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WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211

Lag Effect

1

Department of Architecture, College of Engineering, Nihon University, 1-

Nakagawara, Koriyama, Fukushima, 963-8642, Japan.

2

Department of Architecture, Graduate School of Engineering, Nihon University, 1-

Nakagawara, Koriyama, Fukushima, 963-8642, Japan.

E-mail: buntara@arch.ce.nihon-u.ac.jp

Abstract. This paper presents general solutions for beam elements which are derived

analytically by considering the effect of shear lag phenomenon. The mass and stiffness

matrices which can be obtained from the general solution of displacements can be assembled

for general frame analysis by using finite element procedure.

1. Introduction

In studying and evaluating the ultimate strength of steel frame structures, it is apparent that the

behavior of steel frame structures at failure is fully controlled by consecutive local buckling failures of

its members. Hence, to evaluate the local buckling of each member element, especially thin-walled

beam, the stress and deformation at section should be considered properly by taking into account the

effect of shear lag phenomenon.

The classical theory of beam and thin-walled members was unable to reflect the shear lag

phenomenon since it was based on the assumption of cross section remains plane after deformation.

The effect of shear lag results in a distribution of direct stresses in the cross section which is different

from that predicted by the classical theory of beam. Therefore, the formulations of most analytical

and/or semi-empirical methods involved many simplified assumptions. As a result, they can only

handle shear lag problems for a particular simple geometry and cannot be easily extended to structures

with complex geometry.

The energy approach has been proven to be a simple and practical method in shear lag analysis [1].

Later, the shear lag phenomenon was investigated in box-girders using finite elements [2]. A

combination of finite element and transfer matrix techniques are proposed by [3]. Introduction of

basis warping function in the finite element was used to explain the shear lag phenomenon [4].

However, all of these approaches are mainly suitable for a particular type of cross section and static

analysis, thus it is not applicable for general applications. When the shear lag phenomenon is to be

considered for solving dynamic analysis, the mass property has to be introduced and/or approximated.

This is due to the short of fundamental theories which can include the effect of shear lag directly in the

formulation [5]. Present paper addresses a consistent beam element formulation considering shear lag

phenomenon to deal with the difficulties.

3

To whom any correspondence should be addressed.

c 2010 Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd 1

WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211

2. General solution for beam with solid cross section considering shear lag

In this section, some fundamental equations of an elastic beam with solid cross section lying on a

right-handed axes coordinates convention considering shear lag will be derived.

Displacement at any arbitrary point on the cross section beam with member axis in the x direction

is given by U. The transversal displacements of the arbitrary point in the y and z direction are

expressed by V and W, respectively. The following assumptions are made for the arbitrary point at the

cross section of a plane beam in deriving equations.

U = u + yβ + f (2.1a)

V = V ( x, y ) = v ( x ) = v , W = W ( x , y ) = 0 (2.1b)

where, U = U ( x, y ) , u = u (x ) and β = β (x) in which, f = f ( x, y ) which is defined as a 2nd

order or higher function in y direction.

Hence, strain and displacement relationships can be given as,

∂U ∂f ∂V ∂U ∂f

εx = = ε + yκ + , γ xy = + = γ0 + (2.2)

∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y

∂V ∂W ∂W ∂V ∂W ∂U

εy = =0 , εz = =0 , γ yz = + = 0 , γ xz = + =0

∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂z

which are obtained from the assumption that the cross section remain straight after deformation

dβ

where, ε =

du

dx

,κ =

dx

[ ]

and γ xy y =0 = γ 0 =

dv

dx

+ β . Here, ε x , ε y , ε z are normal strains in x, y and

z directions and γ xy , γ yz , γ xz are engineering shear strains on x-y, y-z and x-z planes. It can be noted

from equations (2.1) that the displacement U and V are independent of z axis and y-z plane,

respectively.

Assuming elastic material following the Hooke’s law, the shear strain γ xy can be related to the

shear stress τ xy from the relationship τ xy = Gγ xy , hence the function f from equation (2.2) can be

obtained as,

1 y

(τ xy − τ 0 ) dy

G ∫0

f = (2.3)

τ0

where, G is the shear modulus of elasticity and γ 0 is given by γ 0 = .

G

Substituting the function f into equation (2.1a) and (2.2), the normal strain and stress equations are

then given as,

∂U 1 y ∂

εx = = ε + yκ + ∫ (τ xy − τ 0 ) dy (2.4a)

∂x G 0 ∂x

E y ∂

σ x = Eε + Eyκ + ∫ (τ xy − τ 0 ) dy (2.4b)

G 0 ∂x

where, E is the normal modulus of elasticity

By integrating the normal stress σ x for the entire cross sectional area, the following axial force and

bending moment can be obtained.

y ∂

E

N = ∫ σ x dA = EAε + ∫ ∫ (τ xy − τ 0 ) dydA (2.5a)

A G A 0 ∂x

y ∂

E

M = ∫ yσ x dA = EIκ + ∫ y ∫ (τ xy − τ 0 ) dydA (2.5b)

A G A 0 ∂x

where, A = ∫A

dA , S = ∫ ydA = 0 I = ∫ y 2 dA .

A A

2

WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211

By substitution of ε and κ from equations (2.5a) and (2.5b) into (2.4b), results in the following

normal stress equation.

N M

σx = + y + στ (2.6)

A I

Here, σ τ is the effect of shear lag in the normal stress which is given as follow.

y ∂ ∂

στ = −

E

∫ ∫ (τ xy − τ 0 ) dydA − y E ∫ y∫

y

(τ xy − τ 0 ) dydA + E ∫0y ∂ (τ xy − τ 0 ) dy (2.7)

GA A 0 ∂x GI A 0 ∂x G ∂x

The dynamic equilibrium equation at an arbitrary point can be given as follow.

∂σ x ∂τ xy ∂τ xz

+ + + X − ρU&& = 0 with τ xz = Gγ xz = 0 (2.8)

∂x ∂y ∂z

By integration, the shear stress τ xy in the equation (2.8) can be given as,

1 e ⎛ ∂σ x ⎞

τ xy = ∫ ⎜

b y ⎝ ∂x

+ X − ρU&& ⎟ bdy

⎠

(2.9)

∂ 2U

where, X is the body force, ρ is the material density, U&& = is the acceleration with t in time,

∂t 2

b = b( y ) is width of cross section as a function of y, e is defined as a distance to the outermost fiber of

[ ]

cross section where τ xy y =e = 0 .

Dynamic governing differential equations for the analysis of a beam by considering first order

solution of normal stress σ x which correspond to displacement u,v and deflection β are given by,

N ′ + q x − ρAu&& = 0 , M ′ − Q + m − ρIβ&& = 0 , Q′ + q y − ρAv&& = 0 (2.10)

dx

The solution of member forces can be obtained by integrating the equations (2.10) to reach the

following equations.

N = N (0) − ∫ (q x − ρAu&&) dx , Q = Q (0) − ∫ (q y − ρAv&&) dx

x x

0 0

(2.11)

∫ (q − ρAv&&) dxdx + ∫ ρIβ&&dx

x x x

M = M (0) + Q (0) x − ∫ y

0 0 0

Defining difference of shear stresses in the following form,

= (S − S0 ) = −

QS QS0 Q QS

τ xy − τ 0 = − (2.12)

bI bI bI bI

QS QS 0

where, τ xy = and τ 0 = . Here, first moment of areas from 0 and or y to e of the cross

bI bI

e e

∫ ybdy , S = ∫ ybdy and S = ∫ ybdy .

e

section are defined by S = 0

y 0 y

Substituting equation (2.12) into equations (2.5a) and (2.5b), resulted in,

N = EAε −

E

(− q y + ρAv&&)∫A ∫0y SdydA

GbI

(2.13)

M = EIκ −

E

(− q y + ρAv&&)∫A y ∫0y SdydA

GbI

3

WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211

ε=

du N

= +

1

dx EA GAbI

(− q y + ρAv&&)∫ ∫ SdydA

A 0

y

(2.14)

dβ M

κ= = +

1

2

(− q y + ρAv&&)∫A y ∫0y SdydA

dx EI GbI

Finally, the displacements u, β and v of a beam considering shear lag phenomenon can be

obtained as,

N

EA

k x

dx + 0 ∫0 − q y + ρAv&& dx + u (0)

GA

u = ∫0

x

(2.15a) ( )

xM k x

β = ∫0 dx + 1 ∫0 − q y + ρAv&& dx + β (0)

EI GA

(2.15b) ( )

dxdx + 0 Q(0) x + 1 ∫ ∫ (− q y + ρAv&&)dxdx − β (0) x + v(0)

x x M k k x x

v = −∫ ∫ (2.15c)

0 0 EI GA GA 0 0

1 y A y S A S A

where, k 0 = ∫A ∫0

SdydA , k1 = 2 ∫A y ∫0 SdydA , k0 = 0 and k1 = 0 − k1 .

bI bI bI bI

It can be shown that for a solid rectangular beam section with dimension of b × h , the values of

normal and bending shear lag coefficients k0 = 0.0 , k1 = 0.3 , k0 = 1.5 and k1 = 1.2 computed are

agree with the common shear lag coefficients reported elsewhere.

By using the equations in (2.11) which are based on the linear first order approximation, the

dynamic governing equations, i.e. mass matrix, stiffness matrix and loading vector, of a beam element

considering shear lag effect which connecting beam’s nodal displacements with displacements along

the member axis can be derived explicitly by using the displacements given in equations (2.15).

Cantilever beams, shown in figure 1, are subjected to concentrated load P at the free end and subjected

to distributed load q are considered. It is noted that the transverse vertical displacement v result for

both cases are different with the classical beam theory. It is also shown that the difference between

stresses computed by the present method and the classical beam theory is quite significant, i.e. the

effect of shear lag must be considered in engineering design.

E = 205000

N/mm2

100 mm

P = 1000 N q = 10 N/mm

50 mm

500 mm 500 mm

-50 -50

y ( mm )

y ( mm )

x ( mm ) x ( mm )

0 100 200 300 400 500 -25 -25

0 100 200 300 400 500

0.00 0.00

-20 0 20 -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1

0.01 0.02

0 σx ( MPa ) 0

0.02 0.04 f(×10-5 )

v ( mm )

v ( mm )

0.03 0.06

0.04 0.08 25 25

Considering shear lag effect Considering shear lag effect

0.05 0.10

Classical beam theory Classical beam theory

0.06 0.12

50 50

Rectangular beam deflection ( concentrated load ) Rectangular beam deflection ( distributed load )

Normal stress distribution Function f(y)

4

WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211

In this section, the fundamental equations of an elastic plane thin-walled beam either open or close

section which lying on a right-handed x, y, z Cartesian and an auxiliary ς , s coordinate systems by

considering shear lag will be derived.

In figure 2, point O is the centroid of a thin-walled beam cross section and lying along the x

coordinate axis. This point O will become the origin of the y and z coordinates axes. Axis s is defined

along the center line of the thickness t of the curvature thin-walled beam, from where axis n which is

drawn normal to this curvature line is defined as t ( s ) which is a function of s.

Displacements at any arbitrary point P ( x, y, z ) on the cross section of thin-walled beam are given

) ) )

by U ,V ,W in the x, y, z directions and U ,V ,W in the x, s, ς directions. Here, the displacement u in

the x direction is referred to a point where s=0. The transversal displacements vc , wc in

the y, z directions are originated at point C which is the shear center of the cross section.

z

t

ς

o x,U

z

θ yc

rs s

y

) )

c wc p, U V

zc W

rς

vc V p′

)

s=0 −W

s

y

Figure 2. Cross section of a thin-walled beam.

) ) )

∂U ∂V ∂U

εx = and γ xs = + (3.1)

∂x ∂x (1 − ς r )∂s

where, the radius curvature of the thin-walled beam cross section is given by r = r (s ) .

The displacements of the point P ( x, y , z ) can be assumed as follow.

U = u + yβ z + zβ y + f , V = vc − ( z − zc )φ and W = wc + ( y − yc )φ (3.2)

From figure 2, the displacements can then be expressed in terms of x, s, ς coordinates system,

)

U = U = u + yβ z + zβ y + f (3.3a)

)

V = V cos θ + W sin θ = vc cos θ + wc sin θ + rς φ (3.3b)

)

W = −V sin θ + W cosθ = −vc sin θ + wc cosθ + rsφ (3.3c)

where, rς = ( z − z c )sin θ + ( y − y c )cosθ and rS = ( z − z c )cosθ − ( y − y c )sin θ .

The following assumptions can be assumed for any arbitrary point at the cross section of the thin-

walled beam.

) )

∂V ∂U

γ xs = + (3.4)

∂x ∂s

5

WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211

By substituting equation (3.4), the function f in equation (3.3a) can be solved as follow.

f ( s ) = ∫ (γ xs − (γ y cosθ + γ z sin θ ))(1 − ς r )ds + ωχ + f (0)

s

(3.5)

0

dvc dw dφ

In which, γ y = + βzc , γ z = c + β y , χ = − and ω = ∫0 rς (1 − ς r )ds are defined.

s

dx dx dx

Accordingly, the average normal displacement of the thin-walled beam which can be expressed by

1 )

A ∫A

using u = UdA is given as,

)

U = U = u + yβ z + zβ y + ωχ + F (3.6)

1 s

(γ xs − (γ y cosθ + γ z sin θ ))(1 − ς r )dsdA .

A ∫A ∫0

where, F = −

ε x = u′ + yβ z′ + zβ y′ + ωχ ′ + F ′ (3.7)

Hence, the normal stress σ x for an elastic material following Hooke’s law can be obtained by,

σ x = Eε x = Eu′ + Eyβ z′ + Ezβ y′ + Eωχ ′ + EF ′ (3.8)

The first order solution of normal stress σ x in terms of axial force and moments of the beam can be

expressed by,

N I y M z − I yz M y I M − I yz M z M

σx = + y+ z y z+ ωω (3.9)

A I y I z − I yz

2

I y I z − I yz

2

Iω

where, the internal forces and section properties are given as follow: N = ∫ σ dA ;

A

x

M z = ∫ yσ x dA ; M y = ∫ zσ x dA ; M ω = ∫ ωσ x dA ; A = ∫ dA ; S z = ∫ ydA = 0 ; S y = ∫ zdA = 0 ;

A A A A A A

2 2

A A A A A

I zω = ∫ zωdA = 0 .

A

The dynamic equilibrium equation of any arbitrary point on the cross section is given as below.

∂σ x ∂τ xs ∂τ xς ) )

+ + + X − ρU&& = 0 (3.10)

∂x (1 − ς r )∂s ∂ς

Substitution of equation (3.9) into equation (3.10), the shear stress τ xs can be solved as,

∂σ x s )

(1 − ς r )ds − ∫ X (1 − ς r )ds + ρ ∫ U&& (1 − ς r )ds + τ xs ( x,0, ς )

s s

τ xs = − ∫ (3.11)

0 ∂x 0 0

) )

The body force X = X ( x) and applied moment per unit length terms are m x , m y , m z = 0 , the

first order approximation of shear stress can be given as,

4

τ xs = ∑ g~i Qi (3.12)

i =1

~ = g~, g~ = g~ (θ ), g~ = g~ (θ ), g~ = g~ (θ ) .

where, Q1′ = − χ ′, Q2′ = Q′y , Q3′ = Qz′ , Q4′ = Tω′ , g1 2 y 3 z 4 ω

6

WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211

Herewith, all the functions in equation (3.12) are given explicitly as:

) ) ) )

2Ω I y S z − I yz S y I z S y − I yz S z )

g~ = G ; g 2 (θ ) = ; g 3 (θ ) = ; g 4 (θ ) = Sω ;

∫ (1 − ς r )rdθ I y I z − I yz I y I z − I yz

2 2

τ y = [τ xs ]dφ =0, df =0,θ =0 = g~y (0)Qy + g~z (0)Qz ; τ z = [τ xs ]dφ =0, df =0,θ =π = g~y (π 2)Qy + g~z (π 2)Qz ;

dx dx dx dx 2

) θe ) θe ) 1 θ

S z (θ ) = ∫ y (1 − ς r )rdθ S y (θ ) = ∫ z (1 − ς r )rdθ Sω (θ ) = ∫θ ω (1 − ς r )rdθ

e

; ; ;

θ θ Iω

2Ω = ∫ rτ (1 − ς r )rdθ ; τ z = Gγ z = G (wc′ + β y ) and τ y = Gγ y = G (vc′ + β z ) .

Furthermore, F ′ in the equation (3.8) can be solved as,

1 4

F′ = ∑ aiQi′

G i=1

(3.13)

Herewith, all the functions in equation (3.13) are given explicitly as: a1 = a (θ ) ; a2 = a y (θ ) ;

a3 = az (θ ) ; ( ) ( ) (

a4 = aω (θ ) ; ai = Gi (θ ) − Gˆ i (θ ) − g~i 2 (0) C (θ ) − Cˆ (θ ) − g~i 3 (π 2) S (θ ) − Sˆ (θ ) ; )

θ 1

g~12 (0) = g~13 (π 2) = g~42 (0) = g~43 (π 2) = 0 ; Gi (θ ) = ∫ g~i (1 − ς r )rdθ ; Gˆ i (θ ) = ∫ Gi (θ )dA ;

0 A A

θ 1 θ

C (θ ) = ∫ cos θ (1 − ς r )rdθ ; Cˆ (θ ) = ∫ C (θ )dA ; S (θ ) = ∫ sin θ (1 − ς r )rdθ ;

0 A A 0

1

Sˆ (θ ) = ∫ S (θ )dA .

A A

The differential governing equations of x-derivative displacements can also be given as,

u′ =

N

−

1

(k12Q′y + k13Qz′ + k14Tω′ − k11χ ′) (3.14a)

EA GA

Mˆ I − Mˆ y I yz Mˆ y I z − Mˆ z I yz

β z′ = z y , β ′ = (3.14b)

I y I z − I yz2 I y I z − I yz2

y

χ′ =

(

Mω

−

) (

1

(k42Q′y + k43Qz′ + k44Tω′ )

) (3.14c)

EI ω 1 − k 41 GIω GIω − k 41

1

(k11Qy + k21Qz )

vc′ = − β z + (3.14d)

GA

wc′ = − β y +

1

(k12Qy + k22Qz ) (3.14e)

GA

are defined by Mˆ z = M z − (k22Q′y + k 23Qz′ + k 24Tω′ − k 21 χ ′) and

E

where, M̂ y and M̂ z

G

Mˆ y = M y − (k32Q′y + k33Qz′ + k34Tω′ − k31 χ ′) .

E

G

The shear lag coefficients are then can be given as follow.

~

k jk = λ j ak dA ( j ,k =1, 2,3, 4 ) and k mn = Ag~mn

∫ ( m ,n=1, 2 ) (3.15)

A

here, λ1 = 1 , λ2 = y , λ3 = z , λ4 = ω , a1 = a (θ ) , a2 = a y (θ ) , a3 = a z (θ ) , a4 = aω (θ ) ,

g11 = g~y (0) , g~21 = g~z (0) , g~12 = g~y (π 2) , g~22 = g~z (π 2) .

~

7

WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211

Since the internal forces N , Qy , Qz , M z , M y , M ω can be determined from the first order

approximation of the dynamic governing equation, the bimoment M ω can be solved from,

⎛ GJ ⎞ d 2M ω GJ

⎜⎜1 + kmωω ⎟⎟ − Mω

⎝ (GIω − kmω ) ⎠ dx 2

EIω (1 − kmω GIω )

⎛ ⎞

=−

GJ

(GIω − kmω )

(kmω yQ′y + kmω z Qz′ ) − ⎜⎜1 + kmωω

GJ

⎟(m′ + ρIω χ&&′)

(GIω − kmω ) ⎟⎠ ω

(3.16)

⎝

x (

− m + ρ S v&& + S w

yc c

&& + I φ&& zc c pc )

where, S yc = ∫ (− rς sin θ − r

A

s cos θ ) dA , S zc = ∫ (rς cos θ − r sin θ ) dA , I

A

s pc = ∫ (rς

A

2

)

+ rs2 dA φ&& .

From the above equation, the right hand side of the second order differential equation are known

dφ

values, thus the general solution of the x-derivative twist χ , which is defined by φ ′ = = − χ , can

dx

be solved. The general solution of the χ can then be used to derive the element mass and stiffness

matrices in the finite element procedure.

To examine a close section example of thin-walled beam, a solution for pipe beam shown in figure 3 is

derived by following the same procedures for obtaining the general solution of thin-walled beam,

ς

) s

) V

U =U W

x ς r P z

) z θ

θ ) V s

W V

dz

) ) θ

U =U s P ( x, s , ς ) −W

dy

(r − ς )dθ

y y y

The displacements of the centroid cross section of the pipe beam and the x, y coordinate system

can be expressed in terms of rotational angles β x = φ , β y , β z as follow.

U = u + yβ + f , V = v and W = 0 (4.1)

where, β z = β , β y = 0 . By assuming w = 0 , φ = 0 , y = (r − ς ) sin θ and z = −(r − ς ) cosθ , the

displacements become U = U , V = v and W = 0 . Hence, equation (4.1) yields to the following

equations.

) ) )

U = U = u + yβ + f , V = v cosθ and W = −v sin θ (4.2)

The strain and displacement relationships for pipe beam can further be expressed as,

) ) ) )

∂U 1 ⎛ ∂V ) ⎞ ∂V 1 ∂U

εx = , εθ = ⎜ − W ⎟⎟ and γ xθ = + (4.3)

∂x (r − ς ) ⎜⎝ ∂θ ⎠ ∂x (r − ς ) ∂θ

Hence the function f from equation (4.1) can be solved for,

θ

f (θ ) = ∫ (γ xθ − γ cosθ )(r − ς )dθ (4.4)

0

8

WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211

Substitution of equation (4.2) into equation (4.3) results in the following normal strain and stress

equations.

∂U 1 θ

εx = = u′ + yβ ′ + ∫ (τ ′xθ − τ 0′ cosθ )(r − ς )dθ (4.5a)

∂x G 0

E θ

σ x = Eε x = Eu′ + Eyβ ′ + ∫ (τ ′xθ − τ 0′ cos θ )(r − ς )dθ (4.5b)

G 0

By integrating the normal stress σ x for the entire cross sectional area, the following axial force and

bending moment can be obtained.

E θ

N = ∫ σ x dA = EAu′ + (τ ′xθ − τ 0′ cosθ )(r − ς )dθ dA

G ∫A ∫0

(4.6a)

A

θ

M = ∫ yσ x dA = EIβ ′ + ∫ (r − ς )sin θ ⎛⎜ ∫ (τ ′xθ − τ 0′ cos θ )(r − ς )dθ ⎞⎟dA

E

(4.6b)

A G A ⎝ 0 ⎠

For pipe beam section, σ τ = 0 , the first order solution of normal stress σ x becomes,

N M

σx = + y (4.7)

A I

The dynamic equilibrium equation at an arbitrary point can be given as follow.

∂σ x ∂τ xθ ∂τ

+ + xς + X − ρU&& = 0 (4.8)

∂x (r − ς )∂θ ∂ς

By integration, the shear stress τ xθ in the equation (4.8) yields to,

Q θ

yt (r − ς )dθ + τ xθ (0)

tI ∫0

τ xθ = − (4.9)

where, due to symmetric geometry of the cross section in y axis, from τ xθ (π 2) = 0 condition, the

QS QS 0 π 2

equation (4.9) resulted in τ xθ = and τ 0 =

tI tI θ

π 2

S0 = ∫ yt (r − ς )dθ are denoted.

0

From which, the following equations can be obtained as,

E

N = ∫ σ x dA = EAu ′ +rk n Q′

A G

(4.10)

EQ ′ EQ′I

M = ∫ yσ x dA =EIβ ′ +

Gt ∫A

yg (θ )dA = EIβ ′ + km

A GA

where, g (θ ) = ∫ (S − S 0 cos θ )(r − ς )dθ , k n = ∫ g (θ ) dA and k m = ∫ yg (θ ) dA are given.

1 θ 1 A

I 0 tr A tI A

Finally, the displacements u, β and v of the pipe beam considering shear lag phenomenon can be

obtained as,

dx + n ∫ (q y − ρAv&&)dx + u (0)

N x rk x

u=∫ (4.11a)

0 EA GA 0

dx + m ∫ (q y − ρAv&&)dx + β (0)

x M k x

β =∫ (4.11b)

0 EI GA 0

dxdx + τ Q (0) x − m ∫ ∫ (q y − ρAv&&)dxdx − β (0) x + v(0)

x x M k k x x

v = −∫ ∫ (4.11c)

0 0 EI GA GA 0 0

9

WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211

AS 0

where, kτ = and k m = k m + kτ .

tI

Thus, the shear lag coefficients in the displacement solutions can be obtained as k n = 0 , k m = 0 ,

kτ ≈ 2.0 and k m ≈ 2.0 .

Cantilever beams, shown in figure 4, are subjected to concentrated load P at the free end and subjected

to distributed load q are considered. It is noted that the transverse vertical displacement v results for

both cases are different with the classical beam theory. Thus, the effect of shear lag must be

considered in engineering design.

t x ( mm ) x ( mm )

0 50 100 150 200 250 0 50 100 150 200 250

0.00 0.00

0.05 0.05

r 0.10 0.10

v ( mm )

v ( mm )

0.15 0.15

0.20 0.20

Considering shear lag effect Considering shear lag effect

0.25 Classical beam theory 0.25 Classical beam theory

0.30 0.30

Pipe beam deflection ( concentrated load ) Pipe beam deflection ( distributed load )

5. Conclusions

Based on the classical beam theory where the effect of shear lag is included in the formulations of

displacements, strains and stresses of solid, thin-walled and pipe beam consistently without using any

kind of stress approximation functions. The shear lag phenomenon is now can be considered directly

for solving dynamic problems in which the mass and stiffness matrices can be derived consistently.

References

[1] Hadji-Argyris J and Cox H L 1944 Diffusion of load into stiffened panels of varying section Br.

Aeron. Res. Council Reports. Mem. 1969

Reissner E 1946 Analysis of shear lag in box beams by the principle of minimum potential

energy Q. Appl. Math. 4 268-78

[2] Malcolm D J and Redwood R G 1970 Sehar Lag in stiffened box-girders J. Struct. Div. ASCE

96 ST7 1403-15

Moffatt K R and Dowling P J 1975 Shear lag in steel box-girder bridges Struct. Engineer 53

439-48

[3] Tesar A 1996 Shear lag in the behavior of thinwalled box bridges Comp. and Struct. 4 607-12

[4] Prokić A 1996 New warping function for thin-walled beams I: Theory J. Struct. Eng. ASCE 122

ST12 1437-42

Prokić A 1996 New warping function for thin-walled beams II: Finite element method and

applications J. Struct. Eng. ASCE 122 ST12 1443-52

Prokić A 2002 New finite element for analysis of shear lag Comp. and Struct. 80 1011-24

[5] Kurata M 2009 General solution of beam considering shear lag phenomenon (in Japanese)

Summaries of Tech. Papers of Research Annual Meeting Nihon Univ. College of Eng. 2009

1-2

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