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EFFECT OF SILICA FUME TO THE STRENGTH AND PERMEABILITY OF HIGH PERFORMANCE GROUND GRANULATED BLASTFURNACE SLAG CONCRETE

AZLI SHAH BIN ALI BASHAH

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

EFFECT OF SILICA FUME TO THE STRENGTH AND PERMEABILITY OF HIGH PERFORMANCE GROUND GRANULATED BLASTFURNACE SLAG CONCRETE

AZLI SHAH BIN ALI BASHAH

A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure)

Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

MAY 2006

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I declare that this entitled “Effect Of Silica Fume To The Strength And Permeability Of High Performance Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag Concrete” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. The project report has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.

Signature

:

……………………………….

Name

:

AZLI SHAH BIN ALI BASHAH

Date

:

08 MAY 2006.

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TO MY BELOVED PARENT, HAJI ALI BASHAH BIN YUSOFF AND HAJJAH NAEMAH ZAITUN BTE ABDUL HAMID

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In preparing this thesis, I was in contact with many people, researchers, academicians, and practitioners. They have contributed towards my understanding and thoughts. In particular, I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my main thesis supervisor, Associate Professor Dr. A. Aziz Saim, for encouragement, guidance, and friendship. I am also very thankful to Ir. Rahmat Bin Abdul Rahman from Persatuan Jurutera Islam Malaysia and Ir. Y.C. Lee from Buildcon Concrete Sdn Bhd for their guidance, advices and motivation. Without their continued support and interest, this thesis would not have been the same as presented here.

I am also indebted to University Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for the laboratory works of my Master study. Librarians at UTM also deserve special thanks for their assistance in supplying the relevant literatures.

My sincere appreciation also extends to my friends Ir. Che Husni Ahmad

(Consultant), Ir. Musfa Mohamed, Ir

Hussin, En. Sharul Othman who have provided assistance at various occasions.

Abdul Kadir Ahyat(Consultant), En. Fairuz

Lastly, I also reserve special thanks to my beloved wife and my sons Sidi Muhammad Yusoff, Sidi Zainul Abideen and Sidi Iqbal Shah for their commitment, encouragement and patient while preparing this thesis and the continued support.

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ABSTRACT

A durable concrete is one that has the ability to withstand the damaging effects of the environment and of its service conditions without undue deterioration and excessive unforeseen maintenance over the design life of a structure. The used of high performance concrete is an alternative in producing high – strength concrete, durable and construction friendly. This paper study the effect of silica fume to the properties of high performance ground granulated blastfurnace slag concrete to reveal the potential outmost. It was found by compressive strength test, that high- strength concrete can be achieved. At the age of 28 days, concretes containing 5, 7.5, and 10% silica fume gave compressive strengths of 65.6, 64.6, and 67.1 Mpa, respectively. At aged 56 days concrete containing 10% of silica fume had the highest strength. However the concrete containing 5% of silica fume had low permeability thus may enhance the durability.

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ABSTRAK.

Konkrit yang tahan lasak adalah kebolehan konkrit tersebut daripada mengalami kerosakan akibat dari kesan alam sekitar dan kemerosotan semasa perkhidmatan serta penyelenggaran yang kurang sepanjang hayat rekabentuk sesuatu struktur. Penggunaan konkrit berprestasi tinggi digunakan sebagai bahan alternatif untuk menghasilkan konkrit yang tahan lasak, berkekuatan tinggi dan memudahkan kerja pembinaan. Sehubungan itu kajian kesan bahan tambah silika peluwap terhadap sifat konkrit sangga relaubagas berbutir untuk mendedahkan potensi yang wujud. Dalam kajian ini melalui ujian mampatan, konkrit berkekuatan tinggi boleh dicapai. Pada konkrit berusia 28 hari yang mengandungi 5, 7.5 dan 10 % silika peluwap mencapai kekuatan mampatan 65.6, 64.6 dan 67.1 Mpa. Manakala konkrit pada usia 56 hari yang mengandungi 10% silika peluwap mencapai kekuatan yang paling tinggi. Walaubagaimanapun konkrit yang mengandungi 5% silika peluwap mempunyai ketelapan yang rendah dan secara tidak lansung ianya menambah nilai ketahanlasakan.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

Title Page

i

Declaration

ii

Dedication

iii

Acknowledgement

iv

Abstract

v

Abstrak

vi

Table of Content

vii

List of Tables

x

List of Figure

xii

List of Symbols

xiv

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Foreword

1

1.2 Objectives

2

1.3 Scope of study

 

3

2

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

2.1 Introduction

 

4

2.1.1

Definitions Of High Performance Concrete (HPC)

4

2.2 Development Of High Performance

 

5

Concrete

2.3 Materials For High Performance

 

6

Concrete

2.3.2

Silica Fume

8

 

2.3.3

Ground Blastfurnace Slag Cements

10

2.4 Aggregates

 

15

2.5 Superplastizer/High Range Water Reducers

16

2.5.1

Superplasticizer Dosage

18

2.6 Water

19

2.7 Supplementary Cementing Materials For

19

Proposal Concrete Mix

2.7.1

Mix Selection For High Performance

19

 

Concrete

3

METHODOLOGY

 

3.1 Introduction

 

30

3.2 Experimental For The High Performance

30

Concrete

 

3.3 Material for testing

 

31

3.4 Water

31

3.5 Admixtures

 

32

3.6 Cube Compressive Strength

32

3.6.1

Preparation of Concrete Cube

33

 

Grade 60 with Free W/ C Ratio 0.32

 

3.7 Permeability Testing

34

4

RESULT AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction

47

4.2 The Results of Concrete Cubes Strength

47

 

4.2.1

Analysis from the Results

48

 

4.2.1.1 Analysis in respect to strength

48

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5 DESIGN RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Introduction

68

5.2 Discussion about the Concrete Cube Strength.

68

5.2.1 1 day cube strength

69

5.2.2 3 and 7 days cube strength

69

5.2.3 28 and 56 days cube strength.

70

5.3 Permeability of Concrete Cube.

71

6 SUMMARY AND CONLUSION

6.1 Conclusion

75

6.2 Recommendation

76

REFERENCES

77

APPENDIX A

81

x

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO.

TITLE

PAGE

2.1

Typical Composition

21

2.2

Some Major Projects That Used Blastfurnace Slag Cement In Malaysia

22

2.3

Mix Proportions of Some High Performance Concrete

23

3.1

Mixture Proportions

36

3.2

Program for casting and testing of Concrete Cube

37

4.1

The Results Of Cubes Test

52

4.2

Comparison the compressive strength of Y2, Y3, Y4 for I day to YI

53

4.3

Comparison the compressive strength of Y2, Y3, Y4 for 3 days to YI

54

4.4

Comparison the compressive strength of Y2, Y3, Y4 for 7 days to YI

55

4.5

Comparison the compressive strength of Y2, Y3, Y4 for 28 days to YI

56

4.6

Comparison the compressive strength of Y2, Y3, Y4 for 56 days to YI

57

4.7

The Result Of Cube Strength Grade 60 Relate To JKR Specification

58

4.8

The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y1 At Age 28 Days

60

4.9

The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y2 At Age 28 Days

61

4.10

The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y3 At Age 28 Days

62

4.11

The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y4 At Age 28 Days

63

4.12

The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y1 At Age 56 Days

64

4.13

The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y2 At Age 56 Days

65

4.14

The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y3 At Age 56 Days

66

xi

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO.

TITLE

PAGE

4.15

The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y4 At Age 56 Days

67

4.15

The result for Comparisons Relative To Permeability

And Compressive Strength For The Same Specimen

68

5.1

Reference For Permeability (ISAT) Test

74

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LIST OF FIGURES.

FIGURE NO

TITLE

PAGE

2.1

Factors which influences high performance concrete

24

2.2

Typical Strength Development

25

2.3

Higher Resistance to Chloride Diffussion

26

2.4

Higher resistance to sulphate attack

27

2.5

Protection Against Alkali-Silica Reaction

28

2.6

Temperature Profile Of Slagcem (contain 70 % ggbs& OPC)

29

3.1

Silica Fume(SF)

38

3.2

Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag(GGBS)

38

3.3

Admixtures P322N And R1100H

39

3.4

Step for preparation the 150x150x150 concrete cube

40

3.5

Procedure In Preparation Of Concrete Cube

41

3.6

Compacting The Fresh Concrete

41

3.7

Measuring The Slump Of Fresh Concrete

42

3.8

Preparation of Concrete Cube for compressive testing

43

3.9

Cubes In The Tank For Curing Purpose

44

3.10

The procedures carried for the cubes test as in accordance to BS 1881:Part 116

45

3.11

Initial Surface Absorption Apparatus

46

3.12

Plastic Cap

46

4.1

Concrete cube strength in normal water for I day

53

4.2

Concrete cube strength in normal water for 3 days

54

4.3

Concrete cube strength in normal water for 7 days

55

4.4

Concrete cube strength in normal water for 28 days

56

4.5

Concrete cube strength in normal water for 56 days

57

4.6

Comparison Between The Cube Strength At 1,3,7,28,56 Days

59

4.7

The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y1 At Age 28 Days

60

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LIST OF FIGURES.

FIGURE

NO

TITLE

PAGE

4.9 The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y3 At Age 28 Days

62

4.10 The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y4 At Age 28 Days

63

4.11 The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y1 At Age 56 Days

64

4.12 The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y2 At Age 56 Days

65

4.13 The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y3 At Age 56 Days

66

4.14 The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y4 At Age 56 Days

67

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

BS

-

British Standard

HPC

-

High Performance Concrete

ACI

-

American Concrete Institute

w/c

-

water/cement

Mpa

-

Mega pascal

ISAT

-

Initial Surface Absorption Test

C-S-H

-

Calcium Silicate Hydrates

AASHTO

-

American Association of State Highway

 

and Transportation Officials

MS

-

Malaysian Standard

OPC

-

Ordinary Portland Cement

C 3 A

-

Tricalcium Aluminate

Psi

-

Pound/square inch

GGBS

-

Ground Blastfurnace Slag Cements

SF

-

Silica Fume

ASTM

-

American Society for Testing And Materials

S.O.

-

Superintendent Officer

UTM

-

University Technology Malaysia

JKR

-

Jabatan Kerja Raya

mm

-

millimeter

N/mm 2

-

newton per millimetres square

ml/m2/s

-

milliliters per square metre per second

SiO 2

-

Silicon Dioxide

Ca(OH)

-

Calcium Hydroxide

FM

-

Figgs Method

m 2 /kg

-

metre square per kilogram

>

-

More than

<

-

Less than

1.1

Foreword

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Most conventional concrete structures deteriorate rapidly and require costly repairs before their expected service life is reached. Four major types of environmental distress affect concrete structures. They are corrosion of the reinforcement, alkali-aggregate reactivity, freeze-thaw deterioration, and attack by sulfates (Ozyildirim, 1998). In each case, water or chemical solutions may penetrate the concrete and initiate or accelerate damages. By using high-performance concrete (HPC), durability and are enhanced strength, resulting in long-lasting and economical structure (Lerning and Ahmed,

1993).

American Concrete Institute(ACI) defined high performance concrete as: “High performance concrete (HPC) defined as concrete which meets special performance and uniformity requirements that cannot always be achieved routinely by using only conventional materials and normal mixing, placing and curing practices”

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The high performance concrete mixes designed for low permeability resist this infiltration of aggressive liquids and, therefore, are more durable. One important issue need to be addressed in the use of high performance concrete are the development of the mixes.

Low-permeability concretes are made with a low (0.45 and less) water- cementations material ratio (w/cm). Pozzolanic material such as fly ash, silica fume, or slag be used as cementation materials. These modifications to the mixes results in higher compressive strengths than conventional concretes, above 41 Mpa (6,000 psi). The initial economic benefit arises from the ability to use fewer borepiles, colums, beams resulting in lower costs in materials, labour, transportation, and construction. The structural benefits include increased rigitidy because of the increased elastic modulus and increased concrete strength that raise the allowable design stresses (Lane, S.N, and Podolny, W. 1993). This project paper emphasis will be directed mainly to the applications of ground granulated blastfurnace slag and silica fume.

1.2

Objectives

i) To develop the concrete mix and study the effect of silica fume between the matrix which consist of ground granulated blastfurnace slag with gradually added percentage f silica fume with minimum cube strength of 60 Mpa.

ii) To develop concrete early age strength of more than 1 Mpa within 24 hour.

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1.3 Scope of study

This study focuses on investigating the properties of the proposal concrete mix of high performance concrete. Among the properties investigated for such designed mixes are compressive strength, and permeability for durability while maintaining the high workability.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

Introduction

High performance concrete is not a revolutionary material, nor does it contain ingredients which are not used in the concrete considered this far (A. M Neville, 1995). It is a concrete made with suitable materials as per selected mix design, transported, placed and cures so that it gives better performance in terms of high strength, ease of placement and compaction without segregation, enhancement of long term mechanical properties and long service life in robust environment. The factors which influences high performance concrete are shown in Figure 2.1.

2.1.1 Definitions Of High Performance Concrete (HPC)

High performance concrete is defined as the concrete which satisfy special performance and uniformity requirements that cannot be always achieves by using conventional materials, normal mixing, planning and curing practices. According to Strategic Highway Research Program, USA, it shall have one of the following strength characteristics : (Bickley and Mitchel 2001)

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4-hour compressive strength 17.5 MPa (2500 psi) or very early strength

24-hour compressive strength 35 MPa (5,000 psi) or high early strength

28-day compressive strength 70 MPa (10,000 psi) or very high strength

It should have durability factor greater than 80% after 300 cycles of freezing and thawing.

It should have a water-cementitious ratio < 0.35.

Thus the high performance concrete should definitely have the following :

a)

High compressive strength, thermal capacity, acid/alkali resistance, ductility and better tensile properties

b)

Low shrinkage and permeability

c)

High fire resistance

d)

Excellent flow characteristics

e)

Good bond characteristics

2.2

Development Of High Performance Concrete

The design mix of concrete is primarily based on the water-cement ratio. It is generally assumed that for strength up to 40 MPa, any normal weight aggregate can be used. Basically there is no mixed design procedure is consider for aggregate strength/elastic modulus. Similarly the interfacial regions regarding cement aggregate bond are also not clearly addressed. Generally it is assumed that the strength of the hardening cement paste will be the limiting factor in controlling the concrete strength. In high performance concrete, however all the component of the mixtures are pushed to limit (Jianxin Ma; Holger Schneider, 2002).

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High performance concrete can be model as three phase composite materials. The phases are :

a) the hardening cement paste

b) the aggregates

c) the interfacial zone between the hardened cement paste and the aggregates

All these phase have to be optimized, which means that each must be considered in the design process. It is very important to pay careful attention to all the aspects of concrete production. It indicates that quality control is an essential part of the production of high performance concrete and requires full co-operation among the materials, ready mixed supplier, the engineer and the contractor. The proportioning of high performance concrete consists of three inter-related steps :

1.

Selection of suitable ingredients : cement, supplementary cementing materials, aggregates, water and chemical admixtures.

2.

Determination of the relative quantities of the ingredients in order to produce a concrete that has desired properties, strength and durability.

3.

Quality control of each and every phase of concrete making process.

2.3

Materials For High Performance Concrete

Cement to be used for high performance concrete have to meet the following two requirements (C. F. Ferraris 1999).

i. It must develop the appropriate strength

ii. It must represent the appropriate rheological behavior.

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Generally same types of cements have quite different rheological and strength characteristics, particularly when used in combination with chemical admixtures and supplementary cementing materials. Therefore, while selecting cement for use in high performance concrete, it is necessary to look carefully at cement fineness and other chemical properties.

Mostly in the literature stated that(A.M Neville 1995, Wang 2004, Mitchel 2001) increase in the fineness of the Portland cement usually increases the early strength of the concrete. It is due to higher surface area in contact with water of the concrete which lead to a more rapid hydration.

2.3.1 Supplementary Cementing Materials

The materials for making concrete consist of a cementitious binder, aggregates, water and in most cases with ready mixed concrete, one or more types in chemical admixtures. To day the cementitious binder such Ordinary Portland Cement or Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement is often blended with either or ground granulated blastfurnace slag. In general, pulverized fuel up to 30% and ground granulated blastfurnace slag up to 70% with the balance made up of are used depending on the intended applications. Within the past decade, silica fume has been introduced in addition to the other mineral admixtures to improve the performance of concrete. These mineral admixtures are chemicals that provide cementitious gel similar to those produced by the hydration of Ordinary Portland Cement. Hence they are often called supplementary cementing materials (A.M.Neville1995).

In recent years, (C.T.Tam 1998) the use of pozzolanic materials and slag as replacement for cement in concrete has become more and more widespread throughout the world. Particularly, in countries where such materials are produced as by-products of industry, such usage has the added value of

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providing a partial solution to the problem of disposal of such materials. In the following sections, discussions on these supplementary cementing materials will be confined to, silica fume and ground granulated blastfurnace slag. They are used together with ordinary portland cement which provides the calcium hydroxide needed for the pozzolanic reaction. Others such as natural pozzolans and non-ferrous slags will not be included. The chemical and physical composition of the cementation binder is indicated in Table 2.1.

2.3.2 Silica Fume

Silica Fume is a by-product of the smelting process in the production of silicon metal and ferrosilicon alloys. It has also been called silica fume, microsilica, amorphous silica and other similar names. However, the silica fume used in concrete are those from the production process of silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloy containing more than 75% silicon (C.T.Tam 1998).

In general, they have:

d) Si0 2 contents ranging from 85 to 96%;

e) Amorphous structures

silica fume may be obtained in its powder form, densified, or in slurry form mixed with 50% water by weight. Its specific gravity is about 2.20, but its bulk density is only 200 to 300 kg per cubic meter. The specific surface area ranges from 13,000 to 25,000 sq. m per kg (Silica Fume User Manual, SFA

2005).

Due to extreme fineness and high silica content, silica fume is a highly effective pozzolanic material. Silica Fume is used in concrete to improve its

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properties. It has been found that silica fume improves compressive strength, bond strength, and abrasion resistance, reduces permeability, and therefore helps in protecting reinforcing steel from corrosion.

Pozzolanic reaction between and calcium hydroxide released by hydration of Portland cement leads to the formation of C-S-H gel. It is a very reactive pozzolan. Although the nature of the hydration products of (C.T.Tam 2001) and its influence on cement hydration are not fully understood at present, the effect is a refinement of the pore structure when is added to the cementitious system. This leads to a reduction in permeability and hence the enhancement of the mechanical properties and durability of concrete containing silica fume.

There are two main methods of using silica fume in concrete:

(a) as a partial replacement of cement to obtain reduction in cement content

but not economical in the local context,

(b) as an addition to improve concrete properties for both in fresh and

hardened concrete.

Silica fume has been used as an addition to concrete up to 15 percent by weight of cement, although the normal proportion is 7 to 10 percent. With an addition of 15 percent, the potential exists for very strong and brittle concrete. It increases the water demand in a concrete mix, however, dosage rates of less than 5 percent will not typically require a water reducer. High replacement rates will require the use of a high range water reducer (Silica Fume User Manual, SFA 2005)

The dosage of air-entraining agent needed to maintain the required air content when using silica fume is slightly higher than that for conventional concrete because of high surface area and the presence of carbon. This dosage is increased with increasing amounts of silica fume content in concrete. Concrete incorporating more

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than 10% silica fume becomes sticky, in order to enhance workability, the initial slump should be increased. It has been found that silica fume reduces bleeding because of its effect on rheological properties (A.M Neville 1995).

It has been shown by several researchers that addition of silica fume to concrete reduces its permeability. Rapid chloride permeability testing (AASHTO 277) conducted on silica fume concrete showed that addition 8% of silica fume significantly reduces the chloride permeability. This reduction is primarily the result of the increased density of the matrix due to the presence of silica fume (Ozyildirim

1998).

2.3.3 Ground Blastfurnace Slag Cements

The usage of blended cements containing slag in Malaysia is relatively recent compare to developed country. Its used in Malaysia began in the mid and late 90’s when the Malaysian Standards for slag cement were developed. Table 2.2 indicate the used of blended cements containing slag in several projects in Malaysia.

In early all circumstances ground blastfurnace slag cement can be used as an alternative to normal Portland Cement. Additionally, the enhanced properties will enable it to be used in certain applications where normal Portland Cement would be inadequate. Although in many situations, the differences in properties are very minor, slag cements do offer certain technical advantages, generally proportionally to the usage in terms of percentage. The ground blastfurnace slag cements in Malaysia conform to Malaysian Standard MS 1388: 1995 “ Specification for High Slag Blastfurnace Cement” and MS 1389 : 1995 “ Specification for Portland Blastfurnace Cement”. While MS 1389 permits slag content up from 6 to 65% of the total cementitious content, MS 1388 allow even higher slag content of up to 85 % for special applications. The normal product is a run of the mill 30 - 50% slag blend and is the blend most commonly used in the Malaysian market where slag

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cement is specified. The slag that is used in blended cements is a non-metallic mineral byproduct formed when iron is produced in a blast furnace. It does not come from steel or non-ferrous material production. It is produced simultaneously with iron at around 1500 0 C It is taken off and cooled in a controlled manner. If cooled slowly it forms a material that is useful for aggregate but of no practical use for cement.

If rapid quenching with water is applied it solidifies into a glassy material which, when ground, results in a product that possesses latent hydraulicity similar to Portland cements. The end product is a complex material consisting mainly of calcium silicates and calcium aluminates. Putting it simply, it is used to produce a hydraulic cement which can be used in the same way as other Portland Cements. The calcium hydroxide which is produced as a by product of Ordinary Portland Cement hydration reaction is used as the activating component in ground blastfurnace slag. One interesting feature which is worthy of highlighting is the fact that the lime formed by the cement hydration is the weakest link in the hydrated cement matrix.

Another feature is that the fine slag particles fill the pores in the cement matrix with cementitious hydration products and thereby reduces permeability. So ground blastfurnace slag not only remove the calcium hydroxide links but it also effectively transforms it into and builds further cementitious components adding to strength and chemical resistance. Generally, the properties will tend to reflect the properties of the predominant material. This paper discusses the properties in very general terms. This is because the properties achieved are very dependent on the particular materials used and in-depth testing containing all materials is essential to provide the necessary background on material properties. Among the properties are as below (C.T. Tam 2001, Wang 2004, HPC Structural Designer Guide 2005).

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(i) Compressive Strength The key area to watch is that of early strengths (1 to 7 days). These will generally be reduced for concretes of equal 28 day strengths and depending on the materials used can show reductions of 10 o 20%.

In itself this is not a problem other than it affects things like formwork stripping times, and precast demoulding. The other concern is in the prestressed concrete works where stage prestressing very often requires high early strength to be developed. The strength patterns can be controlled through concrete mix design, cement and slag fineness as well as slag proportioning. The longer term and ultimate strengths are improved with the addition of slag. The improvement increases with increasing slag content. A reduced fineness of the ground blastfurnace slag component for a given 28 days strength also will improve the ultimate strength. A typical strength development for concrete made from Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), ground blastfurnace slag cement with 30% slag content and ground blastfurnace slag cement with 50% slag content is shown in Figure 2.2 to illustrate how this property is affected by the type of cement and the slag content.

(ii)Setting Time

Generally the setting time increases with the addition of slag and this is particularly the case in cooler climates as ground blastfurnace slag cements, like all Portland Cements, are temperature sensitive. However this can be overcome through the use of appropriate concrete mix design and admixtures. In temperatures in excess of about 23 to 25 0 C. there is virtually no difference. The longer setting times is usually of little concern in Malaysia, due to the high ambient temperature exceeding 25 0 C.

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(iii) Bleeding

The fine slag particles block pores which tends to produce a concrete which bleeds less provided proper mix design is done. This indeed is an advantage in cooler climates and in winter. In summer and during freak weather conditions care is needed as reduced bleeding may promote plastic cracking. Awareness is important and mix modifications can be made to eliminate this potential problem. Again, this is not a big issue in the mild weather conditions in Malaysia.

(iv) Workability

There is a need to clear the confusion here due largely to the general impression that workability is measured by concrete slump. Slump only measures consistency. The fact is, blast ground blastfurnace slag cements have, for a given slump, a better workability. This is important as field practice confirms that the addition of slag reduces the slump without affecting the workability and particularly the ease of consolidation under vibration and the finish ability. On this basis it is possible to accept ground blastfurnace slag cement based concretes on sites with a lower slump than Ordinary Portland Cement concretes.

(v) Durability

Comment on durability would not be complete without covering the following four areas.

(a) Water - Marine Environments

Ground blastfurnace slag improve the impermeability due to their fine nature and physical structure and can reduce chloride diffussity significantly. The latter advantage is already evident with slag percentages of the order of 40% and is greatly enhanced by slag percentages of 60 to 70% or greater. At lower rates the performance is similar to Normal Type A Portland Cement in terms of chlorides and some improvement can be expected due to the

14

reduction in permeability. The excellent resistance of high slag cement content to chloride diffusion by penetration is illustrated in Figure 2.3.

(b) Sulphate Attack

The ability of Blast-Furnace cements to withstand sulphate attack is obvious from overseas work which again generally points to reduced concrete permeability, reduced amount of Calcium Hydroxide hydration product and reactive aluminates which are components readily attacked by sulphates Whilst 30% Ground Blastfurnace Slag may give a performance similar to Normal Type A Portland Cement, it requires around 70% to equal the performance of Type D Sulphate Resisting Cement. Regardless of this it must be stated that, like chloride diffusion, the overriding factor in gaining sulphate resistance is an adequate cement content. This is often the best way of addressing this problem. If this is done a change to Ground Blastfurnace Slag cement will offer further benefit. Figure 2.4 shows the superior performance of high slag content over the Ordinary Portland Cement against sulphate attack.

(c) Alkali Aggregate Reaction

Although the Axle Load Study (Ministry of Works 1988 Report) has suspected a case of alkali silica reaction in Johore, this phenomenon is not of major concern in Malaysia, but where it is a problem, slag contents in excess of 40% can be successfully used. These reduce the potential expansion to amounts that are unlikely to cause distress. The benefit of applying ground blastfurnace slag cements in areas of potential alkali aggregate reactivity is well recognized. Figure 2.5 shows the protection offered by slag cement against alkali-silica reaction.

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(d) Heat of Hydration

Slag hydration is an exothermic reaction in the same way as Ordinary Portland Cement hydration. However it does not react as quickly and thus generates heat more slowly. This enables more time for dissipation of heat and peak concrete temperatures are reduced. This is an advantage when thermal cracking would be a problem. For normal ground blastfurnace slag cement concretes, the peak temperatures may be reduced by 8 to 10 0 C for 40% slag blends and proportionally more for the higher slag blends.

Figure 2.6 shows the temperature profile of Ordinary Portland Cement and slag cement. It is precisely due to this heat property that makes slag cement so useful in massive pours such as raft foundations as the reduced heat of hydration greatly reduces the thermal cracks associated with thick concrete sections.

2.4

Aggregates

As coarse aggregate in concrete occupy 35 to 70% of the volume of the high performance concrete, their properties play significant role in determining the properties of the hardened concrete (C.F.Feraris 1999). It may be proper to categories the properties into two groups : exterior features such as maximum size, particle shape, textures and interior quality such as strength, density, porosity, hardness, elastic modulus and chemical mineral composition. Smaller sized aggregates produce higher concrete strength. Particle shape and texture effect the workability of fresh concrete and the strength of hardened concrete. The fine aggregate should be free from clay or slit, and the use of a relatively coarser sand with a fineness modulus of about 3.0 is generally recommended. The weakest component in normal concrete, made with w/c ratio of 0.38 to 0.65 are the hardened

16

cement paste and the transition zone between cement paste and coarse aggregates, rather than the properties of the coarse aggregates it self. However for high performance concrete the strength of the aggregate plays an important role in the strength of the concrete (Bentz D. P. 1995).

As there is no standard method for evaluating the bonding characteristics and internal defects in aggregate particle, the choice of coarse aggregate can be made by examining the stress-strain curve and loading unloading hysterics loop for high performance concrete mixture made with various types of coarse aggregates. The aggregates giving higher stress-strain ratio and narrow hysterics loop are best suited (Karsten 1996). The tests such as abrasion resistance, hardness, soundness, void ratio, also indicate the strength of coarse aggregate. Rigid aggregate contribute to the compressive strength as well as the abrasion resistance of high performance concrete.

Aggregate with good soundness can resist weathering action and increase the durability of concrete. Low abrasion resistance, indicate lower strength of aggregates. Higher soundness also gives lower aggregate strength. Where aggregate strength is higher, concrete strength shows likewise.

2.5 Superplastizer/High Range Water Reducers

Admixture are used to modify the properties of concrete or mortar to make them more suitable for working, for economy or for other purposes for instances to obtained such concrete that acquire very high strength, resistance to freezing and thawing, retarding and accelerating. An admixtures may be the solutions or means of achieving the desired result (Faris, Tair and Benmarce 2001).

17

For long time concrete was simply a mixture of cement, water and aggregates whose workability was essentially controlled by the amount of water added during mixing. The important of water/cement ratio was rapidly recognized as the most important factor governing strength. In modern concrete practice, it is impossible to make high performance concrete having adequate workability without the use of super-plasticizer (Vanchai Sata 2004).

There are basically, three principal types of superplasticizers

i) Lignosulfonate based.

ii) Polycondensate of formaldehyde and melamine sulfonate often referred, as melamine sulfonate

iii) Polycondensate of formaldehyde and naphthalene sulfonate often referred as naphthalene sulfonate.

The workability of a fresh concrete mix depends to some extent on the characteristics of superplasticizer used. However the mix composition, variability in cement composition or properties, and other factor such as the mixing procedure and equipment play an important role, but it is now ell established that the average molecular mass of the superplasticizer is of the prime importance for its efficiency in reducing water in Ordinary Portland Cement mixes (Hajime Okamura 2003). The chemical nature of the superplasticizer whether naphthalene based or melamine based, can also have an effect on the rheological behaviour of a concrete mix. However no definite trend could be identifies from properties like slump and slump loss, retardation, and air entrainment. This clearly indicate that several intrinsic properties of the superplasticizer may influence its performance.

The influence of the cement fineness on the amount of superplasticizer needed to reach a certain level of workability in the case of concrete has been clearly

18

established such as at concrete lab Buildcon Concrete Sdn. Bhd. The finer the cement, the higher the superplasticizer dosage required to achieve a given workability.

2.5.1 Superplasticizer Dosage

There is no exact method of determining the required superplasticizer dosage (A.M Neville 1995). It has to be determined, by trial and error method especially in this project paper. When achieving strength is the primary criterion, then it should be with the lowest water-cement ratio, and the highest superplasticizer rate. However, the water-cement may have to be adjusted so that both the strength and rheological properties can be optimized.

Marsh Cone Test is generally used to study the behavior of the cement superplasticizer mixture. In this test, the time taken by a mixture of cement, water and superplasticizer to pass through opening is measured. The time so measured is called as Marsh flow time, and is directly related to the viscosity decreases with the increase in superplasticizer dosage till a stage is reached after which any further addition of superplasticizer does not significantly reduce the viscosity of the mix. This point as called as ‘the saturation point’ (Faris, Tair and Benmarce 2001).

The saturation point varies from one cement to another, when using the same superplasticizer, and from one superplasticizer to another, with the same cement. The superplasticizer dosage at saturation point depends on the water cement ratio of the mix, the fitness of the cements, the total amount of C 3 A, the sulfate content and the rate of dissolution of the sulfates. So, for each cement-superplasticizer combinantion and mix design, there is be one optimal superplasticizer dosage.

19

2.6

Water

Water is the most important and least expansive ingredient of concrete. Apart of water gets utilized is the hydration of cement to form the binding matrix has hardened. The remaining water serves as a lubricant between the fine aggregate and coarse aggregate and make the concrete workable. Generally the cement requires about 3/10 of its weight of water by hydration. Hence minimum water cement ratio required is 0.35 (Mitchel 2001) water is required to lubricate the mix which makes the concrete workable. The additional water should be kept minimum, since too much water reduces the strength of concrete. If too much water is added to the concrete, the excess water along with cement comes to the surface by capillary action and this cement-water mixture forms a thin layer of chalky material known as ‘Laitance”. This laitance prevents bond formation and forms a plane of weakness in concrete.

2.7

Supplementary Cementing Materials For Proposal Concrete Mix

2.7.1

Mix Selection For High Performance Concrete

In Table 2.3 details of several high performance concrete mixes were given. However, a generalized systematic approach to the selection of mix proportions of high performance concretes has not yet been developed (A.M.Neville1995).

Despite the absence of an accepted method for mix selection for high performance concrete, some specific comments can be made. First, because workability can be controlled by a appropriate dosage of superplactizer, the water content should be chosen on the basis of the water/cement ratio required from strength considerations. Excessive content of cementitious material should be

20

avoided so as to control shrinkage, a value of 500 to 550 kg/m3, of which about 10 per cent is silica fume, is a desirable maximum(A.M.Neville1995). Some help in mix selection for high performance concrete can be obtained from ACI 211.4R-93, which is intended to apply to concretes with compressive strengths between 40 and 80 Mpa ( 6000 psi to 12000 psi).

High performance concrete, the specified strength is sometimes required at ages well beyond 28 days usually at 56 days, this should be clearly taken into account in considering the strength criterion. With respect to the content of coarse aggregate, ACI 211.4R-93 recommends that the bulk volume of oven-dry rodded coarse aggregate size is 10mm (3/8in.) and 0.68 when the maximum aggregate size is 12mm (1/2in). It seems that, unlike ordinary concrete, the value of the bulk volume of coarse aggregate is unaffected by the fineness modulus of fine aggregate, at least in the range 2.5 to 3.2. While the broad guidance of ACI 2.11.4R-93 is useful, it has to be repeated that an experimental approach to the mix selection to high performance concrete is unavoidable.

21

Table 2.1: Typical Composition

21 Table 2.1: Typical Composition Source: Ozyildirium 1998

Source: Ozyildirium 1998

22

Table 2.2

Some Major Projects That Used Blastfurnace Slag Cement In Malaysia (Source from: YTL Cement Sdn Bhd.)

No.

PROJECTS

LOCATIONS

APPLICATIONS

%

GGBS

IN

CEMENT

1

PRT Monorail

K.Lumpur

Bore piles, pile caps and columns

30

2

Dewan Bahasa & Pustaka Extension

K.

Lumpur

Foundation

&

 
 

basement

70

3

Kuala

Lumpur

Sepang

Parking

apron

and

50

International

building structures

Airport

4

Southern Finance New Headquarters

K.

Lumpur

Raft foundations

70

5

Putrajaya

Selangor

Wall diaphragm

70

6

JB-Waterfront

J.

Bharu

Deck

and

building

50

City

 

structures

7

Hollywood Plaza

J.

Bharu

Pile caps

50

8

Sg.

Johor

Kota Tinggi

Foundation,

50-70%

Waterworks (PUB, Singapore)

treatment

plant,

reservoir etc

9

Indah

Water-

Sg. Besi

All

concrete

70

sewage treatment plant

structures

10

KLIA Mosque

Sepang

Building structures

50

11

Cyberjaya

Cyberjaya

Highway

and

50

Putrajaya

B15

bridges

Highway

Link

(JKR)

23

Table 2.3: Mix Proportions of Some High Performance Concrete

Ingredient (kg/m 3 )

Ingredient (kg/m 3 )   A B C D E F G Portland cement 534 500
 

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Portland cement

534

500

315

513

163

228

425

Silica fume

40

30

36

43

54

46

40

Fly ash

59

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ggbs

-

-

137

-

325

182

-

Fine aggregate

623

700

745

685

730

800

755

Coarse aggregate

1069

1100

1130

1080

1100

1100

1045

Total water

139

143

150

139

136

138

175

0.22

0.27

0.31

0.25

0.25

0.30

0.38

Water/cementitious Material ratio Slump, mm

(Mpa) at age (days)

255

-

-

-

200

220

230

Cylinder strength

1

-

-

-

-

13

19

-

2

-

-

-

65

-

-

-

7

-

-

67

91

72

62

-

28

-

93

83

119

114

105

95

56

124

-

-

-

-

-

-

91

-

107

93

145

126

121

105

365

-

-

-

-

136

126

-

Information about mixes: (A) United States; (B) Canada; (D) United States; (E) Canada; (F) Canada; (G) Morocco; (H) France; (I) Canada;

24

WATER AGGREGATE Size, Shape, Grading, Quality, Moisture PERFORMANCE OF FRESH CONCRETE Mixing Transporting Placing
WATER
AGGREGATE
Size, Shape, Grading,
Quality, Moisture
PERFORMANCE OF
FRESH CONCRETE
Mixing
Transporting
Placing &
PERFORMANCE OF HARDENED
CONCRETE
Placing & PERFORMANCE OF HARDENED CONCRETE CEMENT Composition Quality Curing Figure 2.1 : Factors

CEMENT

Composition

Quality

PERFORMANCE OF HARDENED CONCRETE CEMENT Composition Quality Curing Figure 2.1 : Factors which influences high
Curing
Curing

Figure 2.1 : Factors which influences high performance concrete

25

60 50 40 30 OPC SLAGCEM 30 SLAGCEM 50 20 Ce me ntitious Conte nt
60
50
40
30
OPC
SLAGCEM 30
SLAGCEM 50
20
Ce me ntitious Conte nt : 3 30 kg/m 3
O
28 C Water Cured
10
0
1
3
7
14
28
56
90
2
rpom e s sC ive
t re g tS hn
(N/
mm
)

Age (Days)

Figure 2.2 : Typical Strength Developement (Source from:. Slag Cement Sdn. Bhd)

26

 

Diffusion of Chloride Ions at 25 in Cement Pastes of W /C 0.5

O

C

Type o f C em en t

Diffusivity (x10

-9

cm

2

/s

SRPC

100.0

 

OPC

44.7

70%

O PC / 30% PFA O PC/65% G GBS

14.7

35%

4.1

Figure 2.3: Higher Resistance to Chloride Diffussion

(Source from: Slag Cement Sdn. Bhd.)

27

0.25 0.5 water/cement Disintegrated 0.45 water/cement 0.2 100% SRPC 0.15 100% OPC 0.1 0.05 70%
0.25
0.5 water/cement
Disintegrated
0.45 water/cement
0.2
100%
SRPC
0.15
100%
OPC
0.1
0.05
70% GGBS
0
30
10
15
20
25
5
-0.05
Months
p iD vt
Ei
x p aeus n sr i
(no
)%

Figure 2.4: Higher resistance to sulphate attack (Source from: Slag Cement Sdn. Bhd.)

28

1.5 1 0.5 Visible Cracking Expan osi n )%(
1.5
1
0.5
Visible
Cracking
Expan
osi n
)%(

0 100

Days

200

100% OPC

30% GGBS

40% GGBS

50% GGBS

FIG. 2.5: Protection Against Alkali-Silica Reaction (Source from: Slag Cement Sdn. Bhd.)

29

100 OPC 90 3 1m Test Block Cementitious 70 O Peak at 64 C 60
100
OPC
90
3
1m Test Block Cementitious
70
O
Peak at 64 C
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
50
100
168
1 5
Elapsed Time (Hours)
Temperature ( O C)
SLAGCEM 70
SLAGCEM 70
SLAGCEM 70
SLAGCEM 70
SLAGCEM 70

SLAGCEM 70

80

O

Peak at 77 C

Content 386kg/m 3

Figure 2.6: Temperature Profile Of Slagcem (contain 70 % ggbs& OPC) (Source from: Slag Cement Sdn. Bhd.)

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

Since the scope and the objectives of the study has been mentioned earlier, there are procedures should be followed to perform a specific function in this chapter. All the tests and the results shall be shown from appropriate table and graph that can be prepared simultaneously. At this stage, the main function is to show the various steps and systems that lead to the results of testing materials selected. Once the characteristic of the materials selected has been performed through appropriate testing, the comparisons between the materials should be analyzed comprehensively to produce a good results as well as good conclusions.

3.2 Experimental For The High Performance Concrete

In this research the methods is emphasis on laboratory test. The test on fresh concrete, the making of test specimens, the curing of the specimens and their method of test accordance with the relevant part of BS 1881 as follows:

31

3.2.1

Compression testing BS1881:Part 116 of cubes.

3.2.2

Permeability test (ISAT)

3.3

Material for testing

at Buildcon

Concrete Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur plant, except silica fume and ground granulated blastfurnace slag was imported for the used in the trial batches to produce high strength concrete, low permeability and high workability.

The concrete mixes were prepared with material available

The cementious material was a combination of Type 1 cement, silica fume (SF) and ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS). Silica fume (Figure 3.1) conforming to the requirements of ASTM C. Ground granulated blastfurnace slag (Figure 3.2) conforming to the requirements MS 1389 : 1995. Crushed coarse aggregate with relative density aggregate 2.62 and fine aggregate shall comply with M.S 7.5 and maximum aggregate size was 19 mm .

3.4 Water

Water shall comply with the requirements of M.S. 28. It shall be clean and free from materials deleterious to concrete in the plastic and hardened state and shall be from a source approved by the S.O. If in doubt, the S.O. may instruct the contractor to carry out chemical test at any approved laboratory at the expense of the contractor. The contractor shall make adequate arrangement to supply and store sufficient water at the work site for use in mixing and curing of concrete. All costs for installing and maintaining the supply shall be borne by the contractor.

32

3.5 Admixtures

(i) Retarders

These admixture which are used for this purpose is P322N as prescribed in BS 5075:Part 1: 1982.

(ii) Superplasticizers

These

admixture

which

are

used

for

this

purpose

is

R1100H

prescribed in BS 5075:Part 3: 1985.as shown in Figure 3.3.

(iii) Dosage

There is no exact method of determining the required admixture dosage. It has to be determined, by trial and error method to maintain the slump of the trial mixes at 125mm to 175mm.

3.6 Cube Compressive Strength

This test is used to determine the compressive strength of a concrete cube, which has usually been made from fresh concrete cast in a standard test mould. The value of compressive strength can then be used to assess whether the batch that the concrete cube represents meets the required compressive strength. Following cube manufacture and after curing which immersed in normal water for a period 1, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days, then the cube is crushed at a stated constant speed until it can sustain no further increase in load. The strength is then derived by calculation using the maximum load and cube dimensions. This test was done at Buildcon Concrete Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur plant and UTM, Johor Bahru.

33

3.6.1 Preparation of Concrete Cube Grade 60 With Free W/ C Ratio 0.32

The preparation of the concrete cube was carried out by the supervisor of Buildcon Concrete Sdn. Bhd., and his assistant. In the laboratory, three small batches, Y2 through Y4, were prepared with silica fume and ground granulated blast-furnace slag. Then, a batch, Y1 was prepared with ground granulated blast- furnace slag but without silica fume as a control mix. The mixture proportions follow and the test to be carried out as shown in Table 3.1 and Table 3.2, and for the purpose of the test, there were 60 numbers of cube to be prepared. The details designed mix can be referred to Appendix A.

The procedure for the preparation of concrete cube should be followed according to the general procedure through the flow chart as Figure 3.4. During the placing of concrete into the mould, there are a standard procedure for the compaction of the concrete. The concrete to be poured into the mould shall be in separate time with three layers compaction and each layers need 25 strokes by steel 25x25 square pattern. The methods of compaction the concrete in the mould as shown through the Figure 3.5 and Figure 3.6. The concrete mixes were tested in the freshly mixed for, unit weight and slump as shown in Figure 3.7.

In the laboratory, specimens were moist and cured at room temperature and tested for compression as shown in Figure 3.8, Figure 3.9 and Figure 3.10. Concrete in batches Y1 through Y4 was tested for compressive strength and permeability at various times up to 56 days.

34

3.7 Permeability Testing

As mentioned earlier, permeability is the ease which liquids or gases can travel through concrete. Although the testing concrete for permeability has not been generally standardized by ASTM and BS but for practical purpose, it is the absorption characteristic of the outer zone of concrete which protect the reinforcement are the greatest interest.

For that purpose in this paper, preliminary study towards permeability through ISAT test as specified in BS 1881 part 5 was developed to determined the initial surface absorption as shown in Figure 3.11.

The samples for this testing have a size of 150mm x 150mm x 150mm and shall be dried in a well ventilated oven at 105 + 5 0 C until constant weight is achieved. By constant weight is meant not more than 0.1% weight change over any 24 h drying period. When the sample has reached constant weight is shall be placed in a suitable airtight cooling cabinet. Each sample shall remain in the cabinet until required for testing.

The ISAT test consists of the measurement of water flow into the test

specimen through a known surface area. The contact area is defined by a plastic cap

Measurement of the volume flow is obtained by

measurement of the length of flow along a 600 mm long of bore glass capillary tube. The tube is manufactured from clear glass to allow observation of the water level and ensure the complete renewal of air. A clear reservoir is connected to the 'inlet' of the cap. The 'outlet' of the cap is connected to a capillary tube with an affixed scale. A valve is fitted to the inlet side to isolate the reservoir. The cap is clamped to the test surface so as to ensure an even pressure and good seal around the perimeter. The seal is improved with silicone sealant as shown in Figure 3.12. The capillary tube and reservoir are mounted 200mm above the cap.

sealed onto the surface.

35

Before starting the test, the tap from the reservoir shall be closed and the reservoir filled with water. The time of the start of the test shall be recorded with time watch and the tap opened to allow the water to run into the cap and out of the outlet tubing until no more air escapes. At all times care shall be taken that the reservoir does not empty itself. The outlet tubing shall be connected to the capillary tube and any additional trapped air shall be flushed out by allowing the capillary to overflow and, it necessary, by sharply pinching the flexible tubing. The reservoir shall be replenished to maintain the specified head of water.

After filling the cap completely the reservoir is closed off and measurements taken of flow along the capillary tube. Sets of readings are taken at 10 minutes, 30 minutes and 1 hour after the first wetting of the surface with time watch. There are also optional reading depends to the porosity of the samples. For each samples set of readings the reservoir is closed off and the flow distance along the capillary is measured for 5 seconds. The number of scale units determines the observation period. Detail results will be shown under next chapter.

36

Table 3.1: Mixture Proportions

Sample

Quantity

OPC

GGBS

SF

Sand

Coarse

Water

P322N

R1100H

m3

kg

kg

kg

kg

Agg.

kg

ml

ml

kg

Y1

0.06

16.2

16.2

0

40.1

63

9.3

97

324

Y2

0.06

15.4

15.4

1.6

40.1

63

9.3

97

390

Y3

0.06

15

15

2.4

40.1

63

9.3

97

421

Y4

0.06

14.6

14.6

3.2

39.7

63

9.7

97

454

Y1-

50% OPC + 50% GGBS

Y3 -

50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 7.5% SF

Y2 -

50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 10% SF;

Y4 -

50% OPC + 50 % GGBS +

5% SF

37

Table 3.2 Program For Casting And Testing Of Concrete Cube

Samples

Number

Date of

Date of

Date of

Date of

Date

Date of

Slumps

Dosage

of

casting

testing

testing

testing

of

testing

(mm)

of

Samples

For

For

For

testing

For

R1100H

1-Day

3-Days

7-Days

For

56-

(ml)

24-

Days

Days

Y1 *

15

11.1.06

12.1.06

14.1.06

18.1.06

4.2.06

8.3.06

150

164

Y2 *

15

11.1.06

12.1.06

14.1.06

18.1.06

4.2.06

8.3.06

170

270

Y3 *

15

11.1.06

12.1.06

14.1.06

18.1.06

4.2.06

8.3.06

150

291

Y4 *

15

26.1.06

27.1.06

30.1.06

3.2.06

20.206

24.3.06

180

364

Y1-

Y3 -

50% OPC + 50% GGBS 50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 7.5% SF

 

Y2 -

50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 10% SF;

Y4 -

50% OPC + 50 % GGBS +

5% SF

38

38 Figure 3.1 : Silica Fume(SF) Figure 3.2 : Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag(GGBS)

Figure 3.1: Silica Fume(SF)

38 Figure 3.1 : Silica Fume(SF) Figure 3.2 : Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag(GGBS)

Figure 3.2 : Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag(GGBS)

39

39 Figure 3.3 Admixtures P322N And R1100H

Figure 3.3 Admixtures P322N And R1100H

40

Prepare the concrete mix as concrete design forms

40 Prepare the concrete mix as concrete design forms Once the concrete mix ready, take out

Once the concrete mix ready, take out the sample and measure the

slump as shown from Picture

below.

and measure the slump as shown from Picture below. Then prepare the mould and place the

Then prepare the mould and place the concrete into 150x150x150 Steel Mould Shown on Figure 3.9

concrete in to 150x 150x150 Steel Mould Shown on Figure 3.9 Differentiate the marked, example; No.Y1,Y2,

Differentiate the marked, example; No.Y1,Y2, Y3 &Y4 respectively.

the marked, example; No.Y1,Y2, Y3 &Y4 respectively. End Figure 3.4: Step For Preparation The 150x150x150

End

Figure 3.4: Step For Preparation The 150x150x150 Concrete Cube.

41

Layer 3(25 stroke)

Layer 2(25 stroke)

Layer 1(25 stroke)

150 150
150
150

Concrete Formed In Three Layers.

Steel Rammer 25 x 25 square.

Figure 3.5 : Procedure In Preparation Of Concrete Cube

Rammer 25 x 25 square. Figure 3.5 : Procedure In Preparation Of Concrete Cube Figure 3.6:

Figure 3.6: Compacting The Fresh Concrete

42

42 Figure 3.7 : Measuring The Slump Of Fresh Concrete

Figure 3.7 : Measuring The Slump Of Fresh Concrete

43

43 Figure 3.8: Preparation Of Concrete C ube For Compressive Testing

Figure 3.8:

Preparation Of Concrete Cube For Compressive Testing

44

44 Figure 3.9 : Cubes In The Tank For Curing Purpose

Figure 3.9 : Cubes In The Tank For Curing Purpose

45

45 • Weighting The Cube Sample • test under compression • Record the Compressive Strength From
45 • Weighting The Cube Sample • test under compression • Record the Compressive Strength From
45 • Weighting The Cube Sample • test under compression • Record the Compressive Strength From
45 • Weighting The Cube Sample • test under compression • Record the Compressive Strength From
45 • Weighting The Cube Sample • test under compression • Record the Compressive Strength From
45 • Weighting The Cube Sample • test under compression • Record the Compressive Strength From

Weighting The Cube Sample

test under compression

Record the Compressive Strength From Dial Gauge

Record Any Failure Pattern Of Cube

Figure 3.10: The Procedures Carried For The Cubes Test As In Accordance

To BS

1881:Part 116

46

46 Figure 3.11: Initial Surface Absorption Apparatus Figure 3.12 : Plastic Cap

Figure 3.11: Initial Surface Absorption Apparatus

46 Figure 3.11: Initial Surface Absorption Apparatus Figure 3.12 : Plastic Cap

Figure 3.12 : Plastic Cap

CHAPTER 4

RESULT AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction.

Although the use of high performance concrete has increase significantly in past years recently, however its beneficial properties were not well explore or realized. On other hand in this chapter, the analyzed of the results which gains from experimental program are foremost important especially regarding the back ground problem arise.

4.2 The Results of Concrete Cubes Strength.

The compressive strength of concrete is the most important factor of all the properties. Therefore, it is always tested for its strength at the laboratory for the concrete structural purposes. The results of the test could reveal the quality of concrete and enable adjustment to be made for further concrete production, if the achievement are doubtful or unsatisfactory. However it is better to be remember the

48

standard compression test which have been used for decades is only give a measure of the potential strength of the concrete and not of the actual strength of the concrete structures. The durability and strength are two different issues in concrete structure, however in general the higher strength of the concrete mostly are more durable than the lower strength of concrete. The result of the cube test are as per Table 4.1.

4.2.1 Analysis from the Results.

The tests which has been done was taken at the Buildcon Concrete Sdn. Bhd.,

Kuala Lumpur plant and UTM, Johor Bahru.

Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3,

strength of each samples characteristics.

From the results from Figure 4.1,

which show the compressive can be analyzed for their

Figure 4.4 and

Figure 4.5,

relative to number of days

4.2.1.1 Analysis in respect to strength.

The most important properties

in concrete structures are those concerning

with strength, because the strength gives an overall picture of the quality of concrete. Among the various strength of concrete, the compressive strength is dominant because the concrete is primarily meant to withstand compressive stress.

All the results show as above were complies with the clause in JKR specification as mentioned below:

“On test cube from each sample-batch shall be tested for the 7 days compressive strength. If the cube strength falls below 75% of the 28 days compressive strength, then the ENGINEER may direct the Contractor to take necessary steps to review the

49

process of the production of concrete for nature use.

The remaining two test cubes from the sample-batch shall be tested for the 28 day compressive strength. The appropriate strength requirement shall be considered to be satisfied if at least one of the following is complied with :-

i) none of the two test cubes is below the specified compressive strength.

ii) The average strength of the two test cubes is not less than the specified compressive strength and the difference between the two strengths is not more than 20% of the average strength.

In the event that the results of the test do not meet the specific requirements, the ENGINEER shall determine the action to be taken in respect of the concrete member represented by the sample-batch test cubes. Such action may include demolition of the member. The Contractor shall, if required by the ENGINEER, take cored samples from the hardened concrete member and carry out the compressive strength

test.(JKR,1988)”

By referring to the value obtained from column (3) of the Table 4.7, written as below:-

can be

i) Cube Strength of Specimen for 7 days 45 (JKR Spec), Satisfied

ii) Cube Strength of Specimen for 28 days (JKR Spec), Satisfied

=

0.75 x value from column (3) >

= value from column (3) > 60

50

it was found that the compressive strength of the specimens

increase accordingly to the ages respectively. Figure 4.6 show the Y4 have the highest strength for the compression test at 3days, 7 days, 28 days and 56 days.

In this study,

4.3 The Results of Permeability Test (ISAT)

Permeability is a measure of the concrete’ ability to resist penetration of water or other substances. So that in order to be durable, concrete must be relatively impervious. The more water the concrete contains beyond that necessary for workability, the more pervious it will become. It is important to remember that the permeability of concrete should be kept low in order to protect the reinforcing steel bar. In general, low permeability concrete is also associated with high strength and high resistance to weathering. Due to the fact that impervious concrete won’t allow the aggressive liquids and gases to penetrate. There are many of the permeability tests are done using water and an apparatus that directs flow through block of hardened concrete. It is also common to find experiments that use air, a chloride solution and electricity. For the purposes of this project paper, only Initial Surface Absorption Test (ISAT) as specified in BS 1881 Part 5 is adopted, which have been done at structure and material laboratory University Technology Malaysia.

All the results are clearly shown for the permeability test at age 28 days as tabulated in Table 4.8 to Table 4.11 and from Table 4.12 to Table 4.15 for the test at age 56 days. In this study, the rate of absorption of water by the surface zone and the comparison of compressive strength between the cubes which subjected to under a head of 200 mm of water at 56 days as shown in Figure 4.16 was observed. The rate of absorption is expressed in milliliters per square metre per second and compressive strength expressed in newton per millimetres square.

51

The specimens which subjected under the same pressure whether for the test at age 28 days and 56 days show almost the same pattern of the absorption rate when plotted in graphs, as shown from Figure 4.8 to Figure 4.15 . From Table 4.15 it show that cube Y2 which contain five percent (5%) have low rate of absorption thus more impervious and the affect of strength after the surface immersed in water is more hardened than other specimens.

52

Table 4.1: The Results Of Cubes Test

Concrete

 

Compressive Strength(N/mm2)

 

Mixes

 

1 Day

3 Days

7 Days

28 Days

56 Days

Y1

13.33

19.5

43.17

60.5

76

Y2

16.17

22.67

45

65.6

74

Y3

15.30

21.33

46.5

64.6

74

Y4

14.3

23.5

48

67.1

81

Y1-

50% OPC + 50% GGBS

Y3 -

50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 7.5% SF

Y2 -

50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 10% SF;

Y4 -

50% OPC + 50 % GGBS +

5% SF

53

Cube Strength For 1 Days 18 14.3 16 13.33 16.17 15.3 14 Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF 0%
Cube Strength For 1 Days
18
14.3
16
13.33 16.17 15.3
14
Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF 0%
12
Compressive
Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF 5%
10
Strength
8
Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF 7.5%
6
Y4 OPC+GGBS+SF 10%
4
2
0
1
Specimen

Figure 4.1: Concrete Cube Strength In Normal Water For I Day.

Table 4.2: Comparison The Compressive Strength Of Y2, Y3, Y4 For I Day To YI

Cube Mix

1- Day Compressive Strength (N/Mm 2 )

Ratio Difference Of Compressive Strength Between Y1

Y1

13.13

1

Y2

16.17

1.23

Y3

15.3

1.17

Y4

14.3

1.09

54

Cube Strength For 3 Days 23.5 22.67 25 21.33 19.5 20 Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF 0% 15
Cube Strength For 3 Days
23.5
22.67
25
21.33
19.5
20
Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF 0%
15
Compressive
```
Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF 5%
Strength
10
Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF 7.5%
5
Y4+OPC+GGBS+SF 10%
0
1
Spe cime n

Figure 4.2: Concrete Cube Strength In Normal Water For 3 Days.

Table 4.3: Comparison The Compressive Strength Of Y2, Y3, Y4 For 3 Days To YI

Cube Mix

3-

Days

Compressive

Ratio Difference Of Compressive Strength Between Y1

Strength(N/Mm 2 )

Y1

 

19.5

1

Y2

 

22.67

1.16

Y3

 

21.33

1.09

Y4

 

23.5

1.21

55

Cube Strength For 7 Days 48 48 46.5 47 46 45 45 YI OPC+GGBS+SF 0%
Cube Strength For 7 Days
48
48
46.5
47
46
45
45
YI OPC+GGBS+SF 0%
Compressive
43.17
44
Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF 5%
Strength
43
Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF 7.5%
42
Y4 0PC+GGBS+SF 10%
41
40
1
Specimen

Figure 4.3: Concrete Cube Strength In Normal Water For 7 Days.

Table 4.4: Comparison The Compressive Strength Of Y2, Y3, Y4 For 7 Days To YI

Cube Mix

7- Days Compressive Strength (N/Mm 2 )

Ratio Difference Of Compressive Strength Between Y1

Y1

43.17

1

Y2

45

1.04

Y3

46.5

1.08

Y4

48

1.11

56

Cube Strength For 28 Days 67.1 68 66 65.6 64.6 64 Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF 0% Compressive
Cube Strength For 28 Days
67.1
68
66
65.6 64.6
64
Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF 0%
Compressive
62
60.5
Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF 5%
Strength
60
Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF 7.5%
58
Y4 OPC+GGBS+SF 10%
56
1
Specimen

Figure 4.4: Concrete Cube Strength In Normal Water For 28 Days.

Table 4.5: Comparison The Compressive Strength Of Y2, Y3, Y4 For 28 Days To

YI

Cube Mix

28- Days Compressive Strength(N/Mm 2 )

Ratio Difference Of Compressive Strength Between Y1

Y1

60.5

1

Y2

65.6

1.08

Y3

64.6

1.07

Y4

67.1

1.11

57

Cube Strength For 56 Days 78 78 77 76 76 Series1 Compressive 75 74 74
Cube Strength For 56 Days
78
78
77
76
76
Series1
Compressive
75
74
74
Series2
Strength
74
Series3
73
Series4
72
1
Specimen

Figure 4.5: Concrete Cube Strength In Normal Water For 56 Days.

Table 4.6: Comparison The Compressive Strength Of Y2, Y3, Y4 For 56 Days To

YI

Cube Mix

56- Days Compressive Strength(N/Mm 2 )

Ratio Difference Of Compressive Strength Between Y1

Y1

76

1

Y2

74

0.97

Y3

74

0.97

Y4

81

1.07

58

Table 4.7: The Result Of Cube Strength Grade 60 Relate To JKR Specification

No. Of

Samples

Average Cube Strength In Normal Water ( N/mm 2 )

 

Days

Appropriate Strength Requirement By JKR

 

Y1

43.17

non complied

7

Y2

45

satisfied

Y3

46.5

satisfied

Y4

48

satisfied

 

Y1

60.5

satisfied

28

Y2

65.6

satisfied

Y3

64.6

satisfied

Y4

67.1

satisfied

59

Comparisons Between The Cubes Strength At 1,3,7,28 And 56 Days

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 123 4 5 C om
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
123
4
5
C om
pre s /m
s iv m e 2 )
S
tre
ngth(N

Age Days

Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF0%Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF 5% Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF7.5% Y4OPC+GGBS+SF10%

Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF 5%Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF0% Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF7.5% Y4OPC+GGBS+SF10%

Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF7.5%Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF0% Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF 5% Y4OPC+GGBS+SF10%

Y4OPC+GGBS+SF10%Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF0% Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF 5% Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF7.5%

Figure 4.6: Comparison Between The Cube Strength At 1,3,7,28,56 Days

60

Table 4.8: The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y1 At Age 28 Days

CUBE 1

1 min

2 min

4 Min

6 Min

Initial Reading (mm)

600

600

600

600

End Reading (mm)

544

428

72

0

Differences(mm)

56

172

528

600

Results (ml/m2/s)

0.05292

0.16254

0.49896

0.56700

Note:

1mm = 0.000945 ml/m 2 /s

28 DAYS

0.60000 0.56700 0.50000 0.49896 0.40000 0.30000 0.20000 0.16254 0.10000 0.05292 0.00000 0 2 4 6
0.60000
0.56700
0.50000
0.49896
0.40000
0.30000
0.20000
0.16254
0.10000
0.05292
0.00000
0
2
4
6
8
Y 1 OPC+GGBS+SF 0%
Time (minutes)
Permeability
(ml/m2/s

Figure 4.7: The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y1 At Age 28 Days

61

Table 4.9: The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y2 At Age 28 Days

CUBE Y2

5 min

10 min

20 Min

60 Min

Initial Reading (mm)

600

600

600

600

End Reading (mm)

499

397

35

0

Differences(mm)

101

203

565

600

Results (ml/m2/s)

0.09545

0.19184

0.53393

0.56700

Note:

1mm = 0.000945 ml/m 2 /s

28 DAYS

0.6 0.567 0.53393 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.19184 0.1 0.09545 0 0 10 20 30
0.6
0.567
0.53393
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.19184
0.1
0.09545
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF5%
Time (minutes)
Permeability (ml/m2/s)

Figure 4.8: The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y2 At Age 28 Days

62

Table 4.10: The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y3 At Age 28 Days

CUBE Y3

2 min

6 minit

8 min

10 Min

Initial Reading (mm)

600

600

600

600

End Reading (mm)

501

221

80.4

10

Differences(mm)

99

379

519.6

590

Results (ml/m2/s)

0.09356

0.35816

0.49102

0.55755

Note:

1mm = 0.000945 ml/m 2 /s

28 DAYS

0.6 0.55755 0.5 0.49102 0.4 0.35816 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.09356 0 0246 8 10 12
0.6
0.55755
0.5
0.49102
0.4
0.35816
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.09356
0
0246
8
10
12
Permeability (ml/m2/s)

Time (minutes)

Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF7.5%

Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF7.5%

Figure 4.9: The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y3 At Age 28 Days

63

Table 4.11 The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y4 At Age 28 Days

CUBE Y4

5 min

10 min

15 Min

20 Min

Initial Reading (mm)

600

600

600

600

End Reading (mm)

429

249

35

0

Differences(mm)

171

351

565

600

Results (ml/m2/s)

0.16160

0.33170

0.53393

0.56700

Note:

1mm = 0.000945 ml/m 2 /s

28 DAYS

0.6 0.567 0.53393 0.5 0.4 0.3317 0.3 0.2 0.1616 0.1 0 0 5 10 15
0.6
0.567
0.53393
0.5
0.4
0.3317
0.3
0.2
0.1616
0.1
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Permeability (ml/m2/s)

Time (minutes)

Y4 OPC+GGBS+SF10%

Y4 OPC+GGBS+SF10%

Figure 4.10: The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y4 At Age 28 Days

64

Table 4.12: The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y1 At Age 56 Days

CUBE 1

1 min

4 min

6 Min

8 Min

Initial Reading (mm)

600

600

600

600

End Reading (mm)

330

112

72

0

Differences(mm)

270

488

528

600