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1 Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place; climate is the general pattern of weather over a long period of years. 2 Atmospheric pressure; temperature; wind; precipitation; cloudiness; and humidity. 3 Rays of the Sun strike the poles at a steep angle with the result that solar radiation is less intense than nearer the equator, resulting in lowered temperature. 4 The tilt of Earth¶s axis produces the differences in solar intensity; this gives rise to seasons and affects the length of daylight.
1 Radiation emitted from Earth has a lower frequency than radiation emitted by the Sun. 2 Molecules of atmosphere absorb solar or terrestrial radiation which energizes them and sends them aloft. 3 Atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude. 4 The troposphere. 5 Temperature decreases steadily as density decreases. Fewer atmospheric molecules to trap terrestrial radiation. 6 Uneven heating of Earth¶s surface. 7 Warm air is characterized by low density and low air pressure, while cool air is characterized by high density and high pressure. 8 Local differences in surface heating give rise to small-scale convection cells and pressure gradients, and these create small-scale local winds which are changeable. Planetscale temperature differences produce much larger convection cells and pressure gradients that give rise to prevailing winds, which are on a global scale and are relatively permanent. 9 An ocean current is a stream of water that moves relative to the larger ocean. 10 The Gulf Stream Àows northward along the North American Coast warming Norway and Great Britain. 11 Increases. 12 It condenses. 13 Air rises, expands, and cools. As the air cools, water molecules move slower and condensation occurs. If there are larger and slower-moving particles or ions present in the air, water vapor condenses on these particles to create a cloud. 14 (a) They do sink. (b) However, as they fall, they are carried upward by rising air currents (updrafts). 15 A cold front develops as a colder, denser air mass advances into and displaces a stationary warm air mass; a warm front is air that moves into territory that had been occupied by a cold air mass. 16 They are associated with day-to-day weather variation. 17 (a) A hurricane is a cyclone²an area of low pressure that winds Àow around and they occur in the warm moist conditions of the tropics; (b) latent heat released by large amounts of condensing water in warm, moist air. 18 A tornado is a rotating column of air extending from a thunderstorm to the ground. 19 (a) There is a strong observed correlation between the rise of carbon dioxide emissions from human activities and average global temperature increases. (b) When trees are cut down, the carbon dioxide they would have absorbed is released into the atmosphere. 20 Disagree²climatologists cannot predict the future climate in this much detail. Answers to Chapter 25 Multiple-Choice Questions 1b, 2d, 3b, 4a, 5a, 6c, 7b, 8d, 9a Answers to Chapter 25 Integrated Science Concepts
Winds usually pick up and snow or rain may fall. so it ows toward the area of lower pressure out to sea. 2. so during the day. 4. cirrus clouds may form then thicken so that the sky becomes overcast. An intensi¿ed greenhouse effect would be a bad thing. highpressure air blows toward the land. 2. Further. Answers to Chapter 25 Exercises 1. (b) An anticyclone moves counter clockwise in the Southern hemisphere. At night. because it could lead to global warming. bad ozone is O3 found in the airwe breathe. In what direction does a sea breeze blow? Does it blow in the day or at night? What causes a sea breeze? A sea breeze blows from the sea toward the shore and occurs mostly during the day. 3. cooler. Winds as well as precipitation and air pressure vary according to the ow described by these convection cells. the Earth¶s average temperature would be a frigid 18¡C otherwise. 2 Without the greenhouse effect. where they react with and destroy ozone molecules. What slows low-altitude winds relative to winds high in the troposphere? Friction. What are Hadley cells? Why are they important? Hadley cells are the pairs of convection cells that comprise the prevailing winds.Chemistry: The Atmospheric Ozone Hole 1 Good ozone is the O3 molecule when it is present in the stratosphere. wind shifts direction. the chlorine atom catalyzes the ozone-destroying reaction so that one of them can destroy 100. As a warm front approaches. The Coriolis inÀuence winds as well as surface currents by causing them to rotate with respect to the Earth from left to right (as viewed from above the Earth at the North Pole). Physics: The Coriolis Effect 1. 5. thus reducing the amount of incoming solar radiation and subsequent indoor temperature. cirrus clouds typically form. 2 CFCs release chlorine atoms high up in the stratosphere.000 or more ozone molecules. you decide to go indoors and get a cup of hot cocoa. As . (a) A cyclone moves counterclockwise in the Northern hemisphere. The reason is that land cools off faster than the ocean. high-pressure air forms over land. Cyclones and anticyclones both rotate in the directions they do because of the Coriolis effect. the cooler. What kind of weather is associated with an approaching cold front? With an approaching warm front? As a cold front approaches. Physics: The Greenhouse Effect 1 Whitewash is sometimes applied to greenhouses to better reÀect light. and temperature and air pressure drop. After a day of skiing in the Rocky Mountains.
During contact. In some places. How are they formed? What cloud group do they belong to? These clouds are cumulus clouds. you put on your sunglasses. 8. Similarly. The minute you step outside. cooled. 13. An old-fashioned mercury barometer works in a way similar to a straw: as the weight of the atmosphere pushes the mercury in a dish down. it warms. Explain. This descending air is dry. as shown in the gure below. As the air cools to its dew point. As you leave the air-conditioned room. which are clouds of vertical development. 12. During a summer visit to Cancun. Getting ready to leave your room for the beach. these formed from water vapor in rising air that expanded. water vapor condenses onto the sunglasses. Identify the clouds shown in the photo. when one sucks on a straw. Why? The change in environment from cold to warm. water vapor condenses onto the eyeglasses. In the winter in the Northern Hemisphere. Notice the similarity to Exercise 13 same physics. Why? The change in environment from cold to warm. solar radiation per area. but January is cold in the Northern Hemisphere. Air is warmed and rises at the equator and then cools and sinks at the poles. As the air mass moves down the other side of the mountain (the leeward slope). Local air pollution can then become a serious problem. clouds form and precipitation occurs. Use what you learned about air pressure and barometers to analyze and explain how a straw works. reducing solar intensity to a minimum.you enter the ski lodge. 7. Is this an accurate picture of the global circulation of air? Explain why or why not. because most of its moisture was removed in the form of clouds and precipitation on the windward (upslope) side of the mountain. The Earth is closest to the Sun in January. It is not accurate. one reduces the pressure in the straw and this allows the weight of the atmosphere to press the liquid up into the straw. your eyeglasses fog up. and condensed. the cold surface cools the air by conduction. the rising air cools. As the air touching the glasses cools to its dew point. As we leave the cold outdoors the warm air inside comes into contact with the cold surface of the eyeglasses. and the warm air s ability to hold water vapor decreases. Like other clouds. and if the air is humid. the warm air outside comes into contact with the cold surface of the sunglasses. 6. Seasonal temperatures are caused by solar intensity. 10. The low cloud cover acts as an insulation blanket inhibiting the out ow of terrestrial radiation. Mexico. different situation. the mercury rises in a lowpressure glass column. Why is that? The layer of cold air only allows minimal convection currents to occur. you stay in an air-conditioned room. As an air mass moves rst upslope and then downslope over a mountain. temperature inversions (areas where the air above is warmer than the air below) are common. 11. Atmospheric circulation is broken up into six convection cells due to the in uence of the Coriolis effect. Why are condensation and saturation more likely to occur on a cold day than on a warm day? . the tilt of Earth¶s axis leads to solar radiation at the widest angle. your sunglasses fog up. 9. what happens to the air s moisture and heat content? As an air mass is pushed upward over a mountain.
How do fronts cause clouds and precipitation? When two air masses make contact. How does the ocean in uence weather on land? The ocean acts to (1) moderate the temperature of coastal lands. there is a higher concentration of UV radiation due to a decrease in the concentration of UV -absorbing atmospheric gases. 25. 20. 21. 17. dew will form as the humid air comes into contact with them. The air pressure at higher altitudes is less than at the surface. equatorial waters are warmed more than parts of the ocean nearer the poles. 15. If leaves of grass or other surfaces cool below the cooled air s dew point. What does convection in Earth s atmosphere produce? What does convection in the Earth s mantle produce? Wind. the ground cools as it radiates away heat absorbed during daytime and this has a cooling effect on surrounding air. and warm air can hold more water vapor than cold air.Because cool air has slower moving molecules. even though both areas have oceans along their margins? 2 The aneroid barometer. which causes the water vapor to condense into tiny droplets of fog. 1 Why does the East Coast of the United States experience wider seasonal variation than the West Coast. clear night as low cloud cover moves overhead? The low cloud cover acts as an insulation blanket inhibiting the out ow of terrestrial radiation. calm summer nights? On a clear summer night. forming clouds and causing precipitation. Why does the surface temperature of the ground increase on a calm. What¶s the connection between a barometer and an altimeter? Because pressure decreases in a regular way with altitude. relative humidity increases. which measures atmospheric pressure. plate tectonics. 24. producing that popping feeling. 16. and (2) provide a reservoir for atmospheric moisture. 18. Currents redistribute heat so that it is dispersed more evenly. As warm moist air blows over cold water. Why does dew form on the ground during clear. it cools. is at the heart of the altimeters (devices that measure altitude) used in modern aviation. 14. Why does warm. 19. moisture. What role does the Sun play in ocean currents? The Sun heats the ocean unevenly. Explain why your ears pop when you ascend to higher altitudes. Why is it important that mountain climbers wear sunglasses and sunblock even when temperatures are below freezing? At high altitudes. What would be a good state for you to live in if you like extreme temperatures? If you like . As air temperature lowers. so the air inside your body pushes outward more than the atmosphere pushes inward. and pressure can cause one air mass to ride over the other. Time is required for your body to adjust to this new pressure. moist air blowing over cold water result in fog? Warm air is able to hold more water vapor before becoming saturated than can cold air. a device for measuring pressure can be used to measure altitude by recalibrating the scale. differences in temperature.
rather than ferns and conifers. due to the moderating effect of large bodies of water on climate (due to water s high speci c heat capacity). While hiking. the net pressure pushing the door outward (14. Convert this to units of feet: (14.808 in . What is the total force that the air inside this house exerts upward on the ceiling? Standard atmospheric pressure 14.5 lbs. the maximum amount of water vapor in the air is 9 g/m .5 feet by 3 feet or (78 in)(36 in) 2 2.5 lbs.7 2 2 2 lbs. People who prefer de nite seasons prefer inland areas. The air inside the house is at standard atmospheric pressure. At 50¡C. moist air moved up the mountain s upward-sloping side. what is the mass of water vapor in 1 m of air? Relative humidity [(water vapor content)/(water vapor capacity)] 100%. Calculate the net force on the front door of a closed house if the outside pressure suddenly dropped by 15%. per square inch. it cooled and water vapor in it condensed to form a cloud./in ) 2 2 (12. As the air lifted. while those who like more moderate climates would prefer to live in coastal areas./in ) 2.2 lbs.6 g/m . It s easy to see why the door will be ung far in the storm. we have F PA.a moderate climate? Explain why your preferred area has the weather patterns it has.7 lb/in ) 2 2 2 (144 in ft ). we use the relation Force 2 2 PressureArea. and we have atmospheric pressure 2100 lb/ft . Knowing that pressure is de ned as force per area. the pressure there could easily drop by 15% in less than a second. 3.7 lb/in . Explain how orographic lifting caused this cloud to form. Thus. How might you expect vegetation on the leeward side of a mountain to differ from the vegetation on the windward side? The leeward side of a mountain has a much drier climate than the windward side. So the total force that the air inside the 2 2 6 house exerts upward on the ceiling is (2100 lb/ft ) (2000 ft ) 4.1 this is 14. 3 2 2 . from Table 25. for example. To nd the outward force on the door. If a tornado passed next to the front of the house. 2. so leeward vegetation would consist of plants adapted for dry climates cacti and succulents./in )(2. 27. The outside air is at 85% of this pressure or (0. This means that a parcel of warm. the outward force on the door due to the tornado is 6200 lbs. This cloud apparently formed though orographic lifting.210 lb of force.2 lbs.808 in ) 6178 lbs.85)(14. Employing signi cant gures. We have: Force (2. Rearrange 3 to solve for the mass of water in 1 m of air: water vapor content [(relative humidity)(water vapor capacity)]/100%. Then: water vapor content at 50¼C 3 3 [(40%)(9 g/m )]/100% 3. The sky is blue everywhere except for a puffy cloud directly over a mountain. If the relative humidity is 3 40%. 26. The area of the door is 6. you survey the sky from a mountaintop. Answers to Chapter 25 Problems 1.7 lbs./in ) 12.7 lbs. Consider a house at sea level that has 2000 square feet of oor area./in ./in .
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