Primate Biodiversity and Adaptive Radiations

Madagascar Prosimians or “lemurs” Monkeys Apes Yes No No

New World No Yes No

Old World: Africa Yes Yes Yes

Old World: Asia Yes Yes Yes

Primate Taxonomy
Primates divided into two suborders:
Prosimii (tarsiers, lemurs, and lorises) Anthropoidea (monkeys, apes, and humans)

Primate Taxonomy
Two ways of dividing Primates into two suborders:
Prosimians (Lemurs and Lorises) and Anthropoids (Monkeys and Apes) OR Strepsirhines (prosimians without Tarsier) and Haplorhines (Tarsier, Monkeys, and Apes)

First division is based on “grades” of evolution. Second division is by presumed lines of evolutionary descent (clades) Either way, prosimians more “primitive” http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/chordata/ mammalia/primates.html

Prosimian and Anthropoid Differences Brain relative to body size Face size Nose Eye Orientation Bony Eye Protection Bony Ear Protection # teeth reduced Frontal and mandible remains unfused in prosimian .

Prosimian and Anthropoid Differences .

Prosimian Locomotion Quadrupeds: semi-terrestrial and arboreal .

Prosimian Locomotion Vertical Clingers and Leapers (VCL) .

VCL .

parking) .Lemur Lifestyles Prosimians were primitively nocturnal Nocturnal adaptations: Eyes: big and reflecting Ears: big and mobile Nose: big and wet Sociality based on olfaction and vocalization Predator defense (cripsis) Less infant care (nests.

Lemur Lifestyles Some prosimians later evolved to be diurnal Diurnal adaptations: Eyes: smaller. colorful Ears: less important Nose: can be dry Sociality based on vocalization Predator defense (groups) Carry infants .

Diet and body size .

More leaves in diet than expected for size VCL Has 1 genus that is fruit specialist (Varecia) No suspensory adaptations Few terrestrial species No grassland specialists Hibernation .Lemurs Unique features of Madagascar prosimians: olfactory communication.

Lorises: The Continental Prosimians They are all nocturnal but there are two types: Slow and Fast .

Divisions of the Suborder Anthropoidea Platyrrhini Ceboids (New World Monkeys) Catarrhini Cercopithecines (Old World Monkeys) Hominoids (Apes and Humans) .

no apes How did they get to the New World???? Primates rafting? . New Radiation No prosimians.New World.

Platyrrhini (New World Anthropoids) vs. Catarrhini (Old World Anthropoids) Laterally oriented nostrils More teeth (2133 or 2132) Occasional claws Partial bony orbit Prehensile tail All arboreal Downward oriented nostrils Fewer teeth (2123) No claws Complete bony orbit External auditory meatus Terrestrial and arboreal .

New World Monkey Lifestyles .

New World Monkeys (Platyrrhines) Can divide NWM into several groups #1 Marmosets and tamarins .

fruits. gums .New World Monkeys (Platyrrhines) Marmosets and Tamarins: Small quadrupeds arboreal Claws except for big toe (nail) Twinning (or triplets) Paternal Investment Eat insects.

New World Monkeys (Platyrrhines) #2 mid-sized arboreal quadrupeds: Aotus Cebus.tools Squirrel monkeys Sakis Uakaris .

New World Monkeys (Platyrrhines) #3 large-bodied Ateles: Spider Howler Suspensory Prehensile Tail Energetics .

Cercopithecines (Old World Monkeys) Live in Africa and Asia Species in Old World more similar to each other than they are similar to New World species .

sharp crests on molars) Sacculated stomachs Cercopithecinae (frugivores) Lots of terrestrial forms Elaborate social systems Smell less important 4-cusped bilophodont lower molars (short.Cercopithecines (Old World Monkeys) Colobinae (leaf-eating monkeys) Arboreal Rely on smell Vocalizations 4-cusped bilophodont lower molars (long. blunt cusps on molars) Large canines Cheek pouches .

Cercopithecines: Guenons One terrestrial Guenon: Vervet monkey .

Terrestrial Cercopiths .

Colobines: feeding adaptations .

Macaques: the adaptable primate .

Colobines: misc (adaptations?) .

Divisions of the Superfamily Hominoidea Hylobatidae (Siamangs and Gibbons) Pongidae (Apes) Hominidae (Humans) .

flat.Hominoid Apomorphies (derived features) Short. broad trunk Highly mobile upper shoulder joint Long upper limbs Absence of external tail Y-5 lower molar pattern .

Hylobatid Locomotion .

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Hominoids: The Great Apes .

Hominoids: The Great Apes .

Hominoids: The Great Apes .

Hominoids: The Great Apes .

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