a one-year exemption from routine OSHA inspections. The consultant will study your entire workplace. Most consultations take place on-site. If hazards are discovered. You will learn not only what you need to improve but what you are doing right. will not routinely be reported to the OSHA enforcement staff. Together. employers can find out about potential hazards at their worksites. he or she will first meet with you in an opening conference to briefly review the consultant’s role and the obligations you incur as an employer. NW. ON-SITE CONSULTATION Using the free and confidential on-site consultation service largely funded by the Federal OSHA. Washington. your work schedule and the time needed for the consultant to prepare adequately to serve you. No inspections are triggered by using the Consultation Program and no citations are issued or penalties proposed. Walk-through. Department of Labor. Primarily targeted for smaller businesses. and to educate them about cost-effective means for ensuring the safety and health of worksites. you must take immediate OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . A comprehensive consultation also includes: (1) appraisal of all mechanical and environmental hazards and physical work practices. or only those specific operations you designate. Since consultation is a voluntary activity. you may limit the visit to one or more specific problems. Better informed and alert employees can help you identify and correct potential injury and illness hazards in your workplace. Room N-3700. The consultant will discuss your specific needs and set up a visit date based on the priority assigned to your request. provide guidance on regulatory standards. but which nevertheless may pose safety or health risks to your employees. (4) a written report of recommendations and agreements.40 ASSISTANCE IN SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR SMALL BUSINESSES OSHA Assistance OSHA’S OFFICE OF SMALL BUSINESS ASSISTANCE OSHA created the Office of Small Business Assistance to help small business employers understand their safety and health obligations. (2) appraisal of the present job safety and health program or help in establishing one. Getting Started. you must request it. the consultant will work with you to ensure they are corrected in a reasonable timeframe agreed upon by all parties. Your name. The consultant also will point out other safety or health risks which might not be cited under OSHA standards. OSHA strongly encourages maximum employee participation in the walk-through. It is also confidential. as well. OSHA’s Office of Small Business Assistance can be contacted by telephone at (202) 693-2220 or by writing to the U. you and the consultant will examine conditions in your workplace. and discuss applicable OSHA standards. OSHA encourages a complete review of your firm’s safety and health situation. if you wish. Closing Conference.

You will get professional advice and assistance on the correction of workplace hazards and benefit from on-site training and assistance provided.41 action to protect employees.html OTHER COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS Information about OSHA’s different cooperative programs is available from any OSHA Regional Office. In many states. high-hazard employers to develop. SHARP provides recognition of employers who have demonstrated exemplary achievements in workplace safety and health. You. This program is designed to provide incentives and support to smaller. The consultant will offer general approaches and options to you. beginning with a comprehensive safety and health consultation visit.S. If you fail to eliminate or control identified serious hazards (or an imminent danger) according to the plan and within the limits agreed upon or an agreed-upon extension. Abatement and Follow-through. assist you in developing or maintaining an effective safety and health program. report possible violations to OSHA enforcement staff. Employers who meet these specific SHARP requirements may be removed from OSHA’s programmed inspection list for one year. guarantee that your workplace will “pass” an OSHA inspection. The consultant can help you establish or strengthen an employee safety and health program. adoption and implementation of effective safety and health management systems. This type of referral is extremely rare. once program criteria are met. The consultant may also contact you from time to time to check your progress. s s s s s s The on-site consultants will not: s issue citations or propose penalties for violations of OSHA standards. recommend you for a one-year exclusion from OSHA programmed inspections. NW. or by contacting OSHA’s Directorate of Cooperative and State Programs at the U. In certain other situations–those that would be judged a “serious violation” under OSHA criteria–you and the consultant must develop and agree to a reasonable plan and schedule to eliminate or control that hazard. the consultant will send you a detailed written report explaining the findings and confirming any abatement periods agreed upon. implement and continuously improve effective safety and health programs at their worksite(s). may always contact him or her for assistance. Occupational Safety and Health Administration . The on-site consultants will: s help you recognize hazards in your workplace. DC 20210. making safety and health activities routine rather than crisisoriented responses. and agreement to request further consultative visits if major changes in working conditions or processes occur that may introduce new hazards. employers may participate in OSHA’s Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP). 200 Constitution Avenue. Ultimately. He or she may also suggest other sources for technical help.osha. Washington.gov/dcsp/ smallbusiness/consult_directory. suggest general approaches or options for solving a safety or health problem. the situation must be referred from consultation to an OSHA enforcement office for appropriate action. s s For a list of consultation projects in each state. correction of all workplace safety and health hazards. provide you with a written report summarizing findings. Benefits. of course. OSHA does require hazard abatement so that each consultation visit achieves its objective–effective employee protection. identify kinds of help available if you need further assistance. provide training and education for you and your employees. OSHA Area Office. Knowledge of your workplace hazards and ways to eliminate them can only improve your own operations–and the management of your firm. phone (202) 693-2200. Following the closing conference. Room N-3700. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. see the OSHA website at www. Department of Labor.

The Star Program is for worksites that have at least one year’s experience with an effectively implemented safety and health program. OSHA ALLIANCE PROGRAM These state plans operate under authority of state law and are required to be. and promoting the national dialogue on occupational safety and health. or contact the OSHA Publications Office. Twenty-four states. Washington. Organizations include employers.osha. in structure and performance. OSHA STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM (OSPP) OSPP is designed to enable groups of employers. voluntary. labor unions. cooperative relationship in order to encourage. If you are subject to state enforcement.oshaslc. OSHA Publications A single free copy of the following materials can be obtained from the OSHA Area or Regional Office. or fax (202) 693-2498. you need to know whether you are covered by a state plan or subject to Federal OSHA. States with Approved Plans The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 encourages states to develop and operate their own job safety and health programs. on-site consultation services described above. call the OSHA Area Office nearest you. NW. Although many states have adopted standards and procedures identical to Federal standards. OSHA approves and monitors state plans and provides up to 50 percent of an approved plan’s operating costs. To determine which set of standards and regulations apply to you.html. Alliances focus on one or more of the following goals: training and education. All participants work in partnership with OSHA and provide models for OSHA and for their industries. information on the poster and recordkeeping requirements. “at least as effective as” the Federal OSHA Program. states may have different or additional requirements parallel to those described in the Federal program. 200 Constitution Avenue. Department of Labor. U. including directing you to the free. such as whether the state is using the Federal standards. Please visit http://www. management and government to work together cooperatively to further the goal of providing effective safety and health protection in the workplace.S. OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . outreach and communications. or call (202) 693-1888. assist and recognize efforts to eliminate serious hazards and achieve a high level of worker safety and health. and special services available to small businesses. educational institutions and government agencies. DC 20210.42 VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAMS (VPP) OSHA’s VPP provide an opportunity for labor. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands currently operate approved state plans. employees. The Demonstration Program is for worksites with programs at Star quality but with some aspect of their program that requires further study by OSHA. or (800) 321-OSHA to obtain this information. trade or professional groups.gov/fso/osp /index. The VPP grant recognition to worksites that provide or are committed to providing effective protection for their employees through implementation of systematically managed safety and health programs. employees and employee representatives to partner with OSHA and enter into an extended.gov. the OSHA Area Office will refer you to your state office which can provide all relevant information. See the list of OSHA-approved state plans at www. Access to Medical and Exposure Records – OSHA 3110 All About OSHA – OSHA 2056 (Spanish version 3173) Asbestos Standard for General Industry – OSHA 3095 Consultation Services for the Employer – OSHA 3047 Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) – OSHA 3120 Emergency Exit Routes Quick Card – OSHA 3183 Employee Workplace Rights – OSHA 3021 (Spanish version 3049) Alliances are goal-oriented written agreements between OSHA and organizations to work together to prevent workplace injuries and illnesses. The state office also can provide you with further assistance. N-3101. The Merit Program is for worksites working toward an effectively implemented program.

call or write the OSHA Regional Office listed in the back of this publication for the address and telephone number of the chapter in your region.S. Washington. Guam. There is a Small Business Development Center (SBDC) in every state. phone toll-free (866) 512-1800. For further information on any OSHA program. 029-016-00200-6. Virgin Islands. Other Sources of Assistance VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAMS PARTICIPANTS’ ASSOCIATION (VPPPA) The VPPPA is a private organization made up of VPP participant companies.S. and mentoring to help worksites improve their safety and health programs. Members of these chapters also are willing to provide the kind of assistance provided by the national organization. Cost: $3. outreach. Hazard Communication: A Compliance Kit – OSHA 3111 Order No. the District of Columbia. found at http://www. Cost: $21. can be purchased on CD-ROM from the U. All prices are subject to change by GPO.gov/dcsp/compliance_ assistance/index. OSHA standards. interpretations. and more.S. SBDC assistance is tailored to the local community and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration .43 Employer Rights and Responsibilities Following an OSHA Inspection – OSHA 3000 (Spanish version 3195) Hand and Power Tools – OSHA 3080 How to Plan for Workplace Emergencies and Evacuations – OSHA 3088 It’s the Law Poster – OSHA 3165 (Spanish version 3167) Job Hazard Analysis – OSHA 3071 Model Plans & Programs for the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens and Hazard Communications Standard – OSHA 3186 Occupational Safety and Health Act – OSHA 2001 OSHA Inspections – OSHA 2098 Personal Protective Equipment – OSHA 3151 Servicing Single-Piece and Multi-Piece Rim Wheels – OSHA 3086 The following publications are available from the U. DC 20402. Include GPO Order Number and make checks payable to Superintendent of Documents. including standards. To contact the VPPPA national organization. Small Business Administration (SBA) administers the Small Business Development Center Program to provide management and technical assistance to current and prospective small business owners. Government Printing Office (GPO). To contact your regional chapter of the VPPPA.gov/. directives and additional information are also available at http://www.osha. Puerto Rico.00 Materials Handling and Storing – OSHA 2236 Order No. Cost: $8. interpretations. 029-016-00212-0.gov/ and http://www. and the U.osha-slc. CD-ROM—A wide variety of OSHA materials. Superintendent of Documents.000 service centers across the country. The VPPPA has members in most states where the Federal OSHA program operates and in many states where state plans are in force. Emergencies—For life-threatening situations.S. Samoa.00 Construction Industry Digest – OSHA 2202 Order No. fax (202) 5122250. 029-016-00215-4. Government Printing Office. Superintendent of Documents. directives. The VPPPA is willing to provide information. Your call will be directed to the nearest OSHA Area or state office for help.html. phone toll-free (866) 512-1800.osha. with more than 1.75 Internet—There is an enormous amount of compliance assistance information on OSHA’s website that can be useful to the small business owner. VA 22043 (703) 761-1146 SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS The U. please call (703) 761-1146 or write to the following address: Voluntary Protection Programs Participants’ Association 7600 East Leesburg Pike. Chapters of the national association have been formed in most OSHA regions. Suite 440 Falls Church. call (800) 321-OSHA. contact your nearest OSHA Area or Regional Office or call (800) 321-OSHA.

as well as many liability and fire insurance companies.S. The NIOSH toll-free phone number is (800) 356-4674. engineering. Managers of small and medium-sized businesses need to know what services are available from these sources. set up some communications. Contact your local Red Cross chapter for assistance in first aid training. Safety and Health Resource Guide for Small Businesses. and mailing information to enable small businesses to contact government agencies. NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH) advance planning will produce action on common goals. to get coordinated action on hazards in your business. OH 45240 SPECIFIC MEDICAL CONSULTATION Many workers’ compensation carriers. many trade associations and employer groups have put a new emphasis on safety and health matters to better serve their members. call (800) 667-2968 or write to: American National Red Cross National Headquarters Safety Programs 2025 E Street. If you are a member of such a group. Services could include helping small businesses with financial. Department of Health and Human Services. with telephone numbers. consultants. TRADE ASSOCIATIONS AND EMPLOYER GROUPS Because of the increase in job safety and health awareness resulting from OSHA activities. NIOSH has produced a useful guide. organization. and technical assistance. training. marketing. Contact your carrier and see what it has to offer. and its website address is www. IL 60143-3201 PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS The following professional associations are an additional resource that may be able to provide assistance to you: American Society of Safety Engineers 1800 East Oakton Street Des Plaines.cdc.44 needs of individual clients and designed to deliver up-to-date counseling. private organizations. THE NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL AND LOCAL CHAPTERS NIOSH is a research agency in the U. Many trade unions have safety and health expertise that they are willing to share. IL 60018-2187 American Industrial Hygiene Association 2700 Prosperity Avenue Suite 250 Fairfax. Department of Labor). If you have a local chapter of the NSC in your area. If you cannot identify a local chapter. If there is no chapter nearby. and technical problems. e-mail and Internet addresses. NIOSH conducts research and makes recommendations to prevent work-related illness and injury. Safety and health is one area where OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . VA 22031-4319 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive Cincinnati. DC 20006 If your employees are organized. you can write to: National Safety Council 1121 Spring Lake Drive Itasca. If you are not a member. WORKERS’ COMPENSATION CARRIERS AND OTHER INSURANCE COMPANIES The National Safety Council (NSC) has a broad range of information services available. you can call or visit to see how you can use materials pertaining to your business. and others who can help with occupational safety and health issues. (OSHA is a regulatory agency in the U. as you do in normal labor relations.S. as many do. conduct periodic inspections and visits to evaluate safety and health hazards. find out how it is assisting its members. gov/niosh. find out if these groups are circulating their materials to nonmembers. NW Washington. TRADE UNIONS AND EMPLOYEE GROUPS Talk to your local doctors or clinics for advice on workplace medical matters on a consulting basis. production.

FINANCING WORKPLACE IMPROVEMENT Interest rate information on SBA loans may be obtained from any SBA office.and profession-specific tax information and guidelines. or (2) do not provide a reasonable estimate of the cost to correct each condition. Because SBA’s definition of a “small” business varies from industry to industry.gov The U.assistancecenters.gov A site to enable small business owners to find all Federal regulations that are open for comment. Occupational Safety and Health Administration . contains excellent information on toxic materials and recommended health and hygiene practices. these listings may not be current. Don’t forget to check with your accountant at income tax time.regulations. purchase. Health hazards may be more costly to correct.sba. ADDITIONAL WEB PAGES OF INTEREST TO SMALL BUSINESSES (Internet websites change frequently. The second book. You may wish to consult your own bank.businesslaw. In most cases. to read them and to submit their views. Both of these references list other sources at the end of each chapter that may help you in solving specific problems. Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene. http://www. It pays to shop around for loans. Small Business Administration’s home page. They fluctuate but are generally lower than you can obtain elsewhere. contact your local SBA field office to determine whether you qualify.firstgov.html This Internal Revenue Service website offers industry. The age and condition of the building and equipment are major factors to be considered.gov/businesses/small/index. experience indicates that most delays in processing SBA/OSHA loans are because applications (1) do not adequately describe each workplace condition to be corrected and identify one or more OSHA standards applicable to the condition to be corrected.irs. The SBA is authorized to make loans to assist small businesses with meeting OSHA standards.) http://www. http://www. Two basic publications of the National Safety Council will give you many sources of technical information. The Accident Prevention Manual for Industrial Operations is a basic reference book for all safety and health work. http://www. http://www. since safety and health improvements can often be expensed or depreciated.45 YOUR LOCAL LIBRARY Many local or university libraries contain information on specific safety and health subjects pertaining to your business.S. A helpful hint: if you decide to apply for an SBA loan. These materials are usually in reference rooms or technical subject areas.gov A website for all agencies of the Federal government.gov Legal and regulatory information for small businesses by state. etc. safety hazards can be corrected without financial assistance. Ask your librarian what is available. The library may be able to obtain materials for you through inter-library loan. http://www.net/ For help with understanding environmental regulations that relate to the operation of your business.

5. 10.46 Appendix A: Overall Action Plan Worksheet Major Action Steps to be Taken Priority (Assign each Step a Number) Projected Completion Date Actual Completion Date 1. 2. OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . 7. 4. 3. 8. 6. 9.

2. 4. 5. Occupational Safety and Health Administration .Action Steps Description of Action to be Taken: 47 Specific Steps Required Persons Assigned Projected Problems/ Actual Completion Delays Completion Date Encountered Date 1. 3.

the best experience of operations similar to ours.” “We will maintain a safety and health program conforming to the best practices of organizations of this type. including themselves. To the greatest degree possible. The prevention of occupationally-induced injuries and illnesses is of such consequence that it will be given precedence over operating productivity whenever necessary. in turn. Our goal is zero accidents and injuries. “The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 clearly states our common goal of safe and healthful working conditions. but also between each employee and his or her co-workers.” “Our objective is a safety and health program that will reduce the number of injuries and illnesses to an absolute minimum. No employee is required to work at a job he or she knows is not safe or healthful. for its effectiveness and improvement.” “Our safety and health program will include: s Providing mechanical and physical safeguards to the maximum extent possible. such a program must embody the proper attitudes toward injury and illness prevention on the part of supervisors and employees. Employees are responsible for compliance with all rules and regulations and for continuously practicing safety while performing their duties. Training all employees in good safety and health practices. Providing necessary personal protective equipment and instructions for its use and care. management will provide all mechanical and physical facilities required for personal safety and health in keeping with the highest standards. not only between supervisor and employee. A program of safety and health inspections to identify and eliminate unsafe working conditions or practices.” s s s s s s “We recognize that the responsibilities for safety and health are shared: s The employer accepts responsibility for leadership of the safety and health program. controlling them is a condition of your employment. to control health hazards.” s s OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . but surpassing. promptly and thoroughly. Developing and enforcing safety and health rules and requiring that employees cooperate with these rules as a condition of employment. Investigating. Setting up a system of recognition and awards for outstanding safety service or performance. not merely in keeping with.” “The personal safety and health of each employee of this company is of primary importance. and for providing safe conditions.48 Appendix B: Model Policy Statements The following statements provide examples that can be used or modified by employers to help prevent employee injury and illness. Without question it is every employee’s responsibility at all levels. Supervisors are responsible for developing the proper attitudes toward safety and health in themselves and in those they supervise. Only through such a cooperative effort can a safety program in the best interest of all be established and preserved. and to comply fully with the safety and health standards for every job. The safety and health of our employees continues to be the first consideration in the operation of this business.” “Safety and health in our business must be a part of every operation. It also requires cooperation in all safety and health matters.” “It is the intent of this company to comply with all laws. Inform your supervisor immediately of any situation beyond your ability or authority to correct. every accident to find out what caused it and to correct the problem so that it won’t happen again. To be successful. To do this we must constantly be aware of conditions in all work areas that can produce injuries. Your cooperation in detecting hazards and. and for ensuring that all operations are performed with the utmost regard for the safety and health of all personnel involved.

and fire extinguishers are located at ___________. Loose or frayed clothing. 5. and order necessary to the safe conduct of the work and take such action necessary to obtain compliance. 7 Horseplay. etc. Do not use a screwdriver as a chisel. practice drills. 9. All injuries shall be reported promptly to the supervisor/employer so that arrangements can be made for medical and/or first aid treatment. s s s s Machinery and Vehicles s Do not attempt to operate machinery or equipment without special permission unless it is part of your regular duties. General Policy 1. 8. use a rope. Suggested Safety Rules s 49 Do not throw material. No one shall knowingly be permitted or required to work while his or her ability or alertness is impaired by fatigue. and they shall report deficiencies.Appendix C: Codes of Safe Practices This is a suggested code. never use a file as a punch or pry. or other objects from heights (whether structures or buildings) until proper precautions are taken to protect others from the falling object hazard. regulation. always face the steps and use both hands while climbing. render every possible aid to safe operations. Instructions. Wash thoroughly after handling injurious or poisonous substances. Approved protective equipment shall be worn in specified work areas. rescue squad. and articles concerning workplace safety and health shall be given at least once every _____ working days. ambulance. Do not lift or lower portable electric tools by the power cords. First aid materials are located in ____________. 6. s s Occupational Safety and Health Administration . It is general in nature and includes many types of small business activities. 10. Supervisors shall insist that employees observe and obey every rule. Work shall be well planned and supervised to prevent injuries when working with equipment and handling heavy materials. scuffling.. must not be worn around moving machinery or other places where they can get caught. and report all unsafe conditions or practices to the supervisor/employer. When lifting heavy objects. 3. Anyone known to be under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs shall not be allowed on the job while in that condition. Employees should be alert to see that all guards and other protective devices are in proper places and adjusted. Persons with symptoms of alcohol and/or drug abuse are encouraged to discuss personal or work-related problems with the supervisor/employer. dangling ties. s s s Use of Tools and Equipment s Keep faces of hammers in good condition to avoid flying nails and bruised fingers. Workers shall not handle or tamper with any electrical equipment. emergency. It is intended only as a model that you can customize to describe your own work environment. Files shall be equipped with handles. fire. or other causes that might expose the individual or others to injury. endanger the safety or well-being of employees are prohibited. All employees of this firm shall follow these safe practice rules. Back injuries are the most frequent and often the most persistent and painful type of workplace injury. and other acts that tend to . and doctors’ telephone numbers are located ___________. tools. When using a ladder. Gasoline shall not be used for cleaning purposes. unless they have received instructions from their supervisor/employer. machinery. or air or water lines in a manner not within the scope of their duties. illness. 2. All employees shall be given frequent accident prevention instructions. Machinery shall not be repaired or adjusted while in operation. 4. Do not leave the cords of tools where cars or trucks will run over them. finger rings. employees should bend their knees and use the large muscles of the legs instead of the smaller muscles of the back.

Read the introduction to the subpart heading. Regulations and Requirements OSHA has four separate sets of standards: General Industry (29 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1910). your materials and of your employees. and Agriculture (29 CFR 1928). Small businesses are encouraged to participate in the development of standards. OSHA has regulations on posting and other administrative matters in 29 CFR 1903 and on recording and reporting of injuries and illnesses in 29 CFR 1904. The general duty clause does not apply if there is an OSHA standard dealing with the hazard. section 5(a)(1). unless the employer knows that the standard does not adequately address the hazard. The OSH Act also has a general duty clause. flammables. identify those that apply to your business by a process of elimination. 29 U. or by common sense. you may contact the nearest OSHA Area Office for assistance. by the employer. For example.50 Appendix D: OSHA Job Safety and Health Standards.C. A recognized hazard is a danger recognized by the employer’s industry or industry in general. After you have obtained a copy of the current standards. Maritime. Staff there should be able to answer any questions you may have about standards and provide general guidelines on methods of implementation in your workplace. if you are engaged in retail trade or service and you do not have compressed gases. you can eliminate Hazardous Materials (Subpart H) as not applying to your business. and then analyze the possible hazards in terms of your workplace. Maritime Employment (29 CFR 1915-1919).gov. Construction (29 CFR 1926).osha. OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES . If you have any questions in determining whether a standard is applicable to your workplace. your equipment. 654(b)(1). or explosives on your premises. General Industry. and Construction OSHA standards are available at www.S. which provides that: (a) Each employer – – (1) shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees.

Nor does it mean that you need not take other available legal steps to protect your interests. you may file Occupational Safety and Health Administration .sba..html Or you may contact the SBA's Office of the National Ombudsman by: s Toll Free Phone: (888) REG-FAIR (734-3247) Fax: (202) 481-5719 E-mail: ombudsman@sba.sba.gov/ombudsman/dsp_overview. Small Business Administration 409 3rd Street. please visit the following web link: http://www. DC 20416-0005 s s Produce Small Entity Compliance Guides for some rules. or SBREFA. MC2120 Washington. too complex and too expensive to implement.sba. s s Commenting on Enforcement Actions Under a law passed by Congress in 1996. Under SBREFA. s s s To view the SBREFA Act in its entirety.Appendix E: Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (SBREFA) In 1996.html NOTE: Filing a complaint with the SBA Ombudsman does not affect any obligation that you may have to comply with an OSHA citation or other enforcement action.gov/ombudsman/ http://www.sba. Be responsive to small business inquiries about compliance with the agency’s regulations. the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and other Federal agencies must: s 51 an electronic comment/complaint with the SBA Ombudsman over the Internet at: http://www.W. If you are a small business and believe that you have been treated unfairly by OSHA. Submit final rules to Congress for review.gov/advo/ http://www. the Small Business Administration (SBA) has established an SBA Ombudsman and SBA Regional Fairness Boards to investigate small business complaints about Federal agency enforcement actions. in response to concerns expressed by the small business community that Federal regulations were too numerous.gov/advo/laws/sbrefa.sba. Congress passed the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act. Have a penalty reduction policy for small businesses.html For more information on SBREFA the following web links may prove helpful: http://www.html http://www. SBREFA was designed to give small businesses assistance in understanding and complying with regulations and more of a voice in the development of new regulations.html http://www.gov Mail: Office of the National Ombudsman U.gov/advo/laws/is_oshapanel.sba.gov/ombudsman/dsp_faq.gov/ombudsman/comments/commentform1. S.S.sba. and Involve small businesses in the development of some proposed rules through Small Business Advocacy Review Panels.

WI) 230 South Dearborn Street. MD.* VI*) 201 Varick Street.* MS. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration Directorate of Cooperative and State Programs Office of Small Business Assistance 200 Constitution Ave. GA.osha.* WY*) 1999 Broadway. CO 80201-6550 (303) 844–1600 Region IX (American Samoa. ND. NW Washington. States with approved programs must have a standard that is identical to.gov/html/ oshdir.* SC.* TN*) SNAF 61 Forsyth Street SW. SD. TX) 525 Griffin Street. TX 75202 (214) 767–4731 or 4736 x224 Region VII (IA. OSHA-approved State Plans. LA. Independence Mall West Suite 740 West Philadelphia. Room 3244 Chicago. DC. Contact Information The most complete and current information and email addresses for OSHA Regional and Area Offices and the state Consultation Projects can be found on OSHA’s website at www.osha. NC. MO 64105 (816) 426–5861 Region VIII (CO. UT. KY. New York and Puerto Rico plans cover public employees only). DC 20210 (800) 321-OSHA OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES ..* ME. please visit us online at www.* PR. Note: To get contact information for OSHA Area Offices. MT.* KS. RI.* CA. NH. the Federal standard. FL. Suite 800 Kansas City.gov or call us at (800) 321-OSHA (6742). IN.* WV) The Curtis Center 170 S. AZ.* MN. or at least as effective as. Suite 715 Seattle. Room E340 Boston.* ID. VT*) JFK Federal Building. New Jersey. MA. CA 94105 (415) 975–4310 Region X (AK.S.* Northern Mariana Islands) 71 Stevenson Street.* HI. IL 60604 (312) 353–2220 Region VI (AR. NM. MA 02203 (617) 565–9860 Region II (NJ. OR. GA 30303 (404) 562–2300 Region V (IL.html or by contacting: U. Suite 1690 PO Box 46550 Denver.* OK.* PA. Room 420 San Francisco.* NV. Room 602 Dallas.* OH. PA 19106-3309 (215) 861–4900 Region IV (AL. MO. Room 670 New York. Room 6T50 Atlanta. VA. WA 98101-3212 (206) 553–5930 *These states and territories operate their own OSHA-approved job safety and health programs (Connecticut. and OSHA Consultation Projects. NE) City Center Square 1100 Main Street.* NY. NY 10014 (212) 337–2378 Region III (DE.52 OSHA Regional Offices Region I (CT.* MI.* WA*) 1111 Third Avenue.

53 OSHA’s Non-Retaliation Policy The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has a long-established policy that information inquiries received by the agency regarding safety and health regulations or other safety-related subjects shall not trigger an inspection. Field Inspection Reference Manual. This policy is outlined in OSHA Instruction CPL 02-00-103 (CPL 2. Contacts for information initiated by employers or their representatives shall not trigger an inspection. . While exceptions to this policy exist. Further. the Area Director shall act in accordance with established inspection priority procedures.4.b. such as the presence of an imminent danger or the occurrence of a fatality. nor shall such employer inquiries protect them against regular inspections conducted pursuant to guidelines established by the agency.Chapter I. B. The exact wording is: Employer Contacts. Section 5 .103). OSHA policy is to provide assistance to help employers prevent and reduce workplace fatalities. if an employer or its representatives indicates that an imminent danger exists or that a fatality or catastrophe has occurred. illnesses and injuries.

gov .www.osha.

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