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Shanghai I China
Disclaimer The Case study is prepared for the background information for a Stakeholder Dialogue, on behalf of the Mobility for Development (M4D) Project at the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). The objectives of this study are to assess the mobility challenges, opportunities and experience in Shanghai with reference to Yangtze Delta Region. We hope this report can make some contribution on knowledge exchange in the development of sustainable mobility for the whole society in the world.
Mobility for development
Shanghai I China
Professor Pan Haixiao, Dr. Zhuo Jian and Dr. Liu Bing Department of Urban Planning, Tongji University
Project Assistant Mr. Zhuo Jian. Chen Ye. George Eads and are grateful for their thoughtful and patient advice during formulation of this case study. Project Researcher Dr. Liu Bing. Project Assistant Acknowledgements The authors are indebted to and acknowledge Shona Grant and Dr.cn Dr. Xue Song. Project team Professor Pan Haixiao. 2 . Associate Professor. Wang Xiaobo. Project Assistant Mr. Project Assistant Mr. Project Assistant Mr. Associate Professor.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study This case study has been prepared for the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) by the Department of Urban Planning. Liu Weiwei. Project Researcher Ms. hxpank@online. Project Leader. Xu Xiaomin. Tongji University.sh.
Background __________________________________________________________ 8 1.2 2.5.4 2.4 1.3. General information _______________________________________________ 8 YDR’s and Shanghai’s social and economic development ______________ 10 The YDR since the 1990s ________________________________________ 10 Shanghai’s development _________________________________________ 10 Role of transport in regional and urban development __________________ 11 Institutional mechanisms in the YDR ________________________________ 13 Regional coordinating mechanism of economic development _____________ 13 Regional transport organization ____________________________________ 14 Organization of transport management in shanghai ___________________ 15 Intercity transport management ____________________________________ 15 Urban transport management _____________________________________ 15 Mobility development of GYDR _________________________________________ 17 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.2 1.3.1 22.214.171.124.4.5.1 2.5.2 1.1 1.2 2.2 2.3 2.6 Introduction ____________________________________________________ 17 Highway transport _______________________________________________ 20 Highway development in GYDR ___________________________________ 20 Highway passenger and freight transport in the GYDR __________________ 21 Railway transport ________________________________________________ 22 Railway development in the Yangtze Delta Region _____________________ 22 Railway passenger and freight transport in the Yangtze Delta Region ______ 23 Waterway transport ______________________________________________ 24 Waterway freight and passenger transport in the YDR __________________ 25 Port function in the GYDR ________________________________________ 25 Aviation ________________________________________________________ 26 Airports in the YDR _____________________________________________ 26 Airport passengers in the YDR ____________________________________ 26 Air cargo and mail ______________________________________________ 27 Conclusions ____________________________________________________ 27 1 .2.2 2.1 1.5 2.1 2.1 1.4.5 1.3 1.2 1.4.1 126.96.36.199 2.2.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study CONTENTS Executive summary________________________________________________________ 1 1.
3 3.3.3 3.4.2 3.5 3.1 188.8.131.52.2 3.2.2 184.108.40.206 4.2.4 3.1 4.2 3.4.2 4.4.2 4.1 3.1.5 3.3 4.1 3.3. Regional transport in Shanghai ________________________________________ 29 3.5 Traffic distribution in the Shanghai region ___________________________ 29 Supply of facilities _______________________________________________ 30 Highways _____________________________________________________ 31 Railways _____________________________________________________ 33 Water transport ________________________________________________ 34 Ports ________________________________________________________ 35 Aviation ______________________________________________________ 36 Passenger transport _____________________________________________ 37 Intercity passenger transport structure ______________________________ 37 Highway passenger transport _____________________________________ 39 Railway Passenger Transport _____________________________________ 40 Aviation ______________________________________________________ 40 Cargo transport _________________________________________________ 41 Cargo transport structure _________________________________________ 41 Highway cargo transport _________________________________________ 42 Water transport ________________________________________________ 42 Railway cargo transport __________________________________________ 43 Air cargo transport ______________________________________________ 44 Conclusions ____________________________________________________ 44 4.1 3.3 3.4 220.127.116.11 Features of travel demand ________________________________________ 46 Features of personal travel _______________________________________ 47 Personal motorized vehicle travel __________________________________ 52 Features of traffic supply _________________________________________ 53 Road supply and use ____________________________________________ 53 Public transport supply and use ____________________________________ 55 Non-motorized transportation system _______________________________ 57 Transport demand management policy ______________________________ 57 Public transport priority policy _____________________________________ 58 The license plate auctioning policy _________________________________ 58 Parking charging policy __________________________________________ 58 Motorcycle limitation policy _______________________________________ 59 2 .2. Shanghai urban transport _____________________________________________ 46 4.2 4.3.1 4.2.4 3.3.4 3.3 4.2 18.104.22.168 4.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3.3 3.1 3.2.3.
3 6.1 6.1 6. Shanghai’s transport system operating costs and efficiency ________________ 74 6.5.2 7.4 5.5 6.2.4 6.4 22.214.171.124 5.4.4 126.96.36.199 5.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 4.6 Postal services __________________________________________________ 62 Telecommunication: Installed telephone & mobile phone _______________ 64 Internet and web communication ___________________________________ 66 Broadcasting and television stations________________________________ 69 Application of new ICTs and its impact ______________________________ 71 Conclusions ____________________________________________________ 73 6.2 6.5.2 6.1 6. Conclusions ____________________________________________________ 60 Information and telecommunications services ____________________________ 61 5.2 6.2 6. Investment in Shanghai’s transport system ______________________________ 90 7.1 6.3 Brief ___________________________________________________________ 90 Investment in metro transport _____________________________________ 91 Brief _________________________________________________________ 91 Reform of investment and financing system of Shanghai metro transport____ 92 Investment and financing for constructed metro in Shanghai _____________ 92 3 .2.2 7.3 6.6 General information ______________________________________________ 74 The operation situation of transport enterprises ______________________ 74 General transport and communication costs and expenditures __________ 75 Transport and communication consumer price index ___________________ 75 Transport and communication expenditures __________________________ 75 Cost and efficiency on urban transport ______________________________ 78 Cost and efficiency for public transport ______________________________ 78 Cost and efficiency for motorized vehicles ____________________________ 80 Cost of urban occasional freight transport ____________________________ 83 Efficiency and cost of intercity transport ____________________________ 83 Cost of highway and railway freight _________________________________ 84 Cost of highway and railway passenger transport ______________________ 85 Aviation transport _______________________________________________ 86 Water transport and ports ________________________________________ 87 Conclusions ____________________________________________________ 89 7.3 6.3 5.1 5.4.1 188.8.131.52 7.
2.2 8.4 Analysis of Shanghai’s transport policy ____________________________ 114 Continue to strengthen key transport infrastructure construction__________ 114 Coordinating urban land use and transport __________________________ 115 Control of motorized vehicles_____________________________________ 116 Building a multi-mode urban transport system based on public transport priorities ____________________________________________________________ 117 9.1 8.3 9.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 7.4 8.4 184.108.40.206 8. Policy and special issues ____________________________________________ 114 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 8.6 Traffic safety ____________________________________________________ 94 Statistical analysis of road traffic accidents ___________________________ 95 Road traffic accident factors ______________________________________ 96 Environmental impact ____________________________________________ 96 Ambient air environment _________________________________________ 96 Ambient acoustic environment _____________________________________ 99 Greenhouse gas emissions _______________________________________ 99 Transport environment policies and pollution control measures __________ 100 Traffic congestion ______________________________________________ 100 Transport construction __________________________________________ 100 Traffic flow ___________________________________________________ 100 Traffic speed analysis __________________________________________ 101 Energy ________________________________________________________ 103 Energy consumption and pricing in Shanghai ________________________ 103 Energy consumption in the transport sector _________________________ 105 Mobility Divide _________________________________________________ 107 Urban space expansion by enhanced mobility________________________ 107 Segregation of urban space by enhanced mobility ____________________ 108 Urban interest differential by imbalanced mobility _____________________ 108 Reflections on the disadvantaged _________________________________ 112 Conclusions ___________________________________________________ 112 9.4.1 8.2 8.3 8.5 9.4 8.2 22.214.171.124 9.1 9. Conclusions ____________________________________________________ 93 Sustainable transport development challenges in Shanghai _________________ 94 8.1 8.5 8.1.1 126.96.36.199 9.3 188.8.131.52.6 Protect activity space for slow transport ____________________________ 117 Traffic management ____________________________________________ 118 4 .184.108.40.206 8.3 8.3 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.
3 9.2.3 9.Figures___________________________________________________ 128 Appendix III – Stakeholder dialogue participants list ________________________ 138 Appendix IV .2.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 9.References cited __________________________________________ 143 5 .Notes from the stakeholder dialogue _________________________ 139 Appendix V .1 9.4 Key transport infrastructure construction ___________________________ 118 Hongqiao transport hub station ___________________________________ 118 Shanghai-Hangzhou maglev line __________________________________ 118 Intercity railway planning in Yangtze River Delta region ________________ 119 Transports during Shanghai Expo 2010 _____________________________ 119 Conclusions ___________________________________________________ 121 Appendices ____________________________________________________________ 122 Appendix I .2 9.Tables ____________________________________________________ 122 Appendix II .2 9.2.
Regional mobility in the greater Yangtze Delta Region and Shanghai The Yangtze Delta Region has the highest population density. Some specific comments from dialogue participants are presented in boxes at various points throughout the report. energy security etc) • Seek feedback on the key sustainable mobility priorities and policy measures to deliver “harmonious” mobility in China’s cities. while its total port import-export commodity volume comprises 25% of China’s total. Shanghai’s financial revenue accounts for one-eighth of the nation’s total. congestion. The objectives of the case study The objectives of this study are to assess the mobility challenges. As the “dragon’s head” of economic development. Shanghai is now striding toward the objective of being a modern international metropolis. 1 . Comprising only 0. and information & communications technology (ICT) in connecting people and goods to each other and to markets • Discuss the extent to which this is narrowing the mobility opportunity divide between urban and rural areas in China 2. Learn from China’s experience in dealing with the challenge of making mobility sustainable in its rapidly growing cities: • Consider the role of mobility in Shanghai in driving economic growth and social progress and compare with several other key cities in China at different stages of development. the largest gross domestic product and the most powerful development potential of all economic zones in China. The feedback from the stakeholders has been used in the preparation of this final report. opportunities and experience in Shanghai with reference to the Yangtze Delta Region. • • Explore the extent to which this is narrowing the mobility opportunity divide within the cities Discuss the transport-related impacts arising from this growth and how these are impacting sustainable development in China (safety. The interim report was distributed to participants prior to the meeting and presented during the meeting. In particular the study is designed to: 1. with a specific focus on Shanghai and the Yangtze Delta: • Consider the role of international trade.06% of China’s land area. intercity and regional transport. The list of dialogue participants are given in Appendix III and a summary of the stakeholder dialogue in Appendix IV. emissions. Explore the role of mobility in China’s recent economic growth.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Executive summary This case study was prepared as input for a stakeholder dialogue that was held in Shanghai on 14 November 2007.
000 persons was only 0. In contrast. Of these the Shanghai and Ningbo ports handled 70% of the foreign cargo in the GYDR area. especially for passenger transport. It is the construction of passenger and freight transport systems that has made the high-speed development of the region possible. As an international hub airport. But its capacity is limited and railway transport maintained a deficit from 1997 to 2005. especially freeway systems. The highway mileage per ten thousand people in this area is only 20. The operated mileage in Shanghai has only changed from 259 km in 1990 to 269 km in 2005.110 kilometers in 2005. the road network length density of the greater Yangtze Delta Region (GYDR) is now higher than that of the other areas in China by area. Railway transport accounts for about 50% of intercity passengers in Shanghai and about 5% of cargo transport. hundreds of highway routes and 10 main railways in this region. Intercity passengers in Yangtze delta region account for 20% of the nation’s total. the service and functioning of regional transport have greatly advanced. it does not match the economic scale and size of the population. There are 11 major coastal and inland ports. The total highway mileage in Shanghai reached 8. In 2005 major ports in the GYDR handled over one-third of the foreign trade cargo for China. especially the ocean.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Transport modernization and integration is an important component of economic integration in the Yangtze Delta Region and a precondition of realizing economic integration. and air transportation have improved a lot in efficiency. Railway mileage per 10. one-third of the national average. a negligible increase in the last 15 years. However. the efficiency of rail and road transportation between cities has not changed much recently.66 times that of 1990. Thus. 2 . 2. Constrained by transport capacity and vehicle efficiency. with profits equaling some 75% of the total profit for the entire Shanghai transport industry in 2005. and the share of freight movement is also more than 10% of the total. the Yangtze Delta Region is one of the most important logistics centers in China.16 km. Shanghai Pudong and Shanghai Hongqiao airports account for 70% of air passengers and 86% of the air freight in this region. Pudong airport will be extended to reach a capacity of 80 million passengers while Hongqiao will increase its capacity to 30 million by 2010. The Shanghai railway plays an important role in the national railway networks. Since the 1990s. Railways are better suited to passenger and longer distance freight transport than roads. of which freeway mileage constitutes 560 kilometers. waterways. 17 large and small airports. As a result.8% of China’s average. Waterway transport enterprises have grown to be the economic power of the Shanghai transport sector. It represents the backbone of intercity transport for Shanghai. And the utilization rate of line section capacity approached 100%.
More integrated regional transport systems should be encouraged. Of 22 arterial road crossings under investigation.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Shanghai is a key international shipping and aviation center. because of the long time delays in infrastructure construction and the city center’s high population density. airport-regional public transport systems. The huge investments in transportation are only possible with the active role of the Shanghai government and the involvement of the private sector. a large demand for freight and passenger movement will be created. of which 7. during rush hour about 42% of arterial roads in the center of the western Shanghai area were congested. and with the continued development of the manufacturing industry in GYDR.200 kilometers of carriageway length are classified as express and arterial roads. the total mileage of city roads in Shanghai had reached 12. a prominent contradiction of land resources. Over the last ten years. But the fast growth of motorization and the car industry promotion policy require large amounts of road space.227 kilometers.000 to 2. Shanghai urban transport Regarding urban transport in Shanghai. Two enormous bridges are under construction as a new gateway to the north via Nantong and to the south via Ningbo. transportation congestion and resource constraints. Shanghai invested an average of 2. the Yangtze Delta Region1. Shanghai’s motorization is also increasing rapidly. about 50% were seriously congested during rush hour. with the number of motorized vehicles increasing from 466. Faced with a complicated and volatile situation. The extensive construction of urban roads did lessen traffic congestion for short periods immediately after construction. is in a key period of development.000 in 9 years. Forty-one percent of the investment was for metro construction. the GYDR must change its development path if it wants to realize the goal of sustainable development. especially Shanghai.8%.9% of its GDP annually on transportation infrastructure. By the end of 2005. Shanghai can only connect with the other parts of mainland China through the Shanghai-Nanjing corridor in the northwest and Shanghai-Hangzhou corridor in the southwest. such as the parking policy and license plate auction system. It was recognized that a metro system may be the solution. an annual growth rate of 20. the rise of production prices and enterprise cost increases resulting from an appreciation in the RMB. Expansion of the existing highways is unlikely to meet the huge demand for sustainable mobility due to high traffic concentrations on several corridors that pass through densely populated areas. up 84% over that of 2000. According to statistics. and large scale metro construction is now 3 . consistent with the policy of encouraging public transport in the city center and adopting motorization in suburban areas. Because of its geographical location.217. such as sea-inland waterways. At present. port-rail. city planners have followed a strategy to constrain car use.
the metro is always seriously crowded. And the low paid employees are still able to get to work at an acceptable time and monetary cost.48 million passengers daily.9 kilometers/trip between 1995 and 2004. and non-motorized-vehicles dropped from 42% to 28%. transport development is closely connected with other aspects of sustainable urban development. Shanghai has witnessed substantial development in both transport supply and operational efficiency. the growth rate of motorized trips is far ahead of that of the personal trips. There are 18. energy consumption and social justice. for example fatal traffic accidents in suburb areas accounted for more than 85% of the total number in Shanghai in 2004. especially line #1. traffic safety.180. and the direct pecuniary losses due to road traffic accidents in Shanghai followed a significant downward trend in recent years. Public transport is now a priority in urban transport policy. thanks to the contribution of land-use control with a high density and high mixture.000 seats and 948 bus/trolley lines with a total length of 22. With the expansion of the city and the remarkable growth in urban activity space. The total passengers per day rose to 1.000 buses with 1. the biggest increase is in trips outside of the central city. Traffic safety measures have been gradually strengthened. The number of passengers serviced by the Shanghai metro system increased sharply from 2000 to 2005. Traffic safety in the suburbs is still very serious. 4 . A long-term government commitment is also needed to control the increasing volume of car traffic. Transport demand within Shanghai’s city center is increasing.000 km in Shanghai. the average travel distance extended from 4. and also the large-scale infrastructure still available for non motorized travel in Shanghai. with annual increases of nearly 37%. One of the distinguishing characteristic of urban transport in Shanghai is that pedestrian and bicycle traffic is quite high.63 million in 2005. As a result. the total number of daily trips for resident was about 41 million. the number of traffic accidents increased progressively by 275%. and the number of deaths and injuries. There are 5 metro lines in Shanghai with 68 stations and a total operating length of 147. According to the Third Transport Survey Report of Shanghai (2004). private motorized vehicles from 7% to 15%.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study ongoing. From 1980 to 2000. Motorized travel is increasing even more dramatically. from 1995 to 2004 the proportion of the motorized trips in Shanghai increased from 28% to 40%. accounting for 54% of total trips. including environmental protection. and the proportion of motorized travel has increased. At the same time.9 km in 2005. The local buses serve 7. The 45. It is because of non-motorized travel that road congestion is still acceptable to society.96 million passengers every day. For example. of which the proportion of public transport rose from 20% to 24%. The gap between traffic demand and supply is widening.5 kilometers/trip to 6.000 taxies registered carry 2.
20 million tonnes more than in 2000. the low-income segment rides the metro much less frequently that the other income groups.One report has estimated that 86% of CO2 and 81% of NOx are from urban vehicle emissions in Shanghai. Data show that CO2 emissions were 138 million tonnes in 2002. construction will further divide whole society. but also by its impact on economic vitality and social justice. or provide the subsidy directly to the low-income consumer. to areas with poorer transportation.055mg/m3 respectively. But the main efforts will be put on mass-capacity transport modes. As a result. Continue to strengthen key transport infrastructure construction Shanghai will continue to strengthen the construction of key transport infrastructure.6% in 2006. some low-income families are being squeezed out by higher earning newcomers. But success will not be measured just by its scale. the annual daily average of inhalable particulates.086mg/m3. SO2 and NO2 in urban areas was 0. The construction of the metro is key to establishing a sustainable transport system in Shanghai. A two-way metro ticket costs a minimum of 17. Of these the public transport privilege policies. If we cannot reduce the cost. This shows the need to cut the cost of urban transport. 0. low-income families will spend more time travelling. The overall cost of transportation is increasing rapidly in general.000 km metro construction plan is very ambitious. highway construction is usually considered the simplest solution to implement to address transportation needs. The 1. There is a need to develop a regional planning authority that would responsible for the implementation of plan. CO2 emissions reached 150 million tonnes in 2004. Even with great effort to encourage public transport through large-scale metro construction. This rose to 15.2 With residential areas developing along the main transport axis.7% of a low-wage worker’s daily income. However. With faster growth. parking charging policy and motorcycle limitation policy have so far been most successful. Some important policies are analyzed below. the license plate auctioning policy. metro system and freight rail link to the container port. such as the intercity express rail. Key policy issues on sustainable mobility for Shanghai To solve the above problems.051mg/m3 and 0. it is proving very difficult for Shanghai to provide enough traffic lanes to match the demand from surrounding provinces for freight and passenger transport.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study In 2006. a comprehensive transport plan should be prepared to integrate various transport modes over the whole GYDR. As a result. due to the limited land area and geographical setting of Shanghai. 5 . In 2000 only 3% of the family budget was spend on transportation and communication. the Shanghai government has instigated many transport demand management policies. Greater Yangtze Delta Region comprehensive transport plan Due to the difficult nature of province-wide coordination between different government transport authorities.
6 . Traffic management The operation of “unblocking the road” (to speed-up the car traffic with wider roads. Information technology has the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of existing transport infrastructure and make information on transport “more accessible and more transparent” for passenger and freight movement. especially in suburban areas. Protect space for slow transport The bicycle is still the most sustainable mode of urban transport. many services and job opportunities were available in Shanghai within bicycle range. so that suburban development should be encouraged along the public transport corridors.. The intention is to fully leverage the advantages of various transport modes and build up a multi-modal urban transport system.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Coordinating between urban land use and transport It has been proven that land-use density and mixture are very important factors that impact on people’s travel mode choice. GYDR and the central government is critical to success. although it is hard to consider it a successful operation on the whole. However. The urban planning control system. keeping a balanced dynamic between road supply and increasing vehicle demand by. Control of motorized vehicle Controlling the number of motorized vehicle has been a successful practice in Shanghai from the 1990s. it is now very important to keep the characteristics of the pedestrian and bicycle transport modes in the city. have not been fully explored yet. However. such as the flexible working hours schedule. In the context of the rapid expansion of urban space. this transfer is not obvious due to limited services and geographic coverage. this unique public policy is under great pressure from the car industry lobby. A new taxation system should also be introduced to encourage people to buy smaller cars for both environmental and road/parking space concerns.3 The question is whether public transport can provide the same mobility service as a bicycle without an extra financial burden on the government? Or should people be forced to use a car even for short distance travel?4 How can bicycle riders keep their share of the road? Faced with these questions. in fact. The soft traffic management measures. Building multi-mode urban transport system based on public transport priority The municipal government has tried to promote the construction of transportation hubs to more effectively link all transport modes. But there is an incentive to sell as much land as possible to generate fiscal revenues. As a result. In the past. The construction of the multi-modal transport system will face the challenge of institutional fragmentation. generally speaking. investments in traffic control equipment and stronger enforcement) has greatly improved the local government’s ability to manage traffic and the physical quality of traffic infrastructure. the municipal government has anticipated a transfer of the long distance bicycle passenger to motorized public transport. tide traffic lanes5 etc. In addition. the license plate auction policy only delays motorization. the license plate auction and parking policy. for example. the ability to coordinate the various stakeholders within Shanghai. is working well to control unplanned and low-density development in Shanghai.
This restriction was extended to the surface roads within the inner-ring road on 1 October 2006. 7 .. two years ahead of schedule. In 1998. the European II emission standard for motorized vehicles was implemented in the city.e. According to new regulations implemented in the city center since 15 February 2006. unleaded gasoline for motor vehicles was promoted in Shanghai. On 1 July 1999. On 1 March 2003. high-polluting vehicles (i.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Vehicle emission control On 1 October 1997. The use of low-olefin unleaded petrol was promoted for motorized vehicles in March 2000 ahead of national implementation. the European I emission standards for light vehicles was implemented. those not meeting European I emission standards) that have not received "the green license" are restricted on the elevated expressways. taxis began to run on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) was promoted on buses.
Shaoxing. Changzhou. Wuxi. 1. Nantong) and seven cities in Zhejiang Province around Hangzhou Bay (Hangzhou. Taizhou. Zhenjiang. Yangzhou. Zhoushan and Taizhou). Ningbo. It consists of eight large or medium cities in Jiangsu Province along the Yangtze River (Suzhou. Huzhou.1. Jiaxing. Nanjing.1 Background General information Figure1. These two urban agglomerations form the two wings of YDR.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 1.1: Location of Greater Yangtze Delta Region The Yangtze Delta Region (YDR)6 is an economic region led by the city of Shanghai. 8 .
as is its gross domestic product (GDP). and playing an active role in international and regional competition. this region is defined as “an economic center with the strongest competitiveness in China.218. The total area of Shanghai is 6. Its strong competitiveness has attracted increasing foreign investment. 100 km 9 . and a globally important advanced manufacturing base and the first Chinese megalopolis in the rank of world cities. its population density is the highest of all economic zones of China. The south to the north of the city spans approximately 120 km. With a population of more than 80 million. including a land area of 6. it has been an important port city in China.2: Yangtze Delta Region The YDR stretches over approximately 109. According to the Yangtze Delta Regional Planning Outline.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Figure1.1. Hangzhou Bay in the south and an estuary of the Yangtze River in the north. Shanghai has long been the largest economic center in China and is a famous historical and cultural city. It is acknowledged as having the largest development potential in China.65 km² and a water area of 121.340. facing the East Sea in the east. promoting industry and technology transfer. the main international gateway in Asia Pacific Region. At the same time.”7 Shanghai is located at the foreland of YDR.600 km².85 km².5 km².
08 million Yuan compared to 2005.47 million Yuan compared to 2005. while the total number of inhabitants staying in Shanghai for more than six months totaled 18 million.72 million dollars compared to 2005. 1. In 2006. increasing 0. In 2006.6 billion Yuan. the annual GDP of the 16 cities in the YDR reached 3.06% of China’s land area.68 million. decreasing land resource availability. an increase of 1. an increase of 5. the financial revenue of Shanghai accounts for one-eighth of the national total.2. The total port import-export volume accounts for about 10% of China’s total.2. Shanghai bears the responsibility of leading the economic growth of the YDR.1 YDR’s and Shanghai’s social and economic development The YDR since the 1990s Announced in 1992.952. trade and shipping centers.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study from east to west.24 million dollars with an increase of 0. By the end of 2006. The Yangtze Delta Region has become an important international manufacturing base and a locomotive driving economic growth in China. Gross exports per square kilometer were 3. the opening of the Pudong area in Shanghai was considered as strategic move for China’s development. Administratively.26 million Yuan. It has brought about unprecedented opportunities for the development of the YDR and resulted in its rapid growth.9% of national GDP. Shanghai’s development objectives include the creation of international economic.2 Shanghai’s development As the economic center of China. and even that of the whole country. as well as deteriorating transport conditions.05 million Yuan. Its output per unit of land has shown constant growth. With the more complicated global and national social and economic situation. The YDR is responsible for nearly 20% of national GDP but only accounts for 1% of China’s land area.7%. 1. At the same time the GDP of all 16 cities in the Yangtze Delta Region increased 14. the YDR has to change its development path in order to maintain its social and economic vigor. while the total port import-export commodity value reaches 25%10. accounting for 18. the rising costs of raw materials resulting from the appreciation of the RMB. Shanghai is divided into 18 districts and 1 county. financial. With only 1. In 2006. Shanghai’s registered urban population8 reached 13.5% of the nation’s population and 0.4% over the previous year. and a modern international metropolis.2 1. while the total port import-export commodity volume comprises 25% of China’s total. the output of the YDR per square kilometer of land was 36. The YDR has become increasingly important to national economic growth.9 Today the YDR is facing a key period of development. The import-export activities are more polarized in Shanghai because of the reliable and professional services and 10 . retail sales of consumer goods per square kilometer in the YDR reached 11.
its traffic flow has continuously increased. infrastructure. equating to an average annual increase of 18%. Shanghai was the first city to generate a GDP of over one trillion Yuan in China. transportation has to be developed in an integrated way in the YDR. has gradually formed in the YDR. the traffic had reached 41.000. railway.697 billion Yuan. an integrated transport system. The integrated service ability of information infrastructure has been notably enhanced. Development prospects In accordance with The Outline of the Eleventh Five-Year Program for the Economic and Social Development of Shanghai.489 billion with an increase of US$ 78. a consensus in the YDR and its surrounding cities. compared to the previous year. this figure reached over 70%. and its per capita GDP reached 75.029.11 In 2006. Since 1992.13 Since the 1990s. industry. The construction of an international shipping center in Shanghai has laid a solid foundation for constructing an internationally influential manufacturing base. and in the city center. 11 . In 1997. After years of construction. The proportion of tertiary industry reached 50. waterway. With the rapid economic growth in the YDR. the export-import value of Shanghai was US$ 656. including highway. with an average annual growth rate of nearly 20%. Shanghai has maintained double-digit economic growth rate.000 vehicles. an increase of 12% over 2005.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study central government support. Shanghai must strike a balance between the needs of the population. continuously serving the strongest economy in China. the average daily traffic flow of Hangzhou-Ningbo Freeway was 15.124 billion12 respectively. Since the opening of the Shanghai-Hangzhou freeway in 1996. 1. among which total port import-export value was US$ 428. the urban expressway network framework has gradually formed and the construction of the metro has been accelerated.076 and US$ 41.6%. The improvement of the regional transportation network has played an important role in promoting the YDR’s internal and external exchange capacity.754 billion and total foreign trade import-export volume was US$ 227. finance. Shanghai’s GDP of was 1.990 Yuan. Yangshan Deepwater Port Phase I Project. In 2006. which is important for the YDR to merge into the global economy. the Pudong International Airport and its auxiliary projects have been completed.3 Role of transport in regional and urban development Transport is the key component of economic development in the YDR. and over 24% for some parts of the freeway. aviation and pipeline. while by 2003. resources and the environment as it moves towards the goal of “four centers” (international economic.243 billion. infrastructure construction has been breathtaking in Shanghai. the demand for transportation has been greatly increased. trade and shipping centers) and modern international metropolis by implementing the view of scientific development and constructing a harmonious society.14 To achieve the goal of balanced regional economic development.
the largest seaport of Jiangsu and bring it into the “half-day traffic circle” of the YDR. the cross-river passage. the COASTAL FREEWAY. With the completion of Yangtze riverside freeway. regional transportation service and functioning have been greatly advanced.$ With the regional transport system’s development.904 Yuan in 2000 to 12. This is favorable for the development of northern Jiangsu. it may provide Nantong with new development opportunities. the GDP of Yancheng reached 117. improve the regional spatial development pattern and advance integrated strength and overall competitiveness. expand spaces for the economic growth of the YDR. and its socio-economic development has lagged behind because of inconvenient transport links. As a result. Yancheng city’s transportation has been considerably enhanced. With the completion of the Ningjingyan freeway. after the Sutong bridge and Hangzhou bay sea-crossing bridge have been established. Chongming is an island surrounded by the Yangtze River.849 Yuan in 2005. with its structure of “one heart 12 . the YDR’s transport circle has been continuously expanded and travel time significantly shortened. For example. It was pointed out that road transportation plays an unquestionably pivotal role in this economic growth. The construction of a costal freeway in the Jiangsu Province will establish closer links between central and northern Jiangsu and Shanghai. the Shanghai International Shipping Center. the coastal freeway. the level of opening up to both the inside and the outside will be enhanced. an increase of 15.43 billion Yuan. which would add new power to economic development and regional interaction of the YDR.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Since the 1990s. Hangzhou Bay Bridge and other major transport projects. the Yanhuai freeway and the Xinchang railway. The new transportation network will 15 Comment from the stakeholder dialogue: It is hard to imagine economic growth without transport. north of Shanghai) and the Hangzhou Bay cross-sea bridge (one of the world’s longest sea-crossing bridges. especially for freeway systems. and the expansion of urban space is mostly along these corridors making obvious spatial difference to urban development in the Shanghai region. Ningbo will be a coastal transport junction from a transport end and Jiaxing will also become a key node city. while GDP per capita grew from 6. which has been important for the integration of regional transport and economic development. In the mean time. According to the plan. Let us take Yancheng city (Jiangsu Province) as an example where transportation construction has been accelerated in recent years.1% over 2005. The exiting gateways of Shanghai are mainly located in west of Shanghai along the Huning. along with its economic and social development. In 2006. which is particularly favorable for Zhejiang and Jiangsu because of much improved links to Shanghai. south of Shanghai) will be built in succession. To promote the GYDR’s urban development.17 Huhang18 and Yangtze Riverside Freeway.16 Regional transportation development in Jiangsu province will also promote the rapid development of Lianyungang. an increase of 86%. with large-scale investment. the Sutong Yangtze River highway bridge (with the world’s longest main span. a well developed highway network has come into being.
4 1. When Taizhou city of Jiangsu Province participated in this forum in 1997. organization and improvement of regional economic cooperation in the YDR.19 In the future. Based in Shanghai. As a result. The distance from Ningbo to Shanghai will be shortened by 120 km and the distance from Shanghai to Taizhou (of Zhejiang Province) and Wenzhou will also be greatly shortened. the intercity rail transport program will be launched. with the total length around 815 km linking Nanjing. In 2003. The shortening of travel time will certainly accelerate the transformation of the Yangtze Delta Region into an advanced international metropolitan region with Shanghai as its head. Taizhou city joined this forum. Since then there have been mayors of 16 cites participating in this annual forum. 1. will begin to take shape. this office is an executive department responsible for the coordination. 13 . In 1992. all 15 city members reached a consensus that this conference should involve all mayors in the YDR. and an annual forum is held by the directors of cooperation committees of each city. At the fifth session of Yangtze delta regional urban economic coordinating forum held in 2004.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study and two wings”. The 954-kilometer long coastline within Jiangsu Province will be connected with Shanghai. Hangzhou and other major cities with Shanghai to increase the railway capacity for short-medium distance intercity travel (less than 300 km). all members decided to establish the YDR Urban Economic Coordinating Office.1 Institutional mechanisms in the YDR Regional coordinating mechanism of economic development Comment from Stakeholder Dialogue: There is a need to develop a regional planning authority for Shanghai as the old institutional boundaries do not adequately cover the current realities of the economic area and are not really working The Regional Economic Coordinating Meeting of the YDR is a regional cooperation organization aiming to enhance economic connections and cooperation. in the GYDR. the cost of transportation will be greatly reduced.4. the municipal Economic Cooperation Committees were created in 14 cities in the region (except Taizhou in Jiangsu and Taizhou in Zhejiang). With the Ningbo–Zhoushan port groups as its south wing and Nantong port as its north wing. the economic radiation of Shanghai may be extended to Zhangjiagang and even Rizhao port in Shandong Province. one line after another. and promote economic sustainable development in the YDR.
Fujian and Jiangxi provinces and the city of Shanghai. Economy Intercity Transport Aviation YRD Urban Economic Coordinating Forum Regional Coordinating organization YDR Economic Coordinating Office Civil Aviation Administration Bureau of East China Air Traffic Management Bureau of East China Railway Shanghai Railway Bureau Highway Waterway Shanghai Municipal Engineering Bureau Local Provincial Authorities Shanghai Municipal Port Authority Transport Department of Jiangsu Province Transport Department of Zhejiang Province Figure 1. Jiangsu. These authorities are mainly in charge of formulating industry development strategies.4. Zhejiang’s aviation is governed by Civil Aviation Bureau of East China and Air Traffic Management Bureau of the East China. and the use of waterfront area. Jiangsu.1: Regional Coordinating Organization and Intercity Transportation Authority (1) Aviation: Shanghai. in charge of provincial highway and water transport infrastructure construction and maintenance.2 Regional transport organization In the YDR. harbor and navigation facility construction. Anhui. Zhejiang. industry policies and legislation. and organizing the implementation of industry development plans and programs. (2) Railway: Shanghai Railway Bureau is the authority in charge of railway network and its operations in Jiangsu. in charge of industry administration and transport 14 . (3) Highway and water transport: The administration of highway and water transport in Shanghai.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 1. while highway and water transport are administrated by their respective provincial transport organizations. aviation and railways are managed by corresponding regional organizations. where the passenger and freight transport volumes by rail rank highest in China. Zhejiang Province is under the control of the Provincial Transport Department.2.
property protection. coastal transport and the Yangtze River transport within the administration authorization of local government and for the industry management of waterway. Traffic Police Headquarters of Police Security Bureau.5.2 Urban transport management Urban transport management in Shanghai involves several organizations.5. Urban Construction and Transport Committee.1 Organization of transport management in shanghai Intercity transport management (1) Shanghai Municipal Port Authority is in charge of port and shipping management.5 1. in charge of the safety issues in transport operation and enhancing law enforcement and reform for the transport industries. Shanghai Municipal Port Authority is responsible for the industry management of international maritime transport. Urban Planning Bureau. 1. (3) Municipal Engineering Administration Bureau is responsible for road construction and supervision. etc.5. maintenance and management for municipal highways.1) 15 . (Figure 1. (2) Urban Transport Bureau of Shanghai is responsible for intercity transport industry management. including Urban Transport Bureau.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study management of provincial highway and water transport industries. These organizations are working together to manage the urban transport system. Municipal Engineering Administration Bureau. 1.
the GYDR must change its development path if it wants to realize sustainable development. Faced with a complicated and volatile situation.1: Structure of the Shanghai Urban Transport Organization The Yangtze Delta Region. is currently in a key period of development.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study ●Coordinating various specialized planning including Shanghai Urban Planning Bureau transport planning ●Auditing and examining transport construction projects ● Formulating Policy guidelines and industry criteria ● Formulating Transport development strategies and Shanghai Urban Transport Bureau transport planning ● Nourishing the transportation market ● Organizing and conducing research on urban infrastructure development ● Managing urban infrastructure investment Shanghai Municipal Government Shanghai Municipal Construction & Transport Committee ● Approving the proposal of infrastructure projects ● Supervising the implementation of integrated transport development strategy and its planning ●Organizing evaluation for transport planning. 16 . maintenance and operation administration of urban roads and bridges ● Road traffic management ● Streets public security order ● Administration for motor vehicles.5. a prominent contradiction of land resources. especially Shanghai. policy and measure Shanghai Municipal Engineering Bureau ● Construction. congestion in transportation as well as resource constraints. non-motor vehicles and all the vehicle drivers ● Prevention for road traffic accidents Traffic Police Headquarters of Police Security Bureau Figure 1. the rise of production prices and enterprise cost increases resulting from the RMB exchange appreciation.
38% Table 2. water transport and aviation accounting for about 30% of the total.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 2. the growth of shipping and air freight in the 16 cities has been faster than highway and railway transport. By the end of 2005.1 Introduction In Jiangsu.21% . and 11 airports. Area Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang Total Nation The percentage of the nation's Highway 8 110 82 739 48 600 139 499 1 930 500 7.22% Freeway 560 2 886 1 866 5 312 41 000 12. the mileage of navigable inland waterway occupied 29. hundreds of highway routes and 10 main railways. In 2005. Zhejiang and Shanghai there are a total of 11 major coastal and inland ports. there are more than 1.312 km.38%. railway. total mileage of railway was 3. In the 16 cities of Yangtze Delta Region alone. Mobility development of GYDR This chapter focuses on the development of transportation systems and the regional distribution of different transportation modes (highway. As for the proportion of GYDR in the whole country. During the “Tenth five-year” period approximately 40% of freight in 16 cities was carried through highway. In the YDR. In recent years. civil aviation) in the 2. GYDR. post and storage sectors in the GYDR accounted for 17 . Thus. only accounting for 4. which link all the large and medium cities of the country and many other countries and regions of the world. waterway.21% Fairway20 2 223 24 349 9 652 36 224 123 300 29. Yangtze Delta Region is one of the most prosperous logistics centers in China. highway and railway transport has taken approximately two-thirds of all freight.69% and its aircraft flights accounted for 40%. with railway freight accounting for about 30% of the total.96% of national total. and the share of freight transported (in tons) also reaches over 10% of the total in China. the total number of airports occupied 7. water transportation and aviation are relatively well developed. among which the mileage of freeways was 5.499 km.100 ports with the capacity of 10 000t tonnage berths. Even though the waterway transportation system is well developed in this region. 17 large or small airports.1: The length of different transportation routes of GYDR in 2005 (km) Source: National Statistics Bureau of China Presently intercity passenger transport in the Yangtze Delta Region accounts for 20% of the whole country.1. total highway mileage in GYDR was 139. the value added of transport.177km. accounting for 12.96% Railway 269 1 616 1 292 3 177 75 400 4.
30 0.38 0.2: The transport.34 0.60 elasticity of freight transport over GDP 0.1.40 0.1: Growth rate of passenger transport of railway. 0. highway.10 0.48 0.5% of national total and Jiangsu took the first place (table 2.74% Jiangsu 115 440 45. warehousing value added in the GYDR in 2005 Source: The Industrial Map of the YDR (2006-2007) 0.1. waterway / Growth rate of GDP from 2001-2005 Source: National Statistics Bureau of China The elasticity of intercity passenger movement by various modes over GDP for Shanghai is highest comparing with Zhejiang and Jiangsu.48 0.2: Growth rate of freight transport of railway.50 elasticity of freight transport over GDP 0.50 0. highway. postal service. We can also find the railway systems are more developed in the GYDR than other areas of the nation. waterway/GDP growth rate from 2001-2005 Source: Data in this table are provided by National Bureau of Statistics of China 18 .00 Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang Nation Figure 2.1.20 0.30 0.34 0.56 0.10 0.40 0.09% Table 2.60 0.1).21 0.1.16% Zhejiang 82 030 32.30 0.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 18. The elasticity of railway passenger over GDP is also highest. This result is in accordance with the railway network in the GYDR (Figure 2.2) Shanghai Added value(million) % of total GYDR 58 127 22.1.20 0.00 Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang Nation Figure 2.
19 .05-significant) The table above shows that the freight transport by water has closer relation with freight transport by highway.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Shanghai’s elasticity of intercity freight by various modes of transport over GDP is lowest in GYDR (Figure 2.75092205 4. Table 2.54253 0 0.45741918 -7.2).35655 12.78511 -10. implying that shipping is more dependent on highway than railway in Shanghai.1. Unstandardized Coefficients Model (Constant) railway highway B -97016. but not significant with railway (small t value).05-insignificant.1.217 0 t Sig.7738 -1.3 Correlation analysis of different traffic modes in Shanghai Dependent Variable: waterway freight (in tons) (Sig>0. Sig<0.
37% respectively (Figure 2. From 2001 to 2005.2). Shanghai-Nanjin.1: Freeway of the GYDR In recent years. A westward radiating highway network system with Shanghai as its core has now formed in the GYDR. Shang-Hangzhou.2. Nanjing-Hangzhou and Nanjing-Ningbo transport corridors have become four major traffic arteries within the region. the highway mileage increased from 108 900 km to 137 800 km. Comment from stakeholder dialogue: I am unaware of any place in human history that has built so much road infrastructure in such a short period of time as the Shanghai region. the increased rate of highway mileage in Jiangsu Province from 2003 to 2004 was 20. the highway mileage of GYDR occupied 7.2.1 Highway transport Highway development in GYDR Figure 2.22% of national total. It can be shown from the chart below that while the increased rate of highway construction in Shanghai and Zhejiang Province was relatively stable.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 2. the construction of highways in the GYDR has grown rapidly.2 2. 20 . By the end of 2005.37% and 19.2.
2 Highway passenger and freight transport in the GYDR GYDR’s intercity passenger transport volume in 2005 totaled 2.921 km. the freeways in the GYDR become crowded soon after the opening.2. With increasing transport demand. the density of Jiangsu and Zhejiang is 0. the highway network of the GYDR will be advanced comprehensively. Shanghai was densest with 1.28 km/km².2: The Length of highway of the GYDR from 2001 to 2005 (in thousand kilometers) Source: The Industrial Map of the Yangtze Delta Region (2006-2007) The total mileage of freeway in the GYDR is 4.19% of national total in the same period. highway transport among cities has become convenient.03 and 0.929.02 respectively. such as Ninghang freeway. As for the density of highway network. however.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 90 000 80 000 Length of highway (Thousand kilometers) length of highway 70 000 60 000 50 000 40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 0 2001 2002 2003 Year Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang 2004 2005 Figure 2. however. northern Jiangsu transport network. 2.904 billion tons.2. Sutong bridge and Hangzhou bay cross-sea bridge.96% of the national total in the same period. accounting for 14. accounting for 12. Jiangyin bridge.77 billion passengers. With the well established network. With the construction of a series of major projects. 21 . and the freight was 1.26% of the national total. accounting for 17.
the railway network in GYDR cannot accommodate the demands of economic and social development in this region yet.21% of the national total in the same period.000 persons was only 0. 2. only one-third of the national average. As a whole. 22 . However the railway mileage per 10. while the freight accounted for 17.1 Railway transport Railway development in the Yangtze Delta Region Figure 2. intercity passenger transport only accounted for 0. The operating mileage of railways in the GYDR was about 3.3. forming a state-wide transport network.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3 500 000 3 000 000 growth of passenger and freight （1000 people/1000 tons) 2 500 000 2 000 000 1 500 000 1 000 000 500 000 0 2001 2002 2003 Year Pas senger (thousand people) 2004 2005 Freight（thousand tons ） Figure 2. Clearly there is a lot of pressure on freight transport in the GYDR.3: Growth of passenger and freight traffic on highways of the GYDR from 2001 to 2005 Source: The Industrial Map of the Yangtze Delta Region (2006-2007) It can be seen from the above chart that the passenger and freight transport in the GYDR during the five years was growing.3.16 km.177 km in 2005.84% of the GYDR. In Shanghai. accounting for 4.1: Railway of the Yangtze Delta Region The railway network in the GYDR has developed rapidly.2. including Shanghai.16%.3 2.
4%). There is a lack of high-speed train services within the 50 to 300 km range. railway freight transport has to be reduced to leave room for passenger.53%.3. the total mileage of intercity rail transport network in the Yangtze Delta Region is expected to reach 815 km. while highway freight growth rate was about 13%. In 2005. As a result. which was less than that of national growth during the same period of (39. the pressure on railway transport is huge due to the rapid increase in passenger and freight transport demand.3. 70 000 Freight traffic by train Freight traffic by train (Thousand tons) 60 000 50 000 40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 0 2001 2002 2003 Year Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang 2004 2005 Figure 2. 2. With the huge demand for passenger transport. which was much more rapid than the national growth of 9. railway freight movement in the GYDR accounted for 4. Comment from stakeholder dialogue: It was pointed out that the Ministry of Railways is set up to deal primarily with freight (and mainly coal) and they do not have the capacity/culture to deal with metropolitan rail transport. designed for inter-province transport. With the gradual regional economic integration and highway congestion. while railway passengers accounted for 15. In the same period.91%. However a new 800-km long regional railway has been agreed between the three provinces in the GYRD and this is expected to go ahead.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study In China the railway system is generally for long-distance service (over 300 km). By 2020.2 Railway passenger and freight transport in the Yangtze Delta Region From 2001 to 2005. Intercity railway services within the GYRD have been planned. the few slow-speed train services cannot meet passenger transport demands within the region. freight tons grew by 25. the number of railway passengers in the GYDR grew by 31.13% of the national total.05% of the national total.49%. Railway freight in the GYDR grew at an annual rate of about 6%.2: Growth of freight traffic by train in the GYDR from 2001 to 2005 (in thousand tons) Source: The Industrial Map of the Yangtze Delta Region (2006-2007) 23 .
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 80 000 70 000 Pasenger traffic by train passenger traffic by train (Thousand passengers) 60 000 50 000 40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 0 2001 2002 2003 Year ShangHai JiangSu ZheJiang 2004 2005 Figure 2. and the GYRD boasts large scale port capacity overall.3.1: Major ports of the Yangtze Delta Region 24 . the ports of Shanghai.3: Growth of passenger traffic by train in the GYDR from 2001 to 2005 (in thousand passengers) Source: The Industrial Map of the Yangtze Delta Region (2006-2007) 2. Ningbo. Figure 2. Zhoushan and Lianyun’gang ranked among the top ten ports in China.4 Waterway transport In 2005.4.
23 billion person kilometers (see Appendix Ⅱ. Suzhou.4.54% and 18. (See Appendix I.51 million and 1.4. In 2005. It shows that Shanghai waterway transport is mainly oceangoing freight.2 Port function in the GYDR In the GYDR. The cargo handling capacity of Ningbo Port accounts for 19. Nantong.1 Waterway freight and passenger transport in the YDR In 2005.2). accounting for 48 % and 34% of the total figures for China (Figure 2. accounting for 32. Nanjing. 2.14% of the total figures for China respectively.6 billion ton-kilometers respectively. Table 1) 25 .682. a hierarchy port system has been formed: Shanghai and Ningbo ports serve as the container trunk line ports and Lianyun’gang. From 2001 to 2003. The Shanghai Port has the leading role in the port system of the GYRD. but rose slightly in 2004.37% of the total in the GYDR. with the cargo handled through Shanghai and Ningbo ports taking 13. the variation in waterway freight transport of Shanghai. Figure 1~2). the waterway freight movement and turnover of the GYDR were 1. Zhenjiang.79% of the port freight in GYDR. accounting for 71. accounting for 18.11% and 7. 450 000 400 000 Freight by water Freight by water (Thousand tons) 350 000 300 000 250 000 200 000 150 000 100 000 50 000 0 2001 2002 2003 Year Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang 2004 2005 Figure 2.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 2.057 million tons and 1.94% respectively. Jiangsu and Zhejiang was not so wide.2: Freight by water of the GYDR from 2001 to 2005 (in thousands of tons) Source: Data in this table are provided by The Industrial Map of the Yangtze Delta Region (2006-2007) In 2005. Wenzhou and other ports as the branch line ports with other ports as the feeding ports. In 2005 the waterway passenger and passenger-kilometers were 37.85% and it is the second largest port in the GYDR.4. the waterway passenger transport and passenger-kilometers in GYDR decreased.4. cargo handled through major ports of the Yangtze Delta Region accounted for about 40% of the total in China. while the waterway freight ton-kilometers was much higher in Shanghai.
5 2.2 Airport passengers in the YDR In 2005 there were 284. among which 59.35 million passengers at 137 airports in China. Therefore.12 million flew through the 10 civilian airports of the YDR.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 2. This compares with a total of 39 such airports in the entire country. (See Appendix I. representing 20.5.1: Airports in the YDR 2. the YDR plays an important role in the nationwide air transportation system.1 Aviation Airports in the YDR By 2005. Five of the 10 airports in the YDR boarded over 1 million passengers per year. the 16 cities of the YDR had 10 civilian airports.5. Figure 2.5.79% of the nation’s total. Table 2) 26 . and there is one civilian airport per ten thousand square kilometers.
2. equivalent to 40. the supply of transport infrastructure per capita is insufficient. Zhoushan. Its railway mileage per ten thousand people is merely 0. Changzhou. Nantong Table 2. only one-third of the national average. The highway mileage per ten thousand people is only 20. intercity passenger transport has become 27 . it is not sufficient compared with its economic scale and size of population. Table 3). Nanjing.5. The strong correlation between water freight and highway freight indicates that a further increase in import-export trade will bring more highway traffic.1: Airports in the YDR 2. Ningbo Class III Branch Line Wuxi. but the volume it transports reaches 35. The airport system of the YDR has the following two features: 1.6 Conclusions Economic prosperity will undoubtedly strengthen the transport linkage among cities and regions in the GYDR.5. With the annual growth of passengers in the YDR. The air cargo transport service of the YDR mainly focuses on Shanghai.16 kilometers.2% of the air cargo in the YDR. This area is very important for international air flight and sea transportation. Six airports handle above ten thousand tons of cargo and mail in the region (see Appendix I. especially Pudong International Airport.57 million tons. Although the transport facilities of the YDR are relatively well developed as a whole. and 86. Regional economic development requires the integration of transport system over different modes and different administrative boundaries.63% of that of all the airports in mainland China. Although the road length density of the YDR is higher than other areas in China. The scheduled all-cargo flights from/to the Shanghai Airport account for a small proportion (5%) of the total flights.3 Air cargo and mail The annual cargo and mail of the 10 airports in YDR reached 2.01% of the total air cargo in China.8% of China’s average.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study The airports in the YDR can be classified as three categories: Classification City Class I National Hub Shanghai Class II Key Node Hangzhou. 2. Taizhou. which will have considerable influence on the development of the YDR in the future.
Further development of oceangoing container shipping relies crucially on the distribution system of inland waterways. highways and railways across provinces. the key lies in strengthening the construction of passenger transport hubs. In other words the authorities should regard developing a fast and convenient transfer system as the pre-condition for constructing passenger transport hubs. As a result there is a need for a comprehensive transport plan to maintain and improve the efficiency and competitiveness of this region. but also link up passenger transport between cities and urban public transport within cities. As far as passenger transport is concerned. especially the medium and long distance intercity passenger. 28 . The passenger transport hubs not only link up different internal modes of a certain transport means.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study the competitive focus of various transport means.
508 Outside of Shanghai 22. the traffic distribution is discussed in the Shanghai region.146 215. Passenger traffic Central city Suburbs Outside of Shanghai Total Freight traffic Central city Suburbs Outside of Shanghai Total Total O-D Central city suburbs Outside of Shanghai Total Central city — 173.694 — 51.475 Total 337.1.412 52. suburbs and area outside of the City PCU/day (passenger car units per day)22 Source: Shanghai Highway Network Vehicle Travel OD Distribution and Traffic Characteristic Analysis Report 2004 29 .994 Table 3. However. 3. suburbs and area outside of Shanghai) has been conducted to define traffic distribution in the Shanghai region.645 601. Regional transport in Shanghai This chapter focuses on the comprehensive transportation system in Shanghai region.093 130.292 52.297 544.000 motor-vehicle trips every day.436 390.900 392. There are several very congested sections with trucks moving along several corridors that connect to other parts of mainland China.436 23. and it concludes with the analysis of some key indexes of passenger transport and cargo transport.1.126 81.355 346.714 28.310 Suburbs 88.197 937.408 Outside of Shanghai 27. Recently an investigation of highway traffic among the three areas (central city (within the outer ring). including the area between Shanghai administrative boundary and outer-ring freeway. since the 1990s industry has increasingly developed in suburban areas due to vast amounts of cheap land and good access to the regional highway.1.191 47.783 Suburbs 163. Now the highway in the Shanghai region alone accommodates 591.577 — 131.801 Central city — 90.883 — 80.703 Total 205.1 and Table 3.982 Central city — 264. changed the traffic flow pattern in the Shanghai region.755 24.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3.198 Suburbs 251. which has.704 1.209 130.913 536. waterway (particularly port) and aviation. railway.059 803.470 249.364 342.1: Traffic Distribution among the city proper.404.295 Outside of Shanghai 50. to a large extent. First.930 76.2).325 83. The transport network here includes highway.1 Traffic distribution in the Shanghai region In the past the major economic activities were concentrated in the central city.033 30.163 54.519 Total 131.834 591.21 This survey does not include the traffic inside the central city (Table 3.349 926. Then transport infrastructure is described.
607 342.outside of Shanghai Suburbs .67% 7.1: Highway vehicle travel linkage between various areas of Shanghai If the internal travel of the urban area is not taken into account.225 51.926 591. 30 .1.99% 42.800 45. the transport connection between the central city and suburbs is much better than that between the suburban areas.319 249.04% Suburbs 37.12% 12.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Region Central city .481 164.325 Total 37. sea and air transport hubs in China today.17%) of the total. and the travel between suburbs accounts for the largest percentage (43.60% 43. waterway and aviation.85% 7. the traffic in the suburbs accounts for the major part.292 30.67% 7.2: Travel between Various Regions and Their Percentages (Unit: PCU/day) Outside of Shanghai 12.61% Freight vehicle 179. highway. However.61% 8.2 Supply of facilities Shanghai is one of the most important land.860 59.outside of Shanghai Suburbs .suburbs Central city .17% Central city Figure 3. and this has caused much difficulty for travel in the suburbs.suburbs Passenger vehicle 336.82% 17. such as railway.94% 5. 3. especially for the freeway system (toll road). Due to the transport policy to encourage the public transport in the central city.1.621 105.17% Table 3. The policy has not yet delivered success in reducing congestion or in decreasing the dense population in the city center.025 97. major road construction has mainly taken place in suburban areas.033 42.12% 43. covering a wide range of transportation modes.04% 43.58% 516.23 Through decades of construction. Shanghai has established a regional transport system.
1992 3.231. 1995 3.721.2. 1991 3. 2.881. provincial and county highways totaled 3.409 km.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3.2.1 and Figure 3. but also stretch to the various towns and villages in the suburbs of Shanghai.2: Shanghai Highway Mileage Changes from 1990 to 2005 (Unit: kilometers) 31 . 2005 8. These roads not only link the countrywide highway network. thus forming its road system of “three rings and ten radial roads”. 2004 7. 1996 3.2. 162km more than that in 2004.1: Change in Shanghai highway mileage in the past years (Unit: kilometers) 9000 8000 7000 6000 Km 5000 4000 3000 2000 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 Year Figure 3. freeways and highways as Figure 3.625. Year Length Year Length 1990 3.486.1 kilometer per 100 square kilometers on average. 2001 6.2.1 Highway in Shanghai trunk lines and the county and village highways as the branches. 2002 6.2. 1999 4. The state.805. 1997 3. 2000 5. 1994 3. The highway density reached about 123.286.677.961. Please refer to Table 3. 2003 6.078. forming a highway transportation network with the state highways.110 Table 3.049 1998 4.1 Highways Shanghai now has basically built its freeway network and completed its urban outer-ring construction. the total mileage of the highways24 (including village roads) of Shanghai had reached 8 110 kilometers.66 times that in 1990.970. By the end of 2005.787.2.165. 1993 3.2 for the mileage change of the highways of Shanghai in the past years.104.
26% 6. the freeway construction of Shanghai developed rapidly.24% 27. Table 4 for the traffic flows of the networks).7% 25.7% of the total mileage of highways.8% 57. the city had a total of 3.2%. By the end of 2005.3: The technical grade of highway in Shanghai (2004) 4. In 1988.5% State highw ay Provincial highw ay County highw ay 32 Village highw ay . Shanghai-Nanjing and Shanghai-Hangzhou freeway were built.000-7.2. Please refer to Figure 3. In 2000. accounting for 37.56% Freew ay Third-grade highw ay First-grade highw ay Fourth-grade highw ay Second-grade highw ay Non-classified highw ay Figure 3. the technical hierarchy structure of the highways of Shanghais has also been greatly improved.92% 32.2.2 shows that the highway mileage of Shanghai in the past decade increased with an annual average growth rate of 7. During the “tenth-five-year-plan” period. While total highway mileage is increasing.2.3-4 for the hierarchy structure of the highway network of Shanghai. By the end of 2004. 1.81% 27. Shanghai finished the construction of 10 freeways including the A20 outer-ring (Please see Appendix I. accounting for 6. of which the mileage of freeway has already reached 560 kilometers. Shanghai built the first freeway in China---Shanghai-Jiading Freeway.500 mid-sized trucks passing day and night).1% 12.21% of the total highway mileage.057 kilometers of highway at or above second grate (highways designed for an average of 3.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 1991-2006 Figure 3.21% 4.
2.2 Railways As one of the ten largest railway hubs of China. However.2. The railway of Shanghai includes two main lines linking other parts of mainland China: Shanghai-Nanjing Line and Shanghai-Hangzhou Line.2. Please refer to Figure 3. The operated mileage of Shanghai reached 269 kilometers in 2005.2.5: Change of Shanghai Railway Mileage from 1990 to 2005 Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 1991-2006 33 . in the last three years it saw an increase. During the 15 years from 1990 to 2003. overall railway mileage stagnated.4: Administrative grade of highway in Shanghai (2004) 3.5 and Figure 3.2.2. especially for Shanghai intercity passenger transport. The railway transport of the Shanghai area undertakes 50% of intercity passengers in Shanghai and some 5% of cargo transport.2. 270 265 260 KM 255 250 245 1990 1995 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Railw ay Operated Mileage Figure 3.6 and Table 3.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Figure 3. It represents the backbone. 15 Shanghai hub branch lines and liaison lines and 79 special-purpose lines. Shanghai Railway plays an important role in the national railway networks.
Zhejiang and Anhui Province.2. a boat may directly reach the various coastal provinces as well as the rest of the world.6: Railway networks in Shanghai Year Length Year Length kilometer) There are three large passenger transport stations: Shanghai Station.2. The water transport trunk way of the Yangtze River links eight provinces along the Yangtze River. 34 . coastal and ocean transport. including bulk goods. oil and regular international container shipping line. linking the ports and metros. is through ocean transportation. 1990 259 1998 248 1991 259 1999 260 1992 235 2000 257 1993 247 2001 257 1994 246 2002 257 1995 256 2003 257 1996 256 2004 264 1997 244 2005 269 Table 3. Ocean transportation plays a major role in the foreign trade of Shanghai. which constitute the water/land and internal/external transport hub.3 Water transport The water transport of Shanghai is composed of inland river. and a total of 35 large or small stations.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Figure 3. The inland river shipping of Shanghai connects with that of Jiangsu. 98% of the foreign trade exported material of Shanghai Port. Shanghai Southern and Western Station.2. By going out to the sea through the Yangtze River estuary.2: Operated Mileage Change of Shanghai Railway from 1990 to 1997 (Unit: 3. Yangtze River.
6 8.3 million TEU. and a water depth of more than 15 meters.2. Length of Wharfs(km) 1. and 9 deep-water container berths with a total shoreline length of 3. For further details please refer to Table 3. The designed handling capacity of the port area will reach 4. of which 107 are 10.8 8.4 and Figure. and 104 kilometers away from the major international shipping lines.28 1.2 7 6. and the inner port serving inland shipping.4 8.76 category Thousand-ton Berth 680 1 110 1 240 1 310 Container Berth 12 18 28 32 Year 1995 2000 2005 2006 Number of Berth 140 1 098 1 181 1 140 Table 3.4: Wharf Length and Berth Number of Shanghai Port from 1995 to 2006 9 8. 2003-2006 3.2.7. 3. the Yangshan Port Area is situated to the southeast of the Shanghai Nanhui Luchao Port outside the estuaries of Hangzhou Gulf and the Yangtze River.000-ton berths and 25 berths are for container ships.2. owns 40 kilometers of shoreline and 322 berths.2. The outer port.000 meters have been constructed.92 8.8 7.6 7. As the focus of Shanghai International Shipping Center construction.8 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 110 105 100 120 115 135 130 125 Length of Wharfs Ten-thousand-ton Berths Figure 3.7: Shanghai Ten-thousand Ton Tonnage Berths and Wharf Length Change Source: The “11th-five-year-plan” special planning for ports and inland rivers shipping of Shanghai 35 .2.4 7.2 KM 8 7.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Year Waterway mileage（km） 2 037 2 066 2 032 2 107 Boat(vessel) Container Ship(vessel) Tonnage（kg） 5 571 379 6 180 086 6 943 781 8 126 234 TEU Capacity 419 138 466 101 522 685 620 984 2002 2003 2004 2005 1 268 1 301 2 077 2 016 287 303 347 397 Table 3.4 Ports The port facilities of Shanghai are composed of the outer port serving ocean/sea transport and Yangtze River shipping. which is so-called Shanghai Port.3: Shanghai inland waterway mileage and ships change in the past years Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook.96 7. The first and second phase wharfs of Yangshan are in operation.2.
Pudong International Airport also owns an air cargo transport base. and both airports can allow large passenger airplanes to take off and land.400 meters long and 57.000 meters long and 60 meters wide. only 13 kilometers away from the CBD. Region Domestic Cities International Cities Total 2000 68 53 121 2001 75 70 145 2002 79 62 141 2003 75 69 144 2004 76 86 162 Table 3.2. and may provide 24-hour service for all types of airplanes. It has a north-south runway of 4. Hongqiao Airport has mainly functioned as an airport for domestic flights. Pudong International Airport covers an area of 40 square kilometers. 36 .8: Airports in Shanghai from the CBD and 40 kilometers from Hongqiao Airport. flights through Pudong Airport account for 60% or so of the total for all Shanghai airports.5: Cities to which Shanghai has opened its air traffics Source: The “11th-five-year-plan” planning for air transport of Shanghai Shanghai Airports include Hongqiao Airport and Pudong International Airport.8 Situated in the western part of Shanghai. about 30 kilometers away Figure 3.5 Aviation By 2005.2.6 meters wide. However. Situated in the eastern of Shanghai.000 square meters. After many international flights moved to the Pudong Airport. two parallel taxiways.2. Shanghai had opened its air flight to 162 cities at home and abroad (of which 76 are domestic cities and 86 are international and regional cities). Hongqiao Airport has one runway and one taxiway.2. At present.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3. and 52 foreign and Chinese airlines (of which 11 are domestic airlines and 41 are foreign airlines) had opened their regular flights to Shanghai. and the parking apron is about 486. The runway is 3. Please refer to Figure 3. it has also kept its function as an emergency landing area for international flights.
028 Table3.090 Table 3.130 44.680 27. 3.540 Airway 5.1: Shanghai passenger dispatches in the major years (unit: thousand) Total Year 1995 2000 2005 2006 Passenger -Kilometers 17.611 53.418 3.390 6. especially for international travel. an increase of 8% over the same period in 2005.171 0.287 There into Railway 3.1).677 0. In terms of passenger-kilometers.644 7.920 20.3 3.650 68.886 5.1 Passenger transport Intercity passenger transport structure As many as 102 million passengers were dispatched out of Shanghai in 2006.820 24.506 8.930 94.800 43.548 60.393 74. which accounts for 44% of the intercity passengers (see Table 3.3.290 29.472 66.123 Highway 0.260 6.25 Total Year 1995 2000 2005 2006 Passenger Dispatch 52.686 17.452 Airway 9.3.54 4.3. Of this 44.3. air transportation takes a leading place with 81% share. Their passenger-kilometers in 2006 were 10 times and 4 times those of 1995 respectively (see Table 3.840 Waterway 5.2: Shanghai passenger-kilometers in the major years (billion person-km) Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 1996-2007 In terms of passenger-kilometers.050 There into Railway 29.580 Highway 12.452 0.823 1.685 Waterway 3.2).570 24.120 5.670 8.800 23. which clearly demonstrates the advantage of aviation in long-distance passenger transportation.58 million passengers were dispatched by railways. highway and air intercity passenger transportation has grown remarkably.098 23.870 102. 37 .Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3.
3: Passenger haul distance by different transport modes (·km) 3000 2500 2000 km 1500 1000 500 0 1995 Average 2000 Railw ay Highw ay 2005 Waterw ay 2006 Airw ay Figure 3. and that of railways remains unchanged. Please refer to Table 3. Meanwhile. mode Railway 117 119 113 115 Highway 65 66 304 312 Waterway 619 126 72 69 Airway 1.2.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 12% 81% 7% 0% 1% passenger-kilometers 44% 27% 23% 6% passenger 20% railw ay highw ay 40% w aterw ay 60% airw ay 80% 100% Figure 3. air transport has the longest haul distance of more than 1.3.600 Year 1995 2000 2005 2006 Average 325 341 700 728 Table 3.3.500 km and the figure is still rising.3.3. Figure 3.1: Transportation Structure of Intercity Passenger of Shanghai (2006) The passenger haul distance has increased year by year. The haul distance of highways has increased significantly since 2000. It is worth noting that transport distance by water (not including ocean route) descends sharply.3. which means inland waterways have decreasing importance in passenger transportation in Shanghai.3.574 2.2: Comparison of passenger haul distance among different transportation modes travelling to and from Shanghai 38 .708 1.974 2.
etc. including Fujian.650 PCU/day in 2004. Jiangsu. including Anhui. Hainan. the areas to the west of Shanghai have the least passengers to/from Shanghai. the areas to the north of Shanghai account for the largest share (61%) of all passenger destinations. Hebei.3. Hubei. with an annual average growth rate of 10. Chongqing and other provinces.3: Average Daily Traffic Flow of Shanghai Highway Network for State and Provincial Highway (in PCU per day) In terms of the passenger destination. which is around 3% higher than the average annual rate of growth in the mileage of highway. Zhejiang. traffic volume on Shanghai’s highway network has been growing rapidly. The next are the areas to the south of Shanghai. These areas include Beijing. Area in the south of Shanghai 28% Area in the w est of Shanghai 11% Area in the nort of Shanghai 61% Area in the north of Shanghai Area in the w est of Shanghai Area in the south of Shanghai Figure 3.2 Highway passenger transport Since 1991.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3. 30000 (PCU/day) Average Daily Traffic Flow 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Figure 3.8%. Jiangxi.4: Intercity Highway Passenger Destination of Shanghai in 2004 39 .3. Sichuan.3. Shannxi and some other provinces. The average daily flows on the state and provincial highways has increased from 7. Guangdong. Henan.268 PCU/day in 1991 to 25.
8 million by Hongqiao airport.50% Return passengers Shanghai─Nanjing 63. with an annual average growth of 5%.3 million in 2004.66 million passenger boarding/alighting from Pudong airport and 17.000.40% 35. up 45% with an annual average growth rate of 10%. In only one year from 2003 to 2004.50% Shanghai→Hangzhou 37.60% 64. up 22%.80% 67. the figure increased by 11 million.10% Shanghai─Hangzhou 37.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3.20% 32. while during the three years from 2001 to 2003. and the passenger flow in this direction is far greater than that along the Shanghai-Hangzhou. the number of air passengers in Shanghai increased to 10 million. Annual railway passengers in the Shanghai-Nanjing direction rose from 18. 3.10% 36.50% 64.3.80% 67. Please refer to Appendix I.3. By 2005. 23.3 Railway Passenger Transport The Shanghai-Nanjing direction accounts for two-thirds of Shanghai railway passengers. the number of passengers travelling in the Shanghai-Nanjing direction has increased faster than that in the Shanghai-Hangzhou direction. so the Shanghai-Nanjing direction passenger predominates.4 Aviation During the decade from 1990 to 2000. the daily average number of passengers at Shanghai Airports had reached 114.8 million in 2000 to 27. Table 5.20% 32. Most of the passenger trains in the Shanghai-Nanjing direction are dispatched to the north of China. with 41. and the Shanghai-Hangzhou direction accounts for one-third.70% 36.00% 37.4: Railway Passenger transport (2004) Source: The “11-th-year-plan” Construction Planning Assumption of Shanghai Railways In terms of passenger growth.90% 63. 40 .90% 63.50% 35.46 million passengers in one year. it also increased by 10 million. The annual number of railway passengers in the Shanghai-Hangzhou direction rose from 11 million in 1998 to 13 million in 2004.3.10% 36. One way passengers Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Shanghai→Nanjing 62. There are also many large and medium cities located along the Shanghai-Nanjing railway.90% Table 3.00% 62.30% 63.
Please refer to Figure 3. 41 . Although highway cargo also rose dramatically. 400000 350000 300000 thousand tons 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 1995 1996 Railw ay 1997 1998 2000 Waterw ay 2004 Airw ay 2005 Highw ay Figure 220.127.116.11% of total cargo in 2005.4 3.1.4. its corresponding proportion of total cargo transport dropped slightly.1 and Table 3. up 63% over that of 1995.4. Its highway and air cargo has grown continuously. the proportion of cargo moved by water rose dramatically.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3.4. In the meantime.1: Cargo Transport by Various Transport Modes in the Shanghai Region (unit: thousands of tons) Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 1996-2006 In terms of transportation mode structure.1: Cargo Transport by Various Transportation modes (unit: thousands of tons) Composition Railway 41 660 62 130 58 170 52 920 32 630 38 620 38 410 Highway 245 730 250 230 259 910 263 520 283 690 315 540 326 840 Waterway 148 450 145 440 140 820 145 290 184 420 301 480 345 570 Airway 370 410 480 570 880 2 250 2 220 Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2004 2005 Total 436 210 458 210 459 380 462 300 501 620 657 890 713 040 Table 3. but the amount of air cargo grew very fast.1 Cargo transport Cargo transport structure The total cargo tonnage for Shanghai in 2005 reached 713. while the water and railway cargo dropped first and then rose. the share of railway transport decreased and the proportion of air transport grew slowly.04 million tons. up from 34% in 1995 to 48.
2 times and 14 times respectively. Shanghai’s port has surpassed Singapore’s port to become the largest cargo port in the world.9 21.5% 5. but the distance is still short. The corresponding average haul distance also rose greatly.083.4. accounting for about 24% of all the large ports nationwide.8% 48.637.54 Ton-kilometers (million ton km) 4. its container processed 21. 42 . and its cargo transport turnover reached 7. and in 2004 it was 1.2: Cargo transport structure in the Shanghai area 3. Total cargo tonnage (million ton) 245.69 306. Compared to the figures of 1995. industrial products and building materials.083.4. Figure 3.1% 1995 0% 40% railw ay highw ay 60% w aterw ay airw ay 80% 100% Figure 3. up 21. the total cargo and containers handled through Shanghai have grown 3.0% 0. indicating that the proportion of medium.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 45.54 million tons in 2004.2 18.7%. Tables 6-7.3% over the last year.878.3% 34.6% 20% 0.8 20.4% 9.79 Average distance (km) 14.. It reached 537 million tons in 2006.38 6.and long-distance transport by highway is increasing. The total amount of highway cargo in Shanghai reached 315.4% and 45. of which light industrial products and foods account for the highest percentage at 28.3.79 million ton kilometers.1% and minerals account for the lowest percentage to 2. etc. up 28.71 million TEU.14 5. Please refer to Appendix II.73 283.5 times that of 1995.3% 2005 56. ranking third place worldwide only next to Hong Kong and Singapore for container handling. foods.2 Highway cargo transport Highway cargo transportation (including ton-kilometers) has been growing. 3.4.6% compared with the figures of 1995 respectively.4.8 Year 1995 2000 2003 2004 Table 3.864.4.3 Water transport As shown in Table 3.2: Ton-kilometers and transport distance of Shanghai in the past years Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 1996~2005 The major goods carried by truck are light industrial products.78 315.98 7. Shanghai port’s cargo throughput has been growing quickly. Please refer to Appendix I. since 2000.
261 Table 3. Please refer to Figure 3.4 Railway cargo transport Because of various historical reasons.548 12.776 Container（Thousand TEU） imports 833 1.62 million tons.4.4 45000 40000 35000 4000 3500 thousand TEU thousand ton 3000 30000 2500 25000 20000 15000 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2000 1500 Total freight（Thousand ton） Container （Thousand TEU） Figure 3.867 2.3: Shanghai railway cargo transport growth Year 1995 2000 2003 2004 Total freight (thousands of tons) imports 13. By 2004 Shanghai’s total railway cargo had reached 38.3 times the figure of 1995.3: Cargo throughput of Shanghai’s port 3.202 1. In contrast.896 22.246 1.083 12.3and Table 3.267 1.4.760 10.4.4.844 exports 27.65 million TEU in 2004.4: Railway freight transport growth 43 . railway cargo transport shrank prior to 2000.077 24. railway container cargo has been rising steadily since 1995 and reached 3.4. Since 2000 the tonnage of railway freight has shown growth. 2.392 exports 733 1.4.188 25.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Freight throughput Year （thousand TEU） 1 526 5 612 18 084 21 710 Freight throughput （thousand ton） 165 670 204 400 443 170 537 480 There into Import 120 970 137 910 275 390 345 980 export 44 700 66 490 167 780 191 510 Foreign-trade goods （thousand ton） 40 860 76 330 184 920 There into import 26 050 45 490 100 980 export 14 810 30 840 83 940 1995 2000 2005 2006 Table 3.
reaching 23%.5 Conclusions Comment from stakeholder dialogue: In Shanghai it was pointed out that the highway authority is often in conflict with the planning authority. development is regulated at the district and town level.4. This is not conducive to public transport that requires relatively dense populations to make it efficient and accessible to many people. As many as 402. the development of Shanghai’s ports and inland waterways is in full swing.211 tons of cargo and mail were transported out of Shanghai airports through international flights.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3. reaching 26%.4. Compared to 1995. such as post parcel transport. Shanghai’s airport cargo increased more than 5 times. has greatly strengthened the relation between Shanghai and neighboring areas. In terms of highways and railways. Its total port handling capacity is increasing rapidly. from 30% in 2000 to 85% in 2004. . 3. It was also pointed out that municipal developments are limited to the outer ring road.5 Air cargo transport As many as 900 airplanes took off from and land at Shanghai’s airports each day in 2005 (of which 488 were in Pudong Airport and 412 in Hongqiao Airport). of which Asian countries accounted for the largest proportion. With the eastern transfer of flights from Hongqiao to Pudong. the combination of construction of intercity freeways and railways in the YRD as well as the increases in train speeds six-fold. of which the amount of transport to Beijing accounted for the largest proportion. 44 Shanghai’s transport network infrastructure has been greatly improved in recent years. has expanded the economic influence of Shanghai to the hinterland area. and industrial buildings tend to be single story. the cargo and mail handling proportion of Pudong International Airport climbed year after year. Beyond that. Here there is an incentive to sell as much land as possible to generate fiscal revenue. The opening of new train services. Throughput of cargo and post (thousands of tons) 366 879 1 615 2 250 Year 1995 2000 2003 2004 Table3.5: Shanghai airports cargo transport growth Source: the 11th five-year-plan of Shanghai Air Transport In 2002 as many as 211. and the percentage of its foreign trade and container cargo transport are rising. As a result Shanghai has been become a new international shipping center. regular freight trains and double-deck container trains. its cargo transport structure is optimized continuously. In terms of water transport. hence there is little incentive to go for high-rise buildings and dense forms of land use.958 tons of air cargo and mail were transported out of Shanghai.
While the comprehensive transport system of Shanghai has made great strides. especially the distribution system of the Yangshan deepwater port area which needs to be improved. and the container sea-railway combined transport capacity has developed slowly. their capacity cannot meet personal travel requirements occurring in peak times such as festivals and holidays. • Shanghai has only two external railways: Shanghai-Nanjing and Shanghai-Hangzhou railways.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Shanghai’s air transport capacity is also growing swiftly and its airports have joined the list of the world’s busiest airports. 45 . The number of deep-water berths cannot meet the developing tendency of large and specialized ships. their cargo transport facilities cannot meet the new cargo transport demand. • • • Shanghai’s container wharfs continue to be operated under an excessively heavy load. the construction of terminal buildings and cargo terminals have not been delivered to the expected standards. it still has the following problems: • The present highways are not synthetically related to Shanghai’s urban development and are not suitable for the town system as determined by the new round master plan of Shanghai. • The infrastructures and hubs such as the Shanghai airport runways. Shanghai’s inland river-ways are constructed at a slow speed. • The construction of the comprehensive connecting ground transport facilities for the airports still need to accelerate. and the port distribution system is not perfect.
some typical transport demand management policies are discussed to achieve the balance of supply and demand in Shanghai. public transport system and non-motorized transport system are analyzed. is described. the situation of Shanghai's traffic demand. transport demand within central city in Shanghai has been increasing dramatically. Firstly.1. then the city's transport supply system. 250% 200% 150% 100% 50% 0% 45% 220% Resident travel Resident travel Motorized vehicle travel Motorized vehicle travel Figure 4. including the travel characteristics of both residents and motorized vehicles. 4. Finally. including the city’s road system. The total number of daily trips by residents and number of daily trips made using motorized vehicles rose 45% and 220% respectively from 1995 to 2005. Shanghai urban transport This chapter focuses on the transport systems in Shanghai’s city center (mainly within the outer-ring) with a detailed analysis of its demand and supply.1 Features of travel demand According to the Third Transport Survey Report of Shanghai (2004). The features of both resident travel and motorized vehicle travel prove that the increasing trend of transport demand is irresistible.1: Growth rate of total trips by residents and motorized vehicles 46 .Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 4.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
4.1.1 Features of personal travel
Trip rate In 2004 the number of daily personal trips of Shanghai was about 41 million, up 45% over the figure of 1995, of which the number of trips by the permanent population was nearly 38 million, and those by the floating population nearly 3 million per day.
50000 40000 thousand/day 30000 20000 10000 0 28300
Figure 4.1.2: Total person trips Commuter trips have been increasing with the increase of population. The daily average figure was 23 million, up 20% over the figure of 1995. However, the non-commuting trips have been increasing faster with the increase of economic activities; the average daily figure reached 18 million person times, up 100% over the figure of 1995. The current public transport system has difficulty meeting the demand of growing non-commuting travel.
30000 19200 thousand/day 20000
commuting trips 1995 2004
Figure 4.1.3: Total trips of the commuting and others In 2004 the daily trips of the permanent population in the city center of Shanghai (inside inner ring) was 13.60 million, up 25% over the figure of 1995. With a large section of the population moving out of the city center because of the high price of houses and urban expansion, the number of daily trips of the permanent population in the outside area (between the inner ring and outer ring) grew faster, up 70% over the figure of 1995, reaching 13.20 million. In the same time period its share of all trips rose from 27% to 32%. In the suburbs the permanent
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
population trips increased 45% over the figure of 1995, reaching 14.10 million, and its share of all trips rose from 34% to 35%.
16 000 Personal trips (1 000/day) 14 000 12 000 10 000 8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0
city central area center outside areaoutside area suburb
Figure 4.1.4: The number of personal trips in different areas of Shanghai
City center, 39%
City center, 33%
Betw een inner and outer ring, 27%
Betw een inner and outer ring, 32%
Figure 4.1.5: Trips in different areas The increase of economic and social activities promotes an increase in personal trip rates, which is higher in city center than in the city as a whole. The daily trip rate of the permanent population in Shanghai rose from 1.87 in 1995 to 2.21 in 2004, while the trip rate of the permanent population in the city center rose from 1.97 in 1995 to 2.36. The daily trip rate of the permanent population of Pudong District was the highest, reaching 2.58.
Trip rate (trips/day) 2.47 2.58 2.26 2.3
Region City center Area between inner and outer ring Suburb Overall city Puxi Pudong Puxi Pudong
Population (thousands) 3 677 407 4 125 1 560
Trips (thousands) 9 090 1 050 9 340 3 590
7 346 17 115
14 830 37 900
Table 4.1.1: Daily trip rate of permanent population in different belts in 2004 Source: the Third Comprehensive Transport Investigation Report of Shanghai
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
Travel purposes and modal split Compared with 1995, the proportion of commuting and school trips of Shanghai dropped by 12% in 2004, while the proportion of non-commuting trips for shopping and entertainment rose. This represents a higher demand for more individual and flexible transport services.
Travel purpose Work Go to school Shopping Entertainment Business Live Total 1995 51.60% 16.90% 5.20% 4.00% 3.50% 18.80% 100% 2004 41.70% 13.90% 17.20% 8.90% 4.60% 13.70% 100%
Table 4.1.2: Travel purposes composition of the permanent residents of Shanghai in 2004 From 1995 to 2004, the proportion of the motorized mode trips in Shanghai rose from 28% to 40%, of which the proportion of public transport rose from 20% to 24%, private motorized vehicle from 7% to 15%, while non-motorized-vehicle dropped from 42% to 28%.
metro 5% foot 19%
taxi 9% foot 47% car 10%
taxi 4% bicycle 30% car 16%
Figure 4.1.6: Modal split of commuting and non-commuting trips (2004) Travel distance and time With the expansion of the city and the remarkable expansion of the urban activity space, the average travel distance extended from 4.5 kilometers/trip to 6.9 kilometers/trip from 1995 to 2004.
1. and most of other modes will take less than half an hour.1.9 Foot 16. up from 1. reaching 70 minutes. Between 1995 and 2004 the number of daily trips entering and leaving the central area grew from 5. up 73%.3 Motorcycle 20. In the process of relocating people from the center to the periphery.1 E-bike/Gas-moped 24.8 million.2 million to 3.1 Life 29.5 Figure 4.5 Metro 70.1 million to 1.1 School 31 Car 40. at around 30 minutes +/. and daily trips crossing the river increased from 1. the average travel time by bus was also nearly one hour per trip.2 million.1 million.5 Home 29. which indicates that the metro plays an increasingly important role in long distance travel. In the same period the number of daily average trips entering and leaving city center grew by 175%. travel by metro takes the longest time.4 Taxi 32.) Source: the third comprehensive transport survey report of Shanghai Spatial distribution of personal travel From 1995 to 2004.1 million to 7.3: Travel time of different modes and purposes in Shanghai (min.7 Business 42. For different trip purposes.1 Bicycle 21.3 Leisure 21. the average travel time was nearly equal.9 7 travel distance(km/trip) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1995 1995 2004 2004 4.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 6. up 54%.10 minutes. Trip mode Average time Trip purpose Average time Bus 56 Work 33.7: Increase of commuting distance Among different trip modes.9 Shopping 20.8 Table: 4. the construction of cross-river facilities stimulated the growth of cross-river travel demand. the transport linkage between the different areas was still quite strong. 50 .
Jiading district Baoshan district Yangpu Zhabei Hongkou Yangpu Zhabei Hongkou Putuo Changning Xuhui Jinan Huangpu Luwan Pudong new district Putuo Jin an Huangpu Pudong new district Qinpu district Minhang district Changning Lu wan Nanhui district Songjiang district Fenxian district Above: Travel flows in the central city (2004) Left: Travel flows in the whole city Jinshan district Figure 4.1.1. Huangpu District. of which the flows between Pudong New District.8: Growth of trips in different belts Figure 4. Changning District and Yangpu District are the largest.9 shows that Shanghai’s traffic volume is still concentrated in the central urban area.9: Travel flows in Shanghai Source: Third Comprehensive Transport Survey Report of Shanghai 51 . Xuhui District.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8000 7000 6000 thousand trips 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Cross-river Trip Enter and leave central area 1995 2004 Enter and leave dow ntow n Figure 4.1.
The number of auto trips in the city center was the largest.1. and the motorcycle made 2.95 million.14 million.10: Growth of personalized motorized vehicle travel in Shanghai 1950 2000 1900 ten thousand/day 1500 1150 1000 500 0 City center Betw een inner and outer ring Betw een inner and outer ring Suburb City center Suburb Figure 4. among which the number of auto trips was five million.1. 6000 5000 thousand/day 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1995 1995 2004 2004 1500 5000 Figure 4.14 million trips per day. but the mileage utilization rate and the passenger occupancy rate dropped.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 4. 52 . up 220% over that of 1995.2 Personal motorized vehicle travel Motorization and trips In 2004 the daily average number of Shanghai’s surface motorized vehicle trips of was 7.1. reaching 1.11: Motorized vehicle travel in different regions in 2004 Features of passenger vehicle travel Compared with 1995. the fleet size of passenger vehicles in Shanghai increased threefold to 2004 and the trips and daily mileage per vehicle also grew.
4: Changes in Shanghai passenger vehicle traffic characteristics26 Features of truck travel Compared with 1995.2% Table 4. the average daily number of trips by truck in Shanghai increased slightly.1.4 6.6% -3. In the five years from 1996 to 2000. Index Number of vehicles (thousands) Average trips (times/day*vehicle) Trip distance (km) Average mileage (km/day*vehicle) 1995 119 2.9 20 3.4% 4. in which nearly 20 billon Yuan has been invested. By the end of 2005.2.61 29 75 Rate of increase 51. to 1999 when the Yan’an Road elevated expressway was open to traffic.1 Road supply and use In the past decade the major urban roads projects.1 Rate of increase 311. up 84% over the figure of 2000.1% -51.4 million square meters.1.2 Features of traffic supply 4.5% 38. The elevated expressway road system of Shanghai forms the backbone of the solid surface transport trunk network of Shanghai.6% 3. the elevated expressway road system shaped like the Chinese character “申” formed in the Shanghai urban area. which reflects that most of the roads were newly built or 53 . an outer ring and several radial elevated expressways.45 21 52 2004 180 2. but the average daily mileage increased considerably.63 51 19.6% Table 4.4 2004 498 84% 2. the annual average growth rate of the road mileage and area was 12%.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Index Number of vehicles (thousands) Mileage utilization ratio (%) Average trips (times/day*vehicle) Daily mileage (km) Trip distance (km/trip) Occupancy rate (person/vehicle) 1995 121 87% 2.75 54. have been completed in the central city of Shanghai. and it has substantially influenced the social development of Shanghai.3% 6.6% 7. the reconstruction of the “three east-west throughways and three north-south throughways”. up 157% over the figure of 2000.227 kilometers. The number of traffic lanes crossing the river by bridge and tunnel has also grown rapidly. The scale and the construction standard of this expressway are superior. the road area was 209.5: Changes in Shanghai commercial truck traffic characteristics 4.1% 44. From 1994 when the first elevated expressway road inner ring was completed and opened to traffic. including the urban express road system composed of the elevated expressway inner ring. which is mainly because the trip distance grew. the total mileage of city road in Shanghai had reached 12.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study opened during this period. the road mileage of the central city grew slowly.1: Arterial road network in central city of Shanghai in 2004 In the three years from 2001 to 2004. 14000 12000 Length of city way(km) 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Length of city w ay Area of city w ay 5000 15000 25000 Area of city way (ten thousand square metre) 20000 10000 0 Figure 4. in 2004 the road lane length was about 21. In this period the major task was improvement of the road structure and many roads were rebuilt and widened during this time. with an annual average growth rate of 5%. up 290% from the figure of 1995. 54 .2.2. while the annual growth rate of road area was 12%. up 160% from the figure of 1995.200 kilometers of carriageway length are classified as express roads and arterial roads.2: Shanghai road length In terms of road capacity.700 kilometers. Of this 7. Figure 4.
954 Total 2002 550 3.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Region Central zone Peripheral zone Suburb Overall city Puxi 27 28 Expressway 255 21 607 416 1. as well as the car industry promotion policy. A subsidy policy for public transport systems was brought into effect due to rising fuel prices in 2004.720 Pudong Puxi Pudong Table 4.072 2. But the actual effect is questionable because of weak enforcement.180 thousand seats. Soon after. There are 43 public transport operating companies. 948 bus/trolley lines with a total length of 22. Road-based public transport system The Shanghai road-based public transport system is composed of bus and para-transit. By 2010. Shanghai has constructed 5 bus-only lanes with a total length of 21.544 10. and a large scale metro construction is now ongoing.372 Arterial Road 599 169 767 391 2.000 km in Shanghai.266 2. A BRT system is being planned for about 300 km and the first phase will be the semi-circular road connecting Shanghai West and South Station. As previously.782 21. The fast growth of motorization in Shanghai and other areas of China. 55 .120 13. the additional cost will be shared by the bus companies and government equally by reducing the company business tax. there were 18. a bus priority policy is only applied to urban bus lines. The public transport lines in the suburban areas will share policy with urban bus lines. however.2 Public transport supply and use Due to the long delay in infrastructure construction and the high population density in city center. More recently the government recognized that public transport systems (especially metro systems) may be the solution. The specific measure is that if the diesel oil price exceeds 3 Yuan/liter more than the normal price.267 3. and travel congestion resulted during rush hour.2. the roads were crowded with more traffic in the central city. 2004) Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 4.6 km.29 By the end of 2005. the city planners have adopted the strategy of constraining the use of cars.569 Branch Road 823 228 1. require large amounts of road space.899 4. there is forecast to be 110 km of bus-only ways inside the inner ring.000 buses with 1.402 957 7. in order to improve the bus service and meet the travel demands of 2010 World Expo. The local buses serve 7.2.1: Road lane growth in different areas in Shanghai (kilometers of carriageway length. The extensive construction in urban roads lessened traffic congestion for short periods after the completion of the major roads.48 million passengers daily.825 Secondary trunk Road 325 132 489 356 2.
Average trip distance is 6. There are also preferential ticket fares for passenger transfer between buses as well as metro (see the detailed policy in Chapter 6).63 million at the end of 2005. length 32. Line #1. the base of taxi fare has been increased from 10 Yuan to 11 Yuan for the first 3 km and the distance charge of 2 Yuan/km has been adjusted to 2.4 km. taxis and ferries. a taxi will drive 348 km/day on average.3 km.2-0. There are 45. The total passengers per day rose to 1. The fare is free for elderly people over 70 years old. opened to traffic in 2003 The total length is 147. The bus fare is collected through a fare box or transit IC cards which can also be used in the metro.9 km. Since 11 May 2006. with an annual increase of nearly 37%. In the central area the fare of bus transport is 2 Yuans with air-conditioning. The para-transit system in Shanghai mainly refers to taxi. length 17 km.9 km Line 5 Line #3 and Line #4 share the same 11-km track Figure 4. opened to traffic in 2000 Line 2 Line #4.3: Metro lines in Shanghai 56 . opened to traffic in 1995 Line 3 Line 1 Line #2. length 33 km.25 Yuan per kilometer.1 km. As a result. the Metro is always serious crowded especially on Line #1 and Line #3. opened to traffic in 2005 Line 4 Line #5.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study The bus fare system is based on a “zonal+distance” structure.1 Yuan/km. opened to traffic in 2000 Line #3.2. length 25. 1 Yuan without.000 taxis registered with carrying capacity of 2. Metro system There are currently 5 metro lines in Shanghai with 68 stations and a total operating length of 147. The number of passengers serviced by the Shanghai metro system increased sharply from 2000 to 2005. length 40.2 km. due to the rise of petrol price.96 million passengers every day. In the suburbs the fare increases with travel distance and includes an initial base charge of 1 Yuan and a distance charge of 0.
3 Non-motorized transportation system Another characteristic of urban transport in Shanghai is walking and cycling. and the basic fare is 3 Yuan within a distance of 6 km. According to the Third Transport Survey Report of Shanghai (2004).37 million pedal bicycles. an increase by 1. The daily trips by two-wheelers reached 12. The share of non-motorized trips is as high as 57.2 % (bicycle and foot).84 million electric bicycles and 0. the total number of registered two-wheelers is 10. Since 25 December 2005. with the unexpected increase in motorized travel.23 million LPG scooters. Among these.4 times. traffic accidents and so on. of which there are 9. more and more passengers must transfer to reach their destinations. This is largely due to the contribution of land-use control with a dense and highly mixed use. a fare discount policy for exchanges between the public transport lines has been implemented. the policies for public transport privilege. parking charging and motorcycle limitation have so far been the most successful. such as traffic congestion. is always under the threat to be replaced by motorized vehicles. The non-motorized network system. In other cities where extensive suburbs have dominated city growth.3 Transport demand management policy Comment from the stakeholder dialogue: New York and London were cited as cities where long-distance commuter public transport was possible because of how the city and commuting patterns have developed over time. Although the construction of the Shanghai urban transport infrastructure has achieved great success.2.9 million. Compared with other cities in the world. Passengers can either purchase a single ticket or use transit IC card. with the motorized travel increasing more.45 million trips daily. 57 . coupled with the availability of infrastructure provided for non-motorized travel. there is an imbalance between transport demand and supply that causes many adverse problems. then the fare increases 1 Yuan per 10 km. In 2004. the Shanghai government has instigated many transport demand management policies and measures to relieve the situation to a certain degree. The non-motorized travel has contributed to the alleviation of traffic congestion. which account for 23. 4. in which there are 10. 4.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study The metro fare structure is distance-based.2 million trips made by electric bicycle and LPG powered scooter. To solve the above problems. license plate auctioning. however. a decrease of 3% compared to 2003. Shanghai has a relatively developed non-motorized transport system including pedestrian and non-motorized cycle system. With the extension of the city. transport demand within the central city in Shanghai has been increasing.7 million pedal bicycle trips. 0. and 2. public transport has failed to serve the needs adequately as these populations tend to be spread out over very large areas.44 million.
the other areas in central area provide a higher number of parking spaces to allow more vehicles to enter this area. According to this plan. The aim of the transport model is “taking the public transport as the main mode and private car as the assistant mode”. The license is valid for life once it is purchased and can be transferred to other people. in order to control the fast growth of motorized vehicles in Shanghai and reduce the pressure on urban traffic. The three-year Action Plan of Developing Public Transport Priority from 2007 to 2009 of Shanghai. The auction policy of license tags has restrained the increase in car ownership in Shanghai. construction and management of its parking facilities with a transport areas differentiation policy. the public transport trips will account for more than 60% of the motorized vehicle passenger trip. 4. This policy has alleviated the contradiction between road supply and traffic demand to a certain degree.31 The specific measures are that the central business district provide few parking spaces and charge a higher price to control vehicles from entering this area. The license tag auction has also brought unexpected influences. by 2010.3 Parking charging policy Shanghai guides the planning. 68. achieving for example a lower motorization rate than Beijing.1 Public transport priority policy According to the public interest priority and the highest efficiency principle. Shanghai will invest about 110 billion Yuan in pushing forward this action plan. By that time. The auctioning system is different from that of Singapore. which was compiled as required by the strategic objective of “public transport first”.3. and for more than 33% of the total trips. and the public transport travel between any two points in the central city will be completed within one hour. Shanghai should continuously increase the public transport modal share.3. The 58 . the license tags of private cars in Shanghai have been auctioned by tender with a reserved price.435. Shanghai carries out the “public transport first” policy30 where land use for public transport shall be ensured first. Shanghai has changed this into public auction without a lowest price for the license tag limit. In 2006.3. Since 2000. and lots of automobilists licensing their cars in adjacent cities and using them in Shanghai. public transport shall be operated efficiently.2 The license plate auctioning policy Since 1994.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 4. Shanghai will realize the full coverage of 500-meter service radius of public transport stops in the central city and suburban towns. and the average successful bidding price was as high as RMB 46. More bus services will be provided in suburban areas. has been formally put into operation. public transport spending shall be invested first.654 license tags were granted. and the transfer convenience of public transport shall also be ensured. such as a decrease in demand for cheaper vehicles. 4.
Daytime Manual charging Area Within the first hour Key area The rest areas within the inner ring Zone between the inner and outer ring (including towns outside the outer ring) 7 4 2 2 3 4 5 200/month 15 10 Over one hour every half an hour 10 6 Parking Meter charging the first hour 0-15 min 4 3 Over one Night-time Monthly (night-time. As a result. The parking facilities are divided into different types: residential parking.3. the policy of “the discarded motorcycles shall not be renewed” is implemented. the roads and areas where motorcycles are forbidden will be expanded gradually.4 Motorcycle limitation policy As motorcycles can travel more flexibly and faster. workplace parking. etc. coordinating the setting up of workplace parking with capacity of nearby roads. a lot of speeding motorcycles can disturb the normal transport order.1: Parking charge standards 4. The specific measures are that motorcycles are forbidden to travel through the roads of the central city.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study peripheral area focuses on solving the parking conflicts in residential communities. and special bus parking. Shanghai has drafted and implemented policies to gradually reduce motorcycles. strictly controlling the on-street parking through the administrative and economic measures. weekend and holiday) 10 8 400/month 300/month 15-30 30-60 hour every min 4 3 min 7 4 half an hour 10 6 Table 4. and has planned preferentially charged public parking lots by the transport hubs near the outer ring to encourage car passengers to switch to public transport before they enter the urban center. public parking. The suburban area provides sufficient parking places in connection with town construction to match a policy of less control on using cars.3. the relevant policies of “switching the motorcycle plates to car plates” have been prepared and implemented. ensuring that the residential car shall be parked according to the principle of “one parking space for one car”. carried out regional controls on the use of motorcycles. We should draft different strategies according to different situation we are facing. the charging standards are raised. the punishment for cyclists violating traffic regulations is more serious. and strengthened the oversight of motorcycles. Therefore. the influence of motorcycles on traffic order is reduced. However. street parking. reduce the safety of road traffic. 59 . For example. The consideration has been taken to implement various policies according to the different characteristics of parking types. lower the operational efficiency of urban transport and cause many problems to the environment. giving priority to construction of bus depots. their number could grow very rapidly without any limitation.
The heavy investment and quick-pace of construction of the urban transport infrastructure has created a road network with sufficient capacity.32 Comment from stakeholder dialogue: Many of the issues related to land use and transport integration in Shanghai are similar to the rest of China. spatial segregation and so on. The buses have been renewed. The services of the taxi industry have been standardized and its management strengthened. there is complex pollution of petrol and soot. There is a feeling that if this can be solved in Shanghai. Traffic flow on Shanghai’s roads has increased so sharply that in peak times. bus priority”. such as traffic congestion.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 4. There are also many problems facing urban transport in Shanghai. the proportion of congested roads in the city center is more than 40% and the congested intersections are over 50%. After long a period where the widespread use of bikes was controlled due to the perception that they caused the low efficiency of traffic circulation. The car plate auction and higher parking costs have delayed fast motorization in Shanghai. the Shanghai public transportation system has been greatly upgraded with large-scale metro construction. and the service quality of public transport has been considerably enhanced. especially its public transport. but congestion is still serious after short periods of relief. air pollution. new higher grade vehicles have been introduced. people have recognized the importance of the bicycle system in city center from both efficiency and environment concerns. 60 . Overall the pollution resulting from car emissions in the center city is becoming more and more serious although some adjustment of energy source structure has been implemented. Besides air pollution. is gradually going towards sustainable development under the guidance of the governmental policy of “transport first. In addition. the outlook for sustainable mobility in other urban cities in China may also improve. traffic accidents. which we never thought possible before.4 Conclusions The urban transport system of Shanghai.
Based on Shanghai. The telecommunications sector was further restructured by two important reforms to constitute four national operators: • • • In July 1999. In the 1980s. Therefore. telegraph. in order to break the historical monopolizing position of “China Telecom” in the national market of fixed telephone and to promote benign competition in this field. 61 . Information and telecommunications services Besides the movement of people and goods. telephone and fax.were created as a result of the first reform to the Post and Telecommunication Bureau (PTB) in Shanghai. the post and telecommunication sector in Chinese cities has also gone through four important reforms of its organization and management. a company which is run under market rules. Before the 1990s. the transfer of information constitutes an important part of the urban mobility system. This structure was thereafter thoroughly transformed in 1998 by the second reform which separated completely the telecommunication activities from the post activities. when Shanghai lagged far behind in urban infrastructure construction investment. the state government decided to divide “China Telecom” into two parts: “China Netcom” runs the fixed telephone business in 10 northern Provinces of China. “China Unicom” was founded for developing a national CDMA network as a competitor of “China Mobile”. information exchange in the city mainly relied on traditional modes: post. information and communications technology (ICT) is completely merged into the daily life of the citizens. With the existing Post Department. it has entered directly into the age of wireless communication and high-speed internet access. the PTB constituted thus three independent departments. In May 2002. The post business is undertaken by the new Post Bureau who kept its nature of public service operated by the government. In some cases. A few years later.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 5. it can substitute for or activate the “actual” movements of people and goods. the only GSM network operator in China. Since the development of the Pudong Special Economic Zone and the launch of large-scale infrastructure construction. During this rapid technological progress. Local telephone departments and long-distance telecommunication departments have left the former PTB to form “China Telecom”. two new departments – local telephone department and long-distance telecommunication department . Within less than 20 years. Today. we could assume that the influence of ICT on the organization of every day life in Chinese urban society might be generally comparable with that in Western cities. while the other keeps the name of “China Telecom” and is the only operator in the other provinces. information transfer is often referred to as “virtual” mobility. Shanghai began to equip itself with the most advanced information and communication technologies. the mobile communications business was separated from “China Telecom” to create “China Mobile”.
4 161. In terms of service point layout.1) that since 1985 the facility network construction for the postal service continues to develop. China Post has been the basic channel for the distribution of newspapers and periodicals. According to the data of Post Bureau.7 27. From 2000 to 62 .1 Postal services The post in China.1: Postal network development Source: Data in this table provided by the Shanghai Municipal Post Bureau. The statistical data indicates (Table 5. The data published by Shanghai Municipal Post Bureau shows that the service area per post office dropped from 11 km2 in 2003 to 9.8 2006 649 440 3 842 351 768 189. Indicators Post Office (unit) Postal Savings Office (unit) Mail Box (unit) Stamps Sales Outlet (unit) Number of Mail Route (route) Total Length of Mail Routes (1 000 km) Length of Rural Delivery Routes (1 000 km) 1985 481 1990 535 271 2000 580 422 4 224 296 638 211. especially in the distant suburban areas.100 thousand. of which more than two-thirds provide postal saving services. has been increased. The development of postal facilities directly promotes the postal service quality in Shanghai. The rise in demands brings forth the overall growth of the post business income. and the average number of people served by one post office dropped correspondingly from 23. The number of mail routes has also been increasing. so that the total length of mail routes has risen. Moreover. the total number of the letters received and dispatched by the Shanghai Postal Bureau increased nearly four times. Despite the slight increase in the number of independently distributing press in recent years. is a public service managed by the government.3 2005 631 429 4 022 349 738 211.0 27.0 3 770 183 3 914 203 427 44. 80% of the national or local press still entrust the subscription and issue work to China Post. In the meantime.0 23. the traditional postal service has not shrunk obviously in Shanghai. From 2001 to 2006.7 30. In Shanghai. although the total number of mailboxes decreased slightly after 2000. built with the help of Post Bureaus. In spite of the rapid development of the new ICTs in the field of communications.300 to 21. and the international express mails increased nearly three times. from 38 to 57). the total number of post offices with comprehensive functions has been increasing continuously.8 km2 in 2006.1. the domestic express mails that entered and left Shanghai operated by China Post increased nearly 60 times.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 5.1. in the past 50 years. Within 20 years (from 1985 to 2006). The improvement of postal facilities also boosts the development of market demands.0 Table 5. as in most of other countries. the express mail service grew rapidly.3 26. the number of the press sale points. from 2003 to 2006 the average number of letters sent by one Shanghai inhabitant in one year increased by 50% (net value.
90 10.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 2006.80 Table 5.59 522. As economic reform progresses in China. with the final balance reaching over 520 million Yuan (Table 5.5 153.76 1990 2.000 pieces) #International Express Mails (1. although the postal cost rose swiftly (Table 5.1. 63 .30 22. Indicators Mails (100 million units) #Domestic Express Mails (1.33 38.98 107.63 2000 4.80 2006 10. operated by privates companies.20 0. if the letter exceeds 100 grams.2). this reform has resulted in the dissatisfaction of various groups in society. If the letter is between 20 and 100 grams.3).2: Major indicators of postal business in main years Source: Data in this table are provided by Shanghai Municipal Post Bureau. Under the political guidance defined by the central government. who maintain that the postal service should stay as a common good. the “Shanghai Postal Company” was created as a commercial operator in February 2007.08 0.1. Note: Data not available for the volume of Postal Business. They insisted that. develops the most rapidly.59 million Yuan. the fee will be accumulated every 20 grams (If less than 20 grams. the emerging market of express delivery service developed with the modern logistic industry is open to private operators. it becomes a huge emerging market. which plays the role of local administrative authority in this sector.50 0. What especially needs to be explained is that different from the ordinary postal service operated exclusively by the public postal company (bureau).82 4 112 490 11.40 2005 7.80 0. However.50 1999 0.49 510. the other part.1.04 1990 0.60 2006 1. the calculation will be made according to 20 grams). the fee of the letter will be calculated separately.3: Five important fee adjustments of China Post since the founding of the People’s Republic of China (RMB) Note: The basic fee denoted by this table refers to the ordinary letters whose weight is less than 20 g.36 19 301 1 823 12.61 7 099 521 11. because it is combined with that of telecommunication business before 2000.0 8.45 43.20 0. the business income of Shanghai Postal Bureau doubled.3 19. The transformation of the postal service into a commercial activity has already been put on the agenda of state government in the 10th five-year plan. With the development of a modern logistics industry. the postal reform in Chinese cities has unfolded in succession. one part is run by China Post.10 1996 0. amounting to 43.19 2.71 1996 6.1.96 330.08 15 412 1 443 12. In Shanghai. the restructuring has spread to the field of public services.0 150. It is different from the Shanghai Postal Management Bureau.50 Table 5. and the postal saving business increased nearly twice. 1955 Local mail National mail 0. since 1990.7 11. the dramatic loss of the postal business still cannot be reversed. In this market.000 pieces) Total Copies of Newspapers and Magazines Subscribed and Sold (100 million pieces) Volume of Postal Business (100 million Yuan)* Postal Saving Deposit Balance (100 million Yuan) 1985 2.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
The four biggest international logistical companies - DHL, UPS, Fedex and TNT, have obtained the major share of the express delivery market in China. They mainly face business-type customers and present an obviously competitive advantage in the field of international transportation and express delivery. At the local scale, the express mailing service of the Shanghai Post Company faces a challenge from numerous medium and small private delivery companies. The investigation conducted by Shanghai Investigation Brigade of National Statistical Bureau from 2004 indicated that the number of private delivery enterprises in Shanghai was 467. They provide not only door-to-door-service to individual customers, but also undertake the delivery tasks of some Internet sellers. In 2006, the total business volume of express delivery realized by them was 164 million pieces (excluding the business volume in the branches in other provinces and municipalities), their daily average business volume is 450,000 pieces, accounting for nearly 90% of the total express business volume of Shanghai, and 7.8 times the express business volume operated by Shanghai Post Company in the same period.
Telecommunication: Installed telephone & mobile phone
In Shanghai, telecommunication technology has upgraded very fast. The statistical data on infrastructure (Table 5.2.1) cannot show the improvement in quality and efficiency of services, but they definitely demonstrate the popularity of telecommunication in the daily life of people (Table 5.2.2). For telephones, the total number of users increased nearly four times in the past decade, increasing from 3 million in 1996 to more than 11 million in 2006. The development of household telephones is the most remarkable: its popularity rate has developed from less than 50% to 147.7%, that is to say, a large number of families have installed more than one telephone line. The growth of mobile phone users is still swift. The number of mobile phones users increased almost forty times in the past ten years. The popularity of mobile phones reached a penetration rate of 88.7% in 2006. This growth does not show any sign of slowing down. In the last four years, the annual growth rate of mobile phone users has always been above 10%.
Indicators Long Distance Call Line (2M) Total Length of Long-distance Optical Cable (km) Total Length of Digital Microwave Line (km) Digital and Data Users (1 000 users) Capacity of Office Telephone Exchanges(Including Access Network Capacity) (1 000 units)
2003 20 853
2004 32 530 4 525 196 25.4 9 120
2005 46 136 5 141 196 24.0 13 570
2006 94 818 3 042 123 18 13 910
1 770 151 3.17 18.84
4 215 196 26.1 8 730
Table 5.2.1: Development of the telecommunication network Source: Data in this table are provided by Shanghai Communications Administration. Note: Access network refers to the capacity of telephone exchanges installed in the office of telecommunication service providers for communication between user nodes.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
Indicators Year-end Installed Telephones (1 000 households) # Household Phones Installed (1 000 households) Popularity Rate of Telephone Line (%) Popularity Rate of Household Telephone (%) Mobile Phone Subscribers Users (1 000 households) Number of Mobile Phone Owned per Hundred Persons (unit)
2003 7,340 5,280
2004 8,680 5,420 49.8 110.5 13,110 75.3
2005 9,967 6,850 56.1 137.9 14,442 81.0
2006 11,123 7,388 61.3 147.7 16,105 88.7
23.3 49.7 360
41.7 89.8 3,620
42.9 108.6 10,990 64.2
Table 5.2.2: Development of telecommunication network Source: Data in this table are provided by Shanghai Municipal Information Commission and Shanghai Communications Administration Bureau. In the last four years, the demand for long-distance telecommunications has grown. The total call time of long-distance telecommunications increased about two times, from 7.68 billion minutes in 2003 to 15.14 billion minutes in 2006. In terms of communication tools, the use of telephones maintained stable growth, while the use of mobile phones or IP phone increased remarkably. The communication frequency and time length of long-distance telecommunication by mobile phone rose by 56.2% and 73.2% respectively. The total call time of long-distance communication realized through IP cards provided by different operators increased 160% in the last four years (Table 5.2.3).
Indicators Volume of Telecom Business (100 million Yuan) Long-distance Call Lasting Time (100 million minutes) # Telephone Domestic Long-distance Call Lasting Time ## Domestic Trunk Calls ## Overseas Calls # Mobile Phone Long-distance Call Lasting Time # IP Telephone Long-distance Call Lasting Time Mobile Calls (100 million times) # Local Calls # Long-distance Calls
2003 247.40 76.8 25.9 24.6 1.3 15.7 35.2 102.40 93.50 8.9
2004 311.20 100.7 32.8 31.5 1.3 20.4 47.5 127.50 116.30 11.2
2005 375.77 110.0 31.2 30.0 1.3 19.6 59.2 156.5 144.8 11.7
2006 511.41 151.4 32.6 31.2 1.4 27.2 91.6 221.7 207.8 13.9
Table 5.2.3: Major indicators of the telecom business (2003-2006) Source: Data in this table are provided by Shanghai Municipal Information Commission and Shanghai Communications Administration Bureau. The rapid growth of the business volume of telecommunications has benefited from the drastic drop in telecommunications costs in recent years. From the standard tariff (Table 5.2.4) the price of using phones or mobile phones did not change obviously in the past ten years. However, by providing various forms of package services, phone card services, accumulated score premium services, etc., the different operators have given considerable discounts to
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
loyal consumer groups. For example, the fee for domestic long-distance calls by using prepaid IP phone card on fixed lines is about 0.30 Yuan per minute, against the 0.07 Yuan per six seconds standard fee, dropping nearly 60%. For mobile communication, by signing a one-year contract for “50 package” service, consumers may enjoy not only a certain length of free communication time, but also the lowest local communication fee of 0.12 Yuan per minute. Compared with the standard tariff, 0.40 Yuan/minute, this discount is about 70%.
Unit Monthly Basic Fee Installed Phone Local Rate DDD IDD Monthly Basic Fee Call a local fixed or mobile number from Shanghai Mobile Phone Call a Shanghai fixed or mobile number in roaming mode (out of Shanghai) Make an IDD, DDD call from Shanghai Make an IDD, DDD call in roaming mode (out of Shanghai) Per line First 3 min. Per min. 6 sec. 6 sec. Per number Min. Min. Price(Yuan) 25 0.20 0.10 0.07 0.80 50 0.40 0.60
Table 5.2.4: Basic fees for fixed phones and mobile phones in Shanghai Source: by comprehensively sorting out the prices published by China Mobile Shanghai Mobile Company. Note: if you directly dial domestic and international long-distance calls during the period from 00:00 to 07:00 each day, you will only pay a communication fee of 60% of the standard fee.
Internet and web communication
From 2003 to 2006, Shanghai made much progress in infrastructure construction for web communications networks (Table 5.3.1): information communication pipeline length increased nearly two times; the band width of the net connection to the World Wide Web increased from 7.695 Gbps in 2003 to 40 Gbps in 2006.
Indicators Length of Information Communication Pipelines (channel km) Satellite Station (unit) Wide Band of Internet (Mbps)
2003 1,010 906 7,695
2004 1,255 917 18,530
2005 1,621 925 30,000
2006 2,451 831 40,000
Table 5.3.1: Development of information communication infrastructure Source: Data provided by Shanghai Municipal Information Commission. The usage of Internet in Shanghai developed swiftly in the past decade. The data provided by Shanghai Information Commission (Table 5.3.2) show that there were only 3,347 registered Internet users in 1996. By 2000, the figure had exceeded 880,000. From 2003 to 2006,
The increase of the household broadband users is the most remarkable. more than half of the permanent habitants of Shanghai (52. Great Wall Broadband Network and China Netcom (Shanghai). 9 19.900 users to 3. In addition.8 1 588.2 32. today. That is to say. Indicators Local Information Exchange Flow (1 000 km) Users of Internet (1 000 users) Users of Internet per Thousand People (users) Users of Wide Band for Public (1 000 users) Users of Wide Band for Public per Hundred Household (users) 1996 2000 2003 1 000 2004 1 330 6 330 46. ISP Dial-up Broadband Shanghai Telecom Shanghai Telecom Shanghai Telecom LAN Shanghai Cable Great Wall Broadband China (Shanghai) Netcom Shanghai Telecom Wireless China (Shanghai) Mobile China (Shanghai) Unicom Technology applied ISDN ADSL FTTB FTTB FTTB FTTB WiFi GSM+WiFi CDMA+WiFi Table 5.3.8 Table 5. “China Telecom” is still the main Internet service provider (ISP) for traditional dialing access by phone line where transmission rates are limited to 128 Kbps.3.8 60.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study registered Internet users increased more than two times from 4. “Chinanet”.016. Meanwhile. 16388.34 7 882. and the charge in a month is limited at 50 Yuan in maximum. high speed internet access (HSIA) service has replaced the traditional telephone dialing service and is the dominant access mode for household users. China Telecom provides another access number. there are two ISPs for wireless HSIA: China Mobile (Shanghai) and China Unicom (Shanghai). By composing the access number 16300. 67 .7%) use the Internet. from 924. These users benefit ^from a special basic fee of 5 Yuan per 2 hours. registered or non-registered users may connect to the Internet.0 49.7 3 016. The situation of HSIA ISPs is more complicated (Table 5.2 924. Shanghai Cable Network. for users who only want to connect to the national Wide Web.57 million. with a basic fee of 3 Yuan per hour.800 (an increase of 326%). Four major ISPs compete in the market in Shanghai: China Telecom (Shanghai).32 million to 9.3: Main ISP in Shanghai Today. Notes: Users of Internet per thousand people were calculated by resident population.3). In Shanghai. 4 4 320 32.4 2005 1 300 8 030 59.0 2 474 2006 21 130 9 570 52.3.2: Internet use development Source: Data provided by Shanghai Municipal Information Commission.4 3.
Besides Shanghai. Other than providing HSIA in different rate-limits for the subscribed costumers that pay the package deals monthly.Shanghai Telecom and Shanghai Cable Network. Great Wall Broadband Network is a high-tech ISP company jointly founded in 2000 by several state-owned listing companies. In particular. the new competition between different ISPs has shifted to the daily user fee for HSIA (Table 5.3. the drop of the initial equipment installation charge makes the HSIA available for more and more peoples.300 and 2. when the HSIA appeared in the consumers’ market. it has set up its branches in more than 30 cities nationwide. the reduction of equipment installation charge in two years reached 76% and 79% respectively for two ISPs (Table 5.000 2001 900 800 2002 630 580 2003 310 420 Table 5. then 310 and 420 Yuan in 2003. senior citizens and other special 68 . the ISPs also propose a tariff for time-limited HSIA usage and some discounts for students.3. reduced respectively their initial equipment installation charges from 1.5). the high initial installation charge became a main obstacle for the growth of user number. the fixed HSIA may be divided into ADSL access and FTTB (Fiber to the Building) access. an operator similar to the Great Wall Broadband Network. and competed with each other on the initial equipment installation charge on the other hand. it focuses on the user groups in various residential communities in cooperation with real estate developers. China Netcom (Shanghai). the competition in this emerging market has led to relative market share and service charge stability today. ISP Shanghai Telecom (Yuan) Shanghai Cable (Yuan) Before 2001 1.4: Changes in Shanghai Telecom and Shanghai Cable installation charges (2001-2003) Today.3. In the late 1990s. It has completed dual digitalization on the cable TV network for more than two million households. It needs to not only rent Internet bandwidth from China Telecom (Shanghai).000 Yuan to 900 and 800 Yuan in 2001. but also invest independently in realizing its own network infrastructure. China Telecom (Shanghai) is the only ISP providing ADSL services. broadband (ADSL or FTTB) and WiFi. Instead.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study According to the technology applied. the second ISP in Shanghai. The rapid growth of broadband users in the last few years has benefited greatly from the benign competition between different ISPs. The two most important broadband ISPs in Shanghai . It is also the only one who operates all four kinds of access services including ISDN. Shanghai Cable Network. relies on its existing cable TV network and its wide customers groups. Relying on its traditional monopolizing position in telephone operation. That is to say.300 2. its capacity was limited. several ISPs accelerated infrastructure construction on the one hand.4). no longer provides Internet access service to individual users. In the scramble for the users’ market. On this basis. Moreover.
03 44. the Shanghai Education TV Station was founded and put into operation.40 7 8 9 10 11 12 activities Lecture Writing Conference VCD Phone Writing with Computer Time 12. A survey conducted by China Dominant-journalism Development Center (CDDC) in December 1997 shows that television.400-1.320 Table 5. 69 . radio broadcasting and television was originally operated in Shanghai by municipal services: Shanghai TV Station and Shanghai People’s Broadcasting Station. of which only one plays its own program and 9 transfer the programs of others TV stations).680 SCN 220 120 770 1.68 11.72 Table 5. one part of Shanghai People’s Broadcasting Station (Pujiang Voice Station) was transformed into independent “Shanghai Orient Broadcasting Station” in the same year. Since the 1990s.200 GWBN 500 100 130 150 810 1.4. Shanghai Citizen and Media Culture Facing the New Century.1: Average amount of time spent on the following information behaviors in a day for individual Shanghai resident (minutes) Source: Zhang Guoliang.67 30. one part of the Shanghai TV Station (Shanghai TV 2) was peeled off to create “Shanghai Orient TV Station” (OTV). These measures have effectively reduced the daily cost in using the HSIA.69 11. In 1993.13 45.3. Similarly.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study social groups.4 Broadcasting and television stations Radio and television constitute two indispensable tools for information and communications. MP3) time 108.56 780 7. activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 TV Radio Newspaper Book Talking Music(CD.71 32. Shanghai has carried on a series of reforms while accelerating infrastructure construction.09 13.1). 2002 As in other Chinese cities. In order to introduce competition into this industry. radio broadcasting and newspapers are the three most important media for Shanghai residents to obtain daily information (5. the Shanghai Cable TV Station was founded in December 1992 (opening 10 program channels. Type Monthly charging user Installation charge 512K 1M 2M Package deal for IMbps connection (including installation charge) 6 months 12 months Telecom 310 130 140 150 1.5: Basic fee comparison of the three major cable broadband access service providers in Shanghai 5.4.23 8. One year later.
222 1995 20 284.275 100 Table 5. 70 .115 100 2006 25 437 66. The broadcasting programs of the reformed SMG claimed a market share of 90.6 billion.6 54. number of programs provided etc. etc. the new SMG group successfully completed the integration of its TV and broadcasting information resources.the municipalities directly under the administration of the State Council.. the competition also brought forth such problems as repetitive allocation of resources and their low use efficiency.2 47. which incorporated broadcasting.5 90.2. Shanghai Orient Broadcasting Station. Radio. TV.4 10.3 5.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study These organizational reforms and the competition infused new energy into the development of the broadcasting and television industry in Shanghai. Radio. provincial capital cities and cities specifically designated in the state plan. It consists of reintegrating the Shanghai People’s Broadcasting Station. are less advantaged in national competition with China Central TV Station and other provincial TV stations. However. Macao and other countries and regions upon their approval. Film & TV. In 2005. Orient TV Station. Internet content provider.903 2005 21 346.3: The broadcasting program (1990-2006) Source: Shanghai Municipal Administration of Culture. In the meantime.00 to 12:00 and from 17:00 to 19:00) Shanghai area. and maintained their mutual cooperation and internal competition by “specifying” the channels. and on this basis. This channel covers all the big Chinese cities .4.172 96 1995 11 85. both in radio broadcasting and in television (Table 5.1% in the broadcasting “golden times” (from 9.6% in Shanghai area and 91. Shanghai TV Station. Table 5.9 2.4. a “regrouping” reform has been carried out to the local broadcasting stations and TV stations. The two Shanghai TV stations. Since 2001. Its programs are also broadcasted by satellite to Japan.4. built “Shanghai Media Group” (SMG). USA. SMG developed its nationwide TV media platform through the launch of its new satellite channel “Dragon TV”.582 Table 5. by exchanging cable TV broadcasting rights. covering a global population of more than 0.3) 1990 Number of programs Program Hours per Day (hour) Production of Programs (hour) Population Coverage Rate 5 35. That can be proved by the rapid increase of program production.665 2006 21 355. program broadcasting time.4. 1990 Number of programs Program Hours per Day (hour) Production of Programs (hour) 10 123.179 2000 20 297. entertainment program resources.383 100 2005 25 410. Shanghai Cable TV Station and other units. The market share of its TV programs in “golden period” (from 19:00 to 22:00) in Shanghai area is close to 70%.0 64. as separate entities.6 83. Film & TV. Australia.0 9.985 96 2000 13 156.2: Television programs and population coverage (1990-2006) Source: Shanghai Municipal Administration of Culture. newspaper.
0 2006 189.790 1998 3. because of the low popularity of telephones and high costs of mobile phones. the wireless pager is absent from the Shanghai market. In terms of digital HDTV. owing to the rise of the popularity of family phones. In Shanghai and other large cities. it is the change in modes of social life and the open mind of the people to newly-emerging things that trigger the increase in the new ICTs market.2: Shanghai e-business development (2005-2006) Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 2007 The wide application of new ICTs has not only boosted the development of computer and software industries (Table 5. 1996 Number of users (thousands) 2. the ground broadcasting standard for digital TV was published in 2003. The rapid development and decline of wireless pagers in the 1990s in Shanghai is an illustrative example.1: Changes in Shanghai wireless pager use (1996-2003) The high acceptance of the citizen to new technologies let the new ICTs play an important role in business transaction activities.31 561.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Radio broadcasting and TV in Shanghai have not only undergone major reforms in management systems. the users of wireless pagers dropped sharply.420 2001 3. mobile TV and mobile phone TV and other new forms of multi-media broadcasting are becoming familiar things in everyday life.3).5.5. User numbers increased swiftly and it reached its peak in 2000.290 2000 3. the newly emerging network.010 2002 1. but has also provided conditions for the development of modern logistics as a platform with a very high degree of integration. In addition to the routine cable TV network. such as interactive TV. E-business has become an important means in the economic activities of Shanghai (Table 5. At that time. and it will be broadcast comprehensively in 2008. Both individuals and enterprises rely more and more on the Internet and other information platforms to seek out business opportunities. 5. However.5 Application of new ICTs and its impact The rapid and wide application of new ICTs in Shanghai benefits from the speedy development of sciences and technology on the one hand and the new political and organizational arrangement on the other hand. Indicators Trade Value of E-commerce (billion Yuan) Accumulative Granted Digital Certificate (thousand pieces) 2005 162.5. wireless pagers became an important means of contact and access to information in the daily life of the people. amounting to 3.620 2003 980 Table 5.5. but have also made much technological progress.2).3 Table 5. The user number has decreased 72% in three years (Table 5. From 2005. comprehensive or specialized sales websites have inaugurated cheap and 71 . Fundamentally. in the new century.230 1997 2.97 716.42 million.230 1999 3. and the continuous fall in the cost of mobile phones.5.1).
to the end of 2006. In the field of urban transportation. Indicators Operating Revenue of Information Service Industry (billions Yuan) # Computer Service & Software Industry # Self-program Software System Integration Enterprises of Over 100 million Software Revenue (unit) Software of Information Service Industry (thousand persons) # Computer Service & Software Industry (thousand persons) 2004 65.5. Under the overall layout of the national project called “Government Online”. The “citizen mailboxes” have become the direct communication means between government and individuals on the one hand. 72 . new ICTs also provide new channels and techniques to the public management and the public services for the government. Shanghai vigorously improved transport information services on the one hand. It firstly presented in China the “Citizen mailbox”.0 7. all the governmental authorities in Shanghai have established their own official websites. when the mailboxes were formally launched.4).56 30. Shanghai also pushed out electronic account “social security cards” with information integration functions in the social security system.08 9. and pushed out pre-charged “public transportation cards” with universal payment functions on the other hand.24 million Shanghai citizens have registered for “citizen mailboxes”.67 10.28 9.10 2005 91. The importance of the role played by NICTs in the daily life of Shanghai citizens will continue to increase (Table 5.41 12.52 11. At the same time. public participation and monitoring by the public.68 45. electricity and coal) for citizens to manage and pay for their daily needs. as the “ID cards online” for Shanghai residents. the Shanghai Municipal People’s Government also improved the urban public service quality fully using the NICTs.89 10.3: Information service industry operation (2004-2006) Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 2007 In addition to creating new operating models and value in business. an individual E-mail service with the true name of citizens. From 2004. This creates favorable conditions for the transparency of governmental affairs.6 11.06 56 180.12 Table 5. and have thus become a powerful force in the retail business.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study convenient modern sales methods in cooperation with local express delivery companies.15 61.5.3 14. more than 1. and have been connected with social security services and other basic life expenditure information (water.83 2006 122.01 43 144.42 35 99. In addition.
It contributes to a new urban life style which influences every function in the city.73 8.729. is comparable to those in Western cities.233. the political and organizational reforms in this sector also explain the fast evolution.27 72. 73 .761. Besides the technological improvements.26 1.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Indicators Accumulative Registered Users of Citizen Mail Box (10 000 houses) All-year Exchange Volume of FFT(10 000 units) All-year Exchange Value of FFT(100 million Yuan) Accumulative Volume of Social Insurance Card (10 000 pieces) Accumulative Volume of Traffic Card (10 000 pieces) All-year Sales Value of Traffic Card (100 million Yuan) Accumulative Volume of Bank Card (10 000 pieces) All-year Exchange Value of Bank Card (100 million Yuan) # Consumption Value with Bank Card 2005 33. The total volume of actual trips is increasing.976.004. The development of virtual mobility in Shanghai has not only contributed to the economic growth but has also provided a new kind of urban governance.98 733.06 10.666.06 5. in particular the emergence of E-business and the express delivery services in the urban areas. particularly that of mobile communications and the HSIA of the Internet in the everyday life of citizens.28 5.19 1. However. there is little evidence that proves that the development of virtual mobility in Shanghai has substituted for the actual movements of people and goods.23 1. pushed by the rapid urbanization and spatial restructuring.4: Computerization of public service sources: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 2007 5.610. The application of new ICTs.15 2006 124.18 1.75 9.793.68 504.568.70 Table 5.48 16.32 2.5.6 Conclusions The development of information and telecommunication services in Shanghai has been characterized by rapid technological progress and high public acceptability.89 3.80 2. The application of ICTs contributes to the development of the logistics industry.
1: The number and the total profit of the transport and postal services enterprises Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. the number of transport enterprises and their profits has seen huge increases since 2000. Shanghai’s transport system operating costs and efficiency 6. net income besides the business and the profit and loss adjustment of preceding year. the difference between each mode is obvious: Railway transport . the overall cost of transportation is still increasing rapidly. The general development of transport industry in Shanghai shows a smooth trend.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 6. 6. The transport and communication costs are also taking an ever increasing share of the family spending budget. along with the improvement of Shanghai transport facilities and the increase in transport services supply.the number of railway transport companies remains at two after a fluctuation at the beginning of this century.2 The operation situation of transport enterprises By the end of 2005 there were 2. subsidies income. realizing a total profit of about 30 billion Yuan.1 General information In 2007.the number of road transport enterprises has increased by more than 100% 74 . by summing up the profits made from 1997 to 2005. especially in 2003. However.2. Generally speaking.2.531 transport enterprises in Shanghai. railway transport was in deficit. Behind this general trend of transport industry development. due to the sharp growth in demand for transport services. Road transport .1. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 Note: Total profit means the ultimate outcome of production and business activities. investment income. which is the sum of operating profit. As it can be seen from Figure 6. 3 000 number of enterprises 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 0 35 000 000 total profit (1 000 yuan) 30 000 000 25 000 000 20 000 000 15 000 000 10 000 000 5 000 000 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 year number of enterprises total profit(1 000 yuan) Figure 6. the operating efficiency of the Shanghai transport system improved while the cost per unit of transport service continued to decrease. The profits on railways have undergone big ups and downs each year.
4%.3.1.3 6.1: Overall residential consumer price index (1991-2006.3. Its profit in 2005 accounted for approximately 15% of the total profit of the transport industry in Shanghai (see Appendix II. 6.5% to 35.1990=100) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 year overall residents consumer transport and communication Figure 6. in contrast to the upward trend of the overall resident consumer price index. It has grown rapidly to be the economic power of the Shanghai transport sector. clothes and household facilities) in total household expenditures was gradually going down.9%.2 Transport and communication expenditures According to the statistics on the average consumption expenditure of Shanghai citizens from 1990 to 2005. with its profits in 2005 up to four times as much as that in 2003 and equating to approximately 75% of profit of the entire Shanghai transport industry. Water transport industry has got rid of the deficit since 2003. the price index of transportation and communication for Shanghai citizens had been ascending year after year from 1990 to 2000. consumption price index consumer price index (1991～2006. the proportion of traditional consumption items (such as food. and the total growing rate is a little larger than the overall resident consumer price index. the share devoted to transport and communications rose from 3. the transport and communication consumer price index has decreased in recent years. Aviation transport .the number of water transport enterprise has been growing after a decrease to 41 in 2001. However. The Engle’s Coefficient standing for the share of urban household consumer spending devoted to food declined from 56.1990=100) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 6. Figure 4-7).Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study The profits on highway mildly cooled down after experienced a sharp increase from 2001 to 2003. since 2001. 75 . There were 13 air enterprises by the end of 2005. and the speed of growth was second only to healthcare.the number of air enterprises has been growing since 2001. Water transport .3. At the same time.0% to 14.1 General transport and communication costs and expenditures Transport and communication consumer price index As it can be seen in Figure 6.3.
behind food (35.7 4.2 Table 6.9 7.6 1990 1995 2000 2005 4. the growth trend of the disposable income and the transportation & communications consumption expenditures (TCCE) are similar.3. culture and recreation services (16. from 1990 to 2000.5 35.8% in 2012 from 13.4 Food 56.6 5.1).8 9.6 6.5 8.6 1.5 16. the transportation and communication expenditure for Shanghai citizens reached 2.33 The data in Figure 6.4 44. the increase in TCCE has exceeded the increase in per capita disposable income. 2 500 consumption expenditure (yuan) 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 18% 16% 14% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 1980 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 year Consumption Expenditures in Transport and Communications (yuan) the proportion of transport and communication consumption expenditure in the total proportion 12% Figure 6. 76 .1% in 2006.333 Yuan per capita.3.5 53.3.8 Household Facilities. Culture and Recreation Services 11.5 Housing Miscellaneous Commodities and Services 2.9 5.3.3.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Year 1990 1995 2000 2005 Total Consumption Expenditures 100 100 100 100 Transport and Communications 3.5%).0 5.3 3.6 6. It ranked third in total household expenditure.8 9 10.9 Clothing 10. Researchers who analyzed the data from 1998 to 2003 had estimated that the proportion of transportation and communication expenditure would reach 15.8 Medicines and Medical Services 0.2: Trend in consumption expenditures on transportation and communication per capita Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 As it can be seen from Figure 6.4 6.8% of total expenditures.9 8.6%) and education.1: Structure of per capita consumer expenditures of urban households Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 In 2006. or 15. Articles and Services 10. Since 1998.5 3.1 10.2 suggests that the growth of actual expenditure of transportation and communication has far exceeded this projection.6 14.3.6 14. Overall both the absolute expenditure on transportation and communication and its proportion in the total expenditure have been on the trend of continuous growth since the 1990s (Figure 6.8 Year Education.7 5.
04 Due to expansion of urban space and rise of living standards.0 Yuan 1.0 Yuan 2.3: Comparison of disposable income and the TCCE Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 Seeing from Table 6.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 25 000 Average Per Capita Disposable Income (yuan) 20 000 15 000 10 000 5 000 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 Transport and Communications Consumption Expenditures (yuan) 1980 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 year Average Per Capita Disposable Income(yuan) Transport and Communications Consumption Expenditures (yuan) Figure 6. the absolute cost of transportation and communication of Shanghai people continues to grow.0 Yuan 18.104.22.168 Yuan 1.39 Yuan/L Suzhou 2. although the consumer price index of transport and communication has decreased slowly in recent years (as it is said in 6. particularly for car use on parking and licenses. It is grateful to see that the policy-maker is trying to reduce the cost 77 .2: Travel cost in YRD cities in 2005 Source: Fares of Transport and Communication. The public policy in the cost control for transport and communications in Shanghai shows an intention to reduce the travel cost for public transport and meanwhile increase that of private cars.0 Yuan 1.7 Yuan 1.4 Yuan 3. the increasing demand of transportation and communication will continue for a long time.5 Yuan air conditioning 2.44 Yuan/L 170 Yuan 15 000 Yuan 5 Yuan Wenzhou 2.44 Yuan/L 5 Yuan Table 6.8 Yuan/km 3. the cost for urban transport in Shanghai is highest.46 Yuan/L License 45 000 Yuan 500 Yuan Parking 10 Yuan 6 Yuan Shanghai 2.8 Yuan/km Nanjing 1.3.3. Pioneering With Science and Technology.0 Yuan/km 3. The license costs RMB 45. Bus Fares City ordinary 1.0 Yuan _ _ _ Hangzhou 2.0 Yuan Taxi Basic fare 10 Yuan/3 km 7 Yuan/3 km 10 Yuan/3 km 10 Yuan/4 km 8 Yuan/4 km 10 Yuan/4 km Rate Car Petrol Price-93# 3. Therefore.1). 2005.2.40 Yuan/L 200 Yuan 4 Yuan Ningbo 2.4 Yuan/km 1.5 Yuan/km 3.000 Yuan or more in Shanghai while in Ningbo it only costs RMB 170Yuan.0 Yuan/km (Excluding wait) 2.0 Yuan 0. among the several cities in Yangtze River Delta region.0 Yuan 1.
4 Table 6. as can be seen in Figure 6. 6. the road supply. However. while the travel distance has increased from 6.4 Cost and efficiency on urban transport In 2004. The trip share by public transport has reached 24% in 2004 and the efficiency has been greatly improved compared with that in 1995. the total road traffic volume in Shanghai was 90.4. With the rise of investment in road construction in recent years.34 At the same time. the number of public transport passengers keeps growing.1: Public transport travel time and distance in the central city.6 2004 58 8. which represented an increase of 170% compared with that in 1995. for example the newly built expressway and arterial roads cannot match the traffic’s increase yet. 2004 78 .Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study of public transport travel and increase cost for driving.1. in the city center area. Moreover. new infrastructure should generally be able to meet the needs of traffic growth.4 of this report. the roads around the central area are beginning to get congested.4 km/trip. (Table 6.4.6 km/trip to 8. The heavy congestion in rush hours hasn’t gotten better in this area.4.6 million vehicle kilometers. . 1995 and 2004 Source: The third Comprehensive Transport Survey Report of Shanghai.4. 6. A comprehensive analysis on urban congestion is available in part 8.1 Cost and efficiency for public transport Efficiency The average travel time by metro and bus (including trolley bus) for permanent residents in the central city has decreased from 62 minutes to 58 minutes from 1995 to 2004.1) The average travel speed by public transport has increased by 40% from 1995 to 2004. 1995 average travel time (minute) average travel distance（km） 62 6.
The basic price was raised from 2 Yuan to 3 Yuan.and long-distance travel.8 minutes in 2005 from 3.8 minutes in 2003 respectively. the number of metro passengers has increased sharply. That of Line #1 has been reduced to 3 minutes (see Appendix I.4.2 minutes and 10. the metro ticket price was adjusted in September 2005. It means that the number of medium.000/day) Source: The third Comprehensive Transport Survey Report of Shanghai.1: Passengers using public transport (1.4. 79 . the cost is still quite high for low-income people.2. According to transport survey conducted at the beginning of 2005. the passengers traveling within 6 km making up 38% of the total flow of passengers. and it also has speed and frequency. metro transport cannot play its important role in medium. the cost of traveling by bus is the lowest for short-distance trips. Table 8). Cost As it shows in Table 6. The metro can now provide higher efficiency and lower trips costs for medium. In order to encourage long-distance travel. with 1 Yuan more for every additional 10 km. while those going beyond 16 km only make up 11%. passengers taking the metro make more short-distance trips than long-distance ones. 2004 and Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 Note: The figure lacks the data of the volume of the taxi passenger in 2006 As five metro lines have been put into operation one by one.and long-distance travel than bus and car. The new research report published in 2006 shows that the average waiting time and the onboard traveling time of metro passengers increased to 4 minutes and 16.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Passenger Volume of Public Transportation ( thousand persontimes) 10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000 6 000 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000 0 1995 Metro 1996 2000 year 2004 2006 Taxi Buses and Trolley Buses Figure 6. The minimum two-way metro tickets will cost 17. The time between two trains during rush hour has been reduced to about 6 minutes.and long-distance passengers increases with the increase in traveling time on the metro.35 Thus. However. The metro in Shanghai is now cheaper than other public transport modes for long-distance trips (longer than 20 km).7% of the daily income of lower paid people Shanghai.
sh. a number of incentive measures have been carried out: • • • If the expenditure through the prepaid transport card exceeds 70 Yuan in a month.2: Public transport cost in Shanghai Source: http://life.11 Sep. while many passenger vehicles became private cars. 6.20-0.15 Motorcycle 2004 80.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Standard of Charge Mode Metro Buses and Trolley Buses (air conditioning) Taxi 11 Yuan/3 km 2 Yuan/13 km Basic Price 3 Yuan/6 km Rate 1 Yuan/10 km 0.3: Vehicle travel features.75 20 55 3.3 Table 6. For the bus transfers realized within 90 minutes in the air-conditioned buses of the 409 bus lines.people.8 90 2.com. For the transfer to metro from bus realized within 90 minutes.4.25 Yuan/1 km （progressing Travel Cost (Yuan) 3km 3 6km 3 10km 4 20km 5 30km 6 40km 7 2 2 2 4 7 9 every 1 Yuan） 2.htm Note: Transfer preference is not considered.61 29 75 Passenger Vehicle 1995 12.9 70 2.2 Cost and efficiency for motorized vehicles Efficiency Commercial Freight Trucks index Total number (10 thousand) % of travel making day Trips /day Average travel distance (km/trip) Daily mileage(km) Passenger occupancy 1995 11.1 74 2. the passenger would also benefit from 0. Passenger vehicle occupancy rates decreased by half.45 21 52 2004 18 86 2.1 Yuan/1 km 11 17 26 47 68 89 Table 6. exclude bus.09 12 25 1.4 2004 49.cn/node110/node113/200609/con120161. the passenger can benefit from a 0.5 Yuan discount per transfer time.4.cn/node41/200507/con116882.63 19 51 6. taxi and special car for passenger vehicle. 2005 http://www.1 2.5 Yuan discount per transfer.html . 80 . Freight vehicles travel more and longer. 1995-2004 Note: exclude freight taxi and special car for truck.jt. Generally the trips.4. In order to encourage people to travel by public transport in Shanghai.cn/GB/1089/3684366.jt.htm http://www. the traveling time and the daily mileage of motorized vehicles have all increased from 1995 to 2004. the holder can benefit from 10% discount on the following ticket fare.sh.
in contrast the operating cost is higher and higher.4.0 150. fuel prices have increased greatly since 2003. the price of transport vehicles are coming down year by year.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Cost The cost of car use in Shanghai includes vehicle purchase expense.2) 80 000 70 000 45 000 40 000 35 000 30 000 25 000 20 000 15 000 10 000 5 000 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 60 000 50 000 40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 0 year number of release average price(yuan) Figure 6. By the price index of consumption.0 .0 200.com/chepai/chepaisi. license fee. The price index of transport vehicles was 97.9 in 2001 and 91.htm Based on the price index of fuel purchase in Shanghai. The rise of fuel price directly results in the increased cost for traveling by car (see Figure 6.0 250. (Figure 6. the average price of car license plate has increased although the government has adjusted the released number of license plates according to the deal price. Table 9).4.2: Car license auction in Shanghai Source: http://www.0 100.3 in 2006 (see Appendix I.3).0 1996 2000 2001 2002 year 2003 2004 2005 2006 Figure 6.0 50. road toll and road pricing. 300.alltobid. The estimated price will be very high.4. Since the auction system of vehicle license plate was adopted in Shanghai.4. parking fee. fuel expense. the license plates will not be released in large amounts. and maintenance fee. As the number of cars in city will be continually controlled.3: Fuel price index (1995=100) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 PURCHASING PRICE IND (1995=100) 81 average price(yuan) number of release .
every month.4. the latter should pay higher road charges.bj. 82 .cn/Lawsnews. in other cities.jsp?colid=0402&id=ID031218000 http://www.4. 119.4.5: Maintenance in Beijing.4.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Land is a limited resource for urban development in Shanghai. In addition. as it can be seen in Table 6. Table 10). Table11-12). the unit for motorcycles is Yuan per month Type Passenger Vehicles Freight Trucks Motorcycles Besides: car with less than 5 seats Passenger Vehicles with less than 5 seats unit Yuan/month/ton Yuan/month/ton Yuan/month/vehicle Yuan/month/vehicle Yuan/month/vehicle Beijing 220 220 15 Shanghai 200 190 30 Nanjing 260 200 14 120 200 Table 6.10 seats=1 ton Shanghai levies different road charges upon vehicles of local area and from other cities. the road use charge is fixed and paid every month in Shanghai. Shanghai and Nanjing Source: Shanghai Municipal People's government Order No. but that for car and motorcycle is relatively higher. The general level of road tolls in Shanghai is lower than that in Beijing and Nanjing (Table 6. the Regulations on the Control of Shanghai highway maintenance (Revised) Shanghai Municipal People's government Order No.5. Comparatively.4: Maintenance and road use charges in Shanghai (Unit: Yuan/ton/month) Source: Shanghai Municipal People's government Order No. The charge that vehicles from other cities should pay in Shanghai is as 3-5 times as that in Nanjing. it is levied according to road usage. the parking charge will continually keep a high level and is highest among Chinese cities (see Appendix I.cn/jsp/display. (Appendix I. 10 seats=1 ton. In Shanghai. 119.aspx?classcode=/LAWS/YLF/ Note: for passenger vehicles.4.ylfzhj.5 Motorcycles 30 15 Table 6.njjtgf. The road toll of freeway in Shanghai is the same as that in Guangzhou. Due to the rise of land price. the Regulations on the Control of Shanghai highway maintenance (Revised) http://www.5). vehicle owners in urban area should pay the road use charges and road maintenance fee.4 and Table 6. while. the Regulations on the Control of Shanghai road tolls on loans road Note: for passenger vehicles. 102. Freight Trucks Maintenance Road Using Charge 190 135 Passenger Vehicles 200 150 Trailers 110 38. As a result the overall cost for urban road use is higher than that in Beijing and Nanjing.
And the local authority conferred a special license plate started with BH to these vehicles. The remainder is made up of more occasional goods delivery services for individuals or enterprises. 83 .6T) Freight Taxi(0. the price of the goods delivering taxi service could be a credible reference.800 from 380 at the beginning. It gives an idea on the general situation of the urban logistics industry in Shanghai. (Figure 6. Five enterprises were created. which is still developing and ranked first among all kinds of transport modes before 2005. the annual output per vehicle in freight transport in Shanghai decreased year by year.jt.htm The goods delivering taxi service was initiated by the proposal of municipal government in August 1999. road freight transport suffered the problems like poor communication between the demand and offer. as the truck can only go into the central city after evening.4.9T) Basic Price (Starting Price) 18 Yuan/3 km 23 Yuan/3 km Rate 2.5.36Since 2002. the road system takes the main role for freight transport on land. As with the ordinary taxi for passengers.6: Freight transport costs in Shanghai Source: http://www.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 6. who keeps the prices at a relative low level. the number of goods delivering taxis reached 2. Standard of Charge Mode Freight Taxi(0.3 Cost of urban occasional freight transport In terms of urban freight transport cost. due to the limited capacity of railway transport.5 Yuan/1 km 3. A lot of commercial enterprises have entrusted these taxi companies with their logistics work.4. The vehicles are recognizable by the model.1) However. This service became the main commercial mode for the goods transports and delivery in the urban area in the daytime. which makes 45% of the business volume for the taxis. In 2004. the color and the taxi indicators installed. 6.0 Yuan/1 km 3km 18 23 Calculation of Travel Cost (Yuan) 6km 26 32 10km 36 44 20km 61 74 30km 86 104 40km 111 134 Table 6.cn/node41/200507/con116882.sh. the rise of charge for road pricing and fuel.5 Efficiency and cost of intercity transport In recent years. the vehicles are equipped with the counter and the tariff of service is regulated by the authority.
In 2004. running speed of freight trains. the cost for railway is much less than that for highway. but it takes longer time than by truck. such as rate of on-time departure of freight trains. the efficiency of railway freight transport keeps steady growth.5. Figure 8-10) Showed by the railway transport index. trains loaded per day. The efficiency of railway transport has been greatly enhanced.5. and waiting time for freight transfer. (Appendix II. The freight companies rarely provide short-distance railway transport service. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 There are two railway transport lines linking to other parts of mainland China: Shanghai-Nanjing (to the north) and Shanghai-Hangzhou (to the south). the highest speed of passenger trains reached 160 km/hour.1 Cost of highway and railway freight Take the transport cost of one-ton container for example.000 ton-km) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. there were 94 pair passenger trains and 50 pair freight trains per day in the peak traffic period on the Shanghai-Nanjing Line.1: Annual ton-kilometers of each truck (1. but the facilities have been fully explored. The limited transport capacity becomes the main trouble for the railway transport development. 84 . After the fifth promotion of train speed. While in short-distance transport (to Hangzhou and Nanjing). 6. Hangzhou and Nanjing by highway and railway. An analysis is made of the transport cost and time for several freight companies from Shanghai to get to Beijing. while we can only travel on highway transport at 110 km/hour. rate of on-time departure of passenger trains.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 200 000 180 000 160 000 annual tonnage (1 000 tons. Guangzhou. the road is cheaper and much less time consuming. Obviously. Real traffic is 119% and 111% of the planned traffics respectively. so the potential of increasing railway transport efficiency would be limited without the construction of new infrastructure. in the long-distance transport (to Beijing and Guangzhou).km) 140 000 120 000 100 000 80 000 60 000 40 000 20 000 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 year Figure 6.
5. the highway transport is more flexible. After the fifth promotion of train speed. The cheapest ticket is about one-fourth of highway transport. it is very difficult to buy a train ticket during the rush hour in the weekend. In contrast to the limited capacity of railway transport.2 Cost of highway and railway passenger transport By analyzing the ticket fare and transport speed of the highway and railway from Shanghai to Hangzhou. Taking Shanghai-Hangzhou for example. At the same time.do56.htm 6. Beijing and Guangzhou.net/cn_dl.021wuliu. Many people choose to travel by long-distance coaches.com/ http://www. Nanjing.021huoyun. the cost and efficiency of railway passenger transport is better than that of highway passenger transport.szy56.asp http://www. highway transport capacity is much more abundant and becomes a favorable supplement to railway. the Ministry of Railway confirms faster speed with the same ticket price.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Highway Freight Transport Price and Time Consuming Distance Destinations Beijing Guangzhou Hangzhou Nanjing km 1.463 1.5. 85 .com/wfbj8.com/bangchang1/glys.szy56.qlm56. so it still achieves fast development although its transport fee is higher.asp http://www.com/wfbj.com/yunjia.810 203 301 Company A 300 300 --Company E 400 380 -380 average price(Yuan) 350 340 -380 Time Consuming (day) 3~4 4~5 -2 Table 6.1: The cost of transporting one ton of goods by Shanghai freight companies Source: http://www.394 1.htm http://guoaohuoyun.613 190 295 Company A 450 580 280 300 Company B 400 550 220 240 Company C 400 550 200 250 Company D 400 450 190 230 average price(Yuan) 413 533 223 255 Time Consuming (day) 3 3 1 1 Railway Freight Transport Price and Time Consuming Destination Beijing Guangzhou Hangzhou Nanjing Distance Km 1.asp http://www.
3: The fares and the number of flights of Shanghai civil aviation Source: http://www.shanghaiairport.com/twell/zh/city_flights/shanghai/index.html http://www. Since the opening of Pudong international airport.3) Destinations London Tokyo New York Hong Kong Beijing Guangzhou Lowest Fare(Yuan) 2 250 1 890 3 350 1 000 450 420 Highest Fare(Yuan) 28 720 5 030 23 030 2 400 1 130 1 280 Number of Flights(a week) 36 209 4 400 675 204 Table 6. Guangzhou. the number of linked cities and departure flights is increasing year yearly.44 0.08 0.5.34 0. it draws the conclusion that the price of aviation transport provided by Shanghai freight companies is 7-8 times higher than that of highway transport.5. The average distance traveled expanded from 1.5.33 Highway 0.com Note: The fare information comes from internet at July 23. 2007.21 speed（km/hrs） Railway lowest 85 60 65 60 highest 130 130 135 110 Highway 80~100 80~100 80~100 80~100 Table 6.06 0. shows the price of single ticket and the number of departure flights on this day.3 Aviation transport The capacity of aviation transport in Shanghai has been developed greatly. the fare is for July 30.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Service（times/day） Railway Hangzhou Nanjing Beijing Guangzh ou 67 76 10 5 Highway 107 27 3 5 Distance（km） Railway 203 301 1 463 1 810 Highway 176 306 1 262 1 797 Fare （Yuan） Railway lowest 15 24 88 160 highest 90 130 500 600 Highway 60 97 311 376 Fares per distance（Yuan/km） Railway lowest 0.5. domestic civilian aviation companies have seen great development.09 highest 0.25 0.974 km in 2000 to 2. Nanjing and Hangzhou.tixcn. And the overall service of Shanghai’s airports has been greatly increased.2: Highway and railway passenger transport service between Shanghai and major cities Source: http://www. Figure 11-13) In recent years. and 10 times 86 .34 0. (Table 6. The gap between the different flight fares is big.qunar.com/train/html/Shanghai/shanghai.43 0. An inquiry on 23 July 2007. (Appendix II. especially for domestic travel whose cost is lower than that of private car use on the freeway.32 0. 2007 By analyzing the transport price of one-ton freight from Shanghai to Beijing. and the growth rate of passenger and freight transport kept above 10% every year.600 km in 2006.123cha.07 0. Travel by flight will no longer be the most expensive way. which brings about a differentiation of ticket fares and lowers effectively the cost of transport.com/ 6.htm www.
szy56. Company A Distance (km) Basic Price Yuan/kg 100kg Yuan/kg 300kg Yuan/kg 1ton Yuan Basic Price Yuan/kg 100kg Yuan/k g 300kg Yuan/ kg 1ton Yuan Company C average price 1ton Yuan Beijing Guangzhou Nanjing Hangzhou 1 178 1 308 273 176 5.4 1.9 6.8 1.8 4.2 3. The operating efficiency of water transport and port in Shanghai turns out very well and continues to be improved.3 2.5 2. The transport price and linked cities of international freight flights of Shanghai aviation is shown in the Table 6.com/wfbj6.1 3 506 3 806 1 402 1 102 3 406 3 806 1 603 1 452 Table 6.km) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2000 2001 2002 year Annual Production per Sea-going Vessel Tonnage Annual Production per Occan-going Vessel Tonnage 2003 2004 2005 Figure 6. Annual Production per Vessel Tonnage (1 000 tons. Port efficiency has also increased year on year.5 3.2 4. an increase of 41%.asp http://www.9 6. The average berthing time of ships in ports decreased by 67% from 1996 to 2006 and the average load per vessel has increased by 100%.9 4. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 87 .4: Shanghai airline domestic freight transport price list Source: http://www.htm 6.900 ton-km.com/yunjia1.5.6 2. which has grown from 79.4.1 4.5.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study higher than railway transport.4 Water transport and ports Efficiency The development of sea shipping and ocean-going freight has kept a steady growth since 2001.3 3.5 1.8 3 4.2 2 3 306 3 806 1 803 1 803 5.qlm56.5.2 2. especially the latter.3 1.000 tons-km) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry.4 2.900 ton-km to 112.5.6 1.2: Annual production per vessel tonnage (1.
com. As far as the average value is concerned.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study average berthes time (day) 2. the Shanghai port holds an obviously advantageous position in the long-distance shipping transport. The prices are communicated to the public by the website “www.5 2.5. Table 13.0 1. There are about 78 marine shipping companies.0 0.cn”. A 20-foot container transport price in Shanghai Port of international service is shown in Appendix I. short-distance shipping prices in Shanghai port are higher than those in Ningbo port.5 0.4: Average tonnage of freight by each vessel (ton) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 Cost The Ministry of Communications of China started to implement the Freight on Record System from 1 January 1997.chineseshipping.5. while inverse for long-distance shipping prices. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 12 000 A v e r a g e T o n n a g e o f F r e ig h t b y E a c h V e s s e l ( to n ) 10 000 8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 year all ships Ships of Foreign Trade Figure 6. 88 .5). According to the data released in the web site on 22 July 2007 (Table 6.5.5 1.0 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 year 2002 2003 2004 2005 Ships of Foreign Trade Figure 6. The companies who provide international marine shipping container transport services in Shanghai and Ningbo ports should report the transport price to Shanghai Shipping Exchange.3: Average time of vessels berthing at harbors (day) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. including 14 well-known foreign shipping container companies.
the improvement of intercity transport should depend on public transport with high capacity and a more efficient transfer system.500 2.6 Conclusions Concerning water and aviation transport.asp .cn/filing/openprice. enhance the level of information and networks.000 Price (US dollar) highest 180 100 600 400 2.com. But its future is not promising due to factors like transport cost and industry system. This has contributed to making Shanghai a world center of trade and shipping. As far as road transport is concerned. Meanwhile. 89 . the further development of international trade in Shanghai will definitely boost the construction of the water and aviation transport industry and operating efficiency of the system. The development of the railway industry has been limited by its capacity.500 2.500 average 106 55 487 330 1. It would also be an inevitable choice to meet the increasing demand of travel for the residents. There is little potential to promote the overall transport efficiency without capacity extension.150 1. It should further integrate resources.500 2. Ningbo Port Source: http://www.5.450 1. characterized by the growth of travel distance and frequency.150 1. Therefore.050 1.364 1. the efficiency of transport from Shanghai to the outside has achieved much improvement since 2001. and its profits are relatively low.5: 20-foot container transport price of Shanghai. and the increasing expenditure on transport and communication. For intercity passenger transport. and lower transport cost in the future development. the profit value has increased dramatically.375 1. the limited space in the central area for road construction will become the problem for improving the operating efficiency of individual vehicles.chineseshipping.22 July 2007 6.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Destination Hong Kong Singapore Rotterdam Hamburg Departing Shanghai Ningbo Shanghai Ningbo Shanghai Ningbo Shanghai Ningbo Number of Statistical Company 4 3 7 3 7 4 10 5 lowest 60 35 345 265 1. The good management and operation of transport enterprises have led to an increase in profits since 2003.470 Table 6.
total investment for roads. 37 It invests 80. It has been a powerful driver behind urban transport development.349 9.31% 1. Investment for highways is 20.5 Table 7.02 368. the investment preference for transport is shifting from construction of urban roads to the metro.4% in the 90 .99 7. 7.74% 0.725 billion Yuan for bridges and tunnels respectively.06% 3.226 2.42% 0. Investment for urban roads is 16.29% 2. The period of the 10th Five Year Plan is the high time for freeway development in Shanghai.439 14. At the same time.076 10.2 billion Yuan for port construction.479 1. Total investment to transport infrastructure 8. it is also the period for Shanghai to invest the most amount of money in constructing the international shipping hub.03 915.04 billion Yuan in transport facilities.54% 2.7% of the total investment.51% 2. which is 4 times as much investment in infrastructure facilities as in the 9th Five Year Plan and ranks the top in history.852 6.34% 0. During the period between 1996 and 2005. The 10th Five Year Plan is the starting phase for implementing a new round of the master plan. with 16. which is the same as in the previous plan.49 billion Yuan.149 % of GDP 2.15% Year 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 GDP 290.4 12.90% 2.73% 1. The proportion of investment in urban roads decreased from 40.158 21.55% 2.22 336.927 6.682 9.95% 1.249 11. Shanghai’s economy is growing fast and investments in transport construction are continually expanding.88% 4.3 billion Yuan.08 540. an increase of 74% compared to that in the 9th Five Year Plan. as well as the key stage of constructing “Four Centers”.49 455.94 billion Yuan for metro is an increase of 137% compared with before.244 2. The key target of investment more focused on key transport infrastructure.635 6.580 million.44% 0.966 22.1.1 billion Yuan and basically completes the freeway network. 1996-2005 Note: 2002 investments in the metro include magnetic levitation at 5.42 Investment of metro 1.64% % of GDP 0.08 745.45 billion Yuan and 7.51% 1.47 8. highways and rail transport added up to 149.82 403.78% 2.99% 2. such as the construction of a container port which attracts 15.577 24. taking up 92.88 625. 34.1: Transport investment in Shanghai (billion) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook.286 21.92 billion Yuan.12 495. In addition.61% 1.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 7.1 Investment in Shanghai’s transport system Brief Shanghai’s investments in transport are ahead of those of other major cities in China. It invests 23. twice that in the 9th Five Year Plan.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
8th Five Year Plan to 21.37% in the 10th Five Year Plan. Comparatively, the investment in the metro rose from 20.8% to 50.2%.
8th five-year Item Investmen t Urban Road Bridge and tunnel Highway Metro Total 8.34 3.16 4.84 4.28 20.62 % of investment 40.40% 15.30% 23.50% 20.80% 100.00% 9th five-year Investmen t 16.6 7.92 6.75 14.73 46.0 % of investment 36.10% 17.20% 14.70% 32.00% 100% 10th five-year Investmen t 16.45 7.72 20.92 45.43 90.52
% of investment 21.37% 5.33% 23.10% 50.2% 100.00%
Table 7.1.2: Investment in transport systems in Shanghai during the 8 , 9 and 10th five-year plans (in billions) Source: The third Comprehensive Transport Survey Report of Shanghai, 2004
Item Urban Road Name Middle ring (Puxi) No.4 Line Metro No.7 Line No.8 Line No.9 Line Tunnel Railway river tunnel South Station of Shanghai Railway of Pudong Hongqiao Airport extension Pudong Airport extension Yangshan Deep sea Port (1st phase) Investment（Billion） 4.03 12.8 9.2 11.8 10.9 0.95 5.0 7.6 15.3 20.0 14.31 2005 2006 2005 2005 2005 2006 2005 Started(Year) Completion(Year) 2005
Table 7.1.3: Recent major transport infrastructure construction in Shanghai
Investment in metro transport
In the period of the 10th Five Year Plan, the major metro projects invested around 10 billion Yuan. This includes No. 4 metro line (12.8 billion Yuan), No. 8 metro line (11.8 billion Yuan), No. 7 metro line (9.2 billion Yuan) and No. 9 metro line (10.9 billion Yuan). According to the Shanghai Metro Basic Network, from now to 2012, the Shanghai Shentong Group will invest more than 160 billion Yuan to build up 13 metro lines with a total length of up to 510 km. They will form the basic network of metro transport in Shanghai and will carry 40% of the daily passenger, becoming the backbone of the Shanghai public transport system.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
Reform of investment and financing system of Shanghai metro transport
In the period of the 10th Five Year Plan, Shanghai will spend 45.43 billion Yuan to construct the metro, equivalent to 1.37% of GDP. It is impractical to follow the old path to only employ the Shanghai Metro Company to take all of the work. Accordingly, the Shanghai government decided to deepen the reform of investment and financing system in April 2000, carrying out the reform of 4 Separations, namely separating investment, construction, management and supervision of the metro. It enforces the government managing function on public investment, drives the constructing and managing of metro into regulated, orderly and sound market competition, and sets up an effective government supervision system at the same time. On 28 April 2000, companies such as Shentong Group, Shanghai Metro Line Construction Co. Ltd., and Shanghai Metro Incorporation, Shanghai Modern Rail Transit Co. Ltd. were set up respectively. Shanghai Metro Line Construction Co. Ltd was set up to construct the metro. Shanghai Metro Incorporation was the department of management in metro. Shanghai Modern Rail Transit Co. Ltd was supervising the metro. Shentong Group was set up to be the principal part of investment in rail transport, owing assets and management rights. The 4 Separations solved the financing problem. In 2000, it was difficult to attract money to boost metro transport construction. After the foundation of Shentong Group, by means of shareholder of land, loan and financing and bond releasing, it formed a multi-source financing system, and the metro transport also expanded from single line to a network. When the financing problem was solved, new problems appeared, such as poor safety and supervision of metro system, different ticket systems in No.1, No.2 and No.3 metro lines, and inconvenience of metro transfer, etc. Therefore, the Shanghai Metro Line Company merged into the Shentong Group in 2004, which means that the investment body and construction body merged into one company, 4 years after the implementation of 4 Separations.
Investment and financing for constructed metro in Shanghai
The main body for No.1 metro line includes Shanghai Jiushi Corporation and Shanghai Chengtou Corporation (called Chengtou Corporation for short in the following). The two companies took charge of financing for construction and reimbursement of the loan. No.1 metro line was transferred to Shanghai Shentong Group (called Shentong for short in the following) after construction. Then Shentong injected the assets of metro train and fare collection system of No.1 metro line into Shentong Metro which has been listed in stock market. The main body for No.2 metro line is Chengtou and districts Government Company along the line, who took charge of financing for construction and returning the loan. Chengtou put this investment into the stock of Shentong Group after the No.2 metro line was completed. The investment from the district along the line was purchased by Shentong Group. The main body for No.3 metro line is Shentong Group and districts along the line, which form the Shanghai Metro Transport Pearl Line Development Co., Ltd. Shentong Group controlled the project company. Afterwards, No.4 and No.5 metro lines follow the same mode of that of No.3 line.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
The total investment for No.1 metro line is 5.744 billion Yuan (95%), while business loan is 0.3 billion Yuan (3%); total investment for No.2 metro line is 11.158 billion Yuan, among which the capital fund is 7.708 billion Yuan (69%), loan from foreign governments is 3.45 billion Yuan (31%) (Jiushi and Chengtou taking charge of borrowing and returning); total investment for No.5 metro line is 3.125 billion Yuan and is all a capital fund; the total investment for No.3 and No.4 metro lines is 22.56 billion Yuan, for which the capital fund is 7.1 billion Yuan (31%), the remainder is from project financing. Generally speaking, the first phase of metro transport construction mainly depended on investment from government. According to the regulation, the minimum fund prepared for new construction project will be 40% of the total investment. The proportion of the capital fund far exceeds the standard controlled by central government, so Shanghai’s government takes much pressure to raise capital fund in the past.
Comment from stakeholder dialogue: There is general consensus that mobility is in danger of significantly degrading in Shanghai due to the lack of integration as the urban area expands. It is not clear whether the situation is serious enough yet to drive an institutional response. Participants felt that more economic pain from a significant decline in competitiveness may be required.
The huge investments in transportation are only possible with the active role of the Shanghai government. Shanghai’s economy is growing fast, and investment in transportation construction has expanded continually. In the 10th Five Year Plan, Shanghai will invest 80.04 billion Yuan in transport facilities, an increase of 74% compared to that in the 9th Five Year Plan, on urban roads, highways, bridges, tunnels and the metro. It is because of the large scale investment lasting for quite a long time that the transportation systems in Shanghai have been upgraded tremendously. In the past, metro transport construction depended on investment from government, placing much pressure
on them to raise the capital funds. The involvement of developers and local government in metro and road construction has proven to be the only way to sustain huge investments in metro transport infrastructure.
6 in 2005 to 5. with the death toll increasing 235%.231 deaths and 6. The death toll and injuries decreased by 162 and 2. Figure 14-15). traffic safety.189 persons respectively. the development of the transport system is closely connected with other aspects of sustainable urban development. Deaths. 60 000 50 000 40 000 number 30 000 20 000 10 000 0 2002 2003 2004 year Accidents Amounts Death toll Injured 2005 2006 Figure 8.73% lower than the previous year. Shanghai’s RTA number was 6583. natural resource use and environmental protection in the development of transportation. traffic safety measures have been gradually strengthened. accounting for 58.63% and 24.1: Traffic accidents in Shanghai from 2002 to 2006 In 2006. the RTA number dropped by 2655.74% over the previous year. 94 .000 vehicles dropped from 6.1. or 28. the number of traffic accidents increased by 275%. leading to 32. Shanghai has experienced substantial development in both transport supply and operational efficiency. causing 1.889 million Yuan in direct pecuniary losses. the direct pecuniary loss decreased by 46.661 injuries. After the RTA (Road Traffic Accident) surveillance system was completed in 2002. Sustainable transport development challenges in Shanghai After entering the 21st century with accelerated urbanization. which are effectively facilitating local economic and social development. the death toll per 10. At the same time. and the economic loss by traffic accidents hitting 211 times that of 1980. 8. Therefore. which is 11.1 Traffic safety In the 20 years from 1980 to 2000. energy consumption and social justice. injuries and direct pecuniary losses from road traffic accidents in Shanghai have significantly decreased in recent years (more figures on tendency of traffic accidents conditions in Shanghai. including environmental protection. please see Appendix II.721 million Yuan. it is necessary for the city of Shanghai to pay close attention to the issues related to coordination between social progress.8 people.69% of that in 2005.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8.
Vocation distribution Of the 32. which reflects the weakness in administration on rural motorcycle operations.4. 25. The increase of 109 cases in 2004 is 1. Master Degree Paper. According to statistics. Table 14). while from 7:00 to 9:00 has 702 accidents. motorcycle rider deaths in urban areas were lower than that in rural areas every year except in 2005. As for different areas.27% were from the transport industry. since 2002.1.42 times that in 2002. The total accidents during these two periods accounted for 42% of the total number in 2006. People of this age are exposed to heavy traffic (See Appendix II. due to more turmoil in the road conditions in urban area (see Appendix II. However accidents on weekends and holidays were under remarkable control in 2006.96%). Accident high-risk time The high-risk time is from 16:00 to 21:00 with 2. The figure shows that the ages between 31 and 41 years old are high risk for RTA deaths. Shanghai Jiaotong University. remain the highest in the injured pool. pedestrian and passenger deaths in urban areas exceeded that in rural areas.500.1. 2005. at 1.000 people in 2002 and 2006. In contrast.452 accidents occurring from 2002 to 2004. Among the dead.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8. non-local people fatalities have increased each year. Pedestrian and passenger injuries exceeded 1. the high-risk periods for fatal accidents are at weekends. 95 .1 Statistical analysis of road traffic accidents Age distribution 350 300 250 death toll 200 150 100 50 0 07132131age 2002 2003 2004 41516166- Figure 8. Deaths and injuries of motorcycle riders.500 and 2. pedestrians and passengers Motorcycle injuries. workers occupied the largest percentage (21.2: Age distribution of people killed in traffic accidents Source: Survey on death and injuries in Shanghai traffic accidents from 2002-2004 and the strategies on prevention. Furthermore. since 2004.065 accidents. Figure 16-17).
Comment from the stakeholder dialogue: Transportation will carry on developing. reverse driving. which accounted for 7. accounting for 87.2.9% of all kinds of accidents. Statistics shows that these kind of accidents accounted for 16. In 2004. social.1. 27 days when SO2 became the top issue.3% of the total death toll in 2004.2 Road traffic accident factors First.1 Environmental impact Ambient air environment In 2006. leading to 421 deaths. The good-air quality rate was 88. Secondly. In addition. Motor vehicle speeding.74% of the year respectively.493 with 264 deaths. The good air-quality rate exceeded 85% from 2003 to 2006 continuously. 96 . Five-year (2002-2006) monitoring data show that good air-quality was increasing on the whole. There were 321 days when inhalable particulates ranked as the top pollutants. failing to keep safe distances and illegal lane changes are major factors causing accidents and fatalities. and 2. there were 324 days rated as good-air quality in Shanghai.94% of the year. and environmental issues will increase.8%. 0. 8.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8.4%. necessary traffic facility constructions have failed to keep up with the accelerated road construction in recent years. In 2006. fatal traffic accidents in the suburban area accounted for more than 85% of all total accidents in Shanghai. accidents caused by new drivers with less than 3 years driving experience accounted for 1. 10 days when NO2 was the top pollutant. the social impact is mainly through accident fatalities. weak legal consciousness is the main subjective reason for frequent road accidents. especially in the suburbs. but at the same time the economic.6% higher than in 2005. driving without a license caused more accidents and the ratio of accidents caused by private vehicles rose due to the high ratio of accidents caused by fresh license holders.244 cases or 59. representing 27.2 8.
11 mg/m3 0. 2002-2006 97 .08 0. 0.12 0.1 0. However.2.07 2002 2003 PMIO 2004 year 2nd Standard 2005 2006 Figure8.04 0.1: Trend in inhalable particulates. which met the 2nd standard level specified in National Ambient Air Quality Standard (GB3095-1996). 0.03 0. Sulfur dioxide The annual daily average density of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the urban area was 0.051mg/m3 in 2006. which met the 2nd standard level specified in National Ambient Air Quality Standard (GB3095-1996). the increasing tendency towards SO2 emissions is definitely due to fast economic growth and the associated demand on energy consumption.02 0. the annual daily average density of SO2 in the urban area in the other four years was better than the 2nd standard level. Five-year monitoring data showed that with the exception of 2005.2.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Inhalable particulates 0.086mg/m3 in 2006.002 mg/m3 from 2005.010mg/m3 lower than in 2005.2: SO2 trends.01 0 2002 2003 2004 year SO2 2nd Standard 2005 2006 Figure8.07 0. declining 0.05 mg/m3 0. 2002-2006 The annual daily average of inhalable particulates in urban areas was 0.09 0.06 0.
8 4.3/km2 per month lower respectively than in 2005.4% compared to 2005.3: NO2 trends. and 12 stations reported a higher CO level over the national standards.4 4. 0. The annual average amount of dust citywide was 8.04 0.0 tons/km2 per month and the amount of dust on roads was 20.38 Data from the eighteen air quality survey stations along the major roads in Shanghai showed that sixteen stations measured NOx pollution levels over the national standards.06 mg/m3 0.02 0.2 pH value 5 30% 4.4 5.6 4.05 0.4%.09 0. Acid rain and dust In 2006 the average pH value of precipitation was 4. The overall level of NO2 emission was kept almost at the same level.39 98 .03 0.2 2002 2003 pH value 2004 year 2005 2006 20% 10% 0% 60% 50% 40% acid rain frenqency Acid Rain Frequency Figure 8. an increase of 16.4: Acid rain frequency and precipitation pH value.01 0 2002 2003 NO2 2004 year 2005 2006 2nd Standard Figure 8. 2002-2006 The recent five-year monitoring data showed that the annual daily average of NO2 in the urban area was better than the 2nd standard level. which were 0.07 0.8 tons/km2 per month and 2. and which was 0.6 5.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Nitrogen dioxide The annual daily average density of NO2 in the urban area was 0.08 0.73 and the occurrence of acid rain was 56.2.2.006mg/m3 lower than in 2005.055mg/m3 in 2006. 2002-2006 One report has estimated that 86% of CO and 81% of NOx are from urban vehicle emission in Shanghai.1 tons/km2 per month. 5. which was compliant with the 2nd standard level specified in National Ambient Air Quality Standard (GB3095-1996).
the areal noise met its corresponding functional requirement.0dB(A) and 64.7dB (A) lower than that in 2005.6dB (A) in the daytime. Five-year monitoring data showed that areal noise was compliant to the corresponding standards and the overall level of which kept stable.2.3 Greenhouse gas emissions Data shows that SO2 emissions in Shanghai were 44. 8.9dB(A) respectively in 2006. CO2 emissions reached 150 million tons in 2004. 99 . 120 number of monitoring point 100 80 60 40 20 0 >70 65-70 60-65 decibel number of monitoring point 55-60 50-55 <50 Figure 8.5: Distribution of equivalent sound level of grid ambient noise in 2006 Traffic noise The average equivalent sound level of traffic noise during the day and night time on the roadsides in Shanghai was 72.1dB (A) lower than the value in 2005. while traffic noise failed to meet its corresponding functional requirement. the value in the daytime was the same as that in 2005 and the value of night time was 0.7dB (A) which is 0. the higher proportion of coal consumption.2 Ambient acoustic environment In 2006.7 million tons. all have significantly impacted on greenhouse gas emissions.7 million tons. the average equivalent sound level for the areal ambient noise was 56. dust emissions were 10. the air quality in Shanghai will be badly polluted. The relatively low energy efficiency. The tendency of the level of traffic noise from 2002 to 2004 was on the rise.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8. and CO2 emissions were 138 million tons in 2002. rapid increase in motorized vehicles and other factors. With faster growth. Without further control. and it was stable from 2004 to 2006.9dB(A) lower than in 2005. According to the latest five-year monitoring data. 20 million tons more than 2000 and 12 million tons more than 2002. 0. it was 49. and the CO2 from the transport sector will continue to rise. the higher energy intensity of industry. While at night. traffic noise failed to meet the corresponding functional requirement in all the years except the year of 2002. Areal ambient noise In 2006.2.2.
which account for about 20% of the total road length.748 million.4 Transport environment policies and pollution control measures Since 1 October 1997. According to the "the green license" announcement of passage restrictions on high-polluting vehicles.2 Traffic flow Basic information on traffic congestion In 2003. the Yan’an West elevated expressway and the Yan’an East and Middle Road accommodated almost the same traffic volumes. restrictions on high-pollution vehicles on elevated expressways have been enforced in the center area of the city since 15 February 2006. and the consequent daily average traffic reached 78. the north-south elevated expressways bore the largest traffic volume of 164. in rush hours. up by 270% over 1995. unleaded gasoline for motor vehicles was promoted in the whole city. the total road traffic volume capacity reached 110 million PCU kilometers. In 2003. 136. On 1 March 2003.000 vehicles/day. 8. Figure 18-19). In 2004. carried almost 70% of the traffic volume (vehicle kilometers). and everyday road automobile traffic volume accounted for 90. According to the statistics.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8.3. Shanghai’s motorized vehicle fleet reached 1. 100 .3. 8. the expressways and arterial roads in the city center.000 vehicles/day respectively (See Appendix II. In 1998 the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) began on taxis.1 Traffic congestion Transport construction With great progresses in road supply in Shanghai. The use of low-olefin unleaded petrol for motor vehicles was promoted in March 2000 ahead of national implementation. transport demands are also rapidly growing. Furthermore.2. about 42% of arterial roads in the center of the west part of Shanghai area were congested. mopeds40 have also been forbidden from running since 1 January 2006. the European I emission standards for light vehicle was implemented two years ahead of schedule. the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) was promoted on buses.3 8.6 million vehicle kilometers. Starting from 1 July 1999. and restrictions were put on surface roads within the inner-ring road since 1 October 2006. which laid the foundation for the implementation of EFI and 3-way catalytic technology for light vehicles. Traffic flow on expressway network For the expressway traffic volume in 2006. therefore. Over-concentrated traffic volume degraded the service level on these roads.000 vehicles/day and 135. the European II emission standards for motor vehicles was implemented in the city.82 million PCU kilometers. pollution control management from the sources has been achieved for motor vehicles pollution controls in Shanghai.
6% over 2005. apart from the medium ring bridges.3. 1 200 traffic flow (1 000 pcu/d) 1 000 800 600 400 200 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 year 2004 2005 2006 traffic flow (1 000 pcu/d) Figure 8. especially on the expressways and arterial roads in the Puxi area.3.000 PCU/day. up by 14. the service level in the city center. 2006 Traffic across the Huangpu River In 2006.3. with the daily average traffic volume increasing by 10.3.7% every year. 101 .5% over 2005. 2000-2006 Source: Road Traffic Report on Central City of Shanghai.1: Growth trend in traffic volume across the Suzhou River (including the medium ring road and bridge) Source: Road Traffic Report on Central City of Shanghai. the outer ring has experienced consistent growth in traffic flow.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Since its opening in 2000. up by 10. 600 500 traffic flow (1 000 pcu/d) 400 300 200 100 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 year 2004 2005 2006 traffic flow (1 000 pcu/d) Figure 8. the daily traffic flow across the river of the year reached 1. remained poor with the average speed on arterial road at 14 to 16 km/h.3~4. 2006 8.06 million vehicles/day. the daily traffic flow across the Huangpu river reached 554.3 Traffic speed analysis Speed in city center According to Figure 8. The traffic volume across the Suzhou River In 2006.000 vehicles/day.2: Growth trend in traffic volume across the Huangpu River. reaching 81.
the average travel speed in the evening rush hours reached 18 km/h. On other main ground roads in the central area. In total. 102 . the travel speeds on 60% of the roads is slow (see Appendix II. mainly distributed along the radial arterial roads.3. Among the main intersections in the city center.3. with 40% of road below 15km/h. Figure 20-21).4: Average travel speeds on roads in different sections in city center. and 20% between 15 and 20km/h. 2004 Source: The third comprehensive transport report of Shanghai. 2004 Source: The third comprehensive transport report of Shanghai.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 80 70 speed (km/h) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 28 76 63 46 37 26 16 16 23 10 14 15 expressw ay arterial road rank center ourter secondary trunk suburban branch Figure 8. 2004 Figure 8. While 60% of the intersections in city center are congested.3: Average travel speeds on roads of all classifications. the number only reached 30% in outer area of the city. 2004 During rush hour. the roads in the city center were severely congested. 50% were congested during this time.
3) of raw materials.4. However. compared with the aggregate price (see Figure 8. 8.1).28 tons of standard coal to 1. management. We need to promote technology.5: Distribution of congested roads and crossings in the central city. If saturation is between 0. and the consequent supply.4. 103 . It is predicted that in 2010.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Figure 8.4. The city’s energy saving endeavors had dramatic effects from 1992 to 2004 (see Figure 8.1 Energy Energy consumption and pricing in Shanghai Comment from stakeholder dialogue: China's energy development. has lagged behind.3. Therefore. it is congested.03 tons of standard coal. total demand is still on the rise (see Figure 8. when energy consumption per ten thousand Yuan of gross product dropped from 3. especially the development of the coal industry. The coal industry has fallen into a state of disorder since the Ministry of Coal was revoked. it will be severe congestion.2). The Yangtze Delta Region lacks energy and resources. and mainly depends on imports. 2004 Note: If saturation >=1. the price of fuel power grew rapidly and energy consumption became an important factor affecting production cost. ensuring energy supply is a big issue. 2004 Source: The third comprehensive transport report of Shanghai.4.9 and 1. At the same time. the city’s energy demand will break through 100 million tons of standard coal. The city of Shanghai completely relies on energy imports.4 8. and establish of a Ministry of Energy. training and continuous improvement. energy and power. transport and environmental issues will also be severe.
09 0.0 50. It is measured in monetary form.0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 year Energy Consumption per unit of GDP Energy Consumption per unit of Industrial Output Value 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Figure 8.3: Purchasing price index fuels and power in main years (1995=100) Source: Shanghai Statistical Year Book 2007 104 .4 0.0 100.4.2 0.08 0.0 . Fuels and Pow er Fuel and Pow er Figure 8.3 0.07 Guangzhou Beijing Shanghai Zhejiang Hainan Jiangsu Figure 8.1 0.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 0.10 0. energy consumption per unit of GDP (ton SCE/1 000 yuan) 0. 1992-2004 Source: Sustainable Leading Development of Yangtze River Delta Note: Industrial output value means the value of final industrial products or industrial labor activities that the industrial enterprises have provided in a certain period of time. It reflects the total scale of the industrial production.3 (ton SCE/1 000 yuan) 0.0 150.0 250.4.2: Energy consumption in Shanghai during the main years (1.1 0.4.09 0.0 1996 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Purchasing Price Index (1995=100) Raw Materials.08 0.000 ton SCE) Source: Shanghai Statistical Year Book 2000-2006 300.0 200.1: Energy consumption in Shanghai.2 0.
Post and Communications(1 000 ton) transport. Warehousing. In 2005.w arehousing.00 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 2000 1 2001 2 2003 3 2004 4 2005 5 Total Gasoline Consumption (1 000 ton) Gasoline Consumption of Transport. communication sector pecentage of total consumption Figure 8.000 80.000 70.000 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% percentage percentage energy consumption (1 000 ton SCE) Total Consumption (1 000ton SCE) Consumption of Transport. but went down to 29% in 2005. 90.17% over 2005.2 Energy consumption in the transport sector41 In 2006. gasoline consumption (1 000 ton) 3 000.42 The transport sector’s diesel consumption in recent years fluctuated and showed a downward trend. and the energy consumption index of added value in the primary and secondary industries also declined. post .00 1 000. Shanghai’s energy consumption per unit GDP dropped 3. accounting for 25% of total gasoline consumption. directly leading to an increase in energy consumption per unit value added in the tertiary industry in 2006. storehouse and post industries against total consumption in the city rose from 8% of 1996 to 18%. Warehousing.00 1 500. w arehousing.000 60.00 .500 tons in 2005.000 50.000 10.000 20. warehousing.00 500. post and communications Source: Shanghai Statistical Year Book 2000-2006 105 . However.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8. storage and post industries increased by 2.00 2 000.4: End-use consumption of energy industry in main years Source: Shanghai Statistical Year Book 2000-2006 After 2002.000 40. Post and Communications Sector(1 000ton SCE) The transportaion.5: Total gasoline consumption and gasoline consumption of transport.000 30.4. the proportion of energy end-use consumption in the transportation.00 2 500. the energy consumption per unit added value in the transport.4.6 billion tons of standard coal.post.71% over 2005. with the actual consumption nearly quadrupling to 13.communications secions consumption percentage of the total comsumption Figure 8. which occupied about 34% of the total consumption of diesel.4. logistics and post and telecommunication industries witnessed robust growth to 631. gasoline consumption in transport.
while that of automobiles took on an aggregate ascending tendency.0 20.4.5 0 1998 1999 2000 year 2002 2003 2004 Figure 8.4.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Relative studies show that from the sixth (1980-1985) to the ninth (1996-2000) Five-year Plans.6 and 8. Figure 8. the main driving force of transport energy consumption growth was from increased transport demand.7: Highway transport fuel consumption (liter/1.0 60.000 tons-km) Source: Shanghai Statistical Year Book 2000-2004 100. Energy and Transport 2000-2005 106 .0 2000 2001 2002 year Fuel Consumption of Gasline Trucks Fuel Consumption of Diesel Trucks 2003 2004 2005 Figure 8.0 Fuel Consumption of Highway Transportaion (liter/1000 tons·km ) 80.9 Consumption of diesel of Railway Transportation (kg/1 000tons·km) 3 2.4.000 tons-km) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. the fuel consumption rate from the railway remained unchanged.4. With rapid growth of road transport.5 1 0.7 show that since 1990s.0 40. this tendency will certainly input a negative effect on realizing energy saving targets.43 Figures 8.6: Fuel consumption of diesel engine of railway transport (kg/1.5 2 1.5.0 0.
In addition the city needs to further enhance the rail and water transport and to expand their transport capacity.8). improved mobility also segregates urban space and disrupts equality on the interest of different social group. and to actively promote the development and use of alternative energy sources. In Shanghai.5 Mobility Divide Improvements in urban transport facilities greatly enhance mobility with its two-fold effect. 8. 2004 (liter/1.5. opened in 1995 with a total length of 21 kilometers. while a train cannot.1 Urban space expansion by enhanced mobility Rail transport promotes the city’s spatial expansion Metro Line #1 is the north-south arterial of the mass transit network in Shanghai. The city also needs to further promote environmental protection and energy saving standards in vehicles. Energy and Transport 2005 The comparison of diesel consumption rate between railways and trucks in 2002.4. At the same time. It greatly enhanced the accessibility of the suburban area.2004 (Figure 8. From 1995 to 2000.4. the rapid growth in transport demand is expected to continue. Urban transport construction plays a positive role in enlarging the opportunity of urban employment and living activities. which is quite favorable for energy savings. In the near future. Therefore. public transport is playing an important role. adjusting the mode of transport to lower rate of energy consumption and promoting renewable alternative energy will become the main ways to reduce GHG emissions. 8. indicates that railway transport had a much lower energy consumption than road transport. the overall situation will become more energy efficient.8: Railway and highway transport diesel consumption. However a truck can provide door-to-door service. However.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Consumption of diesel engine in Railw ay Transportation Consumption of diesel truck in highw ay Transportation 0 10 20 30 40 50 Diesel Consumption (liter/1 000tons km) Figure 8.000tons-km) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. the gap between the two proves that changes in the transport mode will greatly influence transport energy consumption. But if there is a shift to more long distance freight by train. one of Shanghai’s main expanded areas was located in Minhang 107 .
Hongqiao Road is a main transport axis running in the southwest. this high-income residential area extends along Huqingping Road in the west and across Yan’an West Road in the south. and in Songjiang.3 Urban interest differential by imbalanced mobility Mobility improvement affects residence of different social groups With the residential area development occurring along the main transport axis. With the construction of the medium ring. nearly 180 new bus lines were created. where a lot of real estate investment was attracted. greatly enhancing accessibility along the lines and accelerating expansion of the urban area in axial outwards. with the north border extending to Huanbei Road. construction and management of public transport. Jiading. many residents moved to peripheral new communities with a “transport vacuum”. and weakened the uniformity of the city.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study District in the southwest. To solve this problem. many “rural bus” lines were connected to central city lines. with expansion of the urban area.000 residents. and suffered from great inconvenience to travel. Residents travel on buses with more comfort and transfer convenience than before. Shanghai has experienced substantial progresses in the planning. extended or adjusted. The construction of elevated expressways segregated the downtown area and completely destroyed the original connections within and between communities along the two sides of the expressways. Furthermore. Due to developed road systems and insufficient public transport. The built-up area of Minghang District has extended to Chunshentang area. the low-income families are being squeezed out by the higher earning newcomers to areas with poorer transportation. During 1995-2000. 8. 8. the southwest urban area was expanded continuously. In 2006. the Shanghai Municipal Urban Transportation Administration Bureau put focus on transport facility construction for the communities with over 5.5. In 2000. mainly for rich residents who often travel by cars. In many places of Jinshan District and Fengxian District. the rich people with private 108 . more than 20 kilometers of exclusive bus lanes were built up. With its obvious location advantages. the whole city was completely divided. From 2000 to 2004. reaching Hongqiao Airport in the west and Huaihai West Road and Xujiahui sub-center in the east. Metro Line #2 and LRT Line #3 were successively put into operation. Fengxian and Baoshan Districts. the Gubei Residential Area for foreigners and Hongqiao Villa Area developed from east to west along this road. bus lines were opened for the first time.2 Segregation of urban space by enhanced mobility The elevated expressways as“申”sign divides the urban space into several parts. Suburban mobility enhancement by bus system improvement Since the 1990s. But in the past. As an example. with the result that the low-income families will spend more time travelling.5.
5.50% % of total 29% 39. the mobility progress failed to dramatically improve the accessibility of medium-and-low-income people.5% by bus and 28.50% 21. Analysis shows that 64.1: Travel time from the periphery areas to the central area of city Source: 2006 Questionnaire on Travel of Urban Residents in Shanghai The “2006 Questionnaire on Travel of Urban Residents in Shanghai” selected three periphery residential areas including Xinzhuang.50% Table 8.5.60% 34. The minimum two-way tickets cost 17. 100% 90% 80% 70% % of total 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Low -income Middle-income income Walking transfer bus TAXI Bicycle transfer bus Bicycle Private cars Motorcycle Bus UMT High-income Figure 8.30% 38.3% by metro.5% of the high-income respondents spend less than 30 minutes in a trip from periphery to central area and only 6. Travel analysis of residents in periphery new communities Number of respondents 93 280 319 < 30 minutes 60 111 110 30-60 minutes 27 110 123 > 60 minutes 6 59 86 % of total 6.5% of them spend more than 60 minutes.4% of low-income respondents choose to walk and take buses. About 40% of the medium-income respondents spend less than 30 minutes in a trip and another 40% spend 30-60 minutes.7% of low-wage worker’s daily incomes. 72.5% of the low-income respondents spend 30-60 minutes in a trip and 27% spend more than 60 minutes. This analysis also shows that 36% of the high-income respondents mainly travel by car and 26% by metro. and they seldom take taxis or metro.10% 27% Item High-income Middle-income Low-income % of total 64.50% 39.1: Travel mode from the periphery areas to the central area of the city Source: 2006 Questionnaire on Travel of Urban Residents in Shanghai 109 . However. Sanlin and Jiangqiao. because they are unable to afford expensive travel modes such as taxis and metro. However. and seldom ride bicycles. 18% of medium-income respondents choose to walk.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study cars have enjoyed the results of road investment that should have been enjoyed by all. 29. 38.
beyond the economic and environmental impacts.2: Average worker wages (Yuan) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook.5. spending on transport of different income groups is obviously differentiating. 2000-2007 Item state-owned units 17 820 19 777 22 541 24 726 28 803 36 010 Collective units 8 525 8 707 9 844 11 539 12 819 15 209 Others 20 865 21 886 24 359 26 270 26 792 27 459 Travel Expenditures(yuan) The average wage 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 17 764 19 473 22 160 24 398 26 823 29 569 Table 8. the government has made great efforts to improve the transport systems and accessibility of the periphery area. From 1999 to 2006. On the one hand. while the low-income people are spending less. leading to a mobility opportunity divide.2: Per capita travel expenditures of urban households* (1999-2006.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Analysis of travel modes and time consumption shows that high-income residents enjoy dramatic advantages in transport. and most of them have long journey times to the Figure 8. low-income residents are quite limited in their choices central area. the high-income had the fastest growth rate of 400% in 110 . This example also justifies the examples of Xinzhuang and Hongqiao Road. of travel modes. Travel expenditures of different income groups 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 year low Income Medium-high Income Medium-low Income High Income Medium Income 2003 2004 2005 2006 Comment from stakeholder dialogue: We should not forget the “social impact” of mobility. grouped by income level) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook. 2001-2006 People with higher incomes have higher travel expenditures. mainly walking or bus. Among them. however. With private cars and metro available. most of them can arrive in the downtown areas from the suburban areas within 30 minutes. but their efforts may be more beneficial to the higher income groups than to the lower income groups.5.
000R MB) Medium-high income (4.500-4.37 4.21 Table 8.35 1.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study travel expenditure. Medium-low income (1.59 1. 111 .36 3.61 2.4Yuan) Otherwise the transportation construction will further divide the whole society.3-4) also shows that the higher income classes travel more.04 2.28 8 19.25 6.5. Comment from stakeholder dialogue: It was pointed out that the bus fee in Shanghai (2Yuan) is much higher than Beijing (0. 2004 Source: The third Comprehensive Transport Survey Report of Shanghai.5.000 RMB) High income (>8.03 2. 2004 The number of trips by different income groups (Table 8.65 1. Shanghai will continue to reduce transport cost with the subsidy directly to the poor.55 0.000 RMB) Average number of trips per month 1.21 1.44 0.78 22.97 3.22 2.4: Trips of urban residents per day in Shanghai. with rapid economic growth.000-2.000 RMB) Low Income (>1.3 14.67 1.000-8.5. while the lower-income classes travel less due to the limitation on travel capacity and higher cost.500 RMB) Medium income (2.3: Trips for shopping from the periphery areas to the central area of city Source: 2006 Questionnaire on Travel of Urban Residents in Shanghai Income(RMB) none ＜500 501—800 801—1200 1201—2000 2001—3000 3001—5000 5001—7000 ＞7000 Total % of total 26.36 100 Number of trips (?) 1.39 2.77 2. Therefore.86 Table 8.
people are more easily exposed to the concentration of pollution. 112 . According to the plans. bicycles are more common in Beijing. Recently the number of electric bikes is growing very fast. due to the longer distance travel. bus stations within a 500-meter service radius will cover urban areas. dialogue: It would be better to act now rather than deal with various and increased negative impacts later. In order to change this situation. early ending of operation in the evening. (3) Non-motorized vehicle system There are about 10 million bicycles in Shanghai. after they have become a reality. improper station locations. the number of bicycle lanes has been reduced. long headway and long waiting time. (2) Preferential tickets By the end of June 2007. people can enter metro network by one bus from suburban area. etc. However. With the high density of buildings and population in the city center.5. posing potential conflicts. The growing number of motor vehicles and increased traffic volumes have degraded the road service level in recent years. New regulation for speed control is needed to ensure the safety. Enormous investments on urban transport facilities are car-oriented rather than human-oriented.6 Conclusions It can be concluded from the analysis above that motorization will bring more serious environmental problems. Therefore.4 Reflections on the disadvantaged (1) Suburb resident travels The Public transport system in periphery areas is still far from developed. can convenient mobility be ensured for the residents in more remote areas. so that the interests and rights of bicycle riders are seriously affected.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8. forcing bicycle riders to ride on sidewalks. Government should take action now to control the environmental problem. by 2010. the city of Shanghai had implemented preferential ticket prices for transfer on all the 396 bus lines within the inner ring and new encouragement policies will be promoted soon. Comment from Stakeholder Dialogue: Electric mopeds are getting more numerous in Shanghai. “Research On Non-motorized Vehicle Transport Planning in Central City of Shanghai” was conducted in June 2006. only when better public transport service is provided for the disadvantaged living in the suburban area. 8. with many problems like insufficient bus lines. Comment from stakeholder Road construction in the city center areas cannot relieve the congestion as expected. crowding on the bus.
adjusting the mode of transport to lower the energy consumption rate and promoting renewable alternative energy will become the main ways to reduce GHG emissions. The big increase in transport expenditure may be affordable for the rich people but will limit opportunities for the poor.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Also. Therefore. For a long time in the future. to promote energy efficiency. Public transport is also quite favorable for energy savings. The proportion of energy end-use consumption in the transport sector rose dramatically against total energy consumption. And the city also needs to improve environmental protection and energy saving standards in vehicles. passenger and freight transport will continue to increase. The bicycle is the most efficient mode of transport for short distance travel and energy savings. In addition. the city needs to further enhance rail and water transport and to expand their transport capacity. 113 . In Shanghai. rail transport needs more attention. We must keep the bicycle system and the matching built environment. motorization is becoming the major factor impacting energy consumption for the transport sector with increasing demand. and to actively promote the development and use of alternative energy sources. especially in rural and urban periphery areas where there are fewer jobs and services available and a direct subsidy is needed for them.
Public transport construction will be the key concern and investment will be prioritized to further metro construction during the Eleventh Five-year Plan. Apart from road projects. is making it very difficult for Shanghai to provide enough traffic lanes to match the demand from the surrounding provinces for freight and passenger transport. However the limited land and geographical setting of Shanghai. railways and other transport modes. dialogue: A new logistics center for containers outside Shanghai has been proposed. are also under construction. 114 . The key point is the efficient use of resources. and logistics parks and advanced manufacturing estate. transport demands in Shanghai have rapidly increased.44 dialogue: We need to make overall plans and take all factors into the consideration for waterways. such as Pudong railway.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 9. Shanghai will also gradually introduce an exclusive bus lane system. constituting the backbone network of the urban public transport system. By 2010. combined with the rational allocation of resources.1. The containers would then go by rail to and from the port of Shanghai. urban transportation facilities have become highly saturated. Regarding freight transport system. the intercity express railway system will be gradually constructed so as to alleviate traffic tension on the Shanghai-Nanjing and ShanghaiHangzhou corridors and to further consolidate the dominant role of railways in intercity passenger transport. Shanghai will continue to strengthen the construction of key transport infrastructure. the highway is usually considered the simplest solution. there will be 300 km of exclusive bus lanes.1 9. 9.1 Policy and special issues Analysis of Shanghai’s transport policy Continue to strengthen key transport infrastructure construction In recent years. the government will further strengthen the construction of high capacity roads and construct arterial freight transport networks connecting ports. and the density of suburban road network has remained low. exclusive railway freight transportation lines. airports. In terms of intercity passenger transport. Comment from stakeholder Due to the difficulty of province-wide coordination between different government transport authorities. railway hubs. the metro system and freight rail to link to the container ports. such as the intercity express rail. As a result a comprehensive transport plan should be prepared to integrate the various transport modes over the whole GYDR. together with 400 km of metro. roads severely congested. Comment from stakeholder But the main efforts will be put on mass capacity transport modes.
during the process of Shanghai metropolitan spatial restructure. 115 . lack of service frequency (even for the metro). is working well to control unplanned and low-density development. With the decline of the environmental quality. generally speaking. hence there is little incentive to go for high rise buildings and dense forms of land use. However there is the scattered industrial land development in suburban Shanghai. the city center is heavily polluted along major traffic routes. can we still keep the higher urban activity density in the city center where people will still prefer to Comment from stakeholder dialogue: There is an incentive to sell as much land as possible to generate fiscal revenue.2 Coordinating urban land use and transport Coordination of land use and transport will be key to sustainable development.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study The construction of the metro is key to establishing a sustainable transport system in Shanghai. lack of reliability (bus). and industrial buildings tend to be single story in suburbs in China. in order to promote public transport and reduce travel demands. Will there be a huge government deficit? And will it be affordable within the limited family budget available? 9. The metro construction plan is very ambitious. Shanghai will strengthen planning control and implement a transport impact analysis system. Although the basic public transport service can be provided to the newly developed areas at the urban edge. Regulation should be strengthened to encourage land development at a relatively high density as well as mixed-use development. but also by its impact on economic vitality and social justice. In accordance with the principle of “dual increases and dual decreases” (increasing in green space and public space. Hong Kong was raised as a city where the new towns are quite well integrated into the overall development plans very important factors that impact on people’s travel mode choice. guaranteeing the land reserved for public transport interchange facilities and enhancing the capacity of transfer facilities to encourage new development along public transport corridors. Suburb development should be focused on the strategy of urban development guided by public transport. smarter mobility management schemes should be fully explored to shift the mode choice from cars. It has been proven that land-use density and mixture are Comment from stakeholder dialogue: The example of Singapore was raised where high-density living is encouraged and car ownership discouraged. The urban planning control system. and personal preferences with the growth in income. decreasing in building density and height in the city center).1. the government will strictly control the building floor space ratio and functional layout of buildings while using the capacity of the available transport facilities as part of the conditions for land development. where there are also many people. But success will not just be measured by its scale. With the high building density and heavy traffic.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
stay for living, working or recreation? Controls on vehicle emissions and guarantees for the quality of city center should be very important. Comment from stakeholder dialogue: Land-use planning is seen as key to solving the mobility issues in Shanghai. Many of the issues related to land-use and transport integration in Shanghai are similar to the rest of China. There is a feeling that if this can be solved in Shanghai, China too may improve sustainable mobility in other urban cities.
Control of motorized vehicles
Controlling motorized vehicles has been a successful practice in Shanghai from the 1990s to keep the dynamic balance between road supply and increasing vehicle demand. It is a very unique public policy under the great pressure from the car industry lobby. With the accelerated construction of the urban road network, the government will still implement quota auctions on motorized vehicle licenses to control the amount of motorized-vehicles, thereby trying to keep the operations of road network at a reasonable service level. The government adjusts monthly licenses according to urban transport status and purchase prices of licenses. The license auction system also has its negative influences. Although the city implements policies such as travel limits on non-local licensed vehicles during rush hour on elevated expressways, the number of non-local licenses purchased by local residents has been growing by year, leading to an outflow of a large quantity of road construction and maintenance fees to other places. The city will consider other measures such as road congestion charging, fuel tax and parking limits as the main policy instruments in the future. Comment from stakeholder dialogue: Chinese people now tend to buy big cars instead of small cars, the media and policy should encourage the small car. Government vehicles should also be limited. Comment from stakeholder dialogue: Governments play an even more important role in developing countries as consumers have not yet reached the same environmental awareness and mainly want individual means of transportation.
With the increasing motorization in Shanghai (as the car license will be valid for a long time) the policy only delays over fast motorization, but what will happen in next ten or twenty years? A new taxation system should also be introduced to encourage people to buy a smaller car instead of a big car.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
Building a multi-mode urban transport system based on public transport priorities
The municipal government has tried to promote transportation hub construction to consolidate public transport routes and network through these hubs, to improve transfer conditions and to expand service coverage area by the public transport system. By constructing transfer hubs, the city can more effectively link all transport modes, fully leveraging the advantages of various transport modes and building up a multi-modal urban transport system. The construction of the multi-modal transport system will face the challenge of institutional fragmentation, and the ability to coordinate the various stakeholders within Shanghai, the Yangtze River Delta region and central government will be critical to success. Comment from stakeholder dialogue: Each stakeholder has a critical role to play to improve mobility: • • • Governments should set a framework, provide education and investment for infrastructure Private companies can provide various mobility related technologies Research institutions and universities can collect and analyze data, put trends in perspective on urban planning, infrastructure and safety related issues, and develop research projects • • Media has also a critical role to provide a positive image of public transportation (e.g. in Bogota where they advocated in favor of the bus rapid transport system) Cooperation between these various organizations is needed.
Protect activity space for slow transport
The government has tried to progressively guide long-distance bicycle rides to transform into public transport, improve traffic conditions and prioritize the bicycle functions for shorter trips and for connecting to public transport. It should further separate motorized and non-motorized traffic, create conditions for reconstruction and construction of bicycle lanes parallel to motor vehicle lanes and gradually form regional bicycle lane networks. It is also necessary to promote public parking facilities for bicycles in downtown areas and in public transport hubs. The government should strengthen regulations for mopeds and encourage moped/electric bicycle riders to take public transport. Highly polluting mopeds have been replaced. By the end of 2005, the city has eliminated the use of fuel moped for environmental concern. The bicycle is still the most sustainable mode of urban transport. Many services and job opportunities are still available for residents within bicycle (e-bike) range. The policy trying to transfer the long distance bicycle passenger to bus will be very difficult to realize. The slow speed of the buses and the coverage of metro lines cannot compete with the bicycle for short distance travel. In the last ten years with the 13% drop in bicycle share, congestion has not been improved. If we totally transfer the traditional built environment into wide streets and big blocks, can public transport provide the same mobility as the bicycle without an extra financial
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
burden to government? Or should we force people to use the car even for short distance travel? The characteristics of the walking and bicycle oriented built environment is very important now for more sustainable mobility. Can the bike keep its mode share is the challenge.
The operation of “unblocking the road” has greatly improved the traffic management ability of local government and the physical quality of traffic infrastructure, such as the CCTV system with many monition camera and traffic counting loops has been widely installed, the road intersection has Comment from stakeholder dialogue: ITS should be encouraged in improving urban mobility for car traffic and also for public transport, such as in Europe and South Korea.
been widened in order to speed up the traffic. However, the operation could not be considered a successful on the whole. The traffic management measure, the software, had not been fully explored as suggested in the dialogue, such as the flexible working hours schedule, updating the traffic signal, etc. The achievement of information technology can also greatly improve the efficiency of the existing transport infrastructure and make the transport more accessible and more transparence for passenger and freight movement.
Key transport infrastructure construction
Hongqiao transport hub station
he next World Expo will be held in Shanghai in 2010 and it is estimated there will be 70 million visitors. To accommodate the extra demands, several projects are under construction or in planning, such as the Hongqiao airport transport hub, intercity rail system etc. The Hongqiao transport hub station is scheduled to be put into use in 2009, occupying an area of 13.22 km2. After its implementation, it will integrate modernized transport facilities including Beijing-Shanghai Fast Train, Shanghai-Hangzhou Maglev Line, Pudong Maglev Line and five metro lines. It will become the important channel for Shanghai to reach the whole country and play an important role for development of the tertiary industry in Shanghai.45
Shanghai-Hangzhou maglev line
The Shanghai-Hangzhou Maglev Line is under planning and will extend for about 175 kilometers. The total project budget is about 35 billion Yuan. The Zhejiang section will extend for about 105 kilometers, all elevated, to Hangzhou East Station via Jiaxing Station. The Shanghai-Hangzhou Maglev Line is defined as urban-suburban line, with its normal speed reaching 450 km/h although it will run less than 200 km/h in the central city.46 According to the original schedule, this project should be finished in 2008 and put into operation in 2010 before Shanghai Expo. However, due to the lack of an environmental assessment, progress on this project has been delayed.
600. It is predicted that by 2010. Without any transport demand management in May. (2) Bus lane for city bus and Expo bus Shanghai will try to build a 300-kilometer exclusive bus lane (110 kilometers in central area) by 2010. Yangtze River Delta region intercity passenger travel was over 2 billion passengers. the space and time distances between cities will be greatly shortened.3 Transports during Shanghai Expo 2010 During 184 days of Shanghai Expo in 2010. The driving speed could reach above 15 km/hour in rush hours. Yangtze River Delta region and Pearl River delta region” has been draw for the period from 2005 to 2020 The target of theses plans concerning the GYDR is set up to construct main framework of intercity rail transport network with Shanghai as the center. The Shanghai-Hangzhou intercity express train will travel for 45 minutes while the trains stopping at every station will travel for less than 60 minutes. Therefore in both transport and accommodation.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 9.5 billion in 2020. So the potential transport demand on extreme peak days will be ever higher. Tianjin and Hebei Province. the total mileage of intercity rail transport will reach 815 kilometers. the visitors per day. this number will increase to 3. A survey shows that the visitor distribution by day will be extremely uneven. daily average visits will reach about 800. Intercity rail transport in the Yangtze River Delta region will be operated like a city bus in frequency and ticketing. (1) Construction of metro transport Three metro lines will connect to the Expo site with a carrying capacity of 78 000 passengers/hour.000. with rate of punctuality up to 90%. A “Plan for Intercity Rail Network in Round Bohai Area of Beijing. Shanghai-Nanjing and Shanghai-Hangzhou lines as the wings. As a result the transport should be carefully planed and managed.000 and 800. The train will travel at 250-350 km/h. the demand will exceed Shanghai’s capacity to receive so many visitors.2. During Shanghai Expo 2010. The networks will cover main cities in the regions and develop 1-2 hour urban circular space around the cities of Shanghai.05 billion.000 respectively.000. Nanjing and Hangzhou By 2020. per peak day and per extreme peak day are anticipated at 400. 119 .3 Intercity railway planning in Yangtze River Delta region In 2004. exclusive bus lane for Expo will be set on the middle ring to provide routes for coaches with large carrying capacities directly to the entrance of Expo site. The Shanghai-Nanjing intercity express train will travel for 80 minutes while the trains stopping at major stations will travel for 96 minutes.47 9. and reach 5.
The transport plan of Shanghai Expo 2010 is not only aimed at the success of the half year event. There will be several transfer gates for people to park their car far away from the expo site and take public transport to the site. About 5-8% of the visitors will get to the Expo site by boat.1: Mass transit network plan in Yangtze River Delta area Source: On Mid-Hub-City and Subsidiary-Hub-Cities of N-H Line 120 . There are not enough hotel beds for all of the visitors.6. (4) P+R (Parking + Ride) hubs Shanghai will also construct transport transfer hubs with large capacity. including entirely upgrading the transport system and smoothly integrating urban and rural areas. Figure 8. We should think of building accommodation facilities in the peripheral new towns and also providing good public transport linkage from the new towns to the expo site.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study (3) Water bus People can also take boats to go around the Expo site in 2010. but also to upgrade the transport system for the whole city. Several water gates will be constructed. Shanghai will grasp this opportunity to construct a multi-modal transport system. This strategy will also be consistent with the Shanghai metropolitan spatial strategy to encourage the development in suburban town. (5) Accommodation service in the peripheral new towns There will be a huge demand for accommodation during the Expo period.
urban transport policies should be weighted towards aggregate efficiency and capacity as well as environmental influences. “The planning authority needs to be sized appropriately to the mobility issues they are trying to solve” Among Shanghai’s transport policies. For future development. The World Expo in 2010 provides an opportunity to upgrade and integrate the Shanghai urban transport system within the Yangtze River Delta Region. 121 .Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 9. The planning authority needs to exercise control over a larger area than the current administrative boundaries. control automobile development. the policy to focus on freeway construction and to comparatively overlook the construction of national and provincial roads had led to problems in that the transportation capacity of national roads is saturated while the freeway flow is too low in some sections. At the same time. So there are still challenges in achieving operational efficiency and sustainability of the transport system. the practice to put public transport as a priority. This needs coordination.4 Conclusions Comment from stakeholder dialogue: Shanghai may be heading for a crisis. protect slow transport and build a multi-modal transport system will certainly benefit sustainable development of the urban transport system.
94% 2.29% 3.03% 20.11% 0.Tables Cargo throughput (thousand tons) Shanghai Ningbo Zhoushan Nanjing Suzhou Nantong Zhenjiang Hangzhou Huzhou Jiangyin the Yangtze River Delta 443 170 268 220 90 520 105 000 119 000 83 000 58 000 46 260 35 420 42 780 135 135 Proportion of the Yangtze River Delta 32.89% 0.62% 3.32% City Shanghai Pudong Shanghai Hongqiao Hangzhou Nanjing Ningbo Wuxi Zhoushan Changzhou Huangyan Nantong The YRD 4 8 15 28 48 53 58 64 83 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 797 8 092 5 385 2 532 619 397 316 225 89 59 122 4.79% 19.11% 3.22% 0.05% 1.52% 2.42% 2.98% Table 1: Cargo throughput of main ports in the YRD in 2005 Source: Development report of the YRD in 2006: functional relationships among cities in the evolution National rankings of passenger throughput 2 Passenger throughput ranking in the YRD 1 Passenger throughput （ thousand） 23 665 The proportion in the nation 8.27% 39.89% 0.85% 6.79% Table 2: Airport passenger throughput of the YRD in 2005 (in 1.81% 6.70% 7.72% 1.37% 1.Appendices Appendices Appendix I .14% 0.17% Proportion of Nation 13.85% 1.000 passengers) Source: Development report of the Yangtze River Delta in 2006 122 .14% 4.15% 2.46% 1.77% 8.08% 0.68% 3.11% 7.
code and length (2005) 123 .63% Table 3: Airport cargo throughput of the YRD in 2005 (in thousand tons) Source: Development report of the Yangtze River Delta in 2006 Period 1988 Name Shanghai-Jiading Freeway Shanghai-Nanjing 1990－2000 Freeway Shanghai-Hangzhou Freeway Outer-ring Yingbing Road Jiading-Jinshan Freeway Hu-Lu Freeway Xin-Feng-Jing 2000－2005 Freeway Tong-San Freeway Ting-Feng Freeway Hu-Qing-Ping Freeway Hu-Jia-Liu Freeway Suburb-Ring 2005 Total Code A12 Length（KM） 26.18% 0.2 67 42.02% 0.5 48.06% 0.2 37 798 A8 A20 A1 A5 A2 A4 A6 A7 A9 A12 A30 47.4 57.33% 5.62% 2.1 18.6 189.4 562 48 902 107 816 － － 24 070 19 458 － － 35 128 23 582 11 582 － Table 4: Shanghai freeway .20% 0.6 97.48% 0.02% 40.5 11.Appendices Cargo throughput ranking Cargo throughput （thousand tons） 1 857 359 165 139 30 11 1 4 2 1 2 572 The proportion in the nation Pudong Hongqiao Hangzhou Nanjing Ningbo Wuxi Zhoushan Changzhou Huangyan Nantong The Yangtze River Delta 1 5 8 10 26 37 65 46 54 61 29.2 21.03% 0.4 9.68% 2.0 Flows（PCU/DAY） － A11 24.
4 6 899.1 41 460.0 Passenger Thru put （Ten Thousand Passengers） 13 761.9 107.6 35 962.4 13 667.0 2001 Pudong Total Hongqiao 2002 Pudong Total Hongqiao 2003 Pudong Total Hongqiao 2004 Pudong Total 2005 Total Table 5: Shanghai air passenger transport business Source: Shanghai Air Transport “11th-five-year-plan” Planning Container throughput （Thousand TEU） 23 200 22 600 18 080 16 200 11 840 9 470 9 300 8 100 7 500 6 700 Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Port Singapore Hong Kong Shanghai Shenzheng Busan Kaohsiung Rotterdam Hamburg Los Angeles Long Beach Rate of increase（%） 8.Appendices Year Airport Hongqiao Flight landing and taking off （Thousand） 116.8 9 692.5 21 043.4 380.6 24 756.7 329.1 117.7 150.3 243.5 77.7 3 24.1 11 047.4 15 063.4 134.2 109.5 16 Table 6: The ten largest container ports worldwide in 2005 124 .5 12 15.5 2.7 178.3 18.0 20 660.7 24 714.6 194.3 225.0 14 918.6 3 -2.
0 ～ 7. after 20:00 ) 3.0 ～ 9.3 18.com/operation/shikebiao/line1.5 95 2003 100.0 ～ 19.4 13.3 16.6 12.9 19 16.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Shanghai Ningbo Guangzhou Tianjing Qindao Dalian Qinhuangdao Shenzheng Zhoushan Rizhao Number Port Freight throughput （Thousand ton） 443 170 268 810 250 360 240 690 186 780 170 850 169 000 153 510 90 520 84 210 Rate of increase （%） 16.0 5.8 14.6 22.5 Other Time 5 (daytime) 6.8 7.0 ～ 9.8 40.9 2002 100.3 ～ 12.0 12.9 2006 101.0 7.2 91.4 20 12 100.0 Weekend Daytime Other Time 4 5 8 12.3 2001－2006 price index（preceding year=100） Table 9: Residential consumer price index and vehicle price index Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 125 .5 6. 2007 2006 price index (2001=100) Residents consumer price index vehicle price index 105 72.htm -May 8th.7 30 25.2 95.4 23 65 Table 7: The ten largest container ports in China in 2005 Source: Yangtze Delta Region Statistical Yearbook 2006 Weekday Morning Peak Line 1 Line 2 Line 3 Line 4 3 3.0 12.8 46.shmetro.0 (before 7:00.7 16.5 2001 100 97.Appendices Container Number Port throughput （Thousand TEU） 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Shanghai Shenzheng Qindao Ningbo Tianjing Guangzhou Xiamen Dalian Zhongshan Lianyungang 18 084 16 197 6 307 5 208 4 801 4 683 3 342 2 655 1 076 1 005 Rate of increase （%） 24.4 2005 101 92.4 2004 102.1 96.0 ～ 19.3 5.8 6 12.0 ～ 10.0 Table 8: The frequency of urban metro service in Shanghai (minutes) Source: http://www.5 11 Evening Peak 4 3.0 ～ 7.
com/www. the Regulations on the Control of Shanghai road tolls on loans road http://www.html Passenger Vehicles 20-4 0 seats Freight Trucks 5-10tons.9 full-size 1-1.njjtgf. ≥40 seats ≤2 tons 2-5tons 20-foot container truck 50 15 25 20 12 15 50 15 25 110 25 35 160 30 40 10-15 tons ＞15 tons； 40-foot container truck 160 45 55 Standard of Charge ≤7 seats 8-19 seats Shangha i Nanjing VOC 30 10 10 30 12 20 50 15 25 Highway Nanjin-Hefen Freeway Table 11: Road tolls in Shanghai and Nanjing (in Yuan/vehicle·time) Source: Shanghai Municipal People's government Order No.462 mega-size 1.ylfzhj.138 Table 12: Freeway charge standards (in Yuan/km) Source: http://www.bj.2 1.eastday.8 0.htm 126 .cn/jsp/display.com/eastday/node545/node2328/userobject1ai35261.45 medium-size 0.6 0.Appendices Daylight charge by people Area the first hour Central Area other area in the inner ring between the inner and outer ring（including the town out of the outer ring） 7 4 2 2 3 4 5 200 15 10 the follow hours(every a half hour) 10 6 charge by timer the first hour 0~15 minitue 4 3 15~30 minitue 4 3 30~60 minitue 7 4 the follow hours(every a half hour) 10 6 10 8 400 300 night A month Table 10: Parking fees in Shanghai (in Yuan) Source: http://sh.cn/Lawsnews.aspx?classcode=/LAWS/YLF/ Note: VOC—Vehicles from Other City car Shanghai-Nanjing Freeway Guangzhou-Kaiping Freeway 0.jsp?colid=0402&id=ID031218000 http://www. 102.huandonglg.4-0.6 2.
86 4. 2002-2004 Source: Survey on death and injuries in Shanghai traffic accidents from 2002-2004 and the strategies on prevention.85 5. Master Degree Paper.07 20.58 16.India and Pakistan Southeast Asia Southeast Asia Country Australia South Africa Indis America Netherlands Japan America Germany Singapore China Destination Sydney Cape town Nhava sheva Los Angeles Rotterdam Tokyo Long beach Hamburg Singapore Hong Kong Price 980 1 155 950 1 456 1 600 180 1 456 1 600 510 60 Date 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 Table 13: 20-foot container transport price in Shanghai port (in US dollar) Source: http://www.91 21.57 16. Shanghai Jiaotong University.Appendices Departing Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Sea Route Australia.37 16.21 17.45 1.66 100 Sum Death toll 63 74 209 691 921 833 618 199 736 4 344 Proportion (%) 1.63 14.81 15.pdf 127 . Mediterranean Japan.18 14.2 19. 61223186046244E46.com/chinese/web/rate.99 19.69 5.92 100 2004 Death toll 30 26 86 248 324 304 216 52 257 1 543 Proportion (%) 1.23 4.41 19.7 13.94 100 Table 14: Age distribution of people killed in road traffic accidents in Shanghai.86 5.57 14.4.9 3.5 22.21 15.07 1.India and Pakistan America Europe. 2005.29 18.shanghai-shipping.94 1.21 18.asp 2002 Age Death toll 0713213141516166Tota l 18 26 64 203 311 254 194 74 256 1 400 Proportion (%) 1.7 4.13 20. South Korea America Middle East .29 100 2003 Death toll 15 22 59 240 286 275 208 73 223 1 401 Proportion (%) 1.57 4.14 13. New Zealand Africa Middle East .28 1.
000 5.000 15.Appendices Appendix II .8 0.4 0.6 1.000 20.6 0.2 0 2001 2002 2003 Year Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang GYRD 2004 2005 Figure 2: Change in passenger-kilometers by waterway in the GYRD from 2001 to 2005 (billion passenger-kilometers ) Source: The Industrial Map of the YRD (2006-2007) Development report of the YRD in 2006 128 .Figures 40.000 0 2001 2002 2003 Year Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang GYRD 2004 2005 再 Figure 1: Change inn number of passengers by waterway in the GYRD from 2001 to 2005 (in thousand) Source: The Industrial Map of the Yangtze River Delta (2006-2007) 1.2 1 0.000 Passenger traffic by water passenger by waterway (thousand) 30.000 35.000 25.000 10.4 Passenger turnover by waterway passenger turnover by water (billion people·kilometers) 1.
5 1 0. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 129 .Appendices farm product timber mineral architectural material industrial products light industry and food mixed transportation 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Figure 3: Proportion of cargo transport by truck 3.5 2 1.5 3 number of enterprise 2.5 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 60 000 total profit (1 000 yuan) 40 000 20 000 0 -20 000 -40 000 -60 000 -80 000 -100 000 -120 000 -140 000 year 2001 2002 2003 2005 number of enterprises total profit(1 000 yuan) Figure 4: Number and profit of railway transport enterprises Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry.
Appendices 1200 number of enterprises 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 year 2002 2003 2005 600 000 total profit (1 000 yuan) 500 000 400 000 300 000 200 000 100 000 0 number of enterprises total profit(1 000 yuan) Figure 5: Number and profit of highway transport enterprises Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 14 12 number of enterprises 10 8 6 4 2 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 year 2002 2003 2005 5 000 000 total profit (1 000 yuan) 4 000 000 3 000 000 2 000 000 1 000 000 0 -1 000 000 number of enterprises total profit(1 000 yuan) Figure 7: Number and total profit of civilian aviation enterprises Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 130 . Energy and Transport 1997-2006 160 140 number of enterpises 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 year 2002 2003 2005 0 -5 000 000 15 000 000 10 000 000 5 000 000 25 000 000 total profit (1 000 yuan) 20 000 000 number of enterprises total profit(1 000 yuan) Figure 6: Number and profit of waterway transport enterprises Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry.
Energy and Transport 1997-2006 40 Travelling Speed of Freight Car （km/hs） 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 year Figure 10: Traveling speed of freight vehicle (km/h) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 131 .Appendices 101 100 99 Punctuality Rate % 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 year Punctuality Rate of Freight Car Punctuality Rate of Passenger Trains Figure 8: Punctuality rate of trains (%) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 Average Waiting Time for Handling of Fright Per car (hs) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 year Figure 9: Average waiting time for handling of fright per car (in hrs) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry.
Energy and Transport 1997-2006 132 .Macao.Appendices 3 000 Average Turnover Distance (km/person) 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 year Figure11: Average travel distance of departing passengers (in km/person) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 200 number of cities 150 100 50 0 2000 2001 2002 year 2003 2004 2005 Cities Available of Air Service International Cities and Hongkong.(city) Figure 12: Cities with air service (city) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry.
com/attach//file_content/A11 10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000 number 6 000 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000 0 2002 2003 2004 year Rural Area Death toll 2005 Rural Area Injured Rural Area Accidents Amounts Figure 14: Traffic accidents in rural Shanghai from 2002 to 2006 133 .com/attach//file_content/A11612232890316096F9.shanghaiairport.shanghaiairport.pdf http://www.Appendices 250 000 Frequency of Takeoff and Landing of the Airports (times/year) 200 000 150 000 100 000 50 000 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 year 2003 2004 2005 Pudong Airport Hongqiao Airport Figure 13: Frequency of takeoff and landing at Pudong and Hongqiao Airports (in airplane/year) Source: http://www.
passengers and peds.Appendices 50 000 45 000 40 000 35 000 number 30 000 25 000 20 000 15 000 10 000 5 000 0 2002 2003 year 2004 Urban Injured 2005 Urban Accidents Amounts Urban Death toll Figure 15: Traffic accidents in urban Shanghai from 2002 to 2006 Source: Traffic and Transport (2003. 2005. motors passengers and peds. 2007.2.1.2. 2006. passengers and peds. passengers and peds. 2006 2002 2003 2004 year 2005 urban area death toll urban area injured rural area death toll rural area injured Figure 16: Comparison of deaths and injuries in urban and rural areas. 2004.2.1) 1 400 1 200 1 000 number 800 600 400 200 0 motors motors motors motors passengers and peds. 2002-2006 134 .
Appendices 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 0 motors motors motors motors passengers and peds. motors passengers and peds. 2006 135 . passengers and peds. passengers and peds. 2002-2006 180 160 AADT (1 000 Veh) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 South-North West Yan'an Elevated Elevated Road Road East/Middle Yan'an Elevated Road Inner Ring Humin Elevated Road Middle Ring Yixian Elvated Road category Figure 18: Comparisons of Shanghai expressways daily average flows in the city center Source: Road Traffic Report on Central City of Shanghai. 2006 number 2002 2003 2004 year Total death toll 2005 Total injured Figure 17: Deaths and injuries for passengers/peds and motors. passengers and peds.
2006 20 Average Running Speed (km/h) 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 east mid North-South Ways w est category 1995 2004 north mid West-East Ways south Figure 20: 1995/2004 average travel speeds on the three north-south and three east-west throughways Source: The third comprehensive transport report of Shanghai. category 2005 2006 HuMin Middle Ring Figure 19: Shanghai’s downtown expressway flows in morning rush hour Source: Road Traffic Report on Central City of Shanghai. Flow Inner Ring in Netw ork North./h 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000 0 Avg.Appendices 10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000 6 000 veh.Yan'an Rd.East/Middle West YiXian South Yan'an Rd. 2004 136 .
2004 137 .Appendices Figure 21: 2004 distribution of rush-hour travel speeds on main ground roads in central area Source: The Third Comprehensive Transport Report of Shanghai.
Appendices Appendix III – Stakeholder dialogue participant list Note: The list is in alphabetical order by affiliation AIG China David D. Lin Song Shanghai ShekeYuan Chun Yan Sinopec Zhu Wujun The Economic Committee of Shanghai Pudong Dong Xiaoling Sun Yongqiang The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) Chhavi Dhingra Tongji University Wang Xiaobo Gu Baonan Liu Weiwei Pan Haixiao Zhuo Jian Tan Fuxing Xu Xiaomin Toyota Motor (China) Investment Co.C. Edward Leman Zhang Rufei ERM China Zhang Liming Fudan University Huang Jian Zheng Chang (Jane) Pan Kexi (energy and policy) GM China Iris (Xiaolan) Wang Michelin Alexandra Charnelet de Ginestet Jacques Toraille Peugeot Citroën (China) Phalippou Clément Renault Jean Grebert SAWS. Z. Su Jie Zhao Ruihua Shanghai Nam Kwang Petrochemical Yuan Fei Shanghai Petrochemical Co. Peng Jin Lan Arcelormittal China Li Fang Qiu Hong Jian BASF China Lucy Li BP Duncan Eggar Xu Zebin CBCSD Ji Qing Zhai Qi China Aviation Oil Services Co.R. P. Jiang Ting Toyota Motor Corporation Satomi Tomomitsu Tsinghua University Hu Xiaojun Liu Huan Lu Huapu Nie Cong WBCSD and CRA International George Eads WBCSD George Weyerhaeuser Mihoko Kimura Shona Grant 138 . Wang Xianhai Chreod Group Inc. Ltd.
Su Jie. 139 . The presentations were then followed by a table top discussion around three questions that were introduced by Dr Eads: • • • Are the economic and environmental impacts of road transportation threatening to get in the way of economic growth? Three tables discussed this topic. Vice President. This was followed by the inaugural address by Mr. CRA International. This was followed by Ms Su Jie who explained the situation in China around road safety and the current priorities for the Transport Safety Division. Director. Mobility Safety Bureau. the Director of Sustainable Development at Michelin. He presented the 7 goals for sustainable mobility and gave a frank assessment of the current outlook for sustainable mobility globally. Ms. Dr Eads started the session by summarizing the WBCSD’s Mobility 2030 report. Zhai Qi from CBDSD. Session 1: Sustainable mobility The first plenary session was chaired by Mr. The panel comprised Dr George Eads. See separate presentations for more details. Department of Urban Planning. Tongji University. and Professor Pan Haixiao.Appendices Appendix IV . Zhai Qi from the China Business Council for Sustainable Development (CBCSD) who introduced the CBCSD and the WBCSD as well as the topic of sustainable mobility. People’s Republic of China. The last presentation was by Professor Pan Haixiao who summarized the findings of the Shanghai case study on sustainable mobility.Notes from the stakeholder dialogue The morning session began with a welcome address from Mr. Jacques Toraille. What additional role might rail-based transport (urban and/or intercity) play in improving sustainable mobility in China? One table discussed this topic How important is it to pursue an integrated approach to achieving sustainable mobility in China? Two tables discussed this topic. The introductory session was followed by the first panel discussion on sustainable mobility. and outlining the challenges of making mobility sustainable.
Director. Ms Wang started the session with the reasoning behind GM’s engagement on sustainable mobility in China. Manager of Corporate Social Responsibility for GM China. Tsinghua University. President. See separate presentations for more details. is seen as a city that could be an example for other cities in China if it can find a way to successfully integrate the movement of people. Edward Leman. Topic 2: What additional role might rail-based transport (urban and/or intercity) play in improving sustainable mobility in China? • Japan was seen as a successful example of a country that has developed shorter 140 . Transport Research Institute. As a consequence there needs to be constraints on the number of motorized road vehicles in cities. David Peng. Senior Deputy President for AIG China. Professor Lu Huapu. goods and services in a sustainable way. • Also felt that Shanghai may be heading for a crisis. Shanghai albeit unique.Appendices Session 2: Status of sustainable mobility in China The second plenary session was chaired by Mr. The panel comprised Ms Iris Wang. Chreod Group Inc. This was followed by Professor Lu Huapu who summarized the work that Tsinghua University is doing with BP on sustainable urban mobility in China. Regarding Shanghai he noted that “I am unaware of any place in human history that has built so much road infrastructure in such a short period of time”. The key points made for each discussion topic are listed below in the order in which they were shared. and Mr. The presentations were followed by interventions from each of the chairpersons from the morning table top discussion that presented the views of each group. The last presentation by Mr. the planning authority needs to exercise control over a larger area than the current administrative boundaries “the planning authority needs to be sized appropriately to the mobility issue they are trying to solve” • Example given of railways which are controlled nationally with little or no control from Shanghai although exception now likely to be made with the first regional railway likely to be built in the YRD. Topic 3: How important is it to pursue an integrated approach to achieving sustainable mobility in China? • • Integration between transport and urban planning is essential Chinese cities are investing heavily in infrastructure but this is not keeping up with demand no matter how many roads are built. Edward Leman examined why mobility matters by sharing a perspective on the history and future direction of integrated land and transport planning in metropolitan Shanghai. • • • • • Initiatives such as flexible working hours can reduce peak flows Pedestrian movement should be prioritized first in city plans Safety equipment needs to be improved within mobility infrastructure Focus should also be placed on large transportation hubs and the public should be involved in consultation process related to mobility planning.
China needs to develop emissions standards. The railways are actually unique as there is only one body. Considerations should be given to how smaller companies can comply with the stricter regulations. • • • • Question was raised on examples of cities that have been successful in delivering a sustainable mobility system France was given as an example of a country where there was now under one Minister responsible for sustainable development. Also noted that co-ordination is easier said than done due to the high number of institutions and agencies at a municipal. Topic 1: Are the economic and environmental impacts of road transportation threatening to get in the way of economic growth? • • Recognition that mobility is critical for economic growth but also has adverse and negative implications. • Point also made that government expected more people to move from bicycle to public transport when more have gone from bicycles to private vehicles as they view this as giving more personal freedom (as the bike did albeit for shorter distances). transport and urban planning. Example given of some cities that promote the use of larger vehicles over smaller vehicles to optimize use of available road space without taking into account the environmental considerations. regional and national level. China needs to develop smaller and less energy intensive vehicles. Example given of Shanghai where government removed the monthly ticket system and people moved away from public transport to private modes (Bike). Example given of Sweden with a vision of “no road accidents” Question raised as to whether companies would consider changing the incentive system on company cars and encourage management to use public transport. • Issue of institutional silos was raised where decisions are not coordinated across institutions. • • • Within Shanghai the metro dominates. Belief that many more people would use public transport if service was better.Appendices distance rail transport. Recommendation made to engage industrial associations in the process to avoid conflict of interests at individual company level • • • • Auto industry has seen rapid growth in China and expectation that a prosperous auto-industry would contribute to the long term economic development of China Recognition that limiting private vehicles is a controversial issue in China Recommendation made to improve the professionalism of logistics operations One of key issues is the allocation of investment levels on private and public modes. Divergent and conflicting institutional priorities also raised. 141 . They exist for Shanghai and Beijing but not for China. Suggestion made for government to set visionary targets. • • Road management and administration also identified as areas that could be improved. • Policy implementation is the role of government but it needs to take into account the views of key stakeholders. while the railways are not important Approval process for new rail investments seen as bureaucratic and full of problems There are also limited statistics on the railways although this comment was disputed by some participants.
Bangalore is thriving and growing rapidly but investing significantly less per capita in infrastructure than Shanghai. Despite the stark differences they also share the following characteristics: • • • • • In all cases mobility is critical to development All are congested albeit the absolute levels of mobility services are very different All need to significantly improve the integration within city planning Governance is a critical issue – it is not just about technology Clear that the cities could learn from one another. Eads who had been involved in all of the previous dialogues involving the WBCSD on sustainable mobility noted some of the difference and similarities between Dar es Salaam. Professor Pan noted the following: • • In China transportation is always linked to roads – it should be broadened to multiple modes In the YRD the economic linkages go well beyond the administrative boundaries. There is likely to be much to learn from Shanghai for other cities in China and elsewhere 142 . Dar es Salaam is very poor and struggling with many aspects.Appendices Summary of the day Dr. Bangalore and Shanghai. Dr. Recommend one administrative authority for transportation and urban planning in the region • • • • Recognition that planning alone is not enough and mobility controls have also to be put in place in the urban areas The walking and bicycling environment needs to be secured and prioritized Land use needs greater control in the suburban areas and transportation should be integrated into the suburban planning Freight transport needs further consideration from both an energy efficiency and environmental standpoint. Trucks may not always be the best solution. Shanghai has grown so much and so fast and we are fortunate that this growth has undergone a lot of analysis and research. Eads and Professor Pan summarized the main discussion points from the dialogue.
com/fortune//2007-07/03/content_6320128. Urban Transportation Planning Institute.123chinanews.htm Navigable inland waterway. third-grade highway.xinhuanet. The direction of traffic will be changed according to peak traffic flows. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 The highways of Shanghai are categorized as freeway. especially as bicycle travel is becoming unsafe. or Greater Yangtze Delta Region. one bus is equivalent to two PCU. http://news. http://www. Wang Zhan.gov. includes the administrative boundaries of Shanghai City. Shanghai University of Finance and Economics Press. 2 3 People have long thought that bicycle travel could be replaced with well-serviced bus systems in China. Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province. Shanghai third transportation survey report. bicycles are the main reason for traffic congestion and reduced flow: if every traveler were to take a motorized vehicle. Hukou.Appendices Appendix V . For example.js. WTO and Development in Shanghai. traffic could be improved. See note 1. but it has not been a success. second-grade highway. even for a short distance. http://www.gov. Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007.xinhuanet. fourth-grade highway and non-classified highway in terms of technical standards.gov.htm Huning: Shanghai-Nanjing Huhang:Shanghai-Hangzhou http://news.cn/2005-10-21/1129906656057.html http://www. first-grade highways. provincial highways. Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province.cn/shanghai/node2314/node15822/node15823/node15851 All the import and export goods are expressed in US$ in the Statistical Book.References cited 1 The Yangtze Delta Region is defined two ways: The first definition. Shanghai.xinhuanet.com/zhuanti/2006-04/17/content_6764816. county highways and village highways in terms of 143 24 .cn/web/jjjs/gmjjzyzbrjsp. Some people in China believe that because of the mixture of traffic.htm http://sh.com/fortune/2006-12/04/content_5429849. This report adopts the first definition.html http://www.investment.htm People who have registered with the municipal government and obtained a citizen carnet. Phase I Summary Report.yancheng. The second definition refers to the area composed of the sixteen cities in Shanghai City.com/qtmt/20070821/u1a344241. Urban Planning Administration Bureau (2005).cfm?book_no=2695001652792 http://www.eastday. A limitation on bicycle use may force people to use cars. Source: Tsinghua University Sustainable Urban Mobility Project. and into state highways. according to the road space occupied.shanghai.com/chinanews/model_books_temp3.
problems and development trend of road freight in China. Urban Mass Transit.people.cn/GB/1057/4196224. small cylinder. Huang Rong. Shanghai Urban Transport White Paper. economic and shipping center. Shanghai Urban Planning & Technical Administration and supporting documents. source: http://www. Source: Tsinghua University Sustainable Urban Mobility Project. Studies on China’s Energy Consumption and Countermeasures.com. http://www. Chen Guohai. The state strategy is to build Shanghai as an international finance. Spatial Development Strategies for Shanghai. Source: The third comprehensive Transport Survey( Shanghai).html On Mid-Hub-City and Subsidiary-Hub-Cities of N-H Line.com. November.cn/xiaofei/shenghuo/20050527/11121630531. From 2006 to 2010.shtml The market situation. Source: The third Comprehensive Transport Survey Report of Shanghai. Chen Ye.sina. Forecast for development trend of consumption makeup for Shanghai urban citizens. Phase I Summary Report.cn/house/teji/qipu_gh_two. Qiu Jibing. 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 144 . Shanghai Urban Planning Bureau. Shanghai City Government (2004). Environment science supplement of 25th volume. Transport industry. August 2006. Fuel-powered.bjbus. East part of Shanghai.htm http://scitech. West part of Shanghai. Chen Changhong. Fu Qingyan. 2004 http://finance. Shanghai. 19-20 Excluding busses and taxis.myliving. Only represents the commercial transportation industry.Appendices administration. 25 Ye Guixun. The atmosphere capacity in the development of motor vehicles in Shanghai.org/viewthread-2608 Urban Planning Administration Bureau. Yang Dongqin. two-stroke motorcycle. China Architecture & Building Press.
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