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Shanghai I China
Disclaimer The Case study is prepared for the background information for a Stakeholder Dialogue, on behalf of the Mobility for Development (M4D) Project at the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). The objectives of this study are to assess the mobility challenges, opportunities and experience in Shanghai with reference to Yangtze Delta Region. We hope this report can make some contribution on knowledge exchange in the development of sustainable mobility for the whole society in the world.
Mobility for development
Shanghai I China
Professor Pan Haixiao, Dr. Zhuo Jian and Dr. Liu Bing Department of Urban Planning, Tongji University
Project Researcher Dr. Project team Professor Pan Haixiao. Associate Professor.cn Dr. Xue Song. Tongji University.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study This case study has been prepared for the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) by the Department of Urban Planning. 2 . Project Assistant Mr. Liu Weiwei. Project Assistant Mr. Xu Xiaomin.sh. Project Assistant Acknowledgements The authors are indebted to and acknowledge Shona Grant and Dr. Project Assistant Mr. Zhuo Jian. Project Leader. Liu Bing. Associate Professor. George Eads and are grateful for their thoughtful and patient advice during formulation of this case study. Project Researcher Ms. Wang Xiaobo. hxpank@online. Project Assistant Mr. Chen Ye.
5.2 1.2 22.214.171.124.1 1.2.2 126.96.36.199 2.2 2.1 1. General information _______________________________________________ 8 YDR’s and Shanghai’s social and economic development ______________ 10 The YDR since the 1990s ________________________________________ 10 Shanghai’s development _________________________________________ 10 Role of transport in regional and urban development __________________ 11 Institutional mechanisms in the YDR ________________________________ 13 Regional coordinating mechanism of economic development _____________ 13 Regional transport organization ____________________________________ 14 Organization of transport management in shanghai ___________________ 15 Intercity transport management ____________________________________ 15 Urban transport management _____________________________________ 15 Mobility development of GYDR _________________________________________ 17 2.3.1 1.6 Introduction ____________________________________________________ 17 Highway transport _______________________________________________ 20 Highway development in GYDR ___________________________________ 20 Highway passenger and freight transport in the GYDR __________________ 21 Railway transport ________________________________________________ 22 Railway development in the Yangtze Delta Region _____________________ 22 Railway passenger and freight transport in the Yangtze Delta Region ______ 23 Waterway transport ______________________________________________ 24 Waterway freight and passenger transport in the YDR __________________ 25 Port function in the GYDR ________________________________________ 25 Aviation ________________________________________________________ 26 Airports in the YDR _____________________________________________ 26 Airport passengers in the YDR ____________________________________ 26 Air cargo and mail ______________________________________________ 27 Conclusions ____________________________________________________ 27 1 .4 1.1 1.3 2.2.1 2. Background __________________________________________________________ 8 1.1 2.1 2.5.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study CONTENTS Executive summary________________________________________________________ 1 1.1 2.3 188.8.131.52.5 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.5 1.4.2 1.2.3 1.
3 3.5 3.2.2 3.1 184.108.40.206 4.2 3.2.2 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 3.3.2 4.2 22.214.171.124 4.4.1 3.1.1 4.2 3.3.1 4.2 4. Regional transport in Shanghai ________________________________________ 29 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.2.4 3.4 3.3 4.2.1 3.5 Traffic distribution in the Shanghai region ___________________________ 29 Supply of facilities _______________________________________________ 30 Highways _____________________________________________________ 31 Railways _____________________________________________________ 33 Water transport ________________________________________________ 34 Ports ________________________________________________________ 35 Aviation ______________________________________________________ 36 Passenger transport _____________________________________________ 37 Intercity passenger transport structure ______________________________ 37 Highway passenger transport _____________________________________ 39 Railway Passenger Transport _____________________________________ 40 Aviation ______________________________________________________ 40 Cargo transport _________________________________________________ 41 Cargo transport structure _________________________________________ 41 Highway cargo transport _________________________________________ 42 Water transport ________________________________________________ 42 Railway cargo transport __________________________________________ 43 Air cargo transport ______________________________________________ 44 Conclusions ____________________________________________________ 44 4.3.5 126.96.36.199 3.3.4 3. Shanghai urban transport _____________________________________________ 46 4.3.3 4.1.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3.4 Features of travel demand ________________________________________ 46 Features of personal travel _______________________________________ 47 Personal motorized vehicle travel __________________________________ 52 Features of traffic supply _________________________________________ 53 Road supply and use ____________________________________________ 53 Public transport supply and use ____________________________________ 55 Non-motorized transportation system _______________________________ 57 Transport demand management policy ______________________________ 57 Public transport priority policy _____________________________________ 58 The license plate auctioning policy _________________________________ 58 Parking charging policy __________________________________________ 58 Motorcycle limitation policy _______________________________________ 59 2 .3 4.2.
4 6.1 5.3 5. Investment in Shanghai’s transport system ______________________________ 90 7.1 7.4 5.3 6.3 6.1 6.4.5 5.5.5 6.2 188.8.131.52 5.1 184.108.40.206 Brief ___________________________________________________________ 90 Investment in metro transport _____________________________________ 91 Brief _________________________________________________________ 91 Reform of investment and financing system of Shanghai metro transport____ 92 Investment and financing for constructed metro in Shanghai _____________ 92 3 .4.1 6. Shanghai’s transport system operating costs and efficiency ________________ 74 6.2 7.2 7.1 7. Conclusions ____________________________________________________ 60 Information and telecommunications services ____________________________ 61 220.127.116.11 6.3 6.2 18.104.22.168 6.2 6.5.6 General information ______________________________________________ 74 The operation situation of transport enterprises ______________________ 74 General transport and communication costs and expenditures __________ 75 Transport and communication consumer price index ___________________ 75 Transport and communication expenditures __________________________ 75 Cost and efficiency on urban transport ______________________________ 78 Cost and efficiency for public transport ______________________________ 78 Cost and efficiency for motorized vehicles ____________________________ 80 Cost of urban occasional freight transport ____________________________ 83 Efficiency and cost of intercity transport ____________________________ 83 Cost of highway and railway freight _________________________________ 84 Cost of highway and railway passenger transport ______________________ 85 Aviation transport _______________________________________________ 86 Water transport and ports ________________________________________ 87 Conclusions ____________________________________________________ 89 7.6 Postal services __________________________________________________ 62 Telecommunication: Installed telephone & mobile phone _______________ 64 Internet and web communication ___________________________________ 66 Broadcasting and television stations________________________________ 69 Application of new ICTs and its impact ______________________________ 71 Conclusions ____________________________________________________ 73 6.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 4.4 6.2 5.
6 Traffic safety ____________________________________________________ 94 Statistical analysis of road traffic accidents ___________________________ 95 Road traffic accident factors ______________________________________ 96 Environmental impact ____________________________________________ 96 Ambient air environment _________________________________________ 96 Ambient acoustic environment _____________________________________ 99 Greenhouse gas emissions _______________________________________ 99 Transport environment policies and pollution control measures __________ 100 Traffic congestion ______________________________________________ 100 Transport construction __________________________________________ 100 Traffic flow ___________________________________________________ 100 Traffic speed analysis __________________________________________ 101 Energy ________________________________________________________ 103 Energy consumption and pricing in Shanghai ________________________ 103 Energy consumption in the transport sector _________________________ 105 Mobility Divide _________________________________________________ 107 Urban space expansion by enhanced mobility________________________ 107 Segregation of urban space by enhanced mobility ____________________ 108 Urban interest differential by imbalanced mobility _____________________ 108 Reflections on the disadvantaged _________________________________ 112 Conclusions ___________________________________________________ 112 9.2.3 8.1.2 8.3.5 8.5.3 8.2 8. Policy and special issues ____________________________________________ 114 9.5 9.3 8.4 8.1.3 22.214.171.124.1.4 Analysis of Shanghai’s transport policy ____________________________ 114 Continue to strengthen key transport infrastructure construction__________ 114 Coordinating urban land use and transport __________________________ 115 Control of motorized vehicles_____________________________________ 116 Building a multi-mode urban transport system based on public transport priorities ____________________________________________________________ 117 9.2 126.96.36.199 8.1 188.8.131.52 8.3 9.6 Protect activity space for slow transport ____________________________ 117 Traffic management ____________________________________________ 118 4 .1 8.5.1 9.2 9.1 9.1.1 8.5. Conclusions ____________________________________________________ 93 Sustainable transport development challenges in Shanghai _________________ 94 8.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 7.1 8.4 8.1 8.2 8.1.2 184.108.40.206 8.2 8.4.1.
3 9.4 Key transport infrastructure construction ___________________________ 118 Hongqiao transport hub station ___________________________________ 118 Shanghai-Hangzhou maglev line __________________________________ 118 Intercity railway planning in Yangtze River Delta region ________________ 119 Transports during Shanghai Expo 2010 _____________________________ 119 Conclusions ___________________________________________________ 121 Appendices ____________________________________________________________ 122 Appendix I .Figures___________________________________________________ 128 Appendix III – Stakeholder dialogue participants list ________________________ 138 Appendix IV .Notes from the stakeholder dialogue _________________________ 139 Appendix V .Tables ____________________________________________________ 122 Appendix II .References cited __________________________________________ 143 5 .3 220.127.116.11 9.2.1 9.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 9.2 9.
Explore the role of mobility in China’s recent economic growth. the largest gross domestic product and the most powerful development potential of all economic zones in China. Shanghai is now striding toward the objective of being a modern international metropolis. The feedback from the stakeholders has been used in the preparation of this final report. opportunities and experience in Shanghai with reference to the Yangtze Delta Region.06% of China’s land area. In particular the study is designed to: 1. emissions. and information & communications technology (ICT) in connecting people and goods to each other and to markets • Discuss the extent to which this is narrowing the mobility opportunity divide between urban and rural areas in China 2.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Executive summary This case study was prepared as input for a stakeholder dialogue that was held in Shanghai on 14 November 2007. • • Explore the extent to which this is narrowing the mobility opportunity divide within the cities Discuss the transport-related impacts arising from this growth and how these are impacting sustainable development in China (safety. 1 . The objectives of the case study The objectives of this study are to assess the mobility challenges. Learn from China’s experience in dealing with the challenge of making mobility sustainable in its rapidly growing cities: • Consider the role of mobility in Shanghai in driving economic growth and social progress and compare with several other key cities in China at different stages of development. with a specific focus on Shanghai and the Yangtze Delta: • Consider the role of international trade. Shanghai’s financial revenue accounts for one-eighth of the nation’s total. The list of dialogue participants are given in Appendix III and a summary of the stakeholder dialogue in Appendix IV. Some specific comments from dialogue participants are presented in boxes at various points throughout the report. Regional mobility in the greater Yangtze Delta Region and Shanghai The Yangtze Delta Region has the highest population density. congestion. energy security etc) • Seek feedback on the key sustainable mobility priorities and policy measures to deliver “harmonious” mobility in China’s cities. while its total port import-export commodity volume comprises 25% of China’s total. As the “dragon’s head” of economic development. Comprising only 0. intercity and regional transport. The interim report was distributed to participants prior to the meeting and presented during the meeting.
especially the ocean. Constrained by transport capacity and vehicle efficiency. the road network length density of the greater Yangtze Delta Region (GYDR) is now higher than that of the other areas in China by area. especially freeway systems. The operated mileage in Shanghai has only changed from 259 km in 1990 to 269 km in 2005. with profits equaling some 75% of the total profit for the entire Shanghai transport industry in 2005. Railway mileage per 10.110 kilometers in 2005. But its capacity is limited and railway transport maintained a deficit from 1997 to 2005. and air transportation have improved a lot in efficiency. 2 . Railways are better suited to passenger and longer distance freight transport than roads. especially for passenger transport. However. one-third of the national average. In 2005 major ports in the GYDR handled over one-third of the foreign trade cargo for China. and the share of freight movement is also more than 10% of the total. Thus. As an international hub airport.8% of China’s average. of which freeway mileage constitutes 560 kilometers. There are 11 major coastal and inland ports. Railway transport accounts for about 50% of intercity passengers in Shanghai and about 5% of cargo transport. The total highway mileage in Shanghai reached 8. Waterway transport enterprises have grown to be the economic power of the Shanghai transport sector. In contrast.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Transport modernization and integration is an important component of economic integration in the Yangtze Delta Region and a precondition of realizing economic integration.000 persons was only 0. Of these the Shanghai and Ningbo ports handled 70% of the foreign cargo in the GYDR area.66 times that of 1990. hundreds of highway routes and 10 main railways in this region. the efficiency of rail and road transportation between cities has not changed much recently. 2. the Yangtze Delta Region is one of the most important logistics centers in China. waterways. it does not match the economic scale and size of the population. The Shanghai railway plays an important role in the national railway networks. And the utilization rate of line section capacity approached 100%. Shanghai Pudong and Shanghai Hongqiao airports account for 70% of air passengers and 86% of the air freight in this region. As a result. a negligible increase in the last 15 years. 17 large and small airports. The highway mileage per ten thousand people in this area is only 20. It represents the backbone of intercity transport for Shanghai. Intercity passengers in Yangtze delta region account for 20% of the nation’s total. the service and functioning of regional transport have greatly advanced. Pudong airport will be extended to reach a capacity of 80 million passengers while Hongqiao will increase its capacity to 30 million by 2010. Since the 1990s. It is the construction of passenger and freight transport systems that has made the high-speed development of the region possible.16 km.
But the fast growth of motorization and the car industry promotion policy require large amounts of road space. More integrated regional transport systems should be encouraged. is in a key period of development.200 kilometers of carriageway length are classified as express and arterial roads. By the end of 2005. Because of its geographical location. especially Shanghai. a prominent contradiction of land resources. consistent with the policy of encouraging public transport in the city center and adopting motorization in suburban areas.217. during rush hour about 42% of arterial roads in the center of the western Shanghai area were congested. Forty-one percent of the investment was for metro construction. such as sea-inland waterways. and with the continued development of the manufacturing industry in GYDR. city planners have followed a strategy to constrain car use. Shanghai invested an average of 2. Over the last ten years. The extensive construction of urban roads did lessen traffic congestion for short periods immediately after construction. an annual growth rate of 20. Expansion of the existing highways is unlikely to meet the huge demand for sustainable mobility due to high traffic concentrations on several corridors that pass through densely populated areas. and large scale metro construction is now 3 . because of the long time delays in infrastructure construction and the city center’s high population density.9% of its GDP annually on transportation infrastructure. Shanghai’s motorization is also increasing rapidly. port-rail. the total mileage of city roads in Shanghai had reached 12.000 to 2. Of 22 arterial road crossings under investigation.8%. up 84% over that of 2000. It was recognized that a metro system may be the solution. of which 7. The huge investments in transportation are only possible with the active role of the Shanghai government and the involvement of the private sector. about 50% were seriously congested during rush hour. airport-regional public transport systems.000 in 9 years. a large demand for freight and passenger movement will be created. Shanghai can only connect with the other parts of mainland China through the Shanghai-Nanjing corridor in the northwest and Shanghai-Hangzhou corridor in the southwest. Shanghai urban transport Regarding urban transport in Shanghai. such as the parking policy and license plate auction system. At present. transportation congestion and resource constraints. with the number of motorized vehicles increasing from 466. Two enormous bridges are under construction as a new gateway to the north via Nantong and to the south via Ningbo.227 kilometers. Faced with a complicated and volatile situation.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Shanghai is a key international shipping and aviation center. the rise of production prices and enterprise cost increases resulting from an appreciation in the RMB. the Yangtze Delta Region1. the GYDR must change its development path if it wants to realize the goal of sustainable development. According to statistics.
of which the proportion of public transport rose from 20% to 24%. especially line #1.5 kilometers/trip to 6. One of the distinguishing characteristic of urban transport in Shanghai is that pedestrian and bicycle traffic is quite high. transport development is closely connected with other aspects of sustainable urban development. the growth rate of motorized trips is far ahead of that of the personal trips.000 buses with 1. With the expansion of the city and the remarkable growth in urban activity space. There are 5 metro lines in Shanghai with 68 stations and a total operating length of 147. and the direct pecuniary losses due to road traffic accidents in Shanghai followed a significant downward trend in recent years. traffic safety. Motorized travel is increasing even more dramatically.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study ongoing. the metro is always seriously crowded. It is because of non-motorized travel that road congestion is still acceptable to society. A long-term government commitment is also needed to control the increasing volume of car traffic. Public transport is now a priority in urban transport policy. with annual increases of nearly 37%. The 45.180. and also the large-scale infrastructure still available for non motorized travel in Shanghai.000 seats and 948 bus/trolley lines with a total length of 22.96 million passengers every day.63 million in 2005. At the same time. 4 . The local buses serve 7. the total number of daily trips for resident was about 41 million. private motorized vehicles from 7% to 15%. accounting for 54% of total trips. The gap between traffic demand and supply is widening. Transport demand within Shanghai’s city center is increasing.000 km in Shanghai.9 km in 2005. Traffic safety in the suburbs is still very serious. the number of traffic accidents increased progressively by 275%. including environmental protection. There are 18.48 million passengers daily.000 taxies registered carry 2.9 kilometers/trip between 1995 and 2004. According to the Third Transport Survey Report of Shanghai (2004). and non-motorized-vehicles dropped from 42% to 28%. For example. And the low paid employees are still able to get to work at an acceptable time and monetary cost. The total passengers per day rose to 1. the biggest increase is in trips outside of the central city. Traffic safety measures have been gradually strengthened. from 1995 to 2004 the proportion of the motorized trips in Shanghai increased from 28% to 40%. for example fatal traffic accidents in suburb areas accounted for more than 85% of the total number in Shanghai in 2004. energy consumption and social justice. The number of passengers serviced by the Shanghai metro system increased sharply from 2000 to 2005. From 1980 to 2000. the average travel distance extended from 4. and the number of deaths and injuries. As a result. and the proportion of motorized travel has increased. thanks to the contribution of land-use control with a high density and high mixture. Shanghai has witnessed substantial development in both transport supply and operational efficiency.
Some important policies are analyzed below.6% in 2006.051mg/m3 and 0.2 With residential areas developing along the main transport axis. As a result. highway construction is usually considered the simplest solution to implement to address transportation needs. However. the low-income segment rides the metro much less frequently that the other income groups. 5 . But the main efforts will be put on mass-capacity transport modes. In 2000 only 3% of the family budget was spend on transportation and communication. the Shanghai government has instigated many transport demand management policies. it is proving very difficult for Shanghai to provide enough traffic lanes to match the demand from surrounding provinces for freight and passenger transport. The 1. Continue to strengthen key transport infrastructure construction Shanghai will continue to strengthen the construction of key transport infrastructure.086mg/m3. a comprehensive transport plan should be prepared to integrate various transport modes over the whole GYDR. With faster growth.000 km metro construction plan is very ambitious. If we cannot reduce the cost. SO2 and NO2 in urban areas was 0. the annual daily average of inhalable particulates. the license plate auctioning policy. A two-way metro ticket costs a minimum of 17. Even with great effort to encourage public transport through large-scale metro construction.7% of a low-wage worker’s daily income. construction will further divide whole society. But success will not be measured just by its scale. metro system and freight rail link to the container port. Key policy issues on sustainable mobility for Shanghai To solve the above problems. to areas with poorer transportation. This shows the need to cut the cost of urban transport. some low-income families are being squeezed out by higher earning newcomers. but also by its impact on economic vitality and social justice. such as the intercity express rail. CO2 emissions reached 150 million tonnes in 2004.One report has estimated that 86% of CO2 and 81% of NOx are from urban vehicle emissions in Shanghai. parking charging policy and motorcycle limitation policy have so far been most successful. There is a need to develop a regional planning authority that would responsible for the implementation of plan. This rose to 15. As a result. due to the limited land area and geographical setting of Shanghai. 20 million tonnes more than in 2000. 0. or provide the subsidy directly to the low-income consumer.055mg/m3 respectively. Data show that CO2 emissions were 138 million tonnes in 2002. low-income families will spend more time travelling. The construction of the metro is key to establishing a sustainable transport system in Shanghai.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study In 2006. The overall cost of transportation is increasing rapidly in general. Greater Yangtze Delta Region comprehensive transport plan Due to the difficult nature of province-wide coordination between different government transport authorities. Of these the public transport privilege policies.
this transfer is not obvious due to limited services and geographic coverage. Traffic management The operation of “unblocking the road” (to speed-up the car traffic with wider roads. The soft traffic management measures. Information technology has the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of existing transport infrastructure and make information on transport “more accessible and more transparent” for passenger and freight movement. especially in suburban areas. tide traffic lanes5 etc. In addition. investments in traffic control equipment and stronger enforcement) has greatly improved the local government’s ability to manage traffic and the physical quality of traffic infrastructure. In the past. in fact. this unique public policy is under great pressure from the car industry lobby. keeping a balanced dynamic between road supply and increasing vehicle demand by. such as the flexible working hours schedule. Control of motorized vehicle Controlling the number of motorized vehicle has been a successful practice in Shanghai from the 1990s. A new taxation system should also be introduced to encourage people to buy smaller cars for both environmental and road/parking space concerns. so that suburban development should be encouraged along the public transport corridors. As a result. the ability to coordinate the various stakeholders within Shanghai.3 The question is whether public transport can provide the same mobility service as a bicycle without an extra financial burden on the government? Or should people be forced to use a car even for short distance travel?4 How can bicycle riders keep their share of the road? Faced with these questions. The construction of the multi-modal transport system will face the challenge of institutional fragmentation. generally speaking. is working well to control unplanned and low-density development in Shanghai. the license plate auction and parking policy.. although it is hard to consider it a successful operation on the whole. Building multi-mode urban transport system based on public transport priority The municipal government has tried to promote the construction of transportation hubs to more effectively link all transport modes. The urban planning control system. have not been fully explored yet. the license plate auction policy only delays motorization. it is now very important to keep the characteristics of the pedestrian and bicycle transport modes in the city. many services and job opportunities were available in Shanghai within bicycle range. The intention is to fully leverage the advantages of various transport modes and build up a multi-modal urban transport system. However. But there is an incentive to sell as much land as possible to generate fiscal revenues. However. GYDR and the central government is critical to success.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Coordinating between urban land use and transport It has been proven that land-use density and mixture are very important factors that impact on people’s travel mode choice. for example. In the context of the rapid expansion of urban space. 6 . the municipal government has anticipated a transfer of the long distance bicycle passenger to motorized public transport. Protect space for slow transport The bicycle is still the most sustainable mode of urban transport.
This restriction was extended to the surface roads within the inner-ring road on 1 October 2006. The use of low-olefin unleaded petrol was promoted for motorized vehicles in March 2000 ahead of national implementation. those not meeting European I emission standards) that have not received "the green license" are restricted on the elevated expressways.. taxis began to run on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) was promoted on buses. On 1 March 2003.e. According to new regulations implemented in the city center since 15 February 2006. unleaded gasoline for motor vehicles was promoted in Shanghai. On 1 July 1999. the European II emission standard for motorized vehicles was implemented in the city. two years ahead of schedule. the European I emission standards for light vehicles was implemented. high-polluting vehicles (i. In 1998.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Vehicle emission control On 1 October 1997. 7 .
These two urban agglomerations form the two wings of YDR.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 1. Nantong) and seven cities in Zhejiang Province around Hangzhou Bay (Hangzhou. Ningbo. Nanjing. Zhenjiang. Shaoxing. Taizhou. It consists of eight large or medium cities in Jiangsu Province along the Yangtze River (Suzhou. Zhoushan and Taizhou). Yangzhou. 8 .1 Background General information Figure1. Changzhou. Huzhou.1: Location of Greater Yangtze Delta Region The Yangtze Delta Region (YDR)6 is an economic region led by the city of Shanghai. 1. Wuxi. Jiaxing.1.
Its strong competitiveness has attracted increasing foreign investment.218. With a population of more than 80 million.85 km². The south to the north of the city spans approximately 120 km. and playing an active role in international and regional competition.5 km². and a globally important advanced manufacturing base and the first Chinese megalopolis in the rank of world cities. including a land area of 6. this region is defined as “an economic center with the strongest competitiveness in China. The total area of Shanghai is 6. 100 km 9 . According to the Yangtze Delta Regional Planning Outline. Hangzhou Bay in the south and an estuary of the Yangtze River in the north. Shanghai has long been the largest economic center in China and is a famous historical and cultural city.”7 Shanghai is located at the foreland of YDR.65 km² and a water area of 121.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Figure1. it has been an important port city in China. the main international gateway in Asia Pacific Region.2: Yangtze Delta Region The YDR stretches over approximately 109.600 km². its population density is the highest of all economic zones of China. promoting industry and technology transfer. At the same time. It is acknowledged as having the largest development potential in China. facing the East Sea in the east. as is its gross domestic product (GDP).340.1.
increasing 0. the YDR has to change its development path in order to maintain its social and economic vigor.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study from east to west. Gross exports per square kilometer were 3. the opening of the Pudong area in Shanghai was considered as strategic move for China’s development. The Yangtze Delta Region has become an important international manufacturing base and a locomotive driving economic growth in China.7%. Shanghai is divided into 18 districts and 1 county. decreasing land resource availability. Shanghai’s development objectives include the creation of international economic. while the total number of inhabitants staying in Shanghai for more than six months totaled 18 million.2. trade and shipping centers. retail sales of consumer goods per square kilometer in the YDR reached 11. the output of the YDR per square kilometer of land was 36. an increase of 1. The import-export activities are more polarized in Shanghai because of the reliable and professional services and 10 .72 million dollars compared to 2005.05 million Yuan. It has brought about unprecedented opportunities for the development of the YDR and resulted in its rapid growth. the annual GDP of the 16 cities in the YDR reached 3.1 YDR’s and Shanghai’s social and economic development The YDR since the 1990s Announced in 1992.2. Its output per unit of land has shown constant growth.9 Today the YDR is facing a key period of development. and even that of the whole country.2 Shanghai’s development As the economic center of China. In 2006. as well as deteriorating transport conditions.5% of the nation’s population and 0. while the total port import-export commodity value reaches 25%10.24 million dollars with an increase of 0. The YDR has become increasingly important to national economic growth.4% over the previous year. the financial revenue of Shanghai accounts for one-eighth of the national total. accounting for 18.952. The total port import-export volume accounts for about 10% of China’s total. Shanghai bears the responsibility of leading the economic growth of the YDR. By the end of 2006. 1. and a modern international metropolis. In 2006.08 million Yuan compared to 2005.47 million Yuan compared to 2005. the rising costs of raw materials resulting from the appreciation of the RMB. In 2006.2 1.68 million. With the more complicated global and national social and economic situation.9% of national GDP. With only 1.6 billion Yuan. 1. an increase of 5. financial. At the same time the GDP of all 16 cities in the Yangtze Delta Region increased 14.26 million Yuan. while the total port import-export commodity volume comprises 25% of China’s total. The YDR is responsible for nearly 20% of national GDP but only accounts for 1% of China’s land area.06% of China’s land area. Shanghai’s registered urban population8 reached 13. Administratively.
has gradually formed in the YDR.14 To achieve the goal of balanced regional economic development. the export-import value of Shanghai was US$ 656. trade and shipping centers) and modern international metropolis by implementing the view of scientific development and constructing a harmonious society.000 vehicles.3 Role of transport in regional and urban development Transport is the key component of economic development in the YDR. equating to an average annual increase of 18%. and its per capita GDP reached 75. Shanghai has maintained double-digit economic growth rate. and in the city center. Since 1992.13 Since the 1990s. Shanghai’s GDP of was 1. railway. with an average annual growth rate of nearly 20%. the demand for transportation has been greatly increased.489 billion with an increase of US$ 78. In 2006. transportation has to be developed in an integrated way in the YDR. After years of construction. the Pudong International Airport and its auxiliary projects have been completed. The proportion of tertiary industry reached 50. aviation and pipeline. its traffic flow has continuously increased. an integrated transport system.029. an increase of 12% over 2005.124 billion12 respectively. this figure reached over 70%. 1. The construction of an international shipping center in Shanghai has laid a solid foundation for constructing an internationally influential manufacturing base. Since the opening of the Shanghai-Hangzhou freeway in 1996. compared to the previous year. waterway. the urban expressway network framework has gradually formed and the construction of the metro has been accelerated. while by 2003. Shanghai was the first city to generate a GDP of over one trillion Yuan in China. Yangshan Deepwater Port Phase I Project. a consensus in the YDR and its surrounding cities. finance. In 1997. With the rapid economic growth in the YDR. The integrated service ability of information infrastructure has been notably enhanced.076 and US$ 41.754 billion and total foreign trade import-export volume was US$ 227. infrastructure construction has been breathtaking in Shanghai.990 Yuan.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study central government support. industry. and over 24% for some parts of the freeway. Development prospects In accordance with The Outline of the Eleventh Five-Year Program for the Economic and Social Development of Shanghai. the traffic had reached 41.11 In 2006. including highway. resources and the environment as it moves towards the goal of “four centers” (international economic. 11 . The improvement of the regional transportation network has played an important role in promoting the YDR’s internal and external exchange capacity.000. the average daily traffic flow of Hangzhou-Ningbo Freeway was 15. infrastructure. among which total port import-export value was US$ 428. continuously serving the strongest economy in China.243 billion. Shanghai must strike a balance between the needs of the population.697 billion Yuan.6%. which is important for the YDR to merge into the global economy.
Let us take Yancheng city (Jiangsu Province) as an example where transportation construction has been accelerated in recent years. With the completion of Yangtze riverside freeway. As a result. with large-scale investment. the Yanhuai freeway and the Xinchang railway. The new transportation network will 15 Comment from the stakeholder dialogue: It is hard to imagine economic growth without transport. This is favorable for the development of northern Jiangsu. with its structure of “one heart 12 . For example.904 Yuan in 2000 to 12.43 billion Yuan. along with its economic and social development. an increase of 15. According to the plan. which is particularly favorable for Zhejiang and Jiangsu because of much improved links to Shanghai. after the Sutong bridge and Hangzhou bay sea-crossing bridge have been established. the COASTAL FREEWAY. The exiting gateways of Shanghai are mainly located in west of Shanghai along the Huning. which would add new power to economic development and regional interaction of the YDR. the Shanghai International Shipping Center. In the mean time. the Sutong Yangtze River highway bridge (with the world’s longest main span. it may provide Nantong with new development opportunities.17 Huhang18 and Yangtze Riverside Freeway. The construction of a costal freeway in the Jiangsu Province will establish closer links between central and northern Jiangsu and Shanghai. Ningbo will be a coastal transport junction from a transport end and Jiaxing will also become a key node city. an increase of 86%. In 2006. the coastal freeway. the level of opening up to both the inside and the outside will be enhanced. a well developed highway network has come into being. Hangzhou Bay Bridge and other major transport projects. improve the regional spatial development pattern and advance integrated strength and overall competitiveness. the YDR’s transport circle has been continuously expanded and travel time significantly shortened. Chongming is an island surrounded by the Yangtze River. the largest seaport of Jiangsu and bring it into the “half-day traffic circle” of the YDR. while GDP per capita grew from 6. and its socio-economic development has lagged behind because of inconvenient transport links. With the completion of the Ningjingyan freeway. It was pointed out that road transportation plays an unquestionably pivotal role in this economic growth. south of Shanghai) will be built in succession.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Since the 1990s. the GDP of Yancheng reached 117. To promote the GYDR’s urban development. and the expansion of urban space is mostly along these corridors making obvious spatial difference to urban development in the Shanghai region.849 Yuan in 2005. Yancheng city’s transportation has been considerably enhanced.$ With the regional transport system’s development. especially for freeway systems. north of Shanghai) and the Hangzhou Bay cross-sea bridge (one of the world’s longest sea-crossing bridges. regional transportation service and functioning have been greatly advanced.1% over 2005. the cross-river passage. which has been important for the integration of regional transport and economic development. expand spaces for the economic growth of the YDR.16 Regional transportation development in Jiangsu province will also promote the rapid development of Lianyungang.
the municipal Economic Cooperation Committees were created in 14 cities in the region (except Taizhou in Jiangsu and Taizhou in Zhejiang). In 2003. As a result. all 15 city members reached a consensus that this conference should involve all mayors in the YDR. At the fifth session of Yangtze delta regional urban economic coordinating forum held in 2004. one line after another. will begin to take shape. The shortening of travel time will certainly accelerate the transformation of the Yangtze Delta Region into an advanced international metropolitan region with Shanghai as its head.19 In the future. 13 . this office is an executive department responsible for the coordination. The distance from Ningbo to Shanghai will be shortened by 120 km and the distance from Shanghai to Taizhou (of Zhejiang Province) and Wenzhou will also be greatly shortened. Since then there have been mayors of 16 cites participating in this annual forum. organization and improvement of regional economic cooperation in the YDR.4 1. the cost of transportation will be greatly reduced. Based in Shanghai.4. in the GYDR. With the Ningbo–Zhoushan port groups as its south wing and Nantong port as its north wing. Taizhou city joined this forum. all members decided to establish the YDR Urban Economic Coordinating Office.1 Institutional mechanisms in the YDR Regional coordinating mechanism of economic development Comment from Stakeholder Dialogue: There is a need to develop a regional planning authority for Shanghai as the old institutional boundaries do not adequately cover the current realities of the economic area and are not really working The Regional Economic Coordinating Meeting of the YDR is a regional cooperation organization aiming to enhance economic connections and cooperation. 1.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study and two wings”. In 1992. the economic radiation of Shanghai may be extended to Zhangjiagang and even Rizhao port in Shandong Province. the intercity rail transport program will be launched. and promote economic sustainable development in the YDR. The 954-kilometer long coastline within Jiangsu Province will be connected with Shanghai. with the total length around 815 km linking Nanjing. When Taizhou city of Jiangsu Province participated in this forum in 1997. Hangzhou and other major cities with Shanghai to increase the railway capacity for short-medium distance intercity travel (less than 300 km). and an annual forum is held by the directors of cooperation committees of each city.
Zhejiang’s aviation is governed by Civil Aviation Bureau of East China and Air Traffic Management Bureau of the East China. and organizing the implementation of industry development plans and programs. where the passenger and freight transport volumes by rail rank highest in China. in charge of provincial highway and water transport infrastructure construction and maintenance. Zhejiang. Jiangsu. Fujian and Jiangxi provinces and the city of Shanghai.2. (3) Highway and water transport: The administration of highway and water transport in Shanghai. Economy Intercity Transport Aviation YRD Urban Economic Coordinating Forum Regional Coordinating organization YDR Economic Coordinating Office Civil Aviation Administration Bureau of East China Air Traffic Management Bureau of East China Railway Shanghai Railway Bureau Highway Waterway Shanghai Municipal Engineering Bureau Local Provincial Authorities Shanghai Municipal Port Authority Transport Department of Jiangsu Province Transport Department of Zhejiang Province Figure 1.4. Jiangsu. aviation and railways are managed by corresponding regional organizations. Zhejiang Province is under the control of the Provincial Transport Department.1: Regional Coordinating Organization and Intercity Transportation Authority (1) Aviation: Shanghai. (2) Railway: Shanghai Railway Bureau is the authority in charge of railway network and its operations in Jiangsu. in charge of industry administration and transport 14 . Anhui. harbor and navigation facility construction.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 1. and the use of waterfront area.2 Regional transport organization In the YDR. industry policies and legislation. while highway and water transport are administrated by their respective provincial transport organizations. These authorities are mainly in charge of formulating industry development strategies.
(3) Municipal Engineering Administration Bureau is responsible for road construction and supervision. coastal transport and the Yangtze River transport within the administration authorization of local government and for the industry management of waterway. (Figure 1. 1.5. maintenance and management for municipal highways. 1. (2) Urban Transport Bureau of Shanghai is responsible for intercity transport industry management. in charge of the safety issues in transport operation and enhancing law enforcement and reform for the transport industries. etc. Municipal Engineering Administration Bureau. Shanghai Municipal Port Authority is responsible for the industry management of international maritime transport. including Urban Transport Bureau. property protection. Traffic Police Headquarters of Police Security Bureau.5 1.5. Urban Construction and Transport Committee.2 Urban transport management Urban transport management in Shanghai involves several organizations.5. Urban Planning Bureau. These organizations are working together to manage the urban transport system.1) 15 .1 Organization of transport management in shanghai Intercity transport management (1) Shanghai Municipal Port Authority is in charge of port and shipping management.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study management of provincial highway and water transport industries.
Faced with a complicated and volatile situation. the GYDR must change its development path if it wants to realize sustainable development. is currently in a key period of development. policy and measure Shanghai Municipal Engineering Bureau ● Construction.1: Structure of the Shanghai Urban Transport Organization The Yangtze Delta Region. a prominent contradiction of land resources. congestion in transportation as well as resource constraints. 16 . non-motor vehicles and all the vehicle drivers ● Prevention for road traffic accidents Traffic Police Headquarters of Police Security Bureau Figure 1. especially Shanghai. maintenance and operation administration of urban roads and bridges ● Road traffic management ● Streets public security order ● Administration for motor vehicles. the rise of production prices and enterprise cost increases resulting from the RMB exchange appreciation.5.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study ●Coordinating various specialized planning including Shanghai Urban Planning Bureau transport planning ●Auditing and examining transport construction projects ● Formulating Policy guidelines and industry criteria ● Formulating Transport development strategies and Shanghai Urban Transport Bureau transport planning ● Nourishing the transportation market ● Organizing and conducing research on urban infrastructure development ● Managing urban infrastructure investment Shanghai Municipal Government Shanghai Municipal Construction & Transport Committee ● Approving the proposal of infrastructure projects ● Supervising the implementation of integrated transport development strategy and its planning ●Organizing evaluation for transport planning.
accounting for 12. highway and railway transport has taken approximately two-thirds of all freight.96% of national total.22% Freeway 560 2 886 1 866 5 312 41 000 12. As for the proportion of GYDR in the whole country.177km.96% Railway 269 1 616 1 292 3 177 75 400 4. Area Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang Total Nation The percentage of the nation's Highway 8 110 82 739 48 600 139 499 1 930 500 7. only accounting for 4. among which the mileage of freeways was 5. which link all the large and medium cities of the country and many other countries and regions of the world.312 km.499 km. the mileage of navigable inland waterway occupied 29.100 ports with the capacity of 10 000t tonnage berths. hundreds of highway routes and 10 main railways.1: The length of different transportation routes of GYDR in 2005 (km) Source: National Statistics Bureau of China Presently intercity passenger transport in the Yangtze Delta Region accounts for 20% of the whole country. post and storage sectors in the GYDR accounted for 17 . civil aviation) in the 2.1.69% and its aircraft flights accounted for 40%.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 2. with railway freight accounting for about 30% of the total. the growth of shipping and air freight in the 16 cities has been faster than highway and railway transport.21% . water transport and aviation accounting for about 30% of the total. By the end of 2005. total highway mileage in GYDR was 139. Mobility development of GYDR This chapter focuses on the development of transportation systems and the regional distribution of different transportation modes (highway. In the YDR. In recent years. and the share of freight transported (in tons) also reaches over 10% of the total in China. In the 16 cities of Yangtze Delta Region alone. Thus. waterway. water transportation and aviation are relatively well developed.38%. the value added of transport. 17 large or small airports. the total number of airports occupied 7. and 11 airports. Zhejiang and Shanghai there are a total of 11 major coastal and inland ports.21% Fairway20 2 223 24 349 9 652 36 224 123 300 29. GYDR. total mileage of railway was 3. railway. In 2005.38% Table 2. Even though the waterway transportation system is well developed in this region. Yangtze Delta Region is one of the most prosperous logistics centers in China. During the “Tenth five-year” period approximately 40% of freight in 16 cities was carried through highway. there are more than 1.1 Introduction In Jiangsu.
highway. warehousing value added in the GYDR in 2005 Source: The Industrial Map of the YDR (2006-2007) 0.00 Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang Nation Figure 2.1.30 0.48 0.48 0. waterway / Growth rate of GDP from 2001-2005 Source: National Statistics Bureau of China The elasticity of intercity passenger movement by various modes over GDP for Shanghai is highest comparing with Zhejiang and Jiangsu.60 elasticity of freight transport over GDP 0.2: Growth rate of freight transport of railway.1.1.20 0.5% of national total and Jiangsu took the first place (table 2.10 0.21 0. highway. We can also find the railway systems are more developed in the GYDR than other areas of the nation.20 0.34 0. postal service.1. This result is in accordance with the railway network in the GYDR (Figure 2.40 0.1).09% Table 2.2) Shanghai Added value(million) % of total GYDR 58 127 22.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 18.30 0.60 0.10 0.40 0. waterway/GDP growth rate from 2001-2005 Source: Data in this table are provided by National Bureau of Statistics of China 18 .2: The transport.1.30 0. The elasticity of railway passenger over GDP is also highest. 0.50 elasticity of freight transport over GDP 0.50 0.16% Zhejiang 82 030 32.1: Growth rate of passenger transport of railway.34 0.00 Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang Nation Figure 2.56 0.38 0.74% Jiangsu 115 440 45.
Table 2.35655 12.2). 19 . but not significant with railway (small t value).217 0 t Sig.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Shanghai’s elasticity of intercity freight by various modes of transport over GDP is lowest in GYDR (Figure 2.1.05-significant) The table above shows that the freight transport by water has closer relation with freight transport by highway.3 Correlation analysis of different traffic modes in Shanghai Dependent Variable: waterway freight (in tons) (Sig>0. implying that shipping is more dependent on highway than railway in Shanghai.75092205 4.54253 0 0.78511 -10. Unstandardized Coefficients Model (Constant) railway highway B -97016.7738 -1.45741918 -7. Sig<0.05-insignificant.1.
the increased rate of highway mileage in Jiangsu Province from 2003 to 2004 was 20.2).2.37% respectively (Figure 2.22% of national total. 20 . Comment from stakeholder dialogue: I am unaware of any place in human history that has built so much road infrastructure in such a short period of time as the Shanghai region. It can be shown from the chart below that while the increased rate of highway construction in Shanghai and Zhejiang Province was relatively stable. From 2001 to 2005. By the end of 2005. the highway mileage increased from 108 900 km to 137 800 km.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 2.2 2. the construction of highways in the GYDR has grown rapidly. Nanjing-Hangzhou and Nanjing-Ningbo transport corridors have become four major traffic arteries within the region.1 Highway transport Highway development in GYDR Figure 2. the highway mileage of GYDR occupied 7.2. Shang-Hangzhou.1: Freeway of the GYDR In recent years. Shanghai-Nanjin.2.37% and 19. A westward radiating highway network system with Shanghai as its core has now formed in the GYDR.
77 billion passengers. and the freight was 1. however.2: The Length of highway of the GYDR from 2001 to 2005 (in thousand kilometers) Source: The Industrial Map of the Yangtze Delta Region (2006-2007) The total mileage of freeway in the GYDR is 4. highway transport among cities has become convenient. With increasing transport demand. accounting for 12.96% of the national total in the same period. As for the density of highway network.2. such as Ninghang freeway.2 Highway passenger and freight transport in the GYDR GYDR’s intercity passenger transport volume in 2005 totaled 2. 21 .28 km/km². 2.19% of national total in the same period. Sutong bridge and Hangzhou bay cross-sea bridge.921 km. the highway network of the GYDR will be advanced comprehensively. accounting for 14. the density of Jiangsu and Zhejiang is 0. With the well established network.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 90 000 80 000 Length of highway (Thousand kilometers) length of highway 70 000 60 000 50 000 40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 0 2001 2002 2003 Year Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang 2004 2005 Figure 2.2. northern Jiangsu transport network. With the construction of a series of major projects. however.26% of the national total.02 respectively.929. the freeways in the GYDR become crowded soon after the opening.904 billion tons. Jiangyin bridge. accounting for 17. Shanghai was densest with 1.03 and 0.
16 km. In Shanghai.1: Railway of the Yangtze Delta Region The railway network in the GYDR has developed rapidly.3: Growth of passenger and freight traffic on highways of the GYDR from 2001 to 2005 Source: The Industrial Map of the Yangtze Delta Region (2006-2007) It can be seen from the above chart that the passenger and freight transport in the GYDR during the five years was growing.21% of the national total in the same period. the railway network in GYDR cannot accommodate the demands of economic and social development in this region yet. including Shanghai.1 Railway transport Railway development in the Yangtze Delta Region Figure 2.16%. However the railway mileage per 10.2.3 2. 2.000 persons was only 0. 22 . forming a state-wide transport network. intercity passenger transport only accounted for 0. The operating mileage of railways in the GYDR was about 3.84% of the GYDR. accounting for 4.177 km in 2005. Clearly there is a lot of pressure on freight transport in the GYDR.3.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3 500 000 3 000 000 growth of passenger and freight （1000 people/1000 tons) 2 500 000 2 000 000 1 500 000 1 000 000 500 000 0 2001 2002 2003 Year Pas senger (thousand people) 2004 2005 Freight（thousand tons ） Figure 2. As a whole.3. while the freight accounted for 17. only one-third of the national average.
2 Railway passenger and freight transport in the Yangtze Delta Region From 2001 to 2005.05% of the national total. Railway freight in the GYDR grew at an annual rate of about 6%. 2. the total mileage of intercity rail transport network in the Yangtze Delta Region is expected to reach 815 km. while highway freight growth rate was about 13%. designed for inter-province transport. In 2005. Intercity railway services within the GYRD have been planned.3. However a new 800-km long regional railway has been agreed between the three provinces in the GYRD and this is expected to go ahead.2: Growth of freight traffic by train in the GYDR from 2001 to 2005 (in thousand tons) Source: The Industrial Map of the Yangtze Delta Region (2006-2007) 23 . As a result. In the same period.91%. the pressure on railway transport is huge due to the rapid increase in passenger and freight transport demand. Comment from stakeholder dialogue: It was pointed out that the Ministry of Railways is set up to deal primarily with freight (and mainly coal) and they do not have the capacity/culture to deal with metropolitan rail transport. the number of railway passengers in the GYDR grew by 31.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study In China the railway system is generally for long-distance service (over 300 km).13% of the national total. There is a lack of high-speed train services within the 50 to 300 km range.53%. which was much more rapid than the national growth of 9.3.4%). With the huge demand for passenger transport. freight tons grew by 25. By 2020.49%. while railway passengers accounted for 15. railway freight movement in the GYDR accounted for 4. 70 000 Freight traffic by train Freight traffic by train (Thousand tons) 60 000 50 000 40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 0 2001 2002 2003 Year Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang 2004 2005 Figure 2. With the gradual regional economic integration and highway congestion. railway freight transport has to be reduced to leave room for passenger. which was less than that of national growth during the same period of (39. the few slow-speed train services cannot meet passenger transport demands within the region.
Zhoushan and Lianyun’gang ranked among the top ten ports in China.4 Waterway transport In 2005. the ports of Shanghai.4.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 80 000 70 000 Pasenger traffic by train passenger traffic by train (Thousand passengers) 60 000 50 000 40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 0 2001 2002 2003 Year ShangHai JiangSu ZheJiang 2004 2005 Figure 2. Figure 2.3.1: Major ports of the Yangtze Delta Region 24 . Ningbo.3: Growth of passenger traffic by train in the GYDR from 2001 to 2005 (in thousand passengers) Source: The Industrial Map of the Yangtze Delta Region (2006-2007) 2. and the GYRD boasts large scale port capacity overall.
cargo handled through major ports of the Yangtze Delta Region accounted for about 40% of the total in China.23 billion person kilometers (see Appendix Ⅱ. In 2005 the waterway passenger and passenger-kilometers were 37. It shows that Shanghai waterway transport is mainly oceangoing freight.057 million tons and 1. The Shanghai Port has the leading role in the port system of the GYRD. the waterway freight movement and turnover of the GYDR were 1.54% and 18.14% of the total figures for China respectively.51 million and 1. Nanjing. Table 1) 25 . Figure 1~2). while the waterway freight ton-kilometers was much higher in Shanghai.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 2. Wenzhou and other ports as the branch line ports with other ports as the feeding ports.85% and it is the second largest port in the GYDR.94% respectively. Nantong. the variation in waterway freight transport of Shanghai. but rose slightly in 2004. accounting for 32.2). Suzhou. Zhenjiang.682.4.11% and 7.79% of the port freight in GYDR.6 billion ton-kilometers respectively.2 Port function in the GYDR In the GYDR. 2. (See Appendix I. Jiangsu and Zhejiang was not so wide.4. accounting for 48 % and 34% of the total figures for China (Figure 2.2: Freight by water of the GYDR from 2001 to 2005 (in thousands of tons) Source: Data in this table are provided by The Industrial Map of the Yangtze Delta Region (2006-2007) In 2005. the waterway passenger transport and passenger-kilometers in GYDR decreased.4. a hierarchy port system has been formed: Shanghai and Ningbo ports serve as the container trunk line ports and Lianyun’gang. The cargo handling capacity of Ningbo Port accounts for 19.37% of the total in the GYDR. 450 000 400 000 Freight by water Freight by water (Thousand tons) 350 000 300 000 250 000 200 000 150 000 100 000 50 000 0 2001 2002 2003 Year Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang 2004 2005 Figure 2.1 Waterway freight and passenger transport in the YDR In 2005. In 2005. accounting for 71.4. accounting for 18. with the cargo handled through Shanghai and Ningbo ports taking 13. From 2001 to 2003.
among which 59.2 Airport passengers in the YDR In 2005 there were 284.5.79% of the nation’s total. Table 2) 26 . This compares with a total of 39 such airports in the entire country.12 million flew through the 10 civilian airports of the YDR. (See Appendix I.1 Aviation Airports in the YDR By 2005. the 16 cities of the YDR had 10 civilian airports. Therefore. Five of the 10 airports in the YDR boarded over 1 million passengers per year. the YDR plays an important role in the nationwide air transportation system.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 2. representing 20. and there is one civilian airport per ten thousand square kilometers.5 2.35 million passengers at 137 airports in China.1: Airports in the YDR 2. Figure 2.5.5.
and 86.1: Airports in the YDR 2.5. The highway mileage per ten thousand people is only 20. The airport system of the YDR has the following two features: 1. Although the road length density of the YDR is higher than other areas in China. intercity passenger transport has become 27 . Its railway mileage per ten thousand people is merely 0. Ningbo Class III Branch Line Wuxi. Six airports handle above ten thousand tons of cargo and mail in the region (see Appendix I.16 kilometers. Nanjing. With the annual growth of passengers in the YDR. Table 3).3 Air cargo and mail The annual cargo and mail of the 10 airports in YDR reached 2.63% of that of all the airports in mainland China.57 million tons. The strong correlation between water freight and highway freight indicates that a further increase in import-export trade will bring more highway traffic. it is not sufficient compared with its economic scale and size of population.2% of the air cargo in the YDR. the supply of transport infrastructure per capita is insufficient. Taizhou. but the volume it transports reaches 35. equivalent to 40. This area is very important for international air flight and sea transportation.01% of the total air cargo in China. Zhoushan. The air cargo transport service of the YDR mainly focuses on Shanghai.6 Conclusions Economic prosperity will undoubtedly strengthen the transport linkage among cities and regions in the GYDR.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study The airports in the YDR can be classified as three categories: Classification City Class I National Hub Shanghai Class II Key Node Hangzhou.5. The scheduled all-cargo flights from/to the Shanghai Airport account for a small proportion (5%) of the total flights. Nantong Table 2. which will have considerable influence on the development of the YDR in the future. especially Pudong International Airport. Regional economic development requires the integration of transport system over different modes and different administrative boundaries. Although the transport facilities of the YDR are relatively well developed as a whole. Changzhou. only one-third of the national average. 2.8% of China’s average. 2.
As far as passenger transport is concerned. 28 . but also link up passenger transport between cities and urban public transport within cities. Further development of oceangoing container shipping relies crucially on the distribution system of inland waterways. the key lies in strengthening the construction of passenger transport hubs. The passenger transport hubs not only link up different internal modes of a certain transport means.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study the competitive focus of various transport means. especially the medium and long distance intercity passenger. As a result there is a need for a comprehensive transport plan to maintain and improve the efficiency and competitiveness of this region. In other words the authorities should regard developing a fast and convenient transfer system as the pre-condition for constructing passenger transport hubs. highways and railways across provinces.
Passenger traffic Central city Suburbs Outside of Shanghai Total Freight traffic Central city Suburbs Outside of Shanghai Total Total O-D Central city suburbs Outside of Shanghai Total Central city — 173. including the area between Shanghai administrative boundary and outer-ring freeway.163 54.801 Central city — 90. Then transport infrastructure is described.197 937. suburbs and area outside of Shanghai) has been conducted to define traffic distribution in the Shanghai region. waterway (particularly port) and aviation. Recently an investigation of highway traffic among the three areas (central city (within the outer ring). to a large extent.982 Central city — 264.191 47.146 215.295 Outside of Shanghai 50.033 30.475 Total 337.297 544.000 motor-vehicle trips every day.093 130.704 1. and it concludes with the analysis of some key indexes of passenger transport and cargo transport.714 28. 3.519 Total 131.577 — 131.310 Suburbs 88.900 392.703 Total 205.408 Outside of Shanghai 27. the traffic distribution is discussed in the Shanghai region. suburbs and area outside of the City PCU/day (passenger car units per day)22 Source: Shanghai Highway Network Vehicle Travel OD Distribution and Traffic Characteristic Analysis Report 2004 29 .2). First.436 23.436 390.994 Table 3. since the 1990s industry has increasingly developed in suburban areas due to vast amounts of cheap land and good access to the regional highway.930 76. However.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3.21 This survey does not include the traffic inside the central city (Table 3.834 591.364 342.1 Traffic distribution in the Shanghai region In the past the major economic activities were concentrated in the central city.1.470 249. The transport network here includes highway.126 81.645 601. which has.412 52.355 346.404.292 52.1.913 536.508 Outside of Shanghai 22.883 — 80.1.325 83.1 and Table 3. railway.783 Suburbs 163.1: Traffic Distribution among the city proper.694 — 51. changed the traffic flow pattern in the Shanghai region. Regional transport in Shanghai This chapter focuses on the comprehensive transportation system in Shanghai region.198 Suburbs 251.059 803. There are several very congested sections with trucks moving along several corridors that connect to other parts of mainland China.349 926. Now the highway in the Shanghai region alone accommodates 591.209 130.755 24.
outside of Shanghai Suburbs .225 51.860 59.1.1: Highway vehicle travel linkage between various areas of Shanghai If the internal travel of the urban area is not taken into account. and this has caused much difficulty for travel in the suburbs.292 30. highway.61% 8.17% Table 3. 3.67% 7.suburbs Passenger vehicle 336. the transport connection between the central city and suburbs is much better than that between the suburban areas. 30 .319 249. sea and air transport hubs in China today.12% 12. Due to the transport policy to encourage the public transport in the central city.621 105. and the travel between suburbs accounts for the largest percentage (43.61% Freight vehicle 179. However. major road construction has mainly taken place in suburban areas.85% 7.2 Supply of facilities Shanghai is one of the most important land.025 97.04% Suburbs 37. such as railway.325 Total 37.67% 7. especially for the freeway system (toll road).82% 17.2: Travel between Various Regions and Their Percentages (Unit: PCU/day) Outside of Shanghai 12.99% 42.033 42.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Region Central city .04% 43.926 591.607 342.1. The policy has not yet delivered success in reducing congestion or in decreasing the dense population in the city center.17% Central city Figure 3.58% 516.60% 43. Shanghai has established a regional transport system.suburbs Central city . the traffic in the suburbs accounts for the major part.17%) of the total. waterway and aviation.outside of Shanghai Suburbs . covering a wide range of transportation modes.12% 43.23 Through decades of construction.481 164.800 45.94% 5.
409 km. thus forming its road system of “three rings and ten radial roads”.721.1 kilometer per 100 square kilometers on average.2.2.286.1 Highway in Shanghai trunk lines and the county and village highways as the branches. 2005 8.625. 162km more than that in 2004. 1992 3.2.486.2. 2003 6. 2000 5.1 Highways Shanghai now has basically built its freeway network and completed its urban outer-ring construction. forming a highway transportation network with the state highways.2 for the mileage change of the highways of Shanghai in the past years.805. 2.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3. 1994 3.2.2. Please refer to Table 3.110 Table 3. 1995 3.049 1998 4. 2001 6.66 times that in 1990. The highway density reached about 123. The state.970.677. provincial and county highways totaled 3. 2004 7. Year Length Year Length 1990 3. but also stretch to the various towns and villages in the suburbs of Shanghai.787.1: Change in Shanghai highway mileage in the past years (Unit: kilometers) 9000 8000 7000 6000 Km 5000 4000 3000 2000 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 Year Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.165. 1997 3. the total mileage of the highways24 (including village roads) of Shanghai had reached 8 110 kilometers. freeways and highways as Figure 3. 1993 3. 1996 3.231. These roads not only link the countrywide highway network. 1991 3. 1999 4.2: Shanghai Highway Mileage Changes from 1990 to 2005 (Unit: kilometers) 31 .078.961.104. By the end of 2005.881. 2002 6.
21% of the total highway mileage.057 kilometers of highway at or above second grate (highways designed for an average of 3. Please refer to Figure 3. Shanghai finished the construction of 10 freeways including the A20 outer-ring (Please see Appendix I. During the “tenth-five-year-plan” period.3: The technical grade of highway in Shanghai (2004) 4. the city had a total of 3.2 shows that the highway mileage of Shanghai in the past decade increased with an annual average growth rate of 7. By the end of 2005.2%.1% 12.000-7. 1.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 1991-2006 Figure 3.24% 27.56% Freew ay Third-grade highw ay First-grade highw ay Fourth-grade highw ay Second-grade highw ay Non-classified highw ay Figure 3. While total highway mileage is increasing. In 1988.21% 4. In 2000.7% 25.2. the freeway construction of Shanghai developed rapidly.500 mid-sized trucks passing day and night). Shanghai-Nanjing and Shanghai-Hangzhou freeway were built.26% 6.2.81% 27. By the end of 2004.7% of the total mileage of highways. accounting for 6. accounting for 37. the technical hierarchy structure of the highways of Shanghais has also been greatly improved.8% 57. Table 4 for the traffic flows of the networks).3-4 for the hierarchy structure of the highway network of Shanghai.2. Shanghai built the first freeway in China---Shanghai-Jiading Freeway. of which the mileage of freeway has already reached 560 kilometers.5% State highw ay Provincial highw ay County highw ay 32 Village highw ay .92% 32.
5: Change of Shanghai Railway Mileage from 1990 to 2005 Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 1991-2006 33 .2 Railways As one of the ten largest railway hubs of China. During the 15 years from 1990 to 2003.2.4: Administrative grade of highway in Shanghai (2004) 3.2.2.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Figure 3.2. However. The operated mileage of Shanghai reached 269 kilometers in 2005. 270 265 260 KM 255 250 245 1990 1995 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Railw ay Operated Mileage Figure 3.6 and Table 3.2. overall railway mileage stagnated. 15 Shanghai hub branch lines and liaison lines and 79 special-purpose lines. It represents the backbone.2.2. Shanghai Railway plays an important role in the national railway networks. in the last three years it saw an increase.5 and Figure 3. Please refer to Figure 3. The railway of Shanghai includes two main lines linking other parts of mainland China: Shanghai-Nanjing Line and Shanghai-Hangzhou Line. The railway transport of the Shanghai area undertakes 50% of intercity passengers in Shanghai and some 5% of cargo transport. especially for Shanghai intercity passenger transport.
1990 259 1998 248 1991 259 1999 260 1992 235 2000 257 1993 247 2001 257 1994 246 2002 257 1995 256 2003 257 1996 256 2004 264 1997 244 2005 269 Table 3.6: Railway networks in Shanghai Year Length Year Length kilometer) There are three large passenger transport stations: Shanghai Station.2. linking the ports and metros. including bulk goods. The inland river shipping of Shanghai connects with that of Jiangsu. By going out to the sea through the Yangtze River estuary.2: Operated Mileage Change of Shanghai Railway from 1990 to 1997 (Unit: 3.2. The water transport trunk way of the Yangtze River links eight provinces along the Yangtze River. Shanghai Southern and Western Station. a boat may directly reach the various coastal provinces as well as the rest of the world. and a total of 35 large or small stations. Zhejiang and Anhui Province. coastal and ocean transport. 98% of the foreign trade exported material of Shanghai Port. Yangtze River. is through ocean transportation. which constitute the water/land and internal/external transport hub. oil and regular international container shipping line.2. 34 . Ocean transportation plays a major role in the foreign trade of Shanghai.3 Water transport The water transport of Shanghai is composed of inland river.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Figure 3.
4: Wharf Length and Berth Number of Shanghai Port from 1995 to 2006 9 8.2.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Year Waterway mileage（km） 2 037 2 066 2 032 2 107 Boat(vessel) Container Ship(vessel) Tonnage（kg） 5 571 379 6 180 086 6 943 781 8 126 234 TEU Capacity 419 138 466 101 522 685 620 984 2002 2003 2004 2005 1 268 1 301 2 077 2 016 287 303 347 397 Table 3.8 7. As the focus of Shanghai International Shipping Center construction. The outer port.6 8.76 category Thousand-ton Berth 680 1 110 1 240 1 310 Container Berth 12 18 28 32 Year 1995 2000 2005 2006 Number of Berth 140 1 098 1 181 1 140 Table 3. and a water depth of more than 15 meters.000-ton berths and 25 berths are for container ships.2.2 KM 8 7.4 Ports The port facilities of Shanghai are composed of the outer port serving ocean/sea transport and Yangtze River shipping.2 7 6.3: Shanghai inland waterway mileage and ships change in the past years Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook. which is so-called Shanghai Port. and 9 deep-water container berths with a total shoreline length of 3. 2003-2006 3. For further details please refer to Table 3.28 1.6 7.4 7.7: Shanghai Ten-thousand Ton Tonnage Berths and Wharf Length Change Source: The “11th-five-year-plan” special planning for ports and inland rivers shipping of Shanghai 35 .96 7. The first and second phase wharfs of Yangshan are in operation. 3.92 8.8 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 110 105 100 120 115 135 130 125 Length of Wharfs Ten-thousand-ton Berths Figure 3.2.000 meters have been constructed. owns 40 kilometers of shoreline and 322 berths. of which 107 are 10.7.3 million TEU.8 8. and 104 kilometers away from the major international shipping lines.2.2. and the inner port serving inland shipping.2.4 8.4 and Figure. the Yangshan Port Area is situated to the southeast of the Shanghai Nanhui Luchao Port outside the estuaries of Hangzhou Gulf and the Yangtze River. The designed handling capacity of the port area will reach 4. Length of Wharfs(km) 1.
only 13 kilometers away from the CBD. It has a north-south runway of 4. flights through Pudong Airport account for 60% or so of the total for all Shanghai airports. However.2.400 meters long and 57. Situated in the eastern of Shanghai.8 Situated in the western part of Shanghai.000 square meters. two parallel taxiways. Please refer to Figure 3.5: Cities to which Shanghai has opened its air traffics Source: The “11th-five-year-plan” planning for air transport of Shanghai Shanghai Airports include Hongqiao Airport and Pudong International Airport.5 Aviation By 2005. Hongqiao Airport has one runway and one taxiway. and both airports can allow large passenger airplanes to take off and land.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3. it has also kept its function as an emergency landing area for international flights. After many international flights moved to the Pudong Airport.2. and may provide 24-hour service for all types of airplanes. The runway is 3. Pudong International Airport covers an area of 40 square kilometers.2. and the parking apron is about 486. Pudong International Airport also owns an air cargo transport base. Region Domestic Cities International Cities Total 2000 68 53 121 2001 75 70 145 2002 79 62 141 2003 75 69 144 2004 76 86 162 Table 3. and 52 foreign and Chinese airlines (of which 11 are domestic airlines and 41 are foreign airlines) had opened their regular flights to Shanghai.8: Airports in Shanghai from the CBD and 40 kilometers from Hongqiao Airport. 36 .2. At present. about 30 kilometers away Figure 3.000 meters long and 60 meters wide. Hongqiao Airport has mainly functioned as an airport for domestic flights. Shanghai had opened its air flight to 162 cities at home and abroad (of which 76 are domestic cities and 86 are international and regional cities).6 meters wide.
130 44.260 6. Of this 44.886 5.506 8. Their passenger-kilometers in 2006 were 10 times and 4 times those of 1995 respectively (see Table 3.2: Shanghai passenger-kilometers in the major years (billion person-km) Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 1996-2007 In terms of passenger-kilometers.686 17. especially for international travel.472 66.870 102. 3.3.2).685 Waterway 3.920 20.680 27.540 Airway 5.3.58 million passengers were dispatched by railways.287 There into Railway 3.393 74.452 0. 37 .800 23. which clearly demonstrates the advantage of aviation in long-distance passenger transportation.930 94.823 1.25 Total Year 1995 2000 2005 2006 Passenger Dispatch 52.3.650 68.570 24. which accounts for 44% of the intercity passengers (see Table 3.548 60.3.800 43.050 There into Railway 29.390 6. an increase of 8% over the same period in 2005.3 3.1 Passenger transport Intercity passenger transport structure As many as 102 million passengers were dispatched out of Shanghai in 2006.120 5.1).Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3.670 8. In terms of passenger-kilometers.580 Highway 12.090 Table 3.1: Shanghai passenger dispatches in the major years (unit: thousand) Total Year 1995 2000 2005 2006 Passenger -Kilometers 17.54 4.171 0.611 53.098 23.677 0.418 3. air transportation takes a leading place with 81% share.820 24.028 Table3. highway and air intercity passenger transportation has grown remarkably.290 29.123 Highway 0.452 Airway 9.840 Waterway 5.644 7.
600 Year 1995 2000 2005 2006 Average 325 341 700 728 Table 3. air transport has the longest haul distance of more than 1.3.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 12% 81% 7% 0% 1% passenger-kilometers 44% 27% 23% 6% passenger 20% railw ay highw ay 40% w aterw ay 60% airw ay 80% 100% Figure 18.104.22.1684 2.2.3. Figure 3. Please refer to Table 3. and that of railways remains unchanged.3.2: Comparison of passenger haul distance among different transportation modes travelling to and from Shanghai 38 .3. mode Railway 117 119 113 115 Highway 65 66 304 312 Waterway 619 126 72 69 Airway 1. Meanwhile. It is worth noting that transport distance by water (not including ocean route) descends sharply. The haul distance of highways has increased significantly since 2000.500 km and the figure is still rising.3: Passenger haul distance by different transport modes (·km) 3000 2500 2000 km 1500 1000 500 0 1995 Average 2000 Railw ay Highw ay 2005 Waterw ay 2006 Airw ay Figure 3.1: Transportation Structure of Intercity Passenger of Shanghai (2006) The passenger haul distance has increased year by year.574 2.708 1. which means inland waterways have decreasing importance in passenger transportation in Shanghai.
The average daily flows on the state and provincial highways has increased from 7.3. The next are the areas to the south of Shanghai.3: Average Daily Traffic Flow of Shanghai Highway Network for State and Provincial Highway (in PCU per day) In terms of the passenger destination. Jiangxi.268 PCU/day in 1991 to 25. traffic volume on Shanghai’s highway network has been growing rapidly.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3. Sichuan. Area in the south of Shanghai 28% Area in the w est of Shanghai 11% Area in the nort of Shanghai 61% Area in the north of Shanghai Area in the w est of Shanghai Area in the south of Shanghai Figure 3. Jiangsu. Chongqing and other provinces.4: Intercity Highway Passenger Destination of Shanghai in 2004 39 . Hainan.2 Highway passenger transport Since 1991. These areas include Beijing. which is around 3% higher than the average annual rate of growth in the mileage of highway. the areas to the north of Shanghai account for the largest share (61%) of all passenger destinations.8%. etc. Shannxi and some other provinces.650 PCU/day in 2004.3. Guangdong. with an annual average growth rate of 10. including Fujian. Hubei. Zhejiang. Hebei. 30000 (PCU/day) Average Daily Traffic Flow 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Figure 3.3. including Anhui. Henan. the areas to the west of Shanghai have the least passengers to/from Shanghai.
3 Railway Passenger Transport The Shanghai-Nanjing direction accounts for two-thirds of Shanghai railway passengers. the daily average number of passengers at Shanghai Airports had reached 114. 40 .8 million in 2000 to 27. The annual number of railway passengers in the Shanghai-Hangzhou direction rose from 11 million in 1998 to 13 million in 2004. the number of air passengers in Shanghai increased to 10 million. the figure increased by 11 million.00% 62.3.80% 67. up 45% with an annual average growth rate of 10%.60% 64.50% Shanghai→Hangzhou 37.8 million by Hongqiao airport.90% 63.4 Aviation During the decade from 1990 to 2000.3 million in 2004. In only one year from 2003 to 2004. One way passengers Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Shanghai→Nanjing 62.80% 67. up 22%.50% 64. with 41.10% 36. 23.00% 37.20% 32. Please refer to Appendix I.70% 36.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3.10% 36.66 million passenger boarding/alighting from Pudong airport and 17.20% 32. so the Shanghai-Nanjing direction passenger predominates. while during the three years from 2001 to 2003. There are also many large and medium cities located along the Shanghai-Nanjing railway.10% Shanghai─Hangzhou 37. Annual railway passengers in the Shanghai-Nanjing direction rose from 18. and the Shanghai-Hangzhou direction accounts for one-third.000.30% 63. 3. with an annual average growth of 5%.50% 35.4: Railway Passenger transport (2004) Source: The “11-th-year-plan” Construction Planning Assumption of Shanghai Railways In terms of passenger growth.3.40% 35.90% Table 3.3. By 2005. and the passenger flow in this direction is far greater than that along the Shanghai-Hangzhou. Most of the passenger trains in the Shanghai-Nanjing direction are dispatched to the north of China. it also increased by 10 million.50% Return passengers Shanghai─Nanjing 63. the number of passengers travelling in the Shanghai-Nanjing direction has increased faster than that in the Shanghai-Hangzhou direction.90% 63.46 million passengers in one year. Table 5.
4. up 63% over that of 1995.4. Please refer to Figure 3. Its highway and air cargo has grown continuously.1.1 Cargo transport Cargo transport structure The total cargo tonnage for Shanghai in 2005 reached 713. while the water and railway cargo dropped first and then rose.04 million tons. the share of railway transport decreased and the proportion of air transport grew slowly. up from 34% in 1995 to 48.4. 400000 350000 300000 thousand tons 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 1995 1996 Railw ay 1997 1998 2000 Waterw ay 2004 Airw ay 2005 Highw ay Figure 3.4.1: Cargo Transport by Various Transportation modes (unit: thousands of tons) Composition Railway 41 660 62 130 58 170 52 920 32 630 38 620 38 410 Highway 245 730 250 230 259 910 263 520 283 690 315 540 326 840 Waterway 148 450 145 440 140 820 145 290 184 420 301 480 345 570 Airway 370 410 480 570 880 2 250 2 220 Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2004 2005 Total 436 210 458 210 459 380 462 300 501 620 657 890 713 040 Table 3.1 and Table 3.4. its corresponding proportion of total cargo transport dropped slightly. but the amount of air cargo grew very fast.4 3. In the meantime. the proportion of cargo moved by water rose dramatically. Although highway cargo also rose dramatically. 41 .1: Cargo Transport by Various Transport Modes in the Shanghai Region (unit: thousands of tons) Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 1996-2006 In terms of transportation mode structure.5% of total cargo in 2005.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3.
71 million TEU.9 21.8 Year 1995 2000 2003 2004 Table 3.1% and minerals account for the lowest percentage to 2. The corresponding average haul distance also rose greatly.54 Ton-kilometers (million ton km) 4.3 Water transport As shown in Table 3.3% 34. The total amount of highway cargo in Shanghai reached 315. industrial products and building materials.8% 48.6% compared with the figures of 1995 respectively.0% 0.6% 20% 0. Shanghai’s port has surpassed Singapore’s port to become the largest cargo port in the world..69 306. 42 .Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 45.2 18. up 28. and in 2004 it was 1. Please refer to Appendix I. Total cargo tonnage (million ton) 245.2 times and 14 times respectively. indicating that the proportion of medium.78 315.2: Cargo transport structure in the Shanghai area 3.3% over the last year. It reached 537 million tons in 2006. foods.864.4. etc.73 283.7%.4% and 45.083. Compared to the figures of 1995.5 times that of 1995. up 21. its container processed 21.54 million tons in 2004. of which light industrial products and foods account for the highest percentage at 28.1% 1995 0% 40% railw ay highw ay 60% w aterw ay airw ay 80% 100% Figure 3.2 Highway cargo transport Highway cargo transportation (including ton-kilometers) has been growing.4.4% 9. accounting for about 24% of all the large ports nationwide. Shanghai port’s cargo throughput has been growing quickly.3% 2005 56. but the distance is still short. the total cargo and containers handled through Shanghai have grown 3.083. Tables 6-7.4. ranking third place worldwide only next to Hong Kong and Singapore for container handling. 3.3. Figure 3.79 million ton kilometers. since 2000. and its cargo transport turnover reached 7.5% 5.and long-distance transport by highway is increasing.38 6.2: Ton-kilometers and transport distance of Shanghai in the past years Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 1996~2005 The major goods carried by truck are light industrial products.98 7.8 20.14 5.79 Average distance (km) 14. Please refer to Appendix II.4.878.4.637.
4.261 Table 3.896 22.867 2.62 million tons.083 12.4.4 Railway cargo transport Because of various historical reasons.4.267 1.392 exports 733 1. railway container cargo has been rising steadily since 1995 and reached 3.188 25.4.4: Railway freight transport growth 43 .844 exports 27.776 Container（Thousand TEU） imports 833 1.246 1.3: Shanghai railway cargo transport growth Year 1995 2000 2003 2004 Total freight (thousands of tons) imports 13.760 10. 2.65 million TEU in 2004.202 1.4 45000 40000 35000 4000 3500 thousand TEU thousand ton 3000 30000 2500 25000 20000 15000 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2000 1500 Total freight（Thousand ton） Container （Thousand TEU） Figure 3.077 24. By 2004 Shanghai’s total railway cargo had reached 38.4.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Freight throughput Year （thousand TEU） 1 526 5 612 18 084 21 710 Freight throughput （thousand ton） 165 670 204 400 443 170 537 480 There into Import 120 970 137 910 275 390 345 980 export 44 700 66 490 167 780 191 510 Foreign-trade goods （thousand ton） 40 860 76 330 184 920 There into import 26 050 45 490 100 980 export 14 810 30 840 83 940 1995 2000 2005 2006 Table 3.4. railway cargo transport shrank prior to 2000. Since 2000 the tonnage of railway freight has shown growth.3 times the figure of 1995.3: Cargo throughput of Shanghai’s port 3.548 12. In contrast. Please refer to Figure 3.3and Table 3.
. reaching 23%. of which Asian countries accounted for the largest proportion. 44 Shanghai’s transport network infrastructure has been greatly improved in recent years. Throughput of cargo and post (thousands of tons) 366 879 1 615 2 250 Year 1995 2000 2003 2004 Table3. Beyond that. and industrial buildings tend to be single story. from 30% in 2000 to 85% in 2004. Here there is an incentive to sell as much land as possible to generate fiscal revenue. the combination of construction of intercity freeways and railways in the YRD as well as the increases in train speeds six-fold. In terms of highways and railways.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 3. With the eastern transfer of flights from Hongqiao to Pudong. As many as 402.4.5 Air cargo transport As many as 900 airplanes took off from and land at Shanghai’s airports each day in 2005 (of which 488 were in Pudong Airport and 412 in Hongqiao Airport). Compared to 1995.211 tons of cargo and mail were transported out of Shanghai airports through international flights. regular freight trains and double-deck container trains. 3.4. As a result Shanghai has been become a new international shipping center.5: Shanghai airports cargo transport growth Source: the 11th five-year-plan of Shanghai Air Transport In 2002 as many as 211. Shanghai’s airport cargo increased more than 5 times. such as post parcel transport. and the percentage of its foreign trade and container cargo transport are rising. This is not conducive to public transport that requires relatively dense populations to make it efficient and accessible to many people. Its total port handling capacity is increasing rapidly. of which the amount of transport to Beijing accounted for the largest proportion. has expanded the economic influence of Shanghai to the hinterland area. reaching 26%. the cargo and mail handling proportion of Pudong International Airport climbed year after year. It was also pointed out that municipal developments are limited to the outer ring road. hence there is little incentive to go for high-rise buildings and dense forms of land use.5 Conclusions Comment from stakeholder dialogue: In Shanghai it was pointed out that the highway authority is often in conflict with the planning authority. its cargo transport structure is optimized continuously. has greatly strengthened the relation between Shanghai and neighboring areas.958 tons of air cargo and mail were transported out of Shanghai. development is regulated at the district and town level. In terms of water transport. the development of Shanghai’s ports and inland waterways is in full swing. The opening of new train services.
their capacity cannot meet personal travel requirements occurring in peak times such as festivals and holidays. the construction of terminal buildings and cargo terminals have not been delivered to the expected standards. The number of deep-water berths cannot meet the developing tendency of large and specialized ships.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Shanghai’s air transport capacity is also growing swiftly and its airports have joined the list of the world’s busiest airports. • • • Shanghai’s container wharfs continue to be operated under an excessively heavy load. While the comprehensive transport system of Shanghai has made great strides. 45 . it still has the following problems: • The present highways are not synthetically related to Shanghai’s urban development and are not suitable for the town system as determined by the new round master plan of Shanghai. and the port distribution system is not perfect. • Shanghai has only two external railways: Shanghai-Nanjing and Shanghai-Hangzhou railways. Shanghai’s inland river-ways are constructed at a slow speed. and the container sea-railway combined transport capacity has developed slowly. especially the distribution system of the Yangshan deepwater port area which needs to be improved. their cargo transport facilities cannot meet the new cargo transport demand. • The infrastructures and hubs such as the Shanghai airport runways. • The construction of the comprehensive connecting ground transport facilities for the airports still need to accelerate.
the situation of Shanghai's traffic demand.1 Features of travel demand According to the Third Transport Survey Report of Shanghai (2004). The total number of daily trips by residents and number of daily trips made using motorized vehicles rose 45% and 220% respectively from 1995 to 2005. 250% 200% 150% 100% 50% 0% 45% 220% Resident travel Resident travel Motorized vehicle travel Motorized vehicle travel Figure 4. is described.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 4. Shanghai urban transport This chapter focuses on the transport systems in Shanghai’s city center (mainly within the outer-ring) with a detailed analysis of its demand and supply. Firstly.1: Growth rate of total trips by residents and motorized vehicles 46 . some typical transport demand management policies are discussed to achieve the balance of supply and demand in Shanghai. public transport system and non-motorized transport system are analyzed. transport demand within central city in Shanghai has been increasing dramatically. The features of both resident travel and motorized vehicle travel prove that the increasing trend of transport demand is irresistible. including the travel characteristics of both residents and motorized vehicles. then the city's transport supply system. including the city’s road system.1. Finally. 4.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
4.1.1 Features of personal travel
Trip rate In 2004 the number of daily personal trips of Shanghai was about 41 million, up 45% over the figure of 1995, of which the number of trips by the permanent population was nearly 38 million, and those by the floating population nearly 3 million per day.
50000 40000 thousand/day 30000 20000 10000 0 28300
Figure 4.1.2: Total person trips Commuter trips have been increasing with the increase of population. The daily average figure was 23 million, up 20% over the figure of 1995. However, the non-commuting trips have been increasing faster with the increase of economic activities; the average daily figure reached 18 million person times, up 100% over the figure of 1995. The current public transport system has difficulty meeting the demand of growing non-commuting travel.
30000 19200 thousand/day 20000
commuting trips 1995 2004
Figure 4.1.3: Total trips of the commuting and others In 2004 the daily trips of the permanent population in the city center of Shanghai (inside inner ring) was 13.60 million, up 25% over the figure of 1995. With a large section of the population moving out of the city center because of the high price of houses and urban expansion, the number of daily trips of the permanent population in the outside area (between the inner ring and outer ring) grew faster, up 70% over the figure of 1995, reaching 13.20 million. In the same time period its share of all trips rose from 27% to 32%. In the suburbs the permanent
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
population trips increased 45% over the figure of 1995, reaching 14.10 million, and its share of all trips rose from 34% to 35%.
16 000 Personal trips (1 000/day) 14 000 12 000 10 000 8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0
city central area center outside areaoutside area suburb
Figure 4.1.4: The number of personal trips in different areas of Shanghai
City center, 39%
City center, 33%
Betw een inner and outer ring, 27%
Betw een inner and outer ring, 32%
Figure 4.1.5: Trips in different areas The increase of economic and social activities promotes an increase in personal trip rates, which is higher in city center than in the city as a whole. The daily trip rate of the permanent population in Shanghai rose from 1.87 in 1995 to 2.21 in 2004, while the trip rate of the permanent population in the city center rose from 1.97 in 1995 to 2.36. The daily trip rate of the permanent population of Pudong District was the highest, reaching 2.58.
Trip rate (trips/day) 2.47 2.58 2.26 2.3
Region City center Area between inner and outer ring Suburb Overall city Puxi Pudong Puxi Pudong
Population (thousands) 3 677 407 4 125 1 560
Trips (thousands) 9 090 1 050 9 340 3 590
7 346 17 115
14 830 37 900
Table 4.1.1: Daily trip rate of permanent population in different belts in 2004 Source: the Third Comprehensive Transport Investigation Report of Shanghai
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
Travel purposes and modal split Compared with 1995, the proportion of commuting and school trips of Shanghai dropped by 12% in 2004, while the proportion of non-commuting trips for shopping and entertainment rose. This represents a higher demand for more individual and flexible transport services.
Travel purpose Work Go to school Shopping Entertainment Business Live Total 1995 51.60% 16.90% 5.20% 4.00% 3.50% 18.80% 100% 2004 41.70% 13.90% 17.20% 8.90% 4.60% 13.70% 100%
Table 4.1.2: Travel purposes composition of the permanent residents of Shanghai in 2004 From 1995 to 2004, the proportion of the motorized mode trips in Shanghai rose from 28% to 40%, of which the proportion of public transport rose from 20% to 24%, private motorized vehicle from 7% to 15%, while non-motorized-vehicle dropped from 42% to 28%.
metro 5% foot 19%
taxi 9% foot 47% car 10%
taxi 4% bicycle 30% car 16%
Figure 4.1.6: Modal split of commuting and non-commuting trips (2004) Travel distance and time With the expansion of the city and the remarkable expansion of the urban activity space, the average travel distance extended from 4.5 kilometers/trip to 6.9 kilometers/trip from 1995 to 2004.
and most of other modes will take less than half an hour. up 54%. travel by metro takes the longest time.5 Figure 4.1 School 31 Car 40.1.5 Metro 70.9 7 travel distance(km/trip) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1995 1995 2004 2004 4.1 million to 1.2 million to 3.1 Bicycle 21.4 Taxi 32.2 million.8 million. up 73%.1 million.10 minutes. the construction of cross-river facilities stimulated the growth of cross-river travel demand. 50 .8 Table: 4.1 E-bike/Gas-moped 24.1 Life 29. Trip mode Average time Trip purpose Average time Bus 56 Work 33.7 Business 42. and daily trips crossing the river increased from 1.9 Shopping 20. the average travel time was nearly equal. reaching 70 minutes.5 Home 29. at around 30 minutes +/.3 Leisure 21.3 Motorcycle 20.9 Foot 16.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 6.7: Increase of commuting distance Among different trip modes.1.1 million to 7. which indicates that the metro plays an increasingly important role in long distance travel.3: Travel time of different modes and purposes in Shanghai (min.) Source: the third comprehensive transport survey report of Shanghai Spatial distribution of personal travel From 1995 to 2004. In the same period the number of daily average trips entering and leaving city center grew by 175%. the transport linkage between the different areas was still quite strong. Between 1995 and 2004 the number of daily trips entering and leaving the central area grew from 5. the average travel time by bus was also nearly one hour per trip. In the process of relocating people from the center to the periphery. For different trip purposes. up from 1.
9: Travel flows in Shanghai Source: Third Comprehensive Transport Survey Report of Shanghai 51 .Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8000 7000 6000 thousand trips 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Cross-river Trip Enter and leave central area 1995 2004 Enter and leave dow ntow n Figure 4.8: Growth of trips in different belts Figure 4.1. Huangpu District.1. Jiading district Baoshan district Yangpu Zhabei Hongkou Yangpu Zhabei Hongkou Putuo Changning Xuhui Jinan Huangpu Luwan Pudong new district Putuo Jin an Huangpu Pudong new district Qinpu district Minhang district Changning Lu wan Nanhui district Songjiang district Fenxian district Above: Travel flows in the central city (2004) Left: Travel flows in the whole city Jinshan district Figure 4.1. Xuhui District. Changning District and Yangpu District are the largest.9 shows that Shanghai’s traffic volume is still concentrated in the central urban area. of which the flows between Pudong New District.
1.14 million trips per day.1. but the mileage utilization rate and the passenger occupancy rate dropped.1. The number of auto trips in the city center was the largest. and the motorcycle made 2. up 220% over that of 1995. 6000 5000 thousand/day 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1995 1995 2004 2004 1500 5000 Figure 4.2 Personal motorized vehicle travel Motorization and trips In 2004 the daily average number of Shanghai’s surface motorized vehicle trips of was 7. reaching 1.11: Motorized vehicle travel in different regions in 2004 Features of passenger vehicle travel Compared with 1995.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 4.10: Growth of personalized motorized vehicle travel in Shanghai 1950 2000 1900 ten thousand/day 1500 1150 1000 500 0 City center Betw een inner and outer ring Betw een inner and outer ring Suburb City center Suburb Figure 4.95 million.14 million. among which the number of auto trips was five million. 52 . the fleet size of passenger vehicles in Shanghai increased threefold to 2004 and the trips and daily mileage per vehicle also grew.
the annual average growth rate of the road mileage and area was 12%.6% -3. The scale and the construction standard of this expressway are superior.4 million square meters. which reflects that most of the roads were newly built or 53 . From 1994 when the first elevated expressway road inner ring was completed and opened to traffic. and it has substantially influenced the social development of Shanghai.45 21 52 2004 180 2.1 Rate of increase 311. the road area was 209. the reconstruction of the “three east-west throughways and three north-south throughways”.5: Changes in Shanghai commercial truck traffic characteristics 4.1. the average daily number of trips by truck in Shanghai increased slightly. In the five years from 1996 to 2000.2% Table 4.4% 4.4 6.3% 6. The number of traffic lanes crossing the river by bridge and tunnel has also grown rapidly. By the end of 2005.2 Features of traffic supply 4. but the average daily mileage increased considerably.1. have been completed in the central city of Shanghai. which is mainly because the trip distance grew. to 1999 when the Yan’an Road elevated expressway was open to traffic.9 20 3. the total mileage of city road in Shanghai had reached 12. an outer ring and several radial elevated expressways.5% 38. The elevated expressway road system of Shanghai forms the backbone of the solid surface transport trunk network of Shanghai. in which nearly 20 billon Yuan has been invested.1 Road supply and use In the past decade the major urban roads projects.6% Table 4.4: Changes in Shanghai passenger vehicle traffic characteristics26 Features of truck travel Compared with 1995.227 kilometers.6% 7.1% -51. Index Number of vehicles (thousands) Average trips (times/day*vehicle) Trip distance (km) Average mileage (km/day*vehicle) 1995 119 2.1% 44.63 51 19.61 29 75 Rate of increase 51. including the urban express road system composed of the elevated expressway inner ring. up 157% over the figure of 2000.6% 3.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Index Number of vehicles (thousands) Mileage utilization ratio (%) Average trips (times/day*vehicle) Daily mileage (km) Trip distance (km/trip) Occupancy rate (person/vehicle) 1995 121 87% 2.4 2004 498 84% 2.75 54. up 84% over the figure of 2000. the elevated expressway road system shaped like the Chinese character “申” formed in the Shanghai urban area.2.
700 kilometers. 14000 12000 Length of city way(km) 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Length of city w ay Area of city w ay 5000 15000 25000 Area of city way (ten thousand square metre) 20000 10000 0 Figure 4. while the annual growth rate of road area was 12%.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study opened during this period. up 290% from the figure of 1995.2. 54 . Of this 7.2: Shanghai road length In terms of road capacity. the road mileage of the central city grew slowly. in 2004 the road lane length was about 21.2.200 kilometers of carriageway length are classified as express roads and arterial roads. up 160% from the figure of 1995. with an annual average growth rate of 5%.1: Arterial road network in central city of Shanghai in 2004 In the three years from 2001 to 2004. Figure 4. In this period the major task was improvement of the road structure and many roads were rebuilt and widened during this time.
1: Road lane growth in different areas in Shanghai (kilometers of carriageway length.2 Public transport supply and use Due to the long delay in infrastructure construction and the high population density in city center.720 Pudong Puxi Pudong Table 4.782 21. there is forecast to be 110 km of bus-only ways inside the inner ring. the city planners have adopted the strategy of constraining the use of cars.954 Total 2002 550 3. and a large scale metro construction is now ongoing.372 Arterial Road 599 169 767 391 2.825 Secondary trunk Road 325 132 489 356 2. in order to improve the bus service and meet the travel demands of 2010 World Expo.267 3. 55 .180 thousand seats. Shanghai has constructed 5 bus-only lanes with a total length of 21. The specific measure is that if the diesel oil price exceeds 3 Yuan/liter more than the normal price. the roads were crowded with more traffic in the central city. As previously. But the actual effect is questionable because of weak enforcement. The fast growth of motorization in Shanghai and other areas of China.6 km.2.899 4.29 By the end of 2005.120 13. however. require large amounts of road space.544 10.000 buses with 1. There are 43 public transport operating companies. a bus priority policy is only applied to urban bus lines. The extensive construction in urban roads lessened traffic congestion for short periods after the completion of the major roads. as well as the car industry promotion policy. Road-based public transport system The Shanghai road-based public transport system is composed of bus and para-transit. Soon after.2. 2004) Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 4. A subsidy policy for public transport systems was brought into effect due to rising fuel prices in 2004.48 million passengers daily. the additional cost will be shared by the bus companies and government equally by reducing the company business tax. The public transport lines in the suburban areas will share policy with urban bus lines. there were 18. and travel congestion resulted during rush hour. A BRT system is being planned for about 300 km and the first phase will be the semi-circular road connecting Shanghai West and South Station. The local buses serve 7. More recently the government recognized that public transport systems (especially metro systems) may be the solution. By 2010.402 957 7. 948 bus/trolley lines with a total length of 22.072 2.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Region Central zone Peripheral zone Suburb Overall city Puxi 27 28 Expressway 255 21 607 416 1.569 Branch Road 823 228 1.000 km in Shanghai.266 2.
length 32. 1 Yuan without. There are 45. opened to traffic in 1995 Line 3 Line 1 Line #2.3 km. opened to traffic in 2000 Line #3. opened to traffic in 2005 Line 4 Line #5. the base of taxi fare has been increased from 10 Yuan to 11 Yuan for the first 3 km and the distance charge of 2 Yuan/km has been adjusted to 2. In the central area the fare of bus transport is 2 Yuans with air-conditioning. The total passengers per day rose to 1.63 million at the end of 2005.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study The bus fare system is based on a “zonal+distance” structure. a taxi will drive 348 km/day on average. due to the rise of petrol price. The bus fare is collected through a fare box or transit IC cards which can also be used in the metro.96 million passengers every day. Line #1. taxis and ferries.3: Metro lines in Shanghai 56 . Since 11 May 2006.1 Yuan/km. length 25. length 40.25 Yuan per kilometer. Average trip distance is 6. The fare is free for elderly people over 70 years old. length 33 km.4 km.2-0. As a result.9 km.2. Metro system There are currently 5 metro lines in Shanghai with 68 stations and a total operating length of 147.000 taxis registered with carrying capacity of 2. opened to traffic in 2003 The total length is 147.2 km. The para-transit system in Shanghai mainly refers to taxi. with an annual increase of nearly 37%.9 km Line 5 Line #3 and Line #4 share the same 11-km track Figure 4. There are also preferential ticket fares for passenger transfer between buses as well as metro (see the detailed policy in Chapter 6). In the suburbs the fare increases with travel distance and includes an initial base charge of 1 Yuan and a distance charge of 0.1 km. length 17 km. the Metro is always serious crowded especially on Line #1 and Line #3. The number of passengers serviced by the Shanghai metro system increased sharply from 2000 to 2005. opened to traffic in 2000 Line 2 Line #4.
parking charging and motorcycle limitation have so far been the most successful. The non-motorized network system. The share of non-motorized trips is as high as 57. in which there are 10.9 million.4 times.7 million pedal bicycle trips.37 million pedal bicycles. The non-motorized travel has contributed to the alleviation of traffic congestion. and 2. with the motorized travel increasing more. the policies for public transport privilege. Passengers can either purchase a single ticket or use transit IC card. a decrease of 3% compared to 2003. coupled with the availability of infrastructure provided for non-motorized travel. With the extension of the city. Although the construction of the Shanghai urban transport infrastructure has achieved great success. the total number of registered two-wheelers is 10. there is an imbalance between transport demand and supply that causes many adverse problems. the Shanghai government has instigated many transport demand management policies and measures to relieve the situation to a certain degree.44 million. Among these. In 2004. with the unexpected increase in motorized travel. which account for 23. license plate auctioning. is always under the threat to be replaced by motorized vehicles.3 Non-motorized transportation system Another characteristic of urban transport in Shanghai is walking and cycling.2 million trips made by electric bicycle and LPG powered scooter. 4. 0. then the fare increases 1 Yuan per 10 km. public transport has failed to serve the needs adequately as these populations tend to be spread out over very large areas.45 million trips daily. The daily trips by two-wheelers reached 12.84 million electric bicycles and 0.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study The metro fare structure is distance-based. more and more passengers must transfer to reach their destinations. 4. According to the Third Transport Survey Report of Shanghai (2004). a fare discount policy for exchanges between the public transport lines has been implemented. To solve the above problems. This is largely due to the contribution of land-use control with a dense and highly mixed use. such as traffic congestion. Compared with other cities in the world. Since 25 December 2005. Shanghai has a relatively developed non-motorized transport system including pedestrian and non-motorized cycle system. traffic accidents and so on. however. an increase by 1. and the basic fare is 3 Yuan within a distance of 6 km.2. transport demand within the central city in Shanghai has been increasing. 57 .3 Transport demand management policy Comment from the stakeholder dialogue: New York and London were cited as cities where long-distance commuter public transport was possible because of how the city and commuting patterns have developed over time. of which there are 9. In other cities where extensive suburbs have dominated city growth.23 million LPG scooters.2 % (bicycle and foot).
the public transport trips will account for more than 60% of the motorized vehicle passenger trip. which was compiled as required by the strategic objective of “public transport first”.3. in order to control the fast growth of motorized vehicles in Shanghai and reduce the pressure on urban traffic. Shanghai will realize the full coverage of 500-meter service radius of public transport stops in the central city and suburban towns. the other areas in central area provide a higher number of parking spaces to allow more vehicles to enter this area.31 The specific measures are that the central business district provide few parking spaces and charge a higher price to control vehicles from entering this area. the license tags of private cars in Shanghai have been auctioned by tender with a reserved price. The license is valid for life once it is purchased and can be transferred to other people. Shanghai will invest about 110 billion Yuan in pushing forward this action plan. and lots of automobilists licensing their cars in adjacent cities and using them in Shanghai. Shanghai should continuously increase the public transport modal share. public transport spending shall be invested first. 68. and the transfer convenience of public transport shall also be ensured. public transport shall be operated efficiently. The 58 . By that time. The three-year Action Plan of Developing Public Transport Priority from 2007 to 2009 of Shanghai. This policy has alleviated the contradiction between road supply and traffic demand to a certain degree. The license tag auction has also brought unexpected influences. More bus services will be provided in suburban areas. has been formally put into operation. Since 2000. construction and management of its parking facilities with a transport areas differentiation policy. 4. 4.3 Parking charging policy Shanghai guides the planning. and for more than 33% of the total trips.3. According to this plan.2 The license plate auctioning policy Since 1994. The auction policy of license tags has restrained the increase in car ownership in Shanghai.435. Shanghai has changed this into public auction without a lowest price for the license tag limit. such as a decrease in demand for cheaper vehicles. The auctioning system is different from that of Singapore. The aim of the transport model is “taking the public transport as the main mode and private car as the assistant mode”.1 Public transport priority policy According to the public interest priority and the highest efficiency principle. Shanghai carries out the “public transport first” policy30 where land use for public transport shall be ensured first. and the average successful bidding price was as high as RMB 46.654 license tags were granted. by 2010. In 2006.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 4. and the public transport travel between any two points in the central city will be completed within one hour. achieving for example a lower motorization rate than Beijing.3.
weekend and holiday) 10 8 400/month 300/month 15-30 30-60 hour every min 4 3 min 7 4 half an hour 10 6 Table 4. the policy of “the discarded motorcycles shall not be renewed” is implemented. public parking. the influence of motorcycles on traffic order is reduced. etc. For example. Daytime Manual charging Area Within the first hour Key area The rest areas within the inner ring Zone between the inner and outer ring (including towns outside the outer ring) 7 4 2 2 3 4 5 200/month 15 10 Over one hour every half an hour 10 6 Parking Meter charging the first hour 0-15 min 4 3 Over one Night-time Monthly (night-time. workplace parking.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study peripheral area focuses on solving the parking conflicts in residential communities. Therefore. 59 . lower the operational efficiency of urban transport and cause many problems to the environment. As a result. and has planned preferentially charged public parking lots by the transport hubs near the outer ring to encourage car passengers to switch to public transport before they enter the urban center. We should draft different strategies according to different situation we are facing. the charging standards are raised. The parking facilities are divided into different types: residential parking. street parking. reduce the safety of road traffic. a lot of speeding motorcycles can disturb the normal transport order. coordinating the setting up of workplace parking with capacity of nearby roads. Shanghai has drafted and implemented policies to gradually reduce motorcycles. the punishment for cyclists violating traffic regulations is more serious. and strengthened the oversight of motorcycles. However.1: Parking charge standards 4. giving priority to construction of bus depots. The specific measures are that motorcycles are forbidden to travel through the roads of the central city. ensuring that the residential car shall be parked according to the principle of “one parking space for one car”.3. their number could grow very rapidly without any limitation. the roads and areas where motorcycles are forbidden will be expanded gradually.4 Motorcycle limitation policy As motorcycles can travel more flexibly and faster. strictly controlling the on-street parking through the administrative and economic measures.3. and special bus parking. the relevant policies of “switching the motorcycle plates to car plates” have been prepared and implemented. The consideration has been taken to implement various policies according to the different characteristics of parking types. The suburban area provides sufficient parking places in connection with town construction to match a policy of less control on using cars. carried out regional controls on the use of motorcycles.
The car plate auction and higher parking costs have delayed fast motorization in Shanghai. The heavy investment and quick-pace of construction of the urban transport infrastructure has created a road network with sufficient capacity. but congestion is still serious after short periods of relief. bus priority”. the Shanghai public transportation system has been greatly upgraded with large-scale metro construction. the proportion of congested roads in the city center is more than 40% and the congested intersections are over 50%. such as traffic congestion. Overall the pollution resulting from car emissions in the center city is becoming more and more serious although some adjustment of energy source structure has been implemented. new higher grade vehicles have been introduced. There are also many problems facing urban transport in Shanghai. traffic accidents. the outlook for sustainable mobility in other urban cities in China may also improve.4 Conclusions The urban transport system of Shanghai.32 Comment from stakeholder dialogue: Many of the issues related to land use and transport integration in Shanghai are similar to the rest of China. there is complex pollution of petrol and soot. In addition. The buses have been renewed. Traffic flow on Shanghai’s roads has increased so sharply that in peak times. spatial segregation and so on. After long a period where the widespread use of bikes was controlled due to the perception that they caused the low efficiency of traffic circulation. people have recognized the importance of the bicycle system in city center from both efficiency and environment concerns. There is a feeling that if this can be solved in Shanghai. 60 . especially its public transport. is gradually going towards sustainable development under the guidance of the governmental policy of “transport first. which we never thought possible before. Besides air pollution. and the service quality of public transport has been considerably enhanced. air pollution. The services of the taxi industry have been standardized and its management strengthened.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 4.
when Shanghai lagged far behind in urban infrastructure construction investment. Today. Shanghai began to equip itself with the most advanced information and communication technologies. information transfer is often referred to as “virtual” mobility.were created as a result of the first reform to the Post and Telecommunication Bureau (PTB) in Shanghai. telephone and fax. the transfer of information constitutes an important part of the urban mobility system. This structure was thereafter thoroughly transformed in 1998 by the second reform which separated completely the telecommunication activities from the post activities. the PTB constituted thus three independent departments. Local telephone departments and long-distance telecommunication departments have left the former PTB to form “China Telecom”. the only GSM network operator in China. In May 2002. the state government decided to divide “China Telecom” into two parts: “China Netcom” runs the fixed telephone business in 10 northern Provinces of China. a company which is run under market rules. information and communications technology (ICT) is completely merged into the daily life of the citizens. it has entered directly into the age of wireless communication and high-speed internet access. telegraph. In the 1980s. information exchange in the city mainly relied on traditional modes: post. Information and telecommunications services Besides the movement of people and goods. With the existing Post Department. we could assume that the influence of ICT on the organization of every day life in Chinese urban society might be generally comparable with that in Western cities.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 5. it can substitute for or activate the “actual” movements of people and goods. Based on Shanghai. The post business is undertaken by the new Post Bureau who kept its nature of public service operated by the government. The telecommunications sector was further restructured by two important reforms to constitute four national operators: • • • In July 1999. A few years later. In some cases. “China Unicom” was founded for developing a national CDMA network as a competitor of “China Mobile”. in order to break the historical monopolizing position of “China Telecom” in the national market of fixed telephone and to promote benign competition in this field. During this rapid technological progress. while the other keeps the name of “China Telecom” and is the only operator in the other provinces. Before the 1990s. Since the development of the Pudong Special Economic Zone and the launch of large-scale infrastructure construction. two new departments – local telephone department and long-distance telecommunication department . Within less than 20 years. Therefore. the post and telecommunication sector in Chinese cities has also gone through four important reforms of its organization and management. the mobile communications business was separated from “China Telecom” to create “China Mobile”. 61 .
In terms of service point layout. and the international express mails increased nearly three times. China Post has been the basic channel for the distribution of newspapers and periodicals. from 2003 to 2006 the average number of letters sent by one Shanghai inhabitant in one year increased by 50% (net value. the total number of the letters received and dispatched by the Shanghai Postal Bureau increased nearly four times.0 Table 5. 80% of the national or local press still entrust the subscription and issue work to China Post.3 26. The number of mail routes has also been increasing.1.8 2006 649 440 3 842 351 768 189. so that the total length of mail routes has risen. In spite of the rapid development of the new ICTs in the field of communications. Moreover. The rise in demands brings forth the overall growth of the post business income.1: Postal network development Source: Data in this table provided by the Shanghai Municipal Post Bureau. From 2000 to 62 . The improvement of postal facilities also boosts the development of market demands. The data published by Shanghai Municipal Post Bureau shows that the service area per post office dropped from 11 km2 in 2003 to 9. From 2001 to 2006. the express mail service grew rapidly. The statistical data indicates (Table 5. built with the help of Post Bureaus. especially in the distant suburban areas.7 27. According to the data of Post Bureau.7 30. as in most of other countries. In the meantime. The development of postal facilities directly promotes the postal service quality in Shanghai. although the total number of mailboxes decreased slightly after 2000.0 3 770 183 3 914 203 427 44. the domestic express mails that entered and left Shanghai operated by China Post increased nearly 60 times. In Shanghai. Indicators Post Office (unit) Postal Savings Office (unit) Mail Box (unit) Stamps Sales Outlet (unit) Number of Mail Route (route) Total Length of Mail Routes (1 000 km) Length of Rural Delivery Routes (1 000 km) 1985 481 1990 535 271 2000 580 422 4 224 296 638 211. has been increased. from 38 to 57). of which more than two-thirds provide postal saving services. Within 20 years (from 1985 to 2006).1.4 161. and the average number of people served by one post office dropped correspondingly from 23. in the past 50 years. is a public service managed by the government.0 27. the total number of post offices with comprehensive functions has been increasing continuously.300 to 21. the number of the press sale points.8 km2 in 2006.1) that since 1985 the facility network construction for the postal service continues to develop.100 thousand.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 5. Despite the slight increase in the number of independently distributing press in recent years.0 23.1 Postal services The post in China. the traditional postal service has not shrunk obviously in Shanghai.3 2005 631 429 4 022 349 738 211.
who maintain that the postal service should stay as a common good. the calculation will be made according to 20 grams).2).1. In this market.80 2006 10. the fee of the letter will be calculated separately. although the postal cost rose swiftly (Table 5. if the letter exceeds 100 grams.04 1990 0. this reform has resulted in the dissatisfaction of various groups in society.20 0.08 15 412 1 443 12. As economic reform progresses in China. Indicators Mails (100 million units) #Domestic Express Mails (1. the other part.90 10.96 330.7 11.61 7 099 521 11. 1955 Local mail National mail 0. Note: Data not available for the volume of Postal Business. However.49 510. the restructuring has spread to the field of public services.50 0. and the postal saving business increased nearly twice.3 19. It is different from the Shanghai Postal Management Bureau.0 8.82 4 112 490 11. They insisted that. the fee will be accumulated every 20 grams (If less than 20 grams. What especially needs to be explained is that different from the ordinary postal service operated exclusively by the public postal company (bureau). the postal reform in Chinese cities has unfolded in succession.80 0.76 1990 2.59 million Yuan. In Shanghai.10 1996 0. because it is combined with that of telecommunication business before 2000.50 Table 5. the “Shanghai Postal Company” was created as a commercial operator in February 2007. With the development of a modern logistics industry.36 19 301 1 823 12.33 38.000 pieces) Total Copies of Newspapers and Magazines Subscribed and Sold (100 million pieces) Volume of Postal Business (100 million Yuan)* Postal Saving Deposit Balance (100 million Yuan) 1985 2.2: Major indicators of postal business in main years Source: Data in this table are provided by Shanghai Municipal Post Bureau. the business income of Shanghai Postal Bureau doubled.80 Table 5. The transformation of the postal service into a commercial activity has already been put on the agenda of state government in the 10th five-year plan.45 43.40 2005 7. the emerging market of express delivery service developed with the modern logistic industry is open to private operators. it becomes a huge emerging market.63 2000 4.08 0.1. the dramatic loss of the postal business still cannot be reversed.71 1996 6. since 1990.1.5 153.0 150.59 522. operated by privates companies. develops the most rapidly.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 2006.50 1999 0.3). amounting to 43.19 2.3: Five important fee adjustments of China Post since the founding of the People’s Republic of China (RMB) Note: The basic fee denoted by this table refers to the ordinary letters whose weight is less than 20 g.98 107. one part is run by China Post. which plays the role of local administrative authority in this sector.60 2006 1. 63 . Under the political guidance defined by the central government.1. with the final balance reaching over 520 million Yuan (Table 5. If the letter is between 20 and 100 grams.30 22.20 0.000 pieces) #International Express Mails (1.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
The four biggest international logistical companies - DHL, UPS, Fedex and TNT, have obtained the major share of the express delivery market in China. They mainly face business-type customers and present an obviously competitive advantage in the field of international transportation and express delivery. At the local scale, the express mailing service of the Shanghai Post Company faces a challenge from numerous medium and small private delivery companies. The investigation conducted by Shanghai Investigation Brigade of National Statistical Bureau from 2004 indicated that the number of private delivery enterprises in Shanghai was 467. They provide not only door-to-door-service to individual customers, but also undertake the delivery tasks of some Internet sellers. In 2006, the total business volume of express delivery realized by them was 164 million pieces (excluding the business volume in the branches in other provinces and municipalities), their daily average business volume is 450,000 pieces, accounting for nearly 90% of the total express business volume of Shanghai, and 7.8 times the express business volume operated by Shanghai Post Company in the same period.
Telecommunication: Installed telephone & mobile phone
In Shanghai, telecommunication technology has upgraded very fast. The statistical data on infrastructure (Table 5.2.1) cannot show the improvement in quality and efficiency of services, but they definitely demonstrate the popularity of telecommunication in the daily life of people (Table 5.2.2). For telephones, the total number of users increased nearly four times in the past decade, increasing from 3 million in 1996 to more than 11 million in 2006. The development of household telephones is the most remarkable: its popularity rate has developed from less than 50% to 147.7%, that is to say, a large number of families have installed more than one telephone line. The growth of mobile phone users is still swift. The number of mobile phones users increased almost forty times in the past ten years. The popularity of mobile phones reached a penetration rate of 88.7% in 2006. This growth does not show any sign of slowing down. In the last four years, the annual growth rate of mobile phone users has always been above 10%.
Indicators Long Distance Call Line (2M) Total Length of Long-distance Optical Cable (km) Total Length of Digital Microwave Line (km) Digital and Data Users (1 000 users) Capacity of Office Telephone Exchanges(Including Access Network Capacity) (1 000 units)
2003 20 853
2004 32 530 4 525 196 25.4 9 120
2005 46 136 5 141 196 24.0 13 570
2006 94 818 3 042 123 18 13 910
1 770 151 3.17 18.84
4 215 196 26.1 8 730
Table 5.2.1: Development of the telecommunication network Source: Data in this table are provided by Shanghai Communications Administration. Note: Access network refers to the capacity of telephone exchanges installed in the office of telecommunication service providers for communication between user nodes.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
Indicators Year-end Installed Telephones (1 000 households) # Household Phones Installed (1 000 households) Popularity Rate of Telephone Line (%) Popularity Rate of Household Telephone (%) Mobile Phone Subscribers Users (1 000 households) Number of Mobile Phone Owned per Hundred Persons (unit)
2003 7,340 5,280
2004 8,680 5,420 49.8 110.5 13,110 75.3
2005 9,967 6,850 56.1 137.9 14,442 81.0
2006 11,123 7,388 61.3 147.7 16,105 88.7
23.3 49.7 360
41.7 89.8 3,620
42.9 108.6 10,990 64.2
Table 5.2.2: Development of telecommunication network Source: Data in this table are provided by Shanghai Municipal Information Commission and Shanghai Communications Administration Bureau. In the last four years, the demand for long-distance telecommunications has grown. The total call time of long-distance telecommunications increased about two times, from 7.68 billion minutes in 2003 to 15.14 billion minutes in 2006. In terms of communication tools, the use of telephones maintained stable growth, while the use of mobile phones or IP phone increased remarkably. The communication frequency and time length of long-distance telecommunication by mobile phone rose by 56.2% and 73.2% respectively. The total call time of long-distance communication realized through IP cards provided by different operators increased 160% in the last four years (Table 5.2.3).
Indicators Volume of Telecom Business (100 million Yuan) Long-distance Call Lasting Time (100 million minutes) # Telephone Domestic Long-distance Call Lasting Time ## Domestic Trunk Calls ## Overseas Calls # Mobile Phone Long-distance Call Lasting Time # IP Telephone Long-distance Call Lasting Time Mobile Calls (100 million times) # Local Calls # Long-distance Calls
2003 247.40 76.8 25.9 24.6 1.3 15.7 35.2 102.40 93.50 8.9
2004 311.20 100.7 32.8 31.5 1.3 20.4 47.5 127.50 116.30 11.2
2005 375.77 110.0 31.2 30.0 1.3 19.6 59.2 156.5 144.8 11.7
2006 511.41 151.4 32.6 31.2 1.4 27.2 91.6 221.7 207.8 13.9
Table 5.2.3: Major indicators of the telecom business (2003-2006) Source: Data in this table are provided by Shanghai Municipal Information Commission and Shanghai Communications Administration Bureau. The rapid growth of the business volume of telecommunications has benefited from the drastic drop in telecommunications costs in recent years. From the standard tariff (Table 5.2.4) the price of using phones or mobile phones did not change obviously in the past ten years. However, by providing various forms of package services, phone card services, accumulated score premium services, etc., the different operators have given considerable discounts to
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
loyal consumer groups. For example, the fee for domestic long-distance calls by using prepaid IP phone card on fixed lines is about 0.30 Yuan per minute, against the 0.07 Yuan per six seconds standard fee, dropping nearly 60%. For mobile communication, by signing a one-year contract for “50 package” service, consumers may enjoy not only a certain length of free communication time, but also the lowest local communication fee of 0.12 Yuan per minute. Compared with the standard tariff, 0.40 Yuan/minute, this discount is about 70%.
Unit Monthly Basic Fee Installed Phone Local Rate DDD IDD Monthly Basic Fee Call a local fixed or mobile number from Shanghai Mobile Phone Call a Shanghai fixed or mobile number in roaming mode (out of Shanghai) Make an IDD, DDD call from Shanghai Make an IDD, DDD call in roaming mode (out of Shanghai) Per line First 3 min. Per min. 6 sec. 6 sec. Per number Min. Min. Price(Yuan) 25 0.20 0.10 0.07 0.80 50 0.40 0.60
Table 5.2.4: Basic fees for fixed phones and mobile phones in Shanghai Source: by comprehensively sorting out the prices published by China Mobile Shanghai Mobile Company. Note: if you directly dial domestic and international long-distance calls during the period from 00:00 to 07:00 each day, you will only pay a communication fee of 60% of the standard fee.
Internet and web communication
From 2003 to 2006, Shanghai made much progress in infrastructure construction for web communications networks (Table 5.3.1): information communication pipeline length increased nearly two times; the band width of the net connection to the World Wide Web increased from 7.695 Gbps in 2003 to 40 Gbps in 2006.
Indicators Length of Information Communication Pipelines (channel km) Satellite Station (unit) Wide Band of Internet (Mbps)
2003 1,010 906 7,695
2004 1,255 917 18,530
2005 1,621 925 30,000
2006 2,451 831 40,000
Table 5.3.1: Development of information communication infrastructure Source: Data provided by Shanghai Municipal Information Commission. The usage of Internet in Shanghai developed swiftly in the past decade. The data provided by Shanghai Information Commission (Table 5.3.2) show that there were only 3,347 registered Internet users in 1996. By 2000, the figure had exceeded 880,000. From 2003 to 2006,
3.3). In Shanghai. Notes: Users of Internet per thousand people were calculated by resident population.3: Main ISP in Shanghai Today. The situation of HSIA ISPs is more complicated (Table 5. registered or non-registered users may connect to the Internet.4 3.2 32. Indicators Local Information Exchange Flow (1 000 km) Users of Internet (1 000 users) Users of Internet per Thousand People (users) Users of Wide Band for Public (1 000 users) Users of Wide Band for Public per Hundred Household (users) 1996 2000 2003 1 000 2004 1 330 6 330 46. “China Telecom” is still the main Internet service provider (ISP) for traditional dialing access by phone line where transmission rates are limited to 128 Kbps.3. Great Wall Broadband Network and China Netcom (Shanghai). today. with a basic fee of 3 Yuan per hour. In addition.8 1 588. more than half of the permanent habitants of Shanghai (52.8 60.2 924. 16388.57 million.7%) use the Internet.2: Internet use development Source: Data provided by Shanghai Municipal Information Commission. The increase of the household broadband users is the most remarkable. Shanghai Cable Network. 4 4 320 32. Meanwhile.34 7 882.0 49.900 users to 3.7 3 016.4 2005 1 300 8 030 59. Four major ISPs compete in the market in Shanghai: China Telecom (Shanghai).32 million to 9.016.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study registered Internet users increased more than two times from 4.8 Table 5. That is to say. 9 19. 67 . “Chinanet”. ISP Dial-up Broadband Shanghai Telecom Shanghai Telecom Shanghai Telecom LAN Shanghai Cable Great Wall Broadband China (Shanghai) Netcom Shanghai Telecom Wireless China (Shanghai) Mobile China (Shanghai) Unicom Technology applied ISDN ADSL FTTB FTTB FTTB FTTB WiFi GSM+WiFi CDMA+WiFi Table 5. China Telecom provides another access number. for users who only want to connect to the national Wide Web. from 924. there are two ISPs for wireless HSIA: China Mobile (Shanghai) and China Unicom (Shanghai). By composing the access number 16300. These users benefit ^from a special basic fee of 5 Yuan per 2 hours.3. and the charge in a month is limited at 50 Yuan in maximum.0 2 474 2006 21 130 9 570 52.800 (an increase of 326%). high speed internet access (HSIA) service has replaced the traditional telephone dialing service and is the dominant access mode for household users.
China Telecom (Shanghai) is the only ISP providing ADSL services. the drop of the initial equipment installation charge makes the HSIA available for more and more peoples. several ISPs accelerated infrastructure construction on the one hand. The two most important broadband ISPs in Shanghai . Moreover.5). broadband (ADSL or FTTB) and WiFi. the competition in this emerging market has led to relative market share and service charge stability today.000 2001 900 800 2002 630 580 2003 310 420 Table 5. Other than providing HSIA in different rate-limits for the subscribed costumers that pay the package deals monthly. relies on its existing cable TV network and its wide customers groups. Besides Shanghai. Shanghai Cable Network. It needs to not only rent Internet bandwidth from China Telecom (Shanghai).300 2.3.Shanghai Telecom and Shanghai Cable Network.4). the new competition between different ISPs has shifted to the daily user fee for HSIA (Table 5. but also invest independently in realizing its own network infrastructure. senior citizens and other special 68 . it focuses on the user groups in various residential communities in cooperation with real estate developers. the reduction of equipment installation charge in two years reached 76% and 79% respectively for two ISPs (Table 5.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study According to the technology applied. the high initial installation charge became a main obstacle for the growth of user number. That is to say.3. In the scramble for the users’ market. the fixed HSIA may be divided into ADSL access and FTTB (Fiber to the Building) access. no longer provides Internet access service to individual users. reduced respectively their initial equipment installation charges from 1.3. It is also the only one who operates all four kinds of access services including ISDN. The rapid growth of broadband users in the last few years has benefited greatly from the benign competition between different ISPs. It has completed dual digitalization on the cable TV network for more than two million households.000 Yuan to 900 and 800 Yuan in 2001. Great Wall Broadband Network is a high-tech ISP company jointly founded in 2000 by several state-owned listing companies. China Netcom (Shanghai). the second ISP in Shanghai. Relying on its traditional monopolizing position in telephone operation. In the late 1990s. On this basis. and competed with each other on the initial equipment installation charge on the other hand. ISP Shanghai Telecom (Yuan) Shanghai Cable (Yuan) Before 2001 1. it has set up its branches in more than 30 cities nationwide. an operator similar to the Great Wall Broadband Network. when the HSIA appeared in the consumers’ market. its capacity was limited.4: Changes in Shanghai Telecom and Shanghai Cable installation charges (2001-2003) Today. Instead. In particular.300 and 2. the ISPs also propose a tariff for time-limited HSIA usage and some discounts for students. then 310 and 420 Yuan in 2003.
1: Average amount of time spent on the following information behaviors in a day for individual Shanghai resident (minutes) Source: Zhang Guoliang. of which only one plays its own program and 9 transfer the programs of others TV stations).69 11.1).4.200 GWBN 500 100 130 150 810 1. In 1993. These measures have effectively reduced the daily cost in using the HSIA.56 780 7.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study social groups.5: Basic fee comparison of the three major cable broadband access service providers in Shanghai 5.68 11.4. the Shanghai Education TV Station was founded and put into operation. Type Monthly charging user Installation charge 512K 1M 2M Package deal for IMbps connection (including installation charge) 6 months 12 months Telecom 310 130 140 150 1. A survey conducted by China Dominant-journalism Development Center (CDDC) in December 1997 shows that television. radio broadcasting and newspapers are the three most important media for Shanghai residents to obtain daily information (5. the Shanghai Cable TV Station was founded in December 1992 (opening 10 program channels. activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 TV Radio Newspaper Book Talking Music(CD. Similarly.3. 2002 As in other Chinese cities.09 13.4 Broadcasting and television stations Radio and television constitute two indispensable tools for information and communications. Shanghai has carried on a series of reforms while accelerating infrastructure construction.13 45. Since the 1990s. One year later. In order to introduce competition into this industry. Shanghai Citizen and Media Culture Facing the New Century.72 Table 5.680 SCN 220 120 770 1.400-1. radio broadcasting and television was originally operated in Shanghai by municipal services: Shanghai TV Station and Shanghai People’s Broadcasting Station. one part of the Shanghai TV Station (Shanghai TV 2) was peeled off to create “Shanghai Orient TV Station” (OTV). one part of Shanghai People’s Broadcasting Station (Pujiang Voice Station) was transformed into independent “Shanghai Orient Broadcasting Station” in the same year.67 30. 69 . MP3) time 108.03 44.40 7 8 9 10 11 12 activities Lecture Writing Conference VCD Phone Writing with Computer Time 12.320 Table 5.71 32.23 8.
9 2. number of programs provided etc. the competition also brought forth such problems as repetitive allocation of resources and their low use efficiency.3: The broadcasting program (1990-2006) Source: Shanghai Municipal Administration of Culture. and maintained their mutual cooperation and internal competition by “specifying” the channels. Film & TV. Since 2001.4.4.665 2006 21 355.6 54.6% in Shanghai area and 91.115 100 2006 25 437 66. In 2005.2: Television programs and population coverage (1990-2006) Source: Shanghai Municipal Administration of Culture. TV. Orient TV Station. Australia. SMG developed its nationwide TV media platform through the launch of its new satellite channel “Dragon TV”.6 billion.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study These organizational reforms and the competition infused new energy into the development of the broadcasting and television industry in Shanghai.5 90. However. covering a global population of more than 0. That can be proved by the rapid increase of program production.582 Table 5..00 to 12:00 and from 17:00 to 19:00) Shanghai area. Internet content provider. built “Shanghai Media Group” (SMG). both in radio broadcasting and in television (Table 5. 1990 Number of programs Program Hours per Day (hour) Production of Programs (hour) 10 123. Table 5.3 5. In the meantime.179 2000 20 297. etc.4.4 10. The market share of its TV programs in “golden period” (from 19:00 to 22:00) in Shanghai area is close to 70%. are less advantaged in national competition with China Central TV Station and other provincial TV stations. a “regrouping” reform has been carried out to the local broadcasting stations and TV stations.0 9. as separate entities. Shanghai TV Station.172 96 1995 11 85. Radio. entertainment program resources. the new SMG group successfully completed the integration of its TV and broadcasting information resources. The two Shanghai TV stations. The broadcasting programs of the reformed SMG claimed a market share of 90.222 1995 20 284.the municipalities directly under the administration of the State Council. which incorporated broadcasting.383 100 2005 25 410. This channel covers all the big Chinese cities . It consists of reintegrating the Shanghai People’s Broadcasting Station.275 100 Table 5. Macao and other countries and regions upon their approval. by exchanging cable TV broadcasting rights. program broadcasting time.985 96 2000 13 156.903 2005 21 346. Shanghai Orient Broadcasting Station. Its programs are also broadcasted by satellite to Japan.6 83. provincial capital cities and cities specifically designated in the state plan.4.2. newspaper. and on this basis.3) 1990 Number of programs Program Hours per Day (hour) Production of Programs (hour) Population Coverage Rate 5 35.1% in the broadcasting “golden times” (from 9. USA. Film & TV. Radio.2 47. Shanghai Cable TV Station and other units.0 64. 70 .
The rapid development and decline of wireless pagers in the 1990s in Shanghai is an illustrative example.5. and it will be broadcast comprehensively in 2008. because of the low popularity of telephones and high costs of mobile phones. wireless pagers became an important means of contact and access to information in the daily life of the people. comprehensive or specialized sales websites have inaugurated cheap and 71 .Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Radio broadcasting and TV in Shanghai have not only undergone major reforms in management systems.3 Table 5. In addition to the routine cable TV network. amounting to 3.0 2006 189. 5.420 2001 3.790 1998 3. In Shanghai and other large cities. The user number has decreased 72% in three years (Table 5.230 1997 2. In terms of digital HDTV. the wireless pager is absent from the Shanghai market.2: Shanghai e-business development (2005-2006) Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 2007 The wide application of new ICTs has not only boosted the development of computer and software industries (Table 5.97 716. However. it is the change in modes of social life and the open mind of the people to newly-emerging things that trigger the increase in the new ICTs market. At that time. User numbers increased swiftly and it reached its peak in 2000. in the new century. Both individuals and enterprises rely more and more on the Internet and other information platforms to seek out business opportunities.1). From 2005. such as interactive TV. E-business has become an important means in the economic activities of Shanghai (Table 5. the ground broadcasting standard for digital TV was published in 2003.010 2002 1. Indicators Trade Value of E-commerce (billion Yuan) Accumulative Granted Digital Certificate (thousand pieces) 2005 162.230 1999 3. owing to the rise of the popularity of family phones. the newly emerging network.5. the users of wireless pagers dropped sharply.31 561.5 Application of new ICTs and its impact The rapid and wide application of new ICTs in Shanghai benefits from the speedy development of sciences and technology on the one hand and the new political and organizational arrangement on the other hand.5.3).2).290 2000 3.1: Changes in Shanghai wireless pager use (1996-2003) The high acceptance of the citizen to new technologies let the new ICTs play an important role in business transaction activities. mobile TV and mobile phone TV and other new forms of multi-media broadcasting are becoming familiar things in everyday life. 1996 Number of users (thousands) 2. but have also made much technological progress. but has also provided conditions for the development of modern logistics as a platform with a very high degree of integration.5.42 million.5. and the continuous fall in the cost of mobile phones. Fundamentally.620 2003 980 Table 5.
and have been connected with social security services and other basic life expenditure information (water. Shanghai also pushed out electronic account “social security cards” with information integration functions in the social security system.52 11. The “citizen mailboxes” have become the direct communication means between government and individuals on the one hand.6 11.3: Information service industry operation (2004-2006) Source: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 2007 In addition to creating new operating models and value in business.5. more than 1.41 12.28 9. and pushed out pre-charged “public transportation cards” with universal payment functions on the other hand.15 61.01 43 144.10 2005 91. Under the overall layout of the national project called “Government Online”. when the mailboxes were formally launched. It firstly presented in China the “Citizen mailbox”. all the governmental authorities in Shanghai have established their own official websites.68 45. an individual E-mail service with the true name of citizens. The importance of the role played by NICTs in the daily life of Shanghai citizens will continue to increase (Table 5. new ICTs also provide new channels and techniques to the public management and the public services for the government.24 million Shanghai citizens have registered for “citizen mailboxes”.89 10.12 Table 5.67 10.08 9. and have thus become a powerful force in the retail business.3 14.83 2006 122.5. to the end of 2006.56 30. the Shanghai Municipal People’s Government also improved the urban public service quality fully using the NICTs. In addition.4). This creates favorable conditions for the transparency of governmental affairs. In the field of urban transportation.0 7. From 2004. At the same time.42 35 99. as the “ID cards online” for Shanghai residents. Indicators Operating Revenue of Information Service Industry (billions Yuan) # Computer Service & Software Industry # Self-program Software System Integration Enterprises of Over 100 million Software Revenue (unit) Software of Information Service Industry (thousand persons) # Computer Service & Software Industry (thousand persons) 2004 65. electricity and coal) for citizens to manage and pay for their daily needs.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study convenient modern sales methods in cooperation with local express delivery companies. Shanghai vigorously improved transport information services on the one hand.06 56 180. 72 . public participation and monitoring by the public.
73 8.32 2.19 1. is comparable to those in Western cities.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Indicators Accumulative Registered Users of Citizen Mail Box (10 000 houses) All-year Exchange Volume of FFT(10 000 units) All-year Exchange Value of FFT(100 million Yuan) Accumulative Volume of Social Insurance Card (10 000 pieces) Accumulative Volume of Traffic Card (10 000 pieces) All-year Sales Value of Traffic Card (100 million Yuan) Accumulative Volume of Bank Card (10 000 pieces) All-year Exchange Value of Bank Card (100 million Yuan) # Consumption Value with Bank Card 2005 33.28 5.18 1.48 16. The application of new ICTs. 73 . in particular the emergence of E-business and the express delivery services in the urban areas.89 3.68 504.5.15 2006 124. particularly that of mobile communications and the HSIA of the Internet in the everyday life of citizens. pushed by the rapid urbanization and spatial restructuring. The application of ICTs contributes to the development of the logistics industry.568. However.23 1. The total volume of actual trips is increasing.610.4: Computerization of public service sources: Shanghai Statistic Yearbook 2007 5. The development of virtual mobility in Shanghai has not only contributed to the economic growth but has also provided a new kind of urban governance.233.27 72.98 733.6 Conclusions The development of information and telecommunication services in Shanghai has been characterized by rapid technological progress and high public acceptability.793.666. Besides the technological improvements.75 9.004.761. there is little evidence that proves that the development of virtual mobility in Shanghai has substituted for the actual movements of people and goods.70 Table 5.06 10.729.976. It contributes to a new urban life style which influences every function in the city.80 2.06 5. the political and organizational reforms in this sector also explain the fast evolution.26 1.
531 transport enterprises in Shanghai. Behind this general trend of transport industry development. which is the sum of operating profit. The transport and communication costs are also taking an ever increasing share of the family spending budget. the operating efficiency of the Shanghai transport system improved while the cost per unit of transport service continued to decrease. by summing up the profits made from 1997 to 2005. due to the sharp growth in demand for transport services.2. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 Note: Total profit means the ultimate outcome of production and business activities. railway transport was in deficit.the number of road transport enterprises has increased by more than 100% 74 . As it can be seen from Figure 6. the overall cost of transportation is still increasing rapidly. 6.1. Generally speaking. 3 000 number of enterprises 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 0 35 000 000 total profit (1 000 yuan) 30 000 000 25 000 000 20 000 000 15 000 000 10 000 000 5 000 000 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 year number of enterprises total profit(1 000 yuan) Figure 6. the difference between each mode is obvious: Railway transport .1 General information In 2007.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 6. Road transport .2. The profits on railways have undergone big ups and downs each year. along with the improvement of Shanghai transport facilities and the increase in transport services supply. However.1: The number and the total profit of the transport and postal services enterprises Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. investment income.the number of railway transport companies remains at two after a fluctuation at the beginning of this century. net income besides the business and the profit and loss adjustment of preceding year. subsidies income. the number of transport enterprises and their profits has seen huge increases since 2000. The general development of transport industry in Shanghai shows a smooth trend. realizing a total profit of about 30 billion Yuan.2 The operation situation of transport enterprises By the end of 2005 there were 2. especially in 2003. Shanghai’s transport system operating costs and efficiency 6.
3.9%. since 2001. It has grown rapidly to be the economic power of the Shanghai transport sector. the proportion of traditional consumption items (such as food. Its profit in 2005 accounted for approximately 15% of the total profit of the transport industry in Shanghai (see Appendix II. Aviation transport . Figure 4-7).3.4%.1.the number of air enterprises has been growing since 2001.the number of water transport enterprise has been growing after a decrease to 41 in 2001. the transport and communication consumer price index has decreased in recent years. 75 .1990=100) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 6.3 6. the price index of transportation and communication for Shanghai citizens had been ascending year after year from 1990 to 2000. the share devoted to transport and communications rose from 3. There were 13 air enterprises by the end of 2005. Water transport industry has got rid of the deficit since 2003.5% to 35.1 General transport and communication costs and expenditures Transport and communication consumer price index As it can be seen in Figure 6. and the speed of growth was second only to healthcare.3. with its profits in 2005 up to four times as much as that in 2003 and equating to approximately 75% of profit of the entire Shanghai transport industry. At the same time. However. clothes and household facilities) in total household expenditures was gradually going down.1990=100) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 year overall residents consumer transport and communication Figure 6.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study The profits on highway mildly cooled down after experienced a sharp increase from 2001 to 2003.0% to 14. consumption price index consumer price index (1991～2006.3.2 Transport and communication expenditures According to the statistics on the average consumption expenditure of Shanghai citizens from 1990 to 2005. in contrast to the upward trend of the overall resident consumer price index. 6. The Engle’s Coefficient standing for the share of urban household consumer spending devoted to food declined from 56. and the total growing rate is a little larger than the overall resident consumer price index.1: Overall residential consumer price index (1991-2006. Water transport .
9 7. the transportation and communication expenditure for Shanghai citizens reached 2.7 5.6 14. Overall both the absolute expenditure on transportation and communication and its proportion in the total expenditure have been on the trend of continuous growth since the 1990s (Figure 6.3. from 1990 to 2000. Culture and Recreation Services 11.8 Household Facilities.1 10.33 The data in Figure 6.6 6.3.2: Trend in consumption expenditures on transportation and communication per capita Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 As it can be seen from Figure 6.1% in 2006.3.8 9.9 Clothing 10. or 15.2 Table 6.8 9 10.6 1.6 1990 1995 2000 2005 4.5%).3.6 6. 76 .5 16.6 14.5 3.8% in 2012 from 13.333 Yuan per capita.9 5.5 35.5 8.6 5.4 Food 56.3.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Year 1990 1995 2000 2005 Total Consumption Expenditures 100 100 100 100 Transport and Communications 3.8% of total expenditures.7 4.3 3.4 44.5 Housing Miscellaneous Commodities and Services 2.4 6. Since 1998.1). It ranked third in total household expenditure.1: Structure of per capita consumer expenditures of urban households Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 In 2006.0 5.3.2 suggests that the growth of actual expenditure of transportation and communication has far exceeded this projection. behind food (35.8 Medicines and Medical Services 0.9 8. Articles and Services 10. Researchers who analyzed the data from 1998 to 2003 had estimated that the proportion of transportation and communication expenditure would reach 15. the increase in TCCE has exceeded the increase in per capita disposable income.8 Year Education. culture and recreation services (16. 2 500 consumption expenditure (yuan) 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 18% 16% 14% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 1980 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 year Consumption Expenditures in Transport and Communications (yuan) the proportion of transport and communication consumption expenditure in the total proportion 12% Figure 6. the growth trend of the disposable income and the transportation & communications consumption expenditures (TCCE) are similar.6%) and education.5 53.
It is grateful to see that the policy-maker is trying to reduce the cost 77 .0 Yuan 1. Pioneering With Science and Technology.0 Yuan 1.39 Yuan/L Suzhou 2.40 Yuan/L 200 Yuan 4 Yuan Ningbo 2.0 Yuan/km 3.3: Comparison of disposable income and the TCCE Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 Seeing from Table 6.8 Yuan/km 3.3.7 Yuan 1. the cost for urban transport in Shanghai is highest.5 Yuan/km 3. particularly for car use on parking and licenses.1).44 Yuan/L 170 Yuan 15 000 Yuan 5 Yuan Wenzhou 2.0 Yuan 2. the increasing demand of transportation and communication will continue for a long time.8 Yuan/km Nanjing 1.0 Yuan 1.3.4 Yuan 3.000 Yuan or more in Shanghai while in Ningbo it only costs RMB 170Yuan.2: Travel cost in YRD cities in 2005 Source: Fares of Transport and Communication.3. Therefore.0 Yuan _ _ _ Hangzhou 2. although the consumer price index of transport and communication has decreased slowly in recent years (as it is said in 6.46 Yuan/L License 45 000 Yuan 500 Yuan Parking 10 Yuan 6 Yuan Shanghai 2. the absolute cost of transportation and communication of Shanghai people continues to grow. The license costs RMB 45. among the several cities in Yangtze River Delta region.0 Yuan/km (Excluding wait) 2.3.5 Yuan air conditioning 2.44 Yuan/L 5 Yuan Table 6.2. 2005. The public policy in the cost control for transport and communications in Shanghai shows an intention to reduce the travel cost for public transport and meanwhile increase that of private cars.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 25 000 Average Per Capita Disposable Income (yuan) 20 000 15 000 10 000 5 000 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 Transport and Communications Consumption Expenditures (yuan) 1980 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 year Average Per Capita Disposable Income(yuan) Transport and Communications Consumption Expenditures (yuan) Figure 6.0 Yuan 1.4 Yuan/km 1. Bus Fares City ordinary 1.0 Yuan Taxi Basic fare 10 Yuan/3 km 7 Yuan/3 km 10 Yuan/3 km 10 Yuan/4 km 8 Yuan/4 km 10 Yuan/4 km Rate Car Petrol Price-93# 3.0 Yuan 1.0 Yuan 0.04 Due to expansion of urban space and rise of living standards.
6. the total road traffic volume in Shanghai was 90.6 km/trip to 8. as can be seen in Figure 6.4 km/trip. The trip share by public transport has reached 24% in 2004 and the efficiency has been greatly improved compared with that in 1995. Moreover.4 Table 6.4. 1995 and 2004 Source: The third Comprehensive Transport Survey Report of Shanghai.6 2004 58 8.4 of this report.1 Cost and efficiency for public transport Efficiency The average travel time by metro and bus (including trolley bus) for permanent residents in the central city has decreased from 62 minutes to 58 minutes from 1995 to 2004. With the rise of investment in road construction in recent years. 6. 1995 average travel time (minute) average travel distance（km） 62 6.6 million vehicle kilometers.4.1. the roads around the central area are beginning to get congested. A comprehensive analysis on urban congestion is available in part 8. for example the newly built expressway and arterial roads cannot match the traffic’s increase yet. the road supply. .4. which represented an increase of 170% compared with that in 1995. However.4. while the travel distance has increased from 6. the number of public transport passengers keeps growing. in the city center area.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study of public transport travel and increase cost for driving. (Table 6.1: Public transport travel time and distance in the central city.4 Cost and efficiency on urban transport In 2004. 2004 78 .1) The average travel speed by public transport has increased by 40% from 1995 to 2004.34 At the same time. The heavy congestion in rush hours hasn’t gotten better in this area. new infrastructure should generally be able to meet the needs of traffic growth.
79 .4. The metro can now provide higher efficiency and lower trips costs for medium.4. In order to encourage long-distance travel. while those going beyond 16 km only make up 11%.35 Thus. the number of metro passengers has increased sharply.000/day) Source: The third Comprehensive Transport Survey Report of Shanghai.2. the cost of traveling by bus is the lowest for short-distance trips. It means that the number of medium. The metro in Shanghai is now cheaper than other public transport modes for long-distance trips (longer than 20 km). passengers taking the metro make more short-distance trips than long-distance ones.1: Passengers using public transport (1. Cost As it shows in Table 6.8 minutes in 2005 from 3. The new research report published in 2006 shows that the average waiting time and the onboard traveling time of metro passengers increased to 4 minutes and 16.7% of the daily income of lower paid people Shanghai. 2004 and Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 Note: The figure lacks the data of the volume of the taxi passenger in 2006 As five metro lines have been put into operation one by one. That of Line #1 has been reduced to 3 minutes (see Appendix I. the cost is still quite high for low-income people. The minimum two-way metro tickets will cost 17. the passengers traveling within 6 km making up 38% of the total flow of passengers. metro transport cannot play its important role in medium. However. Table 8).and long-distance travel. The basic price was raised from 2 Yuan to 3 Yuan.and long-distance passengers increases with the increase in traveling time on the metro.and long-distance travel than bus and car. with 1 Yuan more for every additional 10 km. and it also has speed and frequency.8 minutes in 2003 respectively. the metro ticket price was adjusted in September 2005. According to transport survey conducted at the beginning of 2005. The time between two trains during rush hour has been reduced to about 6 minutes.2 minutes and 10.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Passenger Volume of Public Transportation ( thousand persontimes) 10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000 6 000 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000 0 1995 Metro 1996 2000 year 2004 2006 Taxi Buses and Trolley Buses Figure 6.
For the transfer to metro from bus realized within 90 minutes.75 20 55 3.htm Note: Transfer preference is not considered.jt. a number of incentive measures have been carried out: • • • If the expenditure through the prepaid transport card exceeds 70 Yuan in a month. For the bus transfers realized within 90 minutes in the air-conditioned buses of the 409 bus lines.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Standard of Charge Mode Metro Buses and Trolley Buses (air conditioning) Taxi 11 Yuan/3 km 2 Yuan/13 km Basic Price 3 Yuan/6 km Rate 1 Yuan/10 km 0.9 70 2.5 Yuan discount per transfer time. the passenger would also benefit from 0.61 29 75 Passenger Vehicle 1995 12.63 19 51 6. 1995-2004 Note: exclude freight taxi and special car for truck. 80 .sh.11 Sep.3 Table 6.4.cn/node41/200507/con116882. Generally the trips.8 90 2.3: Vehicle travel features.45 21 52 2004 18 86 2.1 2.htm http://www.4 2004 49.html .20-0. Passenger vehicle occupancy rates decreased by half.jt.15 Motorcycle 2004 80. while many passenger vehicles became private cars. Freight vehicles travel more and longer. the holder can benefit from 10% discount on the following ticket fare.cn/GB/1089/3684322.214.171.124: Public transport cost in Shanghai Source: http://life. the traveling time and the daily mileage of motorized vehicles have all increased from 1995 to 2004.1 74 2.2 Cost and efficiency for motorized vehicles Efficiency Commercial Freight Trucks index Total number (10 thousand) % of travel making day Trips /day Average travel distance (km/trip) Daily mileage(km) Passenger occupancy 1995 11. 2005 http://www.1 Yuan/1 km 11 17 26 47 68 89 Table 6.com. exclude bus. 6.people.sh.cn/node110/node113/200609/con120161.09 12 25 1. the passenger can benefit from a 0. In order to encourage people to travel by public transport in Shanghai.25 Yuan/1 km （progressing Travel Cost (Yuan) 3km 3 6km 3 10km 4 20km 5 30km 6 40km 7 2 2 2 4 7 9 every 1 Yuan） 2.5 Yuan discount per transfer. taxi and special car for passenger vehicle.
com/chepai/chepaisi.0 .4.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Cost The cost of car use in Shanghai includes vehicle purchase expense. fuel prices have increased greatly since 2003. 300. parking fee.0 250.4. road toll and road pricing. As the number of cars in city will be continually controlled.0 1996 2000 2001 2002 year 2003 2004 2005 2006 Figure 6. Since the auction system of vehicle license plate was adopted in Shanghai. and maintenance fee. The price index of transport vehicles was 97.0 150.0 200. the average price of car license plate has increased although the government has adjusted the released number of license plates according to the deal price. license fee.2: Car license auction in Shanghai Source: http://www. (Figure 6. the price of transport vehicles are coming down year by year.3 in 2006 (see Appendix I.3: Fuel price index (1995=100) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 PURCHASING PRICE IND (1995=100) 81 average price(yuan) number of release . fuel expense.0 50. By the price index of consumption.alltobid.htm Based on the price index of fuel purchase in Shanghai. The rise of fuel price directly results in the increased cost for traveling by car (see Figure 6.0 100.3). The estimated price will be very high. Table 9).4.9 in 2001 and 91. the license plates will not be released in large amounts. in contrast the operating cost is higher and higher.2) 80 000 70 000 45 000 40 000 35 000 30 000 25 000 20 000 15 000 10 000 5 000 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 60 000 50 000 40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 0 year number of release average price(yuan) Figure 6.4.
Table11-12).5.5 Motorcycles 30 15 Table 6. 82 . every month.4.4. the parking charge will continually keep a high level and is highest among Chinese cities (see Appendix I. The charge that vehicles from other cities should pay in Shanghai is as 3-5 times as that in Nanjing. Comparatively. while.njjtgf. 119. as it can be seen in Table 6.cn/Lawsnews. Table 10).4 and Table 6. but that for car and motorcycle is relatively higher.jsp?colid=0402&id=ID031218000 http://www. (Appendix I.4.5: Maintenance in Beijing. vehicle owners in urban area should pay the road use charges and road maintenance fee. The general level of road tolls in Shanghai is lower than that in Beijing and Nanjing (Table 6. Shanghai and Nanjing Source: Shanghai Municipal People's government Order No.aspx?classcode=/LAWS/YLF/ Note: for passenger vehicles. it is levied according to road usage.4. the Regulations on the Control of Shanghai highway maintenance (Revised) Shanghai Municipal People's government Order No. the Regulations on the Control of Shanghai road tolls on loans road Note: for passenger vehicles. the Regulations on the Control of Shanghai highway maintenance (Revised) http://www. 119. In addition. in other cities. Due to the rise of land price.5).4. The road toll of freeway in Shanghai is the same as that in Guangzhou.10 seats=1 ton Shanghai levies different road charges upon vehicles of local area and from other cities.4: Maintenance and road use charges in Shanghai (Unit: Yuan/ton/month) Source: Shanghai Municipal People's government Order No. 102. the unit for motorcycles is Yuan per month Type Passenger Vehicles Freight Trucks Motorcycles Besides: car with less than 5 seats Passenger Vehicles with less than 5 seats unit Yuan/month/ton Yuan/month/ton Yuan/month/vehicle Yuan/month/vehicle Yuan/month/vehicle Beijing 220 220 15 Shanghai 200 190 30 Nanjing 260 200 14 120 200 Table 6.cn/jsp/display.ylfzhj. the latter should pay higher road charges.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Land is a limited resource for urban development in Shanghai. Freight Trucks Maintenance Road Using Charge 190 135 Passenger Vehicles 200 150 Trailers 110 38. In Shanghai. 10 seats=1 ton. the road use charge is fixed and paid every month in Shanghai. As a result the overall cost for urban road use is higher than that in Beijing and Nanjing.bj.
the number of goods delivering taxis reached 2.1) However. (Figure 6. Standard of Charge Mode Freight Taxi(0.5. A lot of commercial enterprises have entrusted these taxi companies with their logistics work. Five enterprises were created. the annual output per vehicle in freight transport in Shanghai decreased year by year. which makes 45% of the business volume for the taxis. the rise of charge for road pricing and fuel.36Since 2002.4. who keeps the prices at a relative low level. The remainder is made up of more occasional goods delivery services for individuals or enterprises. It gives an idea on the general situation of the urban logistics industry in Shanghai. In 2004. the road system takes the main role for freight transport on land. 83 . due to the limited capacity of railway transport. which is still developing and ranked first among all kinds of transport modes before 2005.9T) Basic Price (Starting Price) 18 Yuan/3 km 23 Yuan/3 km Rate 2. 6.6: Freight transport costs in Shanghai Source: http://www.800 from 380 at the beginning. This service became the main commercial mode for the goods transports and delivery in the urban area in the daytime.jt. And the local authority conferred a special license plate started with BH to these vehicles. as the truck can only go into the central city after evening.sh.cn/node41/200507/con116882.4.0 Yuan/1 km 3km 18 23 Calculation of Travel Cost (Yuan) 6km 26 32 10km 36 44 20km 61 74 30km 86 104 40km 111 134 Table 6. the vehicles are equipped with the counter and the tariff of service is regulated by the authority. the price of the goods delivering taxi service could be a credible reference.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 6.5 Efficiency and cost of intercity transport In recent years.6T) Freight Taxi(0.3 Cost of urban occasional freight transport In terms of urban freight transport cost. The vehicles are recognizable by the model.htm The goods delivering taxi service was initiated by the proposal of municipal government in August 1999. As with the ordinary taxi for passengers. road freight transport suffered the problems like poor communication between the demand and offer. the color and the taxi indicators installed.5 Yuan/1 km 3.
while we can only travel on highway transport at 110 km/hour. but the facilities have been fully explored. the cost for railway is much less than that for highway. The efficiency of railway transport has been greatly enhanced. While in short-distance transport (to Hangzhou and Nanjing).000 ton-km) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. the road is cheaper and much less time consuming. in the long-distance transport (to Beijing and Guangzhou).1: Annual ton-kilometers of each truck (1. but it takes longer time than by truck.5. Guangzhou. running speed of freight trains. After the fifth promotion of train speed. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 There are two railway transport lines linking to other parts of mainland China: Shanghai-Nanjing (to the north) and Shanghai-Hangzhou (to the south).5. Real traffic is 119% and 111% of the planned traffics respectively. In 2004. Obviously. there were 94 pair passenger trains and 50 pair freight trains per day in the peak traffic period on the Shanghai-Nanjing Line. Hangzhou and Nanjing by highway and railway. so the potential of increasing railway transport efficiency would be limited without the construction of new infrastructure. and waiting time for freight transfer. the highest speed of passenger trains reached 160 km/hour. The freight companies rarely provide short-distance railway transport service. such as rate of on-time departure of freight trains. The limited transport capacity becomes the main trouble for the railway transport development. 84 . Figure 8-10) Showed by the railway transport index. An analysis is made of the transport cost and time for several freight companies from Shanghai to get to Beijing. 6.km) 140 000 120 000 100 000 80 000 60 000 40 000 20 000 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 year Figure 6.1 Cost of highway and railway freight Take the transport cost of one-ton container for example. (Appendix II.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 200 000 180 000 160 000 annual tonnage (1 000 tons. the efficiency of railway freight transport keeps steady growth. rate of on-time departure of passenger trains. trains loaded per day.
85 .Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Highway Freight Transport Price and Time Consuming Distance Destinations Beijing Guangzhou Hangzhou Nanjing km 1.021huoyun. it is very difficult to buy a train ticket during the rush hour in the weekend.810 203 301 Company A 300 300 --Company E 400 380 -380 average price(Yuan) 350 340 -380 Time Consuming (day) 3~4 4~5 -2 Table 6. At the same time.com/wfbj8. Taking Shanghai-Hangzhou for example.com/bangchang1/glys.szy56. Many people choose to travel by long-distance coaches.com/wfbj.asp http://www.613 190 295 Company A 450 580 280 300 Company B 400 550 220 240 Company C 400 550 200 250 Company D 400 450 190 230 average price(Yuan) 413 533 223 255 Time Consuming (day) 3 3 1 1 Railway Freight Transport Price and Time Consuming Destination Beijing Guangzhou Hangzhou Nanjing Distance Km 1.2 Cost of highway and railway passenger transport By analyzing the ticket fare and transport speed of the highway and railway from Shanghai to Hangzhou.394 1.do56. the Ministry of Railway confirms faster speed with the same ticket price.5.qlm56.5. highway transport capacity is much more abundant and becomes a favorable supplement to railway.1: The cost of transporting one ton of goods by Shanghai freight companies Source: http://www.asp http://www.463 1. In contrast to the limited capacity of railway transport. the highway transport is more flexible. Beijing and Guangzhou.net/cn_dl.htm http://guoaohuoyun.021wuliu.asp http://www.com/ http://www. Nanjing. The cheapest ticket is about one-fourth of highway transport.com/yunjia. After the fifth promotion of train speed.szy56. so it still achieves fast development although its transport fee is higher.htm 6. the cost and efficiency of railway passenger transport is better than that of highway passenger transport.
html http://www. An inquiry on 23 July 2007.974 km in 2000 to 2. and 10 times 86 . Travel by flight will no longer be the most expensive way.com/train/html/Shanghai/shanghai.5.5. it draws the conclusion that the price of aviation transport provided by Shanghai freight companies is 7-8 times higher than that of highway transport. Since the opening of Pudong international airport.shanghaiairport. 2007.tixcn.09 highest 0.2: Highway and railway passenger transport service between Shanghai and major cities Source: http://www. And the overall service of Shanghai’s airports has been greatly increased.21 speed（km/hrs） Railway lowest 85 60 65 60 highest 130 130 135 110 Highway 80~100 80~100 80~100 80~100 Table 6. (Table 6. the fare is for July 30. especially for domestic travel whose cost is lower than that of private car use on the freeway.07 0.08 0.htm www.34 0.44 0.06 0. The average distance traveled expanded from 1.32 0.123cha.3: The fares and the number of flights of Shanghai civil aviation Source: http://www. domestic civilian aviation companies have seen great development. shows the price of single ticket and the number of departure flights on this day.25 0. and the growth rate of passenger and freight transport kept above 10% every year.600 km in 2006. the number of linked cities and departure flights is increasing year yearly.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Service（times/day） Railway Hangzhou Nanjing Beijing Guangzh ou 67 76 10 5 Highway 107 27 3 5 Distance（km） Railway 203 301 1 463 1 810 Highway 176 306 1 262 1 797 Fare （Yuan） Railway lowest 15 24 88 160 highest 90 130 500 600 Highway 60 97 311 376 Fares per distance（Yuan/km） Railway lowest 0.com Note: The fare information comes from internet at July 23.5.33 Highway 0.34 0. 2007 By analyzing the transport price of one-ton freight from Shanghai to Beijing. Nanjing and Hangzhou.3 Aviation transport The capacity of aviation transport in Shanghai has been developed greatly.5. The gap between the different flight fares is big.43 0.com/ 6.3) Destinations London Tokyo New York Hong Kong Beijing Guangzhou Lowest Fare(Yuan) 2 250 1 890 3 350 1 000 450 420 Highest Fare(Yuan) 28 720 5 030 23 030 2 400 1 130 1 280 Number of Flights(a week) 36 209 4 400 675 204 Table 6. which brings about a differentiation of ticket fares and lowers effectively the cost of transport. Figure 11-13) In recent years.com/twell/zh/city_flights/shanghai/index. Guangzhou.qunar. (Appendix II.
6 1.3 3. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 87 . Port efficiency has also increased year on year.900 ton-km.2 2 3 306 3 806 1 803 1 803 5.900 ton-km to 112.2 3.2 4.com/yunjia1. Annual Production per Vessel Tonnage (1 000 tons.km) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2000 2001 2002 year Annual Production per Sea-going Vessel Tonnage Annual Production per Occan-going Vessel Tonnage 2003 2004 2005 Figure 6.com/wfbj6.htm 6.4: Shanghai airline domestic freight transport price list Source: http://www.5.4.qlm56. an increase of 41%.5.2: Annual production per vessel tonnage (1. The average berthing time of ships in ports decreased by 67% from 1996 to 2006 and the average load per vessel has increased by 100%. which has grown from 79.8 1.000 tons-km) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry.4 2.8 3 4.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study higher than railway transport.5 1. especially the latter.5.5. The operating efficiency of water transport and port in Shanghai turns out very well and continues to be improved.9 4.5 2.5 3.1 3 506 3 806 1 402 1 102 3 406 3 806 1 603 1 452 Table 6.szy56.9 6.4 Water transport and ports Efficiency The development of sea shipping and ocean-going freight has kept a steady growth since 2001.2 2.3 2.1 4.8 4.4 1. The transport price and linked cities of international freight flights of Shanghai aviation is shown in the Table 6.3 1.6 2.asp http://www.9 6. Company A Distance (km) Basic Price Yuan/kg 100kg Yuan/kg 300kg Yuan/kg 1ton Yuan Basic Price Yuan/kg 100kg Yuan/k g 300kg Yuan/ kg 1ton Yuan Company C average price 1ton Yuan Beijing Guangzhou Nanjing Hangzhou 1 178 1 308 273 176 5.
short-distance shipping prices in Shanghai port are higher than those in Ningbo port.cn”.5 1. According to the data released in the web site on 22 July 2007 (Table 6.5.0 1. including 14 well-known foreign shipping container companies. The prices are communicated to the public by the website “www.0 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 year 2002 2003 2004 2005 Ships of Foreign Trade Figure 6.0 0.5.5. while inverse for long-distance shipping prices. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 12 000 A v e r a g e T o n n a g e o f F r e ig h t b y E a c h V e s s e l ( to n ) 10 000 8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 year all ships Ships of Foreign Trade Figure 6. Table 13. 88 .5 0.5).chineseshipping. As far as the average value is concerned. A 20-foot container transport price in Shanghai Port of international service is shown in Appendix I.4: Average tonnage of freight by each vessel (ton) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study average berthes time (day) 2.5 2.3: Average time of vessels berthing at harbors (day) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. the Shanghai port holds an obviously advantageous position in the long-distance shipping transport.com. There are about 78 marine shipping companies. The companies who provide international marine shipping container transport services in Shanghai and Ningbo ports should report the transport price to Shanghai Shipping Exchange. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 Cost The Ministry of Communications of China started to implement the Freight on Record System from 1 January 1997.
500 2. Meanwhile. There is little potential to promote the overall transport efficiency without capacity extension. and lower transport cost in the future development.cn/filing/openprice. and the increasing expenditure on transport and communication.6 Conclusions Concerning water and aviation transport.500 2. the efficiency of transport from Shanghai to the outside has achieved much improvement since 2001.470 Table 6.500 average 106 55 487 330 1. and its profits are relatively low.5.364 1. the limited space in the central area for road construction will become the problem for improving the operating efficiency of individual vehicles.500 2. This has contributed to making Shanghai a world center of trade and shipping.asp . It should further integrate resources. characterized by the growth of travel distance and frequency. The good management and operation of transport enterprises have led to an increase in profits since 2003.375 1. Ningbo Port Source: http://www.5: 20-foot container transport price of Shanghai. the improvement of intercity transport should depend on public transport with high capacity and a more efficient transfer system.com.chineseshipping.150 1. It would also be an inevitable choice to meet the increasing demand of travel for the residents. For intercity passenger transport. But its future is not promising due to factors like transport cost and industry system. the further development of international trade in Shanghai will definitely boost the construction of the water and aviation transport industry and operating efficiency of the system. enhance the level of information and networks.22 July 2007 6.150 1. As far as road transport is concerned.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Destination Hong Kong Singapore Rotterdam Hamburg Departing Shanghai Ningbo Shanghai Ningbo Shanghai Ningbo Shanghai Ningbo Number of Statistical Company 4 3 7 3 7 4 10 5 lowest 60 35 345 265 1. Therefore.000 Price (US dollar) highest 180 100 600 400 2.050 1.450 1. the profit value has increased dramatically. 89 . The development of the railway industry has been limited by its capacity.
34% 0.74% 0.44% 0. highways and rail transport added up to 149.1: Transport investment in Shanghai (billion) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook.22 336.577 24. twice that in the 9th Five Year Plan. which is 4 times as much investment in infrastructure facilities as in the 9th Five Year Plan and ranks the top in history. The 10th Five Year Plan is the starting phase for implementing a new round of the master plan. 1996-2005 Note: 2002 investments in the metro include magnetic levitation at 5.42 Investment of metro 1. The period of the 10th Five Year Plan is the high time for freeway development in Shanghai. Investment for urban roads is 16. such as the construction of a container port which attracts 15. which is the same as in the previous plan. Investment for highways is 20. with 16. It invests 23.1. The proportion of investment in urban roads decreased from 40. Shanghai’s economy is growing fast and investments in transport construction are continually expanding. taking up 92.635 6.54% 2.31% 1.725 billion Yuan for bridges and tunnels respectively.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 7.4 12.149 % of GDP 2.04 billion Yuan in transport facilities.286 21. 34.439 14.927 6. It has been a powerful driver behind urban transport development.06% 3.7% of the total investment.45 billion Yuan and 7.64% % of GDP 0.51% 1.47 8.78% 2.29% 2.2 billion Yuan for port construction.249 11. The key target of investment more focused on key transport infrastructure. 7.03 915.82 403.88% 4.99 7.88 625.42% 0.55% 2.51% 2. During the period between 1996 and 2005.580 million.158 21.49 455.95% 1. At the same time.99% 2.02 368.49 billion Yuan.08 745.08 540. Total investment to transport infrastructure 8. In addition.682 9.1 billion Yuan and basically completes the freeway network.94 billion Yuan for metro is an increase of 137% compared with before.3 billion Yuan. total investment for roads.92 billion Yuan.076 10.852 6.244 2.479 1. it is also the period for Shanghai to invest the most amount of money in constructing the international shipping hub.4% in the 90 .226 2.12 495.73% 1. an increase of 74% compared to that in the 9th Five Year Plan.1 Investment in Shanghai’s transport system Brief Shanghai’s investments in transport are ahead of those of other major cities in China.5 Table 7.90% 2.61% 1.966 22.15% Year 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 GDP 290. as well as the key stage of constructing “Four Centers”. 37 It invests 80.349 9. the investment preference for transport is shifting from construction of urban roads to the metro.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
8th Five Year Plan to 21.37% in the 10th Five Year Plan. Comparatively, the investment in the metro rose from 20.8% to 50.2%.
8th five-year Item Investmen t Urban Road Bridge and tunnel Highway Metro Total 8.34 3.16 4.84 4.28 20.62 % of investment 40.40% 15.30% 23.50% 20.80% 100.00% 9th five-year Investmen t 16.6 7.92 6.75 14.73 46.0 % of investment 36.10% 17.20% 14.70% 32.00% 100% 10th five-year Investmen t 16.45 7.72 20.92 45.43 90.52
% of investment 21.37% 5.33% 23.10% 50.2% 100.00%
Table 7.1.2: Investment in transport systems in Shanghai during the 8 , 9 and 10th five-year plans (in billions) Source: The third Comprehensive Transport Survey Report of Shanghai, 2004
Item Urban Road Name Middle ring (Puxi) No.4 Line Metro No.7 Line No.8 Line No.9 Line Tunnel Railway river tunnel South Station of Shanghai Railway of Pudong Hongqiao Airport extension Pudong Airport extension Yangshan Deep sea Port (1st phase) Investment（Billion） 4.03 12.8 9.2 11.8 10.9 0.95 5.0 7.6 15.3 20.0 14.31 2005 2006 2005 2005 2005 2006 2005 Started(Year) Completion(Year) 2005
Table 7.1.3: Recent major transport infrastructure construction in Shanghai
Investment in metro transport
In the period of the 10th Five Year Plan, the major metro projects invested around 10 billion Yuan. This includes No. 4 metro line (12.8 billion Yuan), No. 8 metro line (11.8 billion Yuan), No. 7 metro line (9.2 billion Yuan) and No. 9 metro line (10.9 billion Yuan). According to the Shanghai Metro Basic Network, from now to 2012, the Shanghai Shentong Group will invest more than 160 billion Yuan to build up 13 metro lines with a total length of up to 510 km. They will form the basic network of metro transport in Shanghai and will carry 40% of the daily passenger, becoming the backbone of the Shanghai public transport system.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
Reform of investment and financing system of Shanghai metro transport
In the period of the 10th Five Year Plan, Shanghai will spend 45.43 billion Yuan to construct the metro, equivalent to 1.37% of GDP. It is impractical to follow the old path to only employ the Shanghai Metro Company to take all of the work. Accordingly, the Shanghai government decided to deepen the reform of investment and financing system in April 2000, carrying out the reform of 4 Separations, namely separating investment, construction, management and supervision of the metro. It enforces the government managing function on public investment, drives the constructing and managing of metro into regulated, orderly and sound market competition, and sets up an effective government supervision system at the same time. On 28 April 2000, companies such as Shentong Group, Shanghai Metro Line Construction Co. Ltd., and Shanghai Metro Incorporation, Shanghai Modern Rail Transit Co. Ltd. were set up respectively. Shanghai Metro Line Construction Co. Ltd was set up to construct the metro. Shanghai Metro Incorporation was the department of management in metro. Shanghai Modern Rail Transit Co. Ltd was supervising the metro. Shentong Group was set up to be the principal part of investment in rail transport, owing assets and management rights. The 4 Separations solved the financing problem. In 2000, it was difficult to attract money to boost metro transport construction. After the foundation of Shentong Group, by means of shareholder of land, loan and financing and bond releasing, it formed a multi-source financing system, and the metro transport also expanded from single line to a network. When the financing problem was solved, new problems appeared, such as poor safety and supervision of metro system, different ticket systems in No.1, No.2 and No.3 metro lines, and inconvenience of metro transfer, etc. Therefore, the Shanghai Metro Line Company merged into the Shentong Group in 2004, which means that the investment body and construction body merged into one company, 4 years after the implementation of 4 Separations.
Investment and financing for constructed metro in Shanghai
The main body for No.1 metro line includes Shanghai Jiushi Corporation and Shanghai Chengtou Corporation (called Chengtou Corporation for short in the following). The two companies took charge of financing for construction and reimbursement of the loan. No.1 metro line was transferred to Shanghai Shentong Group (called Shentong for short in the following) after construction. Then Shentong injected the assets of metro train and fare collection system of No.1 metro line into Shentong Metro which has been listed in stock market. The main body for No.2 metro line is Chengtou and districts Government Company along the line, who took charge of financing for construction and returning the loan. Chengtou put this investment into the stock of Shentong Group after the No.2 metro line was completed. The investment from the district along the line was purchased by Shentong Group. The main body for No.3 metro line is Shentong Group and districts along the line, which form the Shanghai Metro Transport Pearl Line Development Co., Ltd. Shentong Group controlled the project company. Afterwards, No.4 and No.5 metro lines follow the same mode of that of No.3 line.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
The total investment for No.1 metro line is 5.744 billion Yuan (95%), while business loan is 0.3 billion Yuan (3%); total investment for No.2 metro line is 11.158 billion Yuan, among which the capital fund is 7.708 billion Yuan (69%), loan from foreign governments is 3.45 billion Yuan (31%) (Jiushi and Chengtou taking charge of borrowing and returning); total investment for No.5 metro line is 3.125 billion Yuan and is all a capital fund; the total investment for No.3 and No.4 metro lines is 22.56 billion Yuan, for which the capital fund is 7.1 billion Yuan (31%), the remainder is from project financing. Generally speaking, the first phase of metro transport construction mainly depended on investment from government. According to the regulation, the minimum fund prepared for new construction project will be 40% of the total investment. The proportion of the capital fund far exceeds the standard controlled by central government, so Shanghai’s government takes much pressure to raise capital fund in the past.
Comment from stakeholder dialogue: There is general consensus that mobility is in danger of significantly degrading in Shanghai due to the lack of integration as the urban area expands. It is not clear whether the situation is serious enough yet to drive an institutional response. Participants felt that more economic pain from a significant decline in competitiveness may be required.
The huge investments in transportation are only possible with the active role of the Shanghai government. Shanghai’s economy is growing fast, and investment in transportation construction has expanded continually. In the 10th Five Year Plan, Shanghai will invest 80.04 billion Yuan in transport facilities, an increase of 74% compared to that in the 9th Five Year Plan, on urban roads, highways, bridges, tunnels and the metro. It is because of the large scale investment lasting for quite a long time that the transportation systems in Shanghai have been upgraded tremendously. In the past, metro transport construction depended on investment from government, placing much pressure
on them to raise the capital funds. The involvement of developers and local government in metro and road construction has proven to be the only way to sustain huge investments in metro transport infrastructure.
the death toll per 10. traffic safety. which are effectively facilitating local economic and social development.1 Traffic safety In the 20 years from 1980 to 2000. or 28.63% and 24. the direct pecuniary loss decreased by 46. accounting for 58. The death toll and injuries decreased by 162 and 2. leading to 32.189 persons respectively. Shanghai has experienced substantial development in both transport supply and operational efficiency. traffic safety measures have been gradually strengthened. injuries and direct pecuniary losses from road traffic accidents in Shanghai have significantly decreased in recent years (more figures on tendency of traffic accidents conditions in Shanghai. At the same time.661 injuries. After the RTA (Road Traffic Accident) surveillance system was completed in 2002.231 deaths and 6. 8. Sustainable transport development challenges in Shanghai After entering the 21st century with accelerated urbanization. the number of traffic accidents increased by 275%.1.1: Traffic accidents in Shanghai from 2002 to 2006 In 2006.889 million Yuan in direct pecuniary losses.721 million Yuan.73% lower than the previous year.74% over the previous year. with the death toll increasing 235%. and the economic loss by traffic accidents hitting 211 times that of 1980. including environmental protection. which is 11. natural resource use and environmental protection in the development of transportation.6 in 2005 to 5. Figure 14-15). the RTA number dropped by 2655. Therefore. 60 000 50 000 40 000 number 30 000 20 000 10 000 0 2002 2003 2004 year Accidents Amounts Death toll Injured 2005 2006 Figure 8.8 people.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8. the development of the transport system is closely connected with other aspects of sustainable urban development. it is necessary for the city of Shanghai to pay close attention to the issues related to coordination between social progress. please see Appendix II. energy consumption and social justice.000 vehicles dropped from 6. 94 . Shanghai’s RTA number was 6583. causing 1.69% of that in 2005. Deaths.
pedestrians and passengers Motorcycle injuries. Master Degree Paper. As for different areas. The increase of 109 cases in 2004 is 1. motorcycle rider deaths in urban areas were lower than that in rural areas every year except in 2005. Among the dead.42 times that in 2002.2: Age distribution of people killed in traffic accidents Source: Survey on death and injuries in Shanghai traffic accidents from 2002-2004 and the strategies on prevention.1 Statistical analysis of road traffic accidents Age distribution 350 300 250 death toll 200 150 100 50 0 07132131age 2002 2003 2004 41516166- Figure 8. Table 14).1. 95 .500. workers occupied the largest percentage (21. Deaths and injuries of motorcycle riders.1. pedestrian and passenger deaths in urban areas exceeded that in rural areas. at 1. However accidents on weekends and holidays were under remarkable control in 2006. 2005.500 and 2.065 accidents. while from 7:00 to 9:00 has 702 accidents. Furthermore. Pedestrian and passenger injuries exceeded 1. which reflects the weakness in administration on rural motorcycle operations. Vocation distribution Of the 32. due to more turmoil in the road conditions in urban area (see Appendix II. Shanghai Jiaotong University. The figure shows that the ages between 31 and 41 years old are high risk for RTA deaths. The total accidents during these two periods accounted for 42% of the total number in 2006.27% were from the transport industry.000 people in 2002 and 2006. 25. since 2004.452 accidents occurring from 2002 to 2004. non-local people fatalities have increased each year. According to statistics. since 2002. People of this age are exposed to heavy traffic (See Appendix II.4. Accident high-risk time The high-risk time is from 16:00 to 21:00 with 2. remain the highest in the injured pool. Figure 16-17).Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8. In contrast. the high-risk periods for fatal accidents are at weekends.96%).
6% higher than in 2005.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8.244 cases or 59. 96 . 27 days when SO2 became the top issue.8%. accidents caused by new drivers with less than 3 years driving experience accounted for 1. which accounted for 7. Secondly. social.1. but at the same time the economic. The good-air quality rate was 88. There were 321 days when inhalable particulates ranked as the top pollutants. the social impact is mainly through accident fatalities. and 2.2 Road traffic accident factors First. 0.9% of all kinds of accidents. Statistics shows that these kind of accidents accounted for 16. weak legal consciousness is the main subjective reason for frequent road accidents. The good air-quality rate exceeded 85% from 2003 to 2006 continuously. necessary traffic facility constructions have failed to keep up with the accelerated road construction in recent years. there were 324 days rated as good-air quality in Shanghai.94% of the year.1 Environmental impact Ambient air environment In 2006. fatal traffic accidents in the suburban area accounted for more than 85% of all total accidents in Shanghai.74% of the year respectively. In addition. In 2004. representing 27. failing to keep safe distances and illegal lane changes are major factors causing accidents and fatalities. Five-year (2002-2006) monitoring data show that good air-quality was increasing on the whole. Comment from the stakeholder dialogue: Transportation will carry on developing. Motor vehicle speeding. and environmental issues will increase. reverse driving. driving without a license caused more accidents and the ratio of accidents caused by private vehicles rose due to the high ratio of accidents caused by fresh license holders. 10 days when NO2 was the top pollutant.2 8. 8.2.4%. In 2006.493 with 264 deaths. leading to 421 deaths. accounting for 87.3% of the total death toll in 2004. especially in the suburbs.
05 mg/m3 0. which met the 2nd standard level specified in National Ambient Air Quality Standard (GB3095-1996).03 0. the increasing tendency towards SO2 emissions is definitely due to fast economic growth and the associated demand on energy consumption.08 0. 2002-2006 97 . Five-year monitoring data showed that with the exception of 2005. 2002-2006 The annual daily average of inhalable particulates in urban areas was 0.2.07 2002 2003 PMIO 2004 year 2nd Standard 2005 2006 Figure8. 0. which met the 2nd standard level specified in National Ambient Air Quality Standard (GB3095-1996).12 0.2: SO2 trends. 0.010mg/m3 lower than in 2005.002 mg/m3 from 2005.02 0.051mg/m3 in 2006.11 mg/m3 0. Sulfur dioxide The annual daily average density of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the urban area was 0.07 0. the annual daily average density of SO2 in the urban area in the other four years was better than the 2nd standard level.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Inhalable particulates 0. However.086mg/m3 in 2006. declining 0.04 0.1 0.01 0 2002 2003 2004 year SO2 2nd Standard 2005 2006 Figure8.06 0.09 0.2.1: Trend in inhalable particulates.
03 0.4% compared to 2005.01 0 2002 2003 NO2 2004 year 2005 2006 2nd Standard Figure 8.4: Acid rain frequency and precipitation pH value.08 0.6 4.2 2002 2003 pH value 2004 year 2005 2006 20% 10% 0% 60% 50% 40% acid rain frenqency Acid Rain Frequency Figure 8. Acid rain and dust In 2006 the average pH value of precipitation was 4.09 0.4 4.3: NO2 trends. and which was 0.02 0. 5.06 mg/m3 0.4 5.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Nitrogen dioxide The annual daily average density of NO2 in the urban area was 0. which was compliant with the 2nd standard level specified in National Ambient Air Quality Standard (GB3095-1996). The overall level of NO2 emission was kept almost at the same level. an increase of 16. 2002-2006 One report has estimated that 86% of CO and 81% of NOx are from urban vehicle emission in Shanghai. and 12 stations reported a higher CO level over the national standards.73 and the occurrence of acid rain was 56.0 tons/km2 per month and the amount of dust on roads was 20.2 pH value 5 30% 4.05 0.2.07 0.006mg/m3 lower than in 2005.2.04 0.1 tons/km2 per month.8 tons/km2 per month and 2. 0.8 4. which were 0. 2002-2006 The recent five-year monitoring data showed that the annual daily average of NO2 in the urban area was better than the 2nd standard level.3/km2 per month lower respectively than in 2005. The annual average amount of dust citywide was 8.6 5.39 98 .4%.055mg/m3 in 2006.38 Data from the eighteen air quality survey stations along the major roads in Shanghai showed that sixteen stations measured NOx pollution levels over the national standards.
the higher proportion of coal consumption. all have significantly impacted on greenhouse gas emissions. According to the latest five-year monitoring data. the areal noise met its corresponding functional requirement. rapid increase in motorized vehicles and other factors.2.7dB (A) which is 0.3 Greenhouse gas emissions Data shows that SO2 emissions in Shanghai were 44.1dB (A) lower than the value in 2005. while traffic noise failed to meet its corresponding functional requirement. 99 . 0. With faster growth.7 million tons. 8. 120 number of monitoring point 100 80 60 40 20 0 >70 65-70 60-65 decibel number of monitoring point 55-60 50-55 <50 Figure 8. it was 49. and it was stable from 2004 to 2006. the higher energy intensity of industry. Five-year monitoring data showed that areal noise was compliant to the corresponding standards and the overall level of which kept stable. Areal ambient noise In 2006. The tendency of the level of traffic noise from 2002 to 2004 was on the rise. the average equivalent sound level for the areal ambient noise was 56. traffic noise failed to meet the corresponding functional requirement in all the years except the year of 2002. Without further control. dust emissions were 10. the air quality in Shanghai will be badly polluted. the value in the daytime was the same as that in 2005 and the value of night time was 0.9dB(A) lower than in 2005.2. CO2 emissions reached 150 million tons in 2004. and CO2 emissions were 138 million tons in 2002.7 million tons.2 Ambient acoustic environment In 2006.2.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8.5: Distribution of equivalent sound level of grid ambient noise in 2006 Traffic noise The average equivalent sound level of traffic noise during the day and night time on the roadsides in Shanghai was 72. 20 million tons more than 2000 and 12 million tons more than 2002.9dB(A) respectively in 2006. While at night.7dB (A) lower than that in 2005. The relatively low energy efficiency.0dB(A) and 64. and the CO2 from the transport sector will continue to rise.6dB (A) in the daytime.
Furthermore. up by 270% over 1995. and restrictions were put on surface roads within the inner-ring road since 1 October 2006. about 42% of arterial roads in the center of the west part of Shanghai area were congested. Starting from 1 July 1999. On 1 March 2003.1 Traffic congestion Transport construction With great progresses in road supply in Shanghai. 100 . restrictions on high-pollution vehicles on elevated expressways have been enforced in the center area of the city since 15 February 2006. Traffic flow on expressway network For the expressway traffic volume in 2006. therefore. transport demands are also rapidly growing. the north-south elevated expressways bore the largest traffic volume of 164.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8.2.000 vehicles/day and 135.3. 136. the European I emission standards for light vehicle was implemented two years ahead of schedule. Shanghai’s motorized vehicle fleet reached 1. the Yan’an West elevated expressway and the Yan’an East and Middle Road accommodated almost the same traffic volumes. In 2003. In 2004. 8. pollution control management from the sources has been achieved for motor vehicles pollution controls in Shanghai. 8. and the consequent daily average traffic reached 78. unleaded gasoline for motor vehicles was promoted in the whole city. the expressways and arterial roads in the city center. and everyday road automobile traffic volume accounted for 90.748 million.2 Traffic flow Basic information on traffic congestion In 2003. According to the statistics. which laid the foundation for the implementation of EFI and 3-way catalytic technology for light vehicles.82 million PCU kilometers.6 million vehicle kilometers. carried almost 70% of the traffic volume (vehicle kilometers). the European II emission standards for motor vehicles was implemented in the city.000 vehicles/day respectively (See Appendix II. According to the "the green license" announcement of passage restrictions on high-polluting vehicles. Figure 18-19). the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) was promoted on buses. the total road traffic volume capacity reached 110 million PCU kilometers.4 Transport environment policies and pollution control measures Since 1 October 1997. which account for about 20% of the total road length.3. In 1998 the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) began on taxis. in rush hours. The use of low-olefin unleaded petrol for motor vehicles was promoted in March 2000 ahead of national implementation.000 vehicles/day. mopeds40 have also been forbidden from running since 1 January 2006.3 8. Over-concentrated traffic volume degraded the service level on these roads.
up by 10.06 million vehicles/day. 600 500 traffic flow (1 000 pcu/d) 400 300 200 100 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 year 2004 2005 2006 traffic flow (1 000 pcu/d) Figure 8.2: Growth trend in traffic volume across the Huangpu River.000 PCU/day. 2006 Traffic across the Huangpu River In 2006.3.3. The traffic volume across the Suzhou River In 2006. 1 200 traffic flow (1 000 pcu/d) 1 000 800 600 400 200 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 year 2004 2005 2006 traffic flow (1 000 pcu/d) Figure 8. apart from the medium ring bridges.1: Growth trend in traffic volume across the Suzhou River (including the medium ring road and bridge) Source: Road Traffic Report on Central City of Shanghai.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Since its opening in 2000.6% over 2005. especially on the expressways and arterial roads in the Puxi area. 101 .3~4. the daily traffic flow across the river of the year reached 1. up by 14.3 Traffic speed analysis Speed in city center According to Figure 8. with the daily average traffic volume increasing by 10. remained poor with the average speed on arterial road at 14 to 16 km/h. the outer ring has experienced consistent growth in traffic flow. reaching 81. the service level in the city center. 2000-2006 Source: Road Traffic Report on Central City of Shanghai.5% over 2005.7% every year.3. the daily traffic flow across the Huangpu river reached 554.3.000 vehicles/day. 2006 8.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 80 70 speed (km/h) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 28 76 63 46 37 26 16 16 23 10 14 15 expressw ay arterial road rank center ourter secondary trunk suburban branch Figure 8. the travel speeds on 60% of the roads is slow (see Appendix II. 50% were congested during this time. On other main ground roads in the central area. Figure 20-21). mainly distributed along the radial arterial roads. and 20% between 15 and 20km/h. 2004 Source: The third comprehensive transport report of Shanghai. 2004 Figure 8.3.3: Average travel speeds on roads of all classifications. 2004 During rush hour.4: Average travel speeds on roads in different sections in city center. 2004 Source: The third comprehensive transport report of Shanghai. the average travel speed in the evening rush hours reached 18 km/h. While 60% of the intersections in city center are congested. with 40% of road below 15km/h. In total. the roads in the city center were severely congested. 102 . the number only reached 30% in outer area of the city.3. Among the main intersections in the city center.
4. ensuring energy supply is a big issue. 2004 Source: The third comprehensive transport report of Shanghai. training and continuous improvement. energy and power. 2004 Note: If saturation >=1. 103 . The coal industry has fallen into a state of disorder since the Ministry of Coal was revoked. 8.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Figure 8. and establish of a Ministry of Energy. it is congested. If saturation is between 0. when energy consumption per ten thousand Yuan of gross product dropped from 3. especially the development of the coal industry. has lagged behind. compared with the aggregate price (see Figure 8. It is predicted that in 2010. and the consequent supply.3) of raw materials.3.4. The city’s energy saving endeavors had dramatic effects from 1992 to 2004 (see Figure 8.4 8.4. the city’s energy demand will break through 100 million tons of standard coal.5: Distribution of congested roads and crossings in the central city. Therefore.2). transport and environmental issues will also be severe. management. and mainly depends on imports. We need to promote technology.1 Energy Energy consumption and pricing in Shanghai Comment from stakeholder dialogue: China's energy development. it will be severe congestion.03 tons of standard coal.28 tons of standard coal to 1.1).9 and 1. However.4. The Yangtze Delta Region lacks energy and resources. total demand is still on the rise (see Figure 8. The city of Shanghai completely relies on energy imports. the price of fuel power grew rapidly and energy consumption became an important factor affecting production cost. At the same time.
1992-2004 Source: Sustainable Leading Development of Yangtze River Delta Note: Industrial output value means the value of final industrial products or industrial labor activities that the industrial enterprises have provided in a certain period of time.3 (ton SCE/1 000 yuan) 0. energy consumption per unit of GDP (ton SCE/1 000 yuan) 0.3: Purchasing price index fuels and power in main years (1995=100) Source: Shanghai Statistical Year Book 2007 104 .08 0.0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 year Energy Consumption per unit of GDP Energy Consumption per unit of Industrial Output Value 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Figure 8.4.10 0.4.0 100.09 0.0 .0 1996 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Purchasing Price Index (1995=100) Raw Materials.2 0.07 Guangzhou Beijing Shanghai Zhejiang Hainan Jiangsu Figure 8.0 150.1 0.2 0.1: Energy consumption in Shanghai.0 200.4 0.2: Energy consumption in Shanghai during the main years (1.09 0.4.3 0.0 50. Fuels and Pow er Fuel and Pow er Figure 8.1 0.0 250. It reflects the total scale of the industrial production.000 ton SCE) Source: Shanghai Statistical Year Book 2000-2006 300.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 0. It is measured in monetary form.08 0.
w arehousing.4: End-use consumption of energy industry in main years Source: Shanghai Statistical Year Book 2000-2006 After 2002. storage and post industries increased by 2.000 10. storehouse and post industries against total consumption in the city rose from 8% of 1996 to 18%. accounting for 25% of total gasoline consumption. gasoline consumption (1 000 ton) 3 000.000 50. post . Warehousing. 90. which occupied about 34% of the total consumption of diesel. However.communications secions consumption percentage of the total comsumption Figure 8.000 20. directly leading to an increase in energy consumption per unit value added in the tertiary industry in 2006.42 The transport sector’s diesel consumption in recent years fluctuated and showed a downward trend. Post and Communications(1 000 ton) transport.000 60. the energy consumption per unit added value in the transport. Warehousing.6 billion tons of standard coal.00 1 500. communication sector pecentage of total consumption Figure 8.00 2 500.000 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% percentage percentage energy consumption (1 000 ton SCE) Total Consumption (1 000ton SCE) Consumption of Transport.00 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 2000 1 2001 2 2003 3 2004 4 2005 5 Total Gasoline Consumption (1 000 ton) Gasoline Consumption of Transport. w arehousing. logistics and post and telecommunication industries witnessed robust growth to 631.2 Energy consumption in the transport sector41 In 2006. with the actual consumption nearly quadrupling to 13.500 tons in 2005.4.5: Total gasoline consumption and gasoline consumption of transport. warehousing. post and communications Source: Shanghai Statistical Year Book 2000-2006 105 . In 2005.000 80.17% over 2005. Post and Communications Sector(1 000ton SCE) The transportaion.4.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8.4. Shanghai’s energy consumption per unit GDP dropped 3.000 40.00 .post.00 1 000.71% over 2005.00 2 000. and the energy consumption index of added value in the primary and secondary industries also declined. the proportion of energy end-use consumption in the transportation. gasoline consumption in transport.00 500.000 30. but went down to 29% in 2005.000 70.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Relative studies show that from the sixth (1980-1985) to the ninth (1996-2000) Five-year Plans. Figure 8.0 60. the fuel consumption rate from the railway remained unchanged. this tendency will certainly input a negative effect on realizing energy saving targets.0 20.5.0 0.7: Highway transport fuel consumption (liter/1.5 0 1998 1999 2000 year 2002 2003 2004 Figure 8.4.9 Consumption of diesel of Railway Transportation (kg/1 000tons·km) 3 2. the main driving force of transport energy consumption growth was from increased transport demand.43 Figures 8. while that of automobiles took on an aggregate ascending tendency.000 tons-km) Source: Shanghai Statistical Year Book 2000-2004 100.6 and 8.4.000 tons-km) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry.6: Fuel consumption of diesel engine of railway transport (kg/1.5 1 0.7 show that since 1990s.0 Fuel Consumption of Highway Transportaion (liter/1000 tons·km ) 80.4.0 40.4. Energy and Transport 2000-2005 106 .0 2000 2001 2002 year Fuel Consumption of Gasline Trucks Fuel Consumption of Diesel Trucks 2003 2004 2005 Figure 8.5 2 1. With rapid growth of road transport.
In the near future. one of Shanghai’s main expanded areas was located in Minhang 107 . the rapid growth in transport demand is expected to continue. and to actively promote the development and use of alternative energy sources. public transport is playing an important role.4.8).1 Urban space expansion by enhanced mobility Rail transport promotes the city’s spatial expansion Metro Line #1 is the north-south arterial of the mass transit network in Shanghai. From 1995 to 2000. In addition the city needs to further enhance the rail and water transport and to expand their transport capacity.2004 (Figure 8. 8. the overall situation will become more energy efficient. improved mobility also segregates urban space and disrupts equality on the interest of different social group. Energy and Transport 2005 The comparison of diesel consumption rate between railways and trucks in 2002.5 Mobility Divide Improvements in urban transport facilities greatly enhance mobility with its two-fold effect. while a train cannot. In Shanghai.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Consumption of diesel engine in Railw ay Transportation Consumption of diesel truck in highw ay Transportation 0 10 20 30 40 50 Diesel Consumption (liter/1 000tons km) Figure 8.000tons-km) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry.8: Railway and highway transport diesel consumption.4.5. But if there is a shift to more long distance freight by train. The city also needs to further promote environmental protection and energy saving standards in vehicles. Urban transport construction plays a positive role in enlarging the opportunity of urban employment and living activities. At the same time. the gap between the two proves that changes in the transport mode will greatly influence transport energy consumption. indicates that railway transport had a much lower energy consumption than road transport. which is quite favorable for energy savings. Therefore. 8. However a truck can provide door-to-door service. It greatly enhanced the accessibility of the suburban area. 2004 (liter/1. However. adjusting the mode of transport to lower rate of energy consumption and promoting renewable alternative energy will become the main ways to reduce GHG emissions. opened in 1995 with a total length of 21 kilometers.
this high-income residential area extends along Huqingping Road in the west and across Yan’an West Road in the south. The construction of elevated expressways segregated the downtown area and completely destroyed the original connections within and between communities along the two sides of the expressways. with the north border extending to Huanbei Road. many residents moved to peripheral new communities with a “transport vacuum”. Residents travel on buses with more comfort and transfer convenience than before.5. many “rural bus” lines were connected to central city lines. bus lines were opened for the first time. the whole city was completely divided. mainly for rich residents who often travel by cars. more than 20 kilometers of exclusive bus lanes were built up. 8. The built-up area of Minghang District has extended to Chunshentang area. and in Songjiang.000 residents. the southwest urban area was expanded continuously. 8. the Gubei Residential Area for foreigners and Hongqiao Villa Area developed from east to west along this road. With its obvious location advantages. reaching Hongqiao Airport in the west and Huaihai West Road and Xujiahui sub-center in the east. In 2006. with the result that the low-income families will spend more time travelling. During 1995-2000. greatly enhancing accessibility along the lines and accelerating expansion of the urban area in axial outwards. But in the past. In many places of Jinshan District and Fengxian District. Metro Line #2 and LRT Line #3 were successively put into operation. the rich people with private 108 . Jiading. Shanghai has experienced substantial progresses in the planning. with expansion of the urban area. Furthermore. and suffered from great inconvenience to travel. where a lot of real estate investment was attracted. From 2000 to 2004.5.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study District in the southwest. As an example. and weakened the uniformity of the city. In 2000. nearly 180 new bus lines were created. Due to developed road systems and insufficient public transport. With the construction of the medium ring. construction and management of public transport. the low-income families are being squeezed out by the higher earning newcomers to areas with poorer transportation.2 Segregation of urban space by enhanced mobility The elevated expressways as“申”sign divides the urban space into several parts. Suburban mobility enhancement by bus system improvement Since the 1990s. To solve this problem. extended or adjusted. the Shanghai Municipal Urban Transportation Administration Bureau put focus on transport facility construction for the communities with over 5. Fengxian and Baoshan Districts. Hongqiao Road is a main transport axis running in the southwest.3 Urban interest differential by imbalanced mobility Mobility improvement affects residence of different social groups With the residential area development occurring along the main transport axis.
1: Travel time from the periphery areas to the central area of city Source: 2006 Questionnaire on Travel of Urban Residents in Shanghai The “2006 Questionnaire on Travel of Urban Residents in Shanghai” selected three periphery residential areas including Xinzhuang.5% of them spend more than 60 minutes.5% of the high-income respondents spend less than 30 minutes in a trip from periphery to central area and only 6.60% 34.50% 21.3% by metro.50% Table 8. This analysis also shows that 36% of the high-income respondents mainly travel by car and 26% by metro.10% 27% Item High-income Middle-income Low-income % of total 64. Travel analysis of residents in periphery new communities Number of respondents 93 280 319 < 30 minutes 60 111 110 30-60 minutes 27 110 123 > 60 minutes 6 59 86 % of total 6. Sanlin and Jiangqiao.5% by bus and 28.50% 39. 29.5% of the low-income respondents spend 30-60 minutes in a trip and 27% spend more than 60 minutes. 100% 90% 80% 70% % of total 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Low -income Middle-income income Walking transfer bus TAXI Bicycle transfer bus Bicycle Private cars Motorcycle Bus UMT High-income Figure 8. However. However. because they are unable to afford expensive travel modes such as taxis and metro.5. 18% of medium-income respondents choose to walk.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study cars have enjoyed the results of road investment that should have been enjoyed by all. Analysis shows that 64.4% of low-income respondents choose to walk and take buses. 38. and seldom ride bicycles. The minimum two-way tickets cost 17. 72.50% % of total 29% 39.7% of low-wage worker’s daily incomes. the mobility progress failed to dramatically improve the accessibility of medium-and-low-income people. About 40% of the medium-income respondents spend less than 30 minutes in a trip and another 40% spend 30-60 minutes.1: Travel mode from the periphery areas to the central area of the city Source: 2006 Questionnaire on Travel of Urban Residents in Shanghai 109 .30% 38. and they seldom take taxis or metro.5.
2000-2007 Item state-owned units 17 820 19 777 22 541 24 726 28 803 36 010 Collective units 8 525 8 707 9 844 11 539 12 819 15 209 Others 20 865 21 886 24 359 26 270 26 792 27 459 Travel Expenditures(yuan) The average wage 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 17 764 19 473 22 160 24 398 26 823 29 569 Table 8.2: Average worker wages (Yuan) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook. 2001-2006 People with higher incomes have higher travel expenditures. spending on transport of different income groups is obviously differentiating. This example also justifies the examples of Xinzhuang and Hongqiao Road. From 1999 to 2006. grouped by income level) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook. low-income residents are quite limited in their choices central area. the high-income had the fastest growth rate of 400% in 110 . while the low-income people are spending less. however. of travel modes. mainly walking or bus. With private cars and metro available.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Analysis of travel modes and time consumption shows that high-income residents enjoy dramatic advantages in transport. the government has made great efforts to improve the transport systems and accessibility of the periphery area. most of them can arrive in the downtown areas from the suburban areas within 30 minutes. and most of them have long journey times to the Figure 8.5.2: Per capita travel expenditures of urban households* (1999-2006. leading to a mobility opportunity divide. Travel expenditures of different income groups 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 year low Income Medium-high Income Medium-low Income High Income Medium Income 2003 2004 2005 2006 Comment from stakeholder dialogue: We should not forget the “social impact” of mobility. On the one hand. Among them.5. but their efforts may be more beneficial to the higher income groups than to the lower income groups. beyond the economic and environmental impacts.
5.61 2.22 2.5.44 0.000 RMB) High income (>8. while the lower-income classes travel less due to the limitation on travel capacity and higher cost.000 RMB) Average number of trips per month 1.37 4.3 14.000R MB) Medium-high income (4.59 1.67 1.97 3. with rapid economic growth.5.86 Table 8.03 2.3-4) also shows that the higher income classes travel more.35 1.500 RMB) Medium income (2.4: Trips of urban residents per day in Shanghai.36 100 Number of trips (?) 1.21 1.55 0.000-2. 2004 The number of trips by different income groups (Table 8. 2004 Source: The third Comprehensive Transport Survey Report of Shanghai.25 6.77 2.78 22.39 2.000-8. 111 .4Yuan) Otherwise the transportation construction will further divide the whole society. Comment from stakeholder dialogue: It was pointed out that the bus fee in Shanghai (2Yuan) is much higher than Beijing (0. Therefore.65 1.04 2.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study travel expenditure. Medium-low income (1. Shanghai will continue to reduce transport cost with the subsidy directly to the poor.000 RMB) Low Income (>1.36 3.500-4.3: Trips for shopping from the periphery areas to the central area of city Source: 2006 Questionnaire on Travel of Urban Residents in Shanghai Income(RMB) none ＜500 501—800 801—1200 1201—2000 2001—3000 3001—5000 5001—7000 ＞7000 Total % of total 26.21 Table 8.28 8 19.
with many problems like insufficient bus lines. etc. the number of bicycle lanes has been reduced. Enormous investments on urban transport facilities are car-oriented rather than human-oriented. 112 . posing potential conflicts. New regulation for speed control is needed to ensure the safety. after they have become a reality. by 2010.6 Conclusions It can be concluded from the analysis above that motorization will bring more serious environmental problems.5. people can enter metro network by one bus from suburban area. improper station locations. With the high density of buildings and population in the city center. due to the longer distance travel. bicycles are more common in Beijing. The growing number of motor vehicles and increased traffic volumes have degraded the road service level in recent years. However. can convenient mobility be ensured for the residents in more remote areas. forcing bicycle riders to ride on sidewalks. the city of Shanghai had implemented preferential ticket prices for transfer on all the 396 bus lines within the inner ring and new encouragement policies will be promoted soon. so that the interests and rights of bicycle riders are seriously affected. 8. (3) Non-motorized vehicle system There are about 10 million bicycles in Shanghai. Therefore. crowding on the bus. bus stations within a 500-meter service radius will cover urban areas. long headway and long waiting time.4 Reflections on the disadvantaged (1) Suburb resident travels The Public transport system in periphery areas is still far from developed. people are more easily exposed to the concentration of pollution. Government should take action now to control the environmental problem. Recently the number of electric bikes is growing very fast. In order to change this situation. (2) Preferential tickets By the end of June 2007. only when better public transport service is provided for the disadvantaged living in the suburban area. dialogue: It would be better to act now rather than deal with various and increased negative impacts later. Comment from Stakeholder Dialogue: Electric mopeds are getting more numerous in Shanghai. early ending of operation in the evening. According to the plans.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 8. Comment from stakeholder Road construction in the city center areas cannot relieve the congestion as expected. “Research On Non-motorized Vehicle Transport Planning in Central City of Shanghai” was conducted in June 2006.
The proportion of energy end-use consumption in the transport sector rose dramatically against total energy consumption. The bicycle is the most efficient mode of transport for short distance travel and energy savings. We must keep the bicycle system and the matching built environment. to promote energy efficiency. and to actively promote the development and use of alternative energy sources. For a long time in the future. In Shanghai. rail transport needs more attention. Therefore. And the city also needs to improve environmental protection and energy saving standards in vehicles. motorization is becoming the major factor impacting energy consumption for the transport sector with increasing demand. In addition. adjusting the mode of transport to lower the energy consumption rate and promoting renewable alternative energy will become the main ways to reduce GHG emissions.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study Also. especially in rural and urban periphery areas where there are fewer jobs and services available and a direct subsidy is needed for them. passenger and freight transport will continue to increase. Public transport is also quite favorable for energy savings. The big increase in transport expenditure may be affordable for the rich people but will limit opportunities for the poor. 113 . the city needs to further enhance rail and water transport and to expand their transport capacity.
airports. exclusive railway freight transportation lines. such as the intercity express rail. such as Pudong railway. Regarding freight transport system. However the limited land and geographical setting of Shanghai. Comment from stakeholder Due to the difficulty of province-wide coordination between different government transport authorities. The key point is the efficient use of resources. transport demands in Shanghai have rapidly increased. the intercity express railway system will be gradually constructed so as to alleviate traffic tension on the Shanghai-Nanjing and ShanghaiHangzhou corridors and to further consolidate the dominant role of railways in intercity passenger transport. Public transport construction will be the key concern and investment will be prioritized to further metro construction during the Eleventh Five-year Plan. the government will further strengthen the construction of high capacity roads and construct arterial freight transport networks connecting ports. Apart from road projects. there will be 300 km of exclusive bus lanes. Comment from stakeholder But the main efforts will be put on mass capacity transport modes. urban transportation facilities have become highly saturated. the highway is usually considered the simplest solution. The containers would then go by rail to and from the port of Shanghai.1 9. is making it very difficult for Shanghai to provide enough traffic lanes to match the demand from the surrounding provinces for freight and passenger transport. and logistics parks and advanced manufacturing estate. combined with the rational allocation of resources. are also under construction. 9. Shanghai will continue to strengthen the construction of key transport infrastructure. Shanghai will also gradually introduce an exclusive bus lane system. As a result a comprehensive transport plan should be prepared to integrate the various transport modes over the whole GYDR. dialogue: A new logistics center for containers outside Shanghai has been proposed. and the density of suburban road network has remained low. the metro system and freight rail to link to the container ports. By 2010.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 9.1 Policy and special issues Analysis of Shanghai’s transport policy Continue to strengthen key transport infrastructure construction In recent years. railway hubs. 114 . constituting the backbone network of the urban public transport system. In terms of intercity passenger transport. together with 400 km of metro. roads severely congested. railways and other transport modes.1.44 dialogue: We need to make overall plans and take all factors into the consideration for waterways.
The urban planning control system. during the process of Shanghai metropolitan spatial restructure. 115 . lack of service frequency (even for the metro). lack of reliability (bus). The metro construction plan is very ambitious. Will there be a huge government deficit? And will it be affordable within the limited family budget available? 9. where there are also many people. smarter mobility management schemes should be fully explored to shift the mode choice from cars. However there is the scattered industrial land development in suburban Shanghai. Suburb development should be focused on the strategy of urban development guided by public transport. hence there is little incentive to go for high rise buildings and dense forms of land use. In accordance with the principle of “dual increases and dual decreases” (increasing in green space and public space. But success will not just be measured by its scale. but also by its impact on economic vitality and social justice. can we still keep the higher urban activity density in the city center where people will still prefer to Comment from stakeholder dialogue: There is an incentive to sell as much land as possible to generate fiscal revenue. It has been proven that land-use density and mixture are Comment from stakeholder dialogue: The example of Singapore was raised where high-density living is encouraged and car ownership discouraged. Although the basic public transport service can be provided to the newly developed areas at the urban edge.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study The construction of the metro is key to establishing a sustainable transport system in Shanghai. guaranteeing the land reserved for public transport interchange facilities and enhancing the capacity of transfer facilities to encourage new development along public transport corridors.1. and personal preferences with the growth in income. With the decline of the environmental quality. With the high building density and heavy traffic. and industrial buildings tend to be single story in suburbs in China. generally speaking. is working well to control unplanned and low-density development. the city center is heavily polluted along major traffic routes. in order to promote public transport and reduce travel demands. Hong Kong was raised as a city where the new towns are quite well integrated into the overall development plans very important factors that impact on people’s travel mode choice.2 Coordinating urban land use and transport Coordination of land use and transport will be key to sustainable development. Shanghai will strengthen planning control and implement a transport impact analysis system. Regulation should be strengthened to encourage land development at a relatively high density as well as mixed-use development. the government will strictly control the building floor space ratio and functional layout of buildings while using the capacity of the available transport facilities as part of the conditions for land development. decreasing in building density and height in the city center).
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
stay for living, working or recreation? Controls on vehicle emissions and guarantees for the quality of city center should be very important. Comment from stakeholder dialogue: Land-use planning is seen as key to solving the mobility issues in Shanghai. Many of the issues related to land-use and transport integration in Shanghai are similar to the rest of China. There is a feeling that if this can be solved in Shanghai, China too may improve sustainable mobility in other urban cities.
Control of motorized vehicles
Controlling motorized vehicles has been a successful practice in Shanghai from the 1990s to keep the dynamic balance between road supply and increasing vehicle demand. It is a very unique public policy under the great pressure from the car industry lobby. With the accelerated construction of the urban road network, the government will still implement quota auctions on motorized vehicle licenses to control the amount of motorized-vehicles, thereby trying to keep the operations of road network at a reasonable service level. The government adjusts monthly licenses according to urban transport status and purchase prices of licenses. The license auction system also has its negative influences. Although the city implements policies such as travel limits on non-local licensed vehicles during rush hour on elevated expressways, the number of non-local licenses purchased by local residents has been growing by year, leading to an outflow of a large quantity of road construction and maintenance fees to other places. The city will consider other measures such as road congestion charging, fuel tax and parking limits as the main policy instruments in the future. Comment from stakeholder dialogue: Chinese people now tend to buy big cars instead of small cars, the media and policy should encourage the small car. Government vehicles should also be limited. Comment from stakeholder dialogue: Governments play an even more important role in developing countries as consumers have not yet reached the same environmental awareness and mainly want individual means of transportation.
With the increasing motorization in Shanghai (as the car license will be valid for a long time) the policy only delays over fast motorization, but what will happen in next ten or twenty years? A new taxation system should also be introduced to encourage people to buy a smaller car instead of a big car.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
Building a multi-mode urban transport system based on public transport priorities
The municipal government has tried to promote transportation hub construction to consolidate public transport routes and network through these hubs, to improve transfer conditions and to expand service coverage area by the public transport system. By constructing transfer hubs, the city can more effectively link all transport modes, fully leveraging the advantages of various transport modes and building up a multi-modal urban transport system. The construction of the multi-modal transport system will face the challenge of institutional fragmentation, and the ability to coordinate the various stakeholders within Shanghai, the Yangtze River Delta region and central government will be critical to success. Comment from stakeholder dialogue: Each stakeholder has a critical role to play to improve mobility: • • • Governments should set a framework, provide education and investment for infrastructure Private companies can provide various mobility related technologies Research institutions and universities can collect and analyze data, put trends in perspective on urban planning, infrastructure and safety related issues, and develop research projects • • Media has also a critical role to provide a positive image of public transportation (e.g. in Bogota where they advocated in favor of the bus rapid transport system) Cooperation between these various organizations is needed.
Protect activity space for slow transport
The government has tried to progressively guide long-distance bicycle rides to transform into public transport, improve traffic conditions and prioritize the bicycle functions for shorter trips and for connecting to public transport. It should further separate motorized and non-motorized traffic, create conditions for reconstruction and construction of bicycle lanes parallel to motor vehicle lanes and gradually form regional bicycle lane networks. It is also necessary to promote public parking facilities for bicycles in downtown areas and in public transport hubs. The government should strengthen regulations for mopeds and encourage moped/electric bicycle riders to take public transport. Highly polluting mopeds have been replaced. By the end of 2005, the city has eliminated the use of fuel moped for environmental concern. The bicycle is still the most sustainable mode of urban transport. Many services and job opportunities are still available for residents within bicycle (e-bike) range. The policy trying to transfer the long distance bicycle passenger to bus will be very difficult to realize. The slow speed of the buses and the coverage of metro lines cannot compete with the bicycle for short distance travel. In the last ten years with the 13% drop in bicycle share, congestion has not been improved. If we totally transfer the traditional built environment into wide streets and big blocks, can public transport provide the same mobility as the bicycle without an extra financial
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study
burden to government? Or should we force people to use the car even for short distance travel? The characteristics of the walking and bicycle oriented built environment is very important now for more sustainable mobility. Can the bike keep its mode share is the challenge.
The operation of “unblocking the road” has greatly improved the traffic management ability of local government and the physical quality of traffic infrastructure, such as the CCTV system with many monition camera and traffic counting loops has been widely installed, the road intersection has Comment from stakeholder dialogue: ITS should be encouraged in improving urban mobility for car traffic and also for public transport, such as in Europe and South Korea.
been widened in order to speed up the traffic. However, the operation could not be considered a successful on the whole. The traffic management measure, the software, had not been fully explored as suggested in the dialogue, such as the flexible working hours schedule, updating the traffic signal, etc. The achievement of information technology can also greatly improve the efficiency of the existing transport infrastructure and make the transport more accessible and more transparence for passenger and freight movement.
Key transport infrastructure construction
Hongqiao transport hub station
he next World Expo will be held in Shanghai in 2010 and it is estimated there will be 70 million visitors. To accommodate the extra demands, several projects are under construction or in planning, such as the Hongqiao airport transport hub, intercity rail system etc. The Hongqiao transport hub station is scheduled to be put into use in 2009, occupying an area of 13.22 km2. After its implementation, it will integrate modernized transport facilities including Beijing-Shanghai Fast Train, Shanghai-Hangzhou Maglev Line, Pudong Maglev Line and five metro lines. It will become the important channel for Shanghai to reach the whole country and play an important role for development of the tertiary industry in Shanghai.45
Shanghai-Hangzhou maglev line
The Shanghai-Hangzhou Maglev Line is under planning and will extend for about 175 kilometers. The total project budget is about 35 billion Yuan. The Zhejiang section will extend for about 105 kilometers, all elevated, to Hangzhou East Station via Jiaxing Station. The Shanghai-Hangzhou Maglev Line is defined as urban-suburban line, with its normal speed reaching 450 km/h although it will run less than 200 km/h in the central city.46 According to the original schedule, this project should be finished in 2008 and put into operation in 2010 before Shanghai Expo. However, due to the lack of an environmental assessment, progress on this project has been delayed.
000 respectively. the total mileage of intercity rail transport will reach 815 kilometers. The Shanghai-Hangzhou intercity express train will travel for 45 minutes while the trains stopping at every station will travel for less than 60 minutes. Shanghai-Nanjing and Shanghai-Hangzhou lines as the wings. per peak day and per extreme peak day are anticipated at 400. this number will increase to 3. So the potential transport demand on extreme peak days will be ever higher. During Shanghai Expo 2010. (2) Bus lane for city bus and Expo bus Shanghai will try to build a 300-kilometer exclusive bus lane (110 kilometers in central area) by 2010. The driving speed could reach above 15 km/hour in rush hours. It is predicted that by 2010. The train will travel at 250-350 km/h. (1) Construction of metro transport Three metro lines will connect to the Expo site with a carrying capacity of 78 000 passengers/hour.000. As a result the transport should be carefully planed and managed. exclusive bus lane for Expo will be set on the middle ring to provide routes for coaches with large carrying capacities directly to the entrance of Expo site. daily average visits will reach about 800. Nanjing and Hangzhou By 2020.2.000 and 800. A survey shows that the visitor distribution by day will be extremely uneven. Yangtze River Delta region and Pearl River delta region” has been draw for the period from 2005 to 2020 The target of theses plans concerning the GYDR is set up to construct main framework of intercity rail transport network with Shanghai as the center.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 9. with rate of punctuality up to 90%. 119 . A “Plan for Intercity Rail Network in Round Bohai Area of Beijing. and reach 5.05 billion. Intercity rail transport in the Yangtze River Delta region will be operated like a city bus in frequency and ticketing.3 Intercity railway planning in Yangtze River Delta region In 2004. the visitors per day.000. Without any transport demand management in May.3 Transports during Shanghai Expo 2010 During 184 days of Shanghai Expo in 2010. 600. Tianjin and Hebei Province.5 billion in 2020. the space and time distances between cities will be greatly shortened. Yangtze River Delta region intercity passenger travel was over 2 billion passengers.47 9. the demand will exceed Shanghai’s capacity to receive so many visitors. The networks will cover main cities in the regions and develop 1-2 hour urban circular space around the cities of Shanghai. The Shanghai-Nanjing intercity express train will travel for 80 minutes while the trains stopping at major stations will travel for 96 minutes. Therefore in both transport and accommodation.
Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study (3) Water bus People can also take boats to go around the Expo site in 2010. About 5-8% of the visitors will get to the Expo site by boat. Shanghai will grasp this opportunity to construct a multi-modal transport system. (4) P+R (Parking + Ride) hubs Shanghai will also construct transport transfer hubs with large capacity. There are not enough hotel beds for all of the visitors. including entirely upgrading the transport system and smoothly integrating urban and rural areas. This strategy will also be consistent with the Shanghai metropolitan spatial strategy to encourage the development in suburban town. We should think of building accommodation facilities in the peripheral new towns and also providing good public transport linkage from the new towns to the expo site. Figure 8. but also to upgrade the transport system for the whole city.6. Several water gates will be constructed. There will be several transfer gates for people to park their car far away from the expo site and take public transport to the site.1: Mass transit network plan in Yangtze River Delta area Source: On Mid-Hub-City and Subsidiary-Hub-Cities of N-H Line 120 . (5) Accommodation service in the peripheral new towns There will be a huge demand for accommodation during the Expo period. The transport plan of Shanghai Expo 2010 is not only aimed at the success of the half year event.
the policy to focus on freeway construction and to comparatively overlook the construction of national and provincial roads had led to problems in that the transportation capacity of national roads is saturated while the freeway flow is too low in some sections.4 Conclusions Comment from stakeholder dialogue: Shanghai may be heading for a crisis. This needs coordination. protect slow transport and build a multi-modal transport system will certainly benefit sustainable development of the urban transport system. 121 . control automobile development. urban transport policies should be weighted towards aggregate efficiency and capacity as well as environmental influences. The World Expo in 2010 provides an opportunity to upgrade and integrate the Shanghai urban transport system within the Yangtze River Delta Region. the practice to put public transport as a priority.Mobility for Development -Shanghai Case Study 9. So there are still challenges in achieving operational efficiency and sustainability of the transport system. The planning authority needs to exercise control over a larger area than the current administrative boundaries. For future development. At the same time. “The planning authority needs to be sized appropriately to the mobility issues they are trying to solve” Among Shanghai’s transport policies.
72% 1.29% 3.32% City Shanghai Pudong Shanghai Hongqiao Hangzhou Nanjing Ningbo Wuxi Zhoushan Changzhou Huangyan Nantong The YRD 4 8 15 28 48 53 58 64 83 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 797 8 092 5 385 2 532 619 397 316 225 89 59 122 4.89% 0.03% 20.85% 6.15% 2.68% 3.14% 0.79% 19.11% 7.08% 0.85% 1.14% 4.89% 0.27% 39.98% Table 1: Cargo throughput of main ports in the YRD in 2005 Source: Development report of the YRD in 2006: functional relationships among cities in the evolution National rankings of passenger throughput 2 Passenger throughput ranking in the YRD 1 Passenger throughput （ thousand） 23 665 The proportion in the nation 8.17% Proportion of Nation 13.11% 3.Tables Cargo throughput (thousand tons) Shanghai Ningbo Zhoushan Nanjing Suzhou Nantong Zhenjiang Hangzhou Huzhou Jiangyin the Yangtze River Delta 443 170 268 220 90 520 105 000 119 000 83 000 58 000 46 260 35 420 42 780 135 135 Proportion of the Yangtze River Delta 32.70% 7.05% 1.000 passengers) Source: Development report of the Yangtze River Delta in 2006 122 .Appendices Appendices Appendix I .22% 0.52% 2.37% 1.42% 2.79% Table 2: Airport passenger throughput of the YRD in 2005 (in 1.46% 1.62% 3.94% 2.81% 6.11% 0.77% 8.
5 48.1 18.06% 0.2 67 42.code and length (2005) 123 .5 11.33% 5.4 57.2 37 798 A8 A20 A1 A5 A2 A4 A6 A7 A9 A12 A30 47.62% 2.0 Flows（PCU/DAY） － A11 24.02% 40.02% 0.68% 2.6 97.48% 0.4 9.03% 0.63% Table 3: Airport cargo throughput of the YRD in 2005 (in thousand tons) Source: Development report of the Yangtze River Delta in 2006 Period 1988 Name Shanghai-Jiading Freeway Shanghai-Nanjing 1990－2000 Freeway Shanghai-Hangzhou Freeway Outer-ring Yingbing Road Jiading-Jinshan Freeway Hu-Lu Freeway Xin-Feng-Jing 2000－2005 Freeway Tong-San Freeway Ting-Feng Freeway Hu-Qing-Ping Freeway Hu-Jia-Liu Freeway Suburb-Ring 2005 Total Code A12 Length（KM） 26.Appendices Cargo throughput ranking Cargo throughput （thousand tons） 1 857 359 165 139 30 11 1 4 2 1 2 572 The proportion in the nation Pudong Hongqiao Hangzhou Nanjing Ningbo Wuxi Zhoushan Changzhou Huangyan Nantong The Yangtze River Delta 1 5 8 10 26 37 65 46 54 61 29.18% 0.20% 0.6 189.4 562 48 902 107 816 － － 24 070 19 458 － － 35 128 23 582 11 582 － Table 4: Shanghai freeway .2 21.
7 178.2 109.9 107.0 Passenger Thru put （Ten Thousand Passengers） 13 761.0 20 660.5 16 Table 6: The ten largest container ports worldwide in 2005 124 .4 134.5 12 15.6 194.5 21 043.6 35 962.4 13 667.Appendices Year Airport Hongqiao Flight landing and taking off （Thousand） 116.7 24 714.7 329.3 243.3 18.1 11 047.1 41 460.1 117.0 2001 Pudong Total Hongqiao 2002 Pudong Total Hongqiao 2003 Pudong Total Hongqiao 2004 Pudong Total 2005 Total Table 5: Shanghai air passenger transport business Source: Shanghai Air Transport “11th-five-year-plan” Planning Container throughput （Thousand TEU） 23 200 22 600 18 080 16 200 11 840 9 470 9 300 8 100 7 500 6 700 Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Port Singapore Hong Kong Shanghai Shenzheng Busan Kaohsiung Rotterdam Hamburg Los Angeles Long Beach Rate of increase（%） 8.4 15 063.8 9 692.0 14 918.4 380.6 24 756.7 3 24.3 225.7 150.5 2.5 77.6 3 -2.4 6 899.
4 20 12 100.4 23 65 Table 7: The ten largest container ports in China in 2005 Source: Yangtze Delta Region Statistical Yearbook 2006 Weekday Morning Peak Line 1 Line 2 Line 3 Line 4 3 3.0 ～ 7.3 18.com/operation/shikebiao/line1.0 12.4 2004 102.0 12.8 46.8 14.6 22.0 ～ 7.2 91.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Shanghai Ningbo Guangzhou Tianjing Qindao Dalian Qinhuangdao Shenzheng Zhoushan Rizhao Number Port Freight throughput （Thousand ton） 443 170 268 810 250 360 240 690 186 780 170 850 169 000 153 510 90 520 84 210 Rate of increase （%） 16.0 ～ 10.5 6.8 7.3 2001－2006 price index（preceding year=100） Table 9: Residential consumer price index and vehicle price index Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 125 .0 ～ 9.0 ～ 9.5 11 Evening Peak 4 3.9 2006 101.0 (before 7:00.7 30 25.0 Table 8: The frequency of urban metro service in Shanghai (minutes) Source: http://www.htm -May 8th.2 95.3 16.Appendices Container Number Port throughput （Thousand TEU） 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Shanghai Shenzheng Qindao Ningbo Tianjing Guangzhou Xiamen Dalian Zhongshan Lianyungang 18 084 16 197 6 307 5 208 4 801 4 683 3 342 2 655 1 076 1 005 Rate of increase （%） 24.0 ～ 19.shmetro.1 96.9 2002 100.5 2001 100 97.8 40. after 20:00 ) 3.0 7.4 13.5 95 2003 100.8 6 12.3 ～ 12.0 5.0 Weekend Daytime Other Time 4 5 8 12.5 Other Time 5 (daytime) 6.4 2005 101 92.7 16.0 ～ 19. 2007 2006 price index (2001=100) Residents consumer price index vehicle price index 105 72.9 19 16.3 5.6 12.
njjtgf.htm 126 . ≥40 seats ≤2 tons 2-5tons 20-foot container truck 50 15 25 20 12 15 50 15 25 110 25 35 160 30 40 10-15 tons ＞15 tons； 40-foot container truck 160 45 55 Standard of Charge ≤7 seats 8-19 seats Shangha i Nanjing VOC 30 10 10 30 12 20 50 15 25 Highway Nanjin-Hefen Freeway Table 11: Road tolls in Shanghai and Nanjing (in Yuan/vehicle·time) Source: Shanghai Municipal People's government Order No.6 2.com/eastday/node545/node2328/userobject1ai35261.6 0.bj.8 0.45 medium-size 0.aspx?classcode=/LAWS/YLF/ Note: VOC—Vehicles from Other City car Shanghai-Nanjing Freeway Guangzhou-Kaiping Freeway 0.eastday.138 Table 12: Freeway charge standards (in Yuan/km) Source: http://www.cn/jsp/display.ylfzhj.9 full-size 1-1.4-0.462 mega-size 1.com/www.huandonglg. 102.2 1.html Passenger Vehicles 20-4 0 seats Freight Trucks 5-10tons.cn/Lawsnews.jsp?colid=0402&id=ID031218000 http://www.Appendices Daylight charge by people Area the first hour Central Area other area in the inner ring between the inner and outer ring（including the town out of the outer ring） 7 4 2 2 3 4 5 200 15 10 the follow hours(every a half hour) 10 6 charge by timer the first hour 0~15 minitue 4 3 15~30 minitue 4 3 30~60 minitue 7 4 the follow hours(every a half hour) 10 6 10 8 400 300 night A month Table 10: Parking fees in Shanghai (in Yuan) Source: http://sh. the Regulations on the Control of Shanghai road tolls on loans road http://www.
13 20.63 14.21 15. New Zealand Africa Middle East .shanghai-shipping.Appendices Departing Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Sea Route Australia.28 1.14 13.29 100 2003 Death toll 15 22 59 240 286 275 208 73 223 1 401 Proportion (%) 1.57 16.7 4. 2005.37 16.21 18.92 100 2004 Death toll 30 26 86 248 324 304 216 52 257 1 543 Proportion (%) 1.5 22.94 1.com/chinese/web/rate.57 4.4.66 100 Sum Death toll 63 74 209 691 921 833 618 199 736 4 344 Proportion (%) 1.69 5. South Korea America Middle East .21 17.asp 2002 Age Death toll 0713213141516166Tota l 18 26 64 203 311 254 194 74 256 1 400 Proportion (%) 1. 61223186046244E46.7 13.18 14.9 3.91 21.99 19.45 1.India and Pakistan Southeast Asia Southeast Asia Country Australia South Africa Indis America Netherlands Japan America Germany Singapore China Destination Sydney Cape town Nhava sheva Los Angeles Rotterdam Tokyo Long beach Hamburg Singapore Hong Kong Price 980 1 155 950 1 456 1 600 180 1 456 1 600 510 60 Date 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 2007-8-17 Table 13: 20-foot container transport price in Shanghai port (in US dollar) Source: http://www.pdf 127 .86 5.India and Pakistan America Europe.81 15. Shanghai Jiaotong University.85 5.07 20.86 4. 2002-2004 Source: Survey on death and injuries in Shanghai traffic accidents from 2002-2004 and the strategies on prevention.57 14. Master Degree Paper.07 1.94 100 Table 14: Age distribution of people killed in road traffic accidents in Shanghai.29 18.58 16.2 19. Mediterranean Japan.23 4.41 19.
2 0 2001 2002 2003 Year Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang GYRD 2004 2005 Figure 2: Change in passenger-kilometers by waterway in the GYRD from 2001 to 2005 (billion passenger-kilometers ) Source: The Industrial Map of the YRD (2006-2007) Development report of the YRD in 2006 128 .6 1.000 25.Appendices Appendix II .000 15.4 Passenger turnover by waterway passenger turnover by water (billion people·kilometers) 1.Figures 40.8 0.2 1 0.6 0.000 0 2001 2002 2003 Year Shanghai Jiangsu Zhejiang GYRD 2004 2005 再 Figure 1: Change inn number of passengers by waterway in the GYRD from 2001 to 2005 (in thousand) Source: The Industrial Map of the Yangtze River Delta (2006-2007) 1.000 Passenger traffic by water passenger by waterway (thousand) 30.000 20.000 35.4 0.000 5.000 10.
5 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 60 000 total profit (1 000 yuan) 40 000 20 000 0 -20 000 -40 000 -60 000 -80 000 -100 000 -120 000 -140 000 year 2001 2002 2003 2005 number of enterprises total profit(1 000 yuan) Figure 4: Number and profit of railway transport enterprises Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry.5 3 number of enterprise 2.5 2 1. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 129 .Appendices farm product timber mineral architectural material industrial products light industry and food mixed transportation 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Figure 3: Proportion of cargo transport by truck 3.5 1 0.
Energy and Transport 1997-2006 130 . Energy and Transport 1997-2006 160 140 number of enterpises 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 year 2002 2003 2005 0 -5 000 000 15 000 000 10 000 000 5 000 000 25 000 000 total profit (1 000 yuan) 20 000 000 number of enterprises total profit(1 000 yuan) Figure 6: Number and profit of waterway transport enterprises Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry.Appendices 1200 number of enterprises 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 year 2002 2003 2005 600 000 total profit (1 000 yuan) 500 000 400 000 300 000 200 000 100 000 0 number of enterprises total profit(1 000 yuan) Figure 5: Number and profit of highway transport enterprises Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 14 12 number of enterprises 10 8 6 4 2 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 year 2002 2003 2005 5 000 000 total profit (1 000 yuan) 4 000 000 3 000 000 2 000 000 1 000 000 0 -1 000 000 number of enterprises total profit(1 000 yuan) Figure 7: Number and total profit of civilian aviation enterprises Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry.
Energy and Transport 1997-2006 131 .Appendices 101 100 99 Punctuality Rate % 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 year Punctuality Rate of Freight Car Punctuality Rate of Passenger Trains Figure 8: Punctuality rate of trains (%) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 Average Waiting Time for Handling of Fright Per car (hs) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 year Figure 9: Average waiting time for handling of fright per car (in hrs) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 40 Travelling Speed of Freight Car （km/hs） 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 year Figure 10: Traveling speed of freight vehicle (km/h) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry.
Appendices 3 000 Average Turnover Distance (km/person) 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 year Figure11: Average travel distance of departing passengers (in km/person) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007 200 number of cities 150 100 50 0 2000 2001 2002 year 2003 2004 2005 Cities Available of Air Service International Cities and Hongkong.Macao.(city) Figure 12: Cities with air service (city) Source: Shanghai Statistical Yearbook on Industry. Energy and Transport 1997-2006 132 .
Appendices 250 000 Frequency of Takeoff and Landing of the Airports (times/year) 200 000 150 000 100 000 50 000 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 year 2003 2004 2005 Pudong Airport Hongqiao Airport Figure 13: Frequency of takeoff and landing at Pudong and Hongqiao Airports (in airplane/year) Source: http://www.com/attach//file_content/A11 10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000 number 6 000 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000 0 2002 2003 2004 year Rural Area Death toll 2005 Rural Area Injured Rural Area Accidents Amounts Figure 14: Traffic accidents in rural Shanghai from 2002 to 2006 133 .shanghaiairport.shanghaiairport.pdf http://www.com/attach//file_content/A11612232890316096F9.
passengers and peds.Appendices 50 000 45 000 40 000 35 000 number 30 000 25 000 20 000 15 000 10 000 5 000 0 2002 2003 year 2004 Urban Injured 2005 Urban Accidents Amounts Urban Death toll Figure 15: Traffic accidents in urban Shanghai from 2002 to 2006 Source: Traffic and Transport (2003.1) 1 400 1 200 1 000 number 800 600 400 200 0 motors motors motors motors passengers and peds. motors passengers and peds. passengers and peds.2. 2005. 2002-2006 134 . 2006 2002 2003 2004 year 2005 urban area death toll urban area injured rural area death toll rural area injured Figure 16: Comparison of deaths and injuries in urban and rural areas. passengers and peds.2.1. 2004. 2006.2. 2007.
passengers and peds.Appendices 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 0 motors motors motors motors passengers and peds. 2006 135 . passengers and peds. 2002-2006 180 160 AADT (1 000 Veh) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 South-North West Yan'an Elevated Elevated Road Road East/Middle Yan'an Elevated Road Inner Ring Humin Elevated Road Middle Ring Yixian Elvated Road category Figure 18: Comparisons of Shanghai expressways daily average flows in the city center Source: Road Traffic Report on Central City of Shanghai. passengers and peds. 2006 number 2002 2003 2004 year Total death toll 2005 Total injured Figure 17: Deaths and injuries for passengers/peds and motors. motors passengers and peds.
Flow Inner Ring in Netw ork North. 2004 136 .Appendices 10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000 6 000 veh. 2006 20 Average Running Speed (km/h) 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 east mid North-South Ways w est category 1995 2004 north mid West-East Ways south Figure 20: 1995/2004 average travel speeds on the three north-south and three east-west throughways Source: The third comprehensive transport report of Shanghai.East/Middle West YiXian South Yan'an Rd./h 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000 0 Avg.Yan'an Rd. category 2005 2006 HuMin Middle Ring Figure 19: Shanghai’s downtown expressway flows in morning rush hour Source: Road Traffic Report on Central City of Shanghai.
2004 137 .Appendices Figure 21: 2004 distribution of rush-hour travel speeds on main ground roads in central area Source: The Third Comprehensive Transport Report of Shanghai.
Ltd. Su Jie Zhao Ruihua Shanghai Nam Kwang Petrochemical Yuan Fei Shanghai Petrochemical Co. Lin Song Shanghai ShekeYuan Chun Yan Sinopec Zhu Wujun The Economic Committee of Shanghai Pudong Dong Xiaoling Sun Yongqiang The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) Chhavi Dhingra Tongji University Wang Xiaobo Gu Baonan Liu Weiwei Pan Haixiao Zhuo Jian Tan Fuxing Xu Xiaomin Toyota Motor (China) Investment Co. Jiang Ting Toyota Motor Corporation Satomi Tomomitsu Tsinghua University Hu Xiaojun Liu Huan Lu Huapu Nie Cong WBCSD and CRA International George Eads WBCSD George Weyerhaeuser Mihoko Kimura Shona Grant 138 . Z. P.C. Wang Xianhai Chreod Group Inc. Peng Jin Lan Arcelormittal China Li Fang Qiu Hong Jian BASF China Lucy Li BP Duncan Eggar Xu Zebin CBCSD Ji Qing Zhai Qi China Aviation Oil Services Co.R.Appendices Appendix III – Stakeholder dialogue participant list Note: The list is in alphabetical order by affiliation AIG China David D. Edward Leman Zhang Rufei ERM China Zhang Liming Fudan University Huang Jian Zheng Chang (Jane) Pan Kexi (energy and policy) GM China Iris (Xiaolan) Wang Michelin Alexandra Charnelet de Ginestet Jacques Toraille Peugeot Citroën (China) Phalippou Clément Renault Jean Grebert SAWS.
Notes from the stakeholder dialogue The morning session began with a welcome address from Mr. People’s Republic of China. Mobility Safety Bureau. Vice President. The presentations were then followed by a table top discussion around three questions that were introduced by Dr Eads: • • • Are the economic and environmental impacts of road transportation threatening to get in the way of economic growth? Three tables discussed this topic. This was followed by Ms Su Jie who explained the situation in China around road safety and the current priorities for the Transport Safety Division. Director. the Director of Sustainable Development at Michelin. and outlining the challenges of making mobility sustainable. The last presentation was by Professor Pan Haixiao who summarized the findings of the Shanghai case study on sustainable mobility. Su Jie. CRA International. Tongji University. The panel comprised Dr George Eads. and Professor Pan Haixiao. The introductory session was followed by the first panel discussion on sustainable mobility. He presented the 7 goals for sustainable mobility and gave a frank assessment of the current outlook for sustainable mobility globally. 139 . This was followed by the inaugural address by Mr. See separate presentations for more details. Jacques Toraille.Appendices Appendix IV . Session 1: Sustainable mobility The first plenary session was chaired by Mr. Zhai Qi from the China Business Council for Sustainable Development (CBCSD) who introduced the CBCSD and the WBCSD as well as the topic of sustainable mobility. Zhai Qi from CBDSD. Department of Urban Planning. What additional role might rail-based transport (urban and/or intercity) play in improving sustainable mobility in China? One table discussed this topic How important is it to pursue an integrated approach to achieving sustainable mobility in China? Two tables discussed this topic. Dr Eads started the session by summarizing the WBCSD’s Mobility 2030 report. Ms.
The presentations were followed by interventions from each of the chairpersons from the morning table top discussion that presented the views of each group. goods and services in a sustainable way. President. is seen as a city that could be an example for other cities in China if it can find a way to successfully integrate the movement of people. • • • • • Initiatives such as flexible working hours can reduce peak flows Pedestrian movement should be prioritized first in city plans Safety equipment needs to be improved within mobility infrastructure Focus should also be placed on large transportation hubs and the public should be involved in consultation process related to mobility planning. See separate presentations for more details. Shanghai albeit unique. Edward Leman. The last presentation by Mr. Professor Lu Huapu. Transport Research Institute. Senior Deputy President for AIG China. This was followed by Professor Lu Huapu who summarized the work that Tsinghua University is doing with BP on sustainable urban mobility in China. Edward Leman examined why mobility matters by sharing a perspective on the history and future direction of integrated land and transport planning in metropolitan Shanghai. and Mr. Regarding Shanghai he noted that “I am unaware of any place in human history that has built so much road infrastructure in such a short period of time”. As a consequence there needs to be constraints on the number of motorized road vehicles in cities. the planning authority needs to exercise control over a larger area than the current administrative boundaries “the planning authority needs to be sized appropriately to the mobility issue they are trying to solve” • Example given of railways which are controlled nationally with little or no control from Shanghai although exception now likely to be made with the first regional railway likely to be built in the YRD. David Peng. • Also felt that Shanghai may be heading for a crisis. The panel comprised Ms Iris Wang. Manager of Corporate Social Responsibility for GM China. The key points made for each discussion topic are listed below in the order in which they were shared. Topic 3: How important is it to pursue an integrated approach to achieving sustainable mobility in China? • • Integration between transport and urban planning is essential Chinese cities are investing heavily in infrastructure but this is not keeping up with demand no matter how many roads are built. Chreod Group Inc. Director. Topic 2: What additional role might rail-based transport (urban and/or intercity) play in improving sustainable mobility in China? • Japan was seen as a successful example of a country that has developed shorter 140 . Ms Wang started the session with the reasoning behind GM’s engagement on sustainable mobility in China. Tsinghua University.Appendices Session 2: Status of sustainable mobility in China The second plenary session was chaired by Mr.
China needs to develop smaller and less energy intensive vehicles. • • • Within Shanghai the metro dominates. • • • • Question was raised on examples of cities that have been successful in delivering a sustainable mobility system France was given as an example of a country where there was now under one Minister responsible for sustainable development. • Point also made that government expected more people to move from bicycle to public transport when more have gone from bicycles to private vehicles as they view this as giving more personal freedom (as the bike did albeit for shorter distances). Example given of Shanghai where government removed the monthly ticket system and people moved away from public transport to private modes (Bike). Example given of Sweden with a vision of “no road accidents” Question raised as to whether companies would consider changing the incentive system on company cars and encourage management to use public transport. China needs to develop emissions standards.Appendices distance rail transport. Also noted that co-ordination is easier said than done due to the high number of institutions and agencies at a municipal. 141 . Suggestion made for government to set visionary targets. Example given of some cities that promote the use of larger vehicles over smaller vehicles to optimize use of available road space without taking into account the environmental considerations. The railways are actually unique as there is only one body. Divergent and conflicting institutional priorities also raised. regional and national level. • • Road management and administration also identified as areas that could be improved. They exist for Shanghai and Beijing but not for China. • Issue of institutional silos was raised where decisions are not coordinated across institutions. Considerations should be given to how smaller companies can comply with the stricter regulations. Recommendation made to engage industrial associations in the process to avoid conflict of interests at individual company level • • • • Auto industry has seen rapid growth in China and expectation that a prosperous auto-industry would contribute to the long term economic development of China Recognition that limiting private vehicles is a controversial issue in China Recommendation made to improve the professionalism of logistics operations One of key issues is the allocation of investment levels on private and public modes. • Policy implementation is the role of government but it needs to take into account the views of key stakeholders. while the railways are not important Approval process for new rail investments seen as bureaucratic and full of problems There are also limited statistics on the railways although this comment was disputed by some participants. transport and urban planning. Topic 1: Are the economic and environmental impacts of road transportation threatening to get in the way of economic growth? • • Recognition that mobility is critical for economic growth but also has adverse and negative implications. Belief that many more people would use public transport if service was better.
Appendices Summary of the day Dr. Eads and Professor Pan summarized the main discussion points from the dialogue. Bangalore and Shanghai. Despite the stark differences they also share the following characteristics: • • • • • In all cases mobility is critical to development All are congested albeit the absolute levels of mobility services are very different All need to significantly improve the integration within city planning Governance is a critical issue – it is not just about technology Clear that the cities could learn from one another. Professor Pan noted the following: • • In China transportation is always linked to roads – it should be broadened to multiple modes In the YRD the economic linkages go well beyond the administrative boundaries. Dar es Salaam is very poor and struggling with many aspects. Dr. Trucks may not always be the best solution. Shanghai has grown so much and so fast and we are fortunate that this growth has undergone a lot of analysis and research. Bangalore is thriving and growing rapidly but investing significantly less per capita in infrastructure than Shanghai. Recommend one administrative authority for transportation and urban planning in the region • • • • Recognition that planning alone is not enough and mobility controls have also to be put in place in the urban areas The walking and bicycling environment needs to be secured and prioritized Land use needs greater control in the suburban areas and transportation should be integrated into the suburban planning Freight transport needs further consideration from both an energy efficiency and environmental standpoint. Eads who had been involved in all of the previous dialogues involving the WBCSD on sustainable mobility noted some of the difference and similarities between Dar es Salaam. There is likely to be much to learn from Shanghai for other cities in China and elsewhere 142 .
htm Huning: Shanghai-Nanjing Huhang:Shanghai-Hangzhou http://news.cn/shanghai/node2314/node15822/node15823/node15851 All the import and export goods are expressed in US$ in the Statistical Book. Hukou. bicycles are the main reason for traffic congestion and reduced flow: if every traveler were to take a motorized vehicle.htm http://sh. WTO and Development in Shanghai.xinhuanet. third-grade highway. 2 3 People have long thought that bicycle travel could be replaced with well-serviced bus systems in China.cn/2005-10-21/1129906656057. A limitation on bicycle use may force people to use cars.gov. traffic could be improved. one bus is equivalent to two PCU.com/fortune//2007-07/03/content_6320128.html http://www. Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2007.htm Navigable inland waterway. Shanghai University of Finance and Economics Press. This report adopts the first definition.com/qtmt/20070821/u1a344241.References cited 1 The Yangtze Delta Region is defined two ways: The first definition.gov. Source: Tsinghua University Sustainable Urban Mobility Project.cfm?book_no=2695001652792 http://www. fourth-grade highway and non-classified highway in terms of technical standards. http://www. even for a short distance.gov.123chinanews. Urban Transportation Planning Institute. Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province. provincial highways. The direction of traffic will be changed according to peak traffic flows. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 The highways of Shanghai are categorized as freeway. See note 1.com/chinanews/model_books_temp3.xinhuanet. Phase I Summary Report.shanghai. Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province. Wang Zhan. http://news.cn/web/jjjs/gmjjzyzbrjsp.yancheng. county highways and village highways in terms of 143 24 .com/fortune/2006-12/04/content_5429849. Some people in China believe that because of the mixture of traffic. http://www. according to the road space occupied.Appendices Appendix V . or Greater Yangtze Delta Region.html http://www.js. especially as bicycle travel is becoming unsafe. Urban Planning Administration Bureau (2005).eastday. Shanghai third transportation survey report. Shanghai. The second definition refers to the area composed of the sixteen cities in Shanghai City.com/zhuanti/2006-04/17/content_6764816. second-grade highway.xinhuanet. For example. first-grade highways.investment. and into state highways. includes the administrative boundaries of Shanghai City. but it has not been a success.htm People who have registered with the municipal government and obtained a citizen carnet.
two-stroke motorcycle. 2004 http://finance. West part of Shanghai.sina. Urban Mass Transit.myliving. economic and shipping center. source: http://www. Environment science supplement of 25th volume. Source: The third Comprehensive Transport Survey Report of Shanghai. Yang Dongqin.com. Fuel-powered.shtml The market situation. problems and development trend of road freight in China.org/viewthread-2608 Urban Planning Administration Bureau. Source: The third comprehensive Transport Survey( Shanghai). Forecast for development trend of consumption makeup for Shanghai urban citizens.bjbus. Transport industry.cn/GB/1057/4196224. Fu Qingyan. Shanghai. 25 Ye Guixun.Appendices administration. Shanghai Urban Planning Bureau.cn/xiaofei/shenghuo/20050527/11121630531.html On Mid-Hub-City and Subsidiary-Hub-Cities of N-H Line. Chen Guohai.people. November. East part of Shanghai. Source: Tsinghua University Sustainable Urban Mobility Project. Shanghai Urban Planning & Technical Administration and supporting documents. China Architecture & Building Press.cn/house/teji/qipu_gh_two. http://www. Studies on China’s Energy Consumption and Countermeasures. Qiu Jibing. Chen Changhong. August 2006. Chen Ye. small cylinder. From 2006 to 2010. 19-20 Excluding busses and taxis. Phase I Summary Report. 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 144 .com. Huang Rong. The state strategy is to build Shanghai as an international finance. Shanghai City Government (2004). Only represents the commercial transportation industry.htm http://scitech. The atmosphere capacity in the development of motor vehicles in Shanghai. Spatial Development Strategies for Shanghai. Shanghai Urban Transport White Paper.
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wbcsd. DC 20009 Tel: +1 202 420 77 45 Fax: +1 202 265 16 62 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org WBCSD North America Office 1744 R Street NW Washington.org www.org .Secretariat 4. chemin de Conches CH-1231 Conches-Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41 (0)22 839 31 00 Fax: +41 (0)22 839 31 31 E-mail: Web: info@wbcsd.
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