This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Power system is designed to operate at frequency of 50 Hz. However, certain types of loads such as nonlinear loads produce currents and voltages with frequencies that are integer multiples of the 50 Hz fundamental frequency. These higher frequencies are form of electrical distortion known as power system harmonics. Power system harmonics are produced by nonlinear loads or devices that draw no sinusoidal currents. Examples of common sources of harmonics are transformers, adjustable speed drives, power electronics loads and so forth. The harmonic producing loads can be divided into three main categories that are, large number of distributed non-linear components of small ratings; large and continuously and randomly varying nonlinear loads; and large static power converters and transmission system-level power electronic devices. Harmonics can be much more deteriorate if other power quality problems such as resonance and voltage unbalance also occur at the same time. These non-fundamental frequencies or harmonic distortions can be classified into two types, notably voltage harmonic and current harmonic. The effects of voltage harmonic distortions are voltage sag, swell and fluctuation, which are mainly caused by sudden loading of the system at point of common coupling, large neutral currents due to unbalanced loading, improper grounding etc. The primary effects of current harmonic distortions on the other hand are power factor reduction, poor utilization of distribution wiring plant, high current flow in the neutral line of four-wire three phase system, excessive over heating of line cable etc(1). Harmonic pollutions in the power system can be mitigated by adding passive and/or active power filters to the system; utilizes auto-transformer to cancel low order harmonics; and using phase shifted on the secondary transformer and/or those that had high level reactance between primary and secondary windings (2). Traditionally, passive shunt LC filters is used in suppressing harmonics in power system. Nevertheless, it has
three obvious limitations which are; the source impedance strongly influences the filtering characteristics, parallel resonance may occur with the source impedance, and bulky in size with fixed compensation characteristics. To solve the limitations of passive filter, active power filter is introduced. Basically, active power filter is a power electronic converter incorporating energy-storage element. There are two types of active power filter which are shunt active power filter and series active power filter. These two typical active filters are distinguished by connection with the power lines. By means of shunt connected active power filters, which can be regarded as a kind of source current compensating for the current harmonics drawn by non-linear loads. However, the cost of shunt active filters is relatively high and they are not preferable for a large-scale system since the power capacity of the filter is directly proportional to the load current to be compensated. In addition, their compensating performance is better in the current-type harmonic source than in the voltage-type harmonic source (3). Thus, to overcome harmonics distortion generated by voltage fed type harmonics-producing loads, the series active filter was introduced at the end of the 1980s. Such filter acts as a kind of harmonic isolator, since it provides high impedance for the harmonics while providing zero impedance for the fundamental. Besides, it reduces the need for protection of the loads because it injects series harmonic voltage source into the supply line through injecting transformer. In addition, the series active power filter can regulate the point of common coupling voltage at a desired value by controlling the inverter output in order to compensate distorted utility voltage. Combination system of series active filter and passive filter is introduced to complement each others. Since series active filter behaves like an active impedance, which not causing any voltage drop for the fundamental component, instead it forces the load current harmonics into the passive filter. Therefore, series active filter improves the filtering characteristics of passive filter and load power factor in such way of compensating the the reactive power required by the load. On the other hand, such combination system makes possible to significantly reduce the rating of the series active filter. Hence, this configuration is also well known as hybrid active power filter since it inherits the efficiency of passive filters and the improved performance of active filter.(4) proposed adaptive fuzzy dividing frequency-control method for hybrid active power filter is an example for a new control technique in compensating current harmonics. Considering all advantages and limitations of the combined system, the objective of this simulation studies is to mitigate source current harmonics drawn by typical harmonics-producing
loads specifically three phase diode rectifier with smoothing dc capacitor to comply with international standards such as IEEE519-1992 and IEC61000, and evaluates the performance of the combined filter system. In this thesis, a control scheme based on SRF is introduced. It works well by compensating source current harmonics and source voltage unbalance using a series hybrid active power filter. For unbalance voltage compensation, the desired fundamental component is derived from positive sequence component of the unbalance voltage. Then, an all-pass filter is implemented, giving a desired phase shift without magnitude reduction. The derived reference fundamental component then is used as fundamental current and voltage reference for current harmonics compensation. Next, these calculated compensated control signals is fed to the SVPWM-VSI in order to generate the compensating voltages for mitigation of source current harmonics. The organization of this thesis begins with the system configuration, followed by control scheme, before coming to the results and discussion, and ended with conclusions and acknowledgement.
PAKDEL (2007) reveals the basis of harmonic suppression by using a control
scheme with three topologies for harmonic suppression and power factor correction in a single-phase system with a diode rectifier load. It is assumed that inductive or capacitive loads are connected to the dc side of the diode rectifier. RAGHAVENDHIRAN (2003) compares the performance of the active filter based on the novel current compensation technique with that of the filter based on sliding mode control law method. ALI SARDAR (2009) presents minimization of harmonics using power active filters, which satisfy the current harmonic suppression for the mprovement in power quality and the techniques considered include here is the shunt & series active power filters. MAHALEKSHMI (2010) proposes that the current harmonics can be compensated by means of using the Shunt Active Power Filter, Passive Power Filter and the combination of both. The system has the function of voltage stability, and harmonic
suppression. Chapter 2 presents the description about harmonics and filters. Chapter 3 deals with the modeling of the system and the control scheme used to suppress the harmonics.5 SUMMARY In this chapter. Chapter 5 describes the summary of the work done. 4 . The description about each chapter is as follows: Chapter 1 presents the introductory part and the objective of the thesis. 1. MORAN (2000) describes the different power quality problems in distribution systems and their solutions with power electronics based equipment. The above all the concepts have been developed in his thesis.4 ORGANIZATION OF THESIS The thesis is organized into five chapters. Chapter 4 describes the system performance without and with filter and the simulation result for both the cases. 1. It also explains about the various suggestions given by various authors.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE THESIS The main objective of the thesis is to suppress the harmonics by using series hybrid power filter in electrical power system with non linear loads in order to develop the power quality of the system. The reference current can be calculated by dq transformation. An improved generalized integrator control was proposed to improve the performance of APF. how the power system is affected by harmonics and what are the precautions and preventive measures taken by usage of filters and it has been explained by different literature survey. 1.
etc. As shown below. if the fundamental frequency is 25 Hz. 3f. In addition. Like other power quality phenomena. the harmonics have frequencies 2f. This is because the harmonic number multiplied by the 120 degree phase shift between phases is a integer multiple of 360 degrees.e. 4f. it depends on the “stiffness” of the power distribution system and the susceptibility of the equipment. 75 Hz.Excessive neutral current. This harmonic pollution is often carried back onto the electric utility distribution system. .1 INTRODUCTION FOR HARMONICS A harmonic of a wave is a component frequency of the signal that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency.CHAPTER 2 HARMONICS AND FILTERS 2. The harmonics have the property that they are all periodic at the fundamental frequency. resulting in overheated neutrals. The presence of harmonics does not mean that the factory or office cannot run properly. i. . For example. therefore the sum of harmonics is also periodic at that frequency. The odd triplen harmonics in three phase wye circuits are actually additive in the neutral. . 100 Hz. 5 . and may effect facilities on the same system which are more susceptible Some typical types of equipment susceptible to harmonic pollution include: . the frequencies of the harmonics are: 50 Hz. Harmonic frequencies are equally spaced by the width of the fundamental frequency and can be found by repeatedly adding that frequency. etc. one factory may be the source of high harmonics but able to run properly. there are a number of different types of equipment that can have disoperation or failures due to high harmonic voltage and/or current levels. if the fundamental frequency is f.
• • Reduced true PF. especially delta windings where triplen harmonics generated on the load side of a delta-wye transformer will circulate in the primary side. 6 . Overheated transformers. • Incorrect reading meters. Some type of losses go up as the square of harmonic value (such as skin effect and eddy current losses). where PF= Watts/VA. including induction discW-hr meters and averaging type current meters. This is also true for solenoid coils and lighting ballasts. Additive Third Harmonics.Figure 2.1.
There is also heating from increased losses as in a transformer.8Hz. the effect on lighting is called flicker.) sequencing values.2 POWER QUALITY Power quality is defined as the concept of powering and grounding sensitive equipment in a matter that is suitable to the operation of that equipment. with the emphasis in discussions and in the literature being on voltage dips and short interruptions. negative (2nd. respectively. 6th. backward. or neither (just heats up the motor). The main perpetrators are interruptions and voltage dips. where the human eye is most sensitive. 4th. High frequency transients do occasionally receive attention as causes of equipment malfunction... and companies have become less tolerant of production stoppages. production processes have become less tolerant of incorrect of incorrect operation of equipment. due to high voltage and currents from resonance with line impedance.. including false tripping of relays and failure of a UPS to transfer properly. especially if controls incorporate zerocrossing sensing circuits. 9th. and just 0. Equipment has become less tolerant of voltage quality disturbances..5% variation in the voltage is noticeable with some types of lighting. 8th. 7 ..) or zero (3rd.. There are many different reasons for the enormous increase in the interest in power quality. Blown-fuses on PF correction caps. In a balanced system. This is especially true at 8. • • Mis-operation or failure of electronic equipment If there are voltage subharmonics in the range of 1-30Hz. • • Bearing failure from shaft currents through uninsulated bearings of electric motors. negative sequence voltages on motors and generators. • Nuisance operation of protective devices. This means that the voltage at that particular frequency tries to rotate the motor forward. 2. voltage harmonics can either be positive (fundamental.• Zero.. 5th.).. Some of the main reasons are: • Electronic and power electronic equipment has especially become much more sensitive. 7th.
Customers are demanding. The main perpetrators are interruptions and voltage dips. There are indications that the harmonic distortion in the power system is rising. When these power quality problems become a barrier for the large scale introduction of environmentally friendly sources and users’ equipment. Note that in many discussions only the first problem is mentioned. with the emphasis in discussions and in the literature being on voltage dips and short interruptions. and getting. • The deregulation of the electricity industry has led to an increased need for quality indicators. production processes have become less tolerant of incorrect of incorrect operation of equipment. • Also energy efficient equipment is an important source of power quality disturbance.All this leads to much higher costs than before being associated with even a very short duration disturbance. Equipment has become less tolerant of voltage quality disturbances. power quality becomes an environmental issue with much wider consequences than the currently merely economic issues. and companies have become less tolerant of production stoppages.• Equipment produces more current disturbances than it used to do. but no conclusive results are obtained due to the lack of large scale surveys. Equipment produces more current disturbances than it used to do. High frequency transients do occasionally receive attention as causes of equipment malfunction but are generally not well exposed in the literature. whereas the latter two may be at least equally important .3 NEED FOR POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT 1. Adjustable speed drives and energy saving lamps are both important sources of waveform distortion and are also sensitive to certain type of power quality disturbances. There are indications that the harmonic distortion in the power system is rising. 2. 8 . Both low and high power equipment is more and more powered by simple power electronic converters which produce a broad spectrum of distortion. more information on the voltage quality they can expect. Both low and high power equipment is more and more powered by simple power electronic converters which produce a broad spectrum of distortion. but no conclusive results are obtained due to the lack of large scale surveys. 2.
When these power quality problems become a barrier for the large scale introduction of environmentally friendly sources and users’ equipment.4.4.2 The European Voltage Characteristics Standard European standard 50160  describes electricity as a product. and duration of an interruption. 2. Adjustable speed drives and energy saving lamps are both important sources of waveform distortion and are also sensitive to certain type of power quality disturbances.3. Customers are demanding. and getting. Some disturbances are just mentioned.4 POWER QUALITY STANDARDS 2. and for some disturbances actual voltage characteristics are given. Almost any country has standards defining the margins in which frequency and voltage are allowed to vary. Also energy efficient equipment is an important source of power quality disturbance. It gives the main characteristics of the voltage at the customer's supply terminals in public low-voltage and medium-voltage networks under normal operating conditions. including its shortcomings. for others a wide range of typical values are given. more information on the voltage quality they can expect. There are three reasons for developing power quality standards. The deregulation of the electricity industry has led to an increased need for quality indicators. power quality becomes an environmental issue with much wider consequences than the currently merely economic issues. 2. Some issues of the interaction between deregulation and power quality are discussed. Other standards limit harmonic current and voltage distortion. For each of these variations the value is given which shall not be exceeded for 95% of the time.1 Purpose of Standardization Standards that define the quality of the supply have been present for decades already. voltage fluctuations. The length of this 9 . 4. Voltage variation: Standard EN 50160 gives limits for some variations. The measurement should be performed with a certain averaging window.
TABLE 2.window is 10 minutes for most variations. thus very short time scales are not considered in.u at the power frequency for duration of from 0.5 Hz 2. 10 .5 cycles to 1 minute. STATCOM is a static VAR generator. Sag is a decrease in rms voltage or currents to between 0. whose output is varied so as to maintain or control specific parameters of the electric power system. Voltage magnitude: 95% of the 10-minute averages during one week shall be within ±10% of the nominal voltage of 230 V.9 p.1 Voltage Characteristics as Published by Goteborg Energi Phenomenon Magnitude variations Voltage unbalance Voltage fluctuations Frequency Basic Level Voltage shall be between 207 and 244 V Up to 2% Not exceeding the flicker curve In between 49. Balanced Sag is an equal drop in the rms value of voltage in the three-phases of a three-phase system or at the terminals of three-phase equipment for duration up to a few minutes.1 to 0. Voltage dip is sudden reduction in the supply voltage by a value of more than 10% of the reference value.5 POWER QUALITY TERMINOLOGY DSTATCOM means Distribution Static Compensator. fallowed by a voltage recovery after a short period of time.5 and 50.
(OR) A voltage magnitude event with a magnitude less than 10% of the nominal voltage. with a duration of more than one cycle and less than few seconds. Interruption is the voltage event in which the voltage is zero during a certain time. outside of the normal tolerance. Over Voltage is an abnormal voltage higher than the normal service voltage. Voltage Tolerance it is the immunity of a piece of equipment against voltage magnitude variations (Sags. (OR) A voltage magnitude event with a magnitude less than the nominal rms voltage.8pu delivered by the mains. Critical Distance is the distance at which a short-circuit fault will lead to a voltage sag of a given magnitude for a given load position. Current Disturbance it is a variation of event during which the current in the system or at the equipment terminals deviates from the ideal sine wave. Swell it is a momentary increase in the rms voltage or current to between 1.Unbalanced Fault is a short circuit or open circuit fault in which not all three phases are equally involved. 11 . The time during which the voltage is zero is referred to as the “duration” of the interruption. Voltage Disturbance it is a variation of event during which the voltage in the system or at the equipment terminals deviates from the ideal sine wave. Under Voltage is a voltage event in which the rms voltage is outside its normal operating margin for a certain period of time. (OR) Abnormal voltage between two points of a system that is greater than the highest value appearing between the same two points under normal service conditions. and a duration exceeding 1 minute. Swells and Interruptions) and short duration over voltages. Power quality can be seen as the combination of voltage quality and current quality. Duration (of Voltage Sag) it is the time during which the voltage deviates significantly from the ideal voltage. such as might be caused from switching and lightning surges. Power Quality it is the study or description of both voltage and current disturbances.1 and 1.
1 Voltage sags Major Causes : Faults. Voltage Fluctuation is a special type of voltage variation in which the voltage shows changes in the magnitude and/or phase angle on a time scale of seconds or less. Process interrupts. Major Consequences: 12 .7 POWER QUALITY DISTURBANCES 2. Shorts.7. The VSC is used to either completely replace the voltage or to inject the ‘missing voltage’. Fault is an event occurs on the power system and it effects the normal operation of the power system. and brown-out recovery. Major Consequences: 2.7.6 VOLTAGE SOURCE CONVERTERS (VSC) A voltage-source converter is a power electronic device. shorts. semi conductor device damage. frequency and phase angle. accelerated aging. after a voltage or current event. which can generate a sinusoidal voltage with any required magnitude.2 Capacitor Switching Transients Major Causes : A power factor correction method Insulation breakdown or spark over. Severe voltage fluctuations lead to light flicker. loss of data or stability. but can also be used to mitigate voltage dips. 2. loss of data or stability. Starting of large loads. Voltage source converters are widely used in adjustable-speed drives. The ‘missing voltage’ is the difference between the nominal voltage and the actual. 2. etc. accelerated aging.Recovery Time is the time interval needed for the voltage or current to return to its normal operating value.
Equipment Over heating. transformer saturation. 2.4 Lightning Transients Major Causes : Lightning strikes Insulation breakdown or spark over.5 High Impedance faults Major Causes : Fallen conductors. the appropriate decomposition of power for purposes of both identification and control of the distortion elimination by filters has to be achieved. the steps given in fig (4) have to be taken.7.8 PRINCIPLES FOR IMPROVING POWER QUALITY From the discussion already presented. accelerated aging. 13 . the term non-active power filter will be used for equipment that eliminates non-active power. arcing. Major Consequences: 2. Since it is essential to use clear and consistent terminology. threats to personal safety. it is evident that for improving power quality. trees (fail to establish a permanent return path) Major Consequences: Fire.7. semi conductor device damage. The actual types of these filters are to be discussed in a further chapter of this paper. Major Consequences: 2. high voltage/current. shorts. As also pointed out.7. Protective device operations.3 Harmonics Major Causes : Power electronic equipment. loss of data or stability.2.
Figure 2. PWM (Series or parallel) hybrid.2 Improving power quality by distortion elimination.3 Principle of input converter to eliminate distortion loads on the power network. undefined Figure 2. (Dynamic input filters) Tuned impedance filters Dynamic filters for distortion elimination Type of filter: SVC. 14 . dynamic filters and tuned impedance filters. The non-active power filters to be used can be divided into the classes of input converters. Theses principles and the control requirements will now be discussed shortly.Identify distortion by using Appropriate power theory Decide on method of Distortion elimination Equipment with appropriate power electronic input converters.
motors and capacitors. The compensating devices compensate a load. i. some devices need to be installed at a suitable location.2. and in some cases. 2.e its power factor. may be a more attractive solution. For large. conventional filters designed to meet the demands of the actual application are the most cost efficient means of eliminating harmonics. when interfering with control systems and electronic devices. eliminate problems created by power system harmonics. Benefits • • • • • • Eliminates harmonics Improved Power Factor Reduced Transmission Losses Increased Transmission Capability Improved Voltage Control Improved Power Quality Other applications • Shunt Capacitors 15 . These filters consist of capacitor banks with suitable tuning reactors and damping resistors. unbalance conditions or improve the power quality of supplied voltage. some of the power quality improving techniques are given as below. Non-linear loads such as rectifiers. based on power electronic converters with high switching frequency. These devices are called custom power devices. converters. They can also cause other. For small and medium size loads. etc.9. home electronic appliances. easily identifiable sources of harmonics. probably more serious problems. and electric arc furnaces cause harmonics giving rise to extra losses in power equipment such as transformers. active filters.9 IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES To improve the power quality. which make sure that customers get pre specified quality and reliability of supply.1 Harmonics Harmonic Filters may be used to mitigate. Installing filters near the harmonic sources can effectively reduce harmonics.
Benefits • • Increased Power Transfer Capability Additional flexibility in Grid Operation Improved Grid Voltage Control Lower Transmission Losses Improved Transient Stability 16 • • • .2 Voltage Flickers Voltage flicker can become a significant problem for power distributors when large motor loads are introduced in remote locations. avoiding more significant investment in new substations or new distribution lines. Benefits • • • • Reduced voltage fluctuations (flicker) Improved voltage profile along the line Easier starting of large motors Self-regulation 2.3 Bottlenecks Bottlenecks may be relieved by the use of Series Compensation.9.2. Installation of a series capacitor in the feeder strengthens the network and allows such load to be connected to existing lines. The use of the MiniCap on long distribution feeders provides self-regulated reactive power compensation that efficiently reduces voltage variations during large motor starting.9. Series Compensation has the net effect of reducing Series transmission line series reactance. The power transfer between two-area interconnected systems is limited to 1500MW due to stability constraints. Longer lines tend to have stability-constrained capacity limitations as opposed to the higher thermal constraints of shorter lines. Compensation also offers additional power transfer capability for some thermalconstrained bottlenecks by balancing the loads among the parallel lines. thus effectively reducing the line length. Additional electricity can be delivered between them if Series Compensation is applied to increase the maximum stability limits.
Shunt capacitors are primarily used to improve the power factor in transmission and distribution networks. Figure shows a plot of terminal voltage versus line loading for a system that has a shunt capacitor installed at the load bus.5 Shunt Reactor The primary purpose of the shunt reactor is to compensate for capacitive charging voltage. reduced network losses. the shunt capacitor would decrease the line losses by more than 35%. At the line surge impedance loading level. Long highvoltage transmission lines and relatively short cable lines (since a power cable has high capacitance to earth) generate a large amount of reactive power during light power transfer 17 . thus achieving reduced delivery system losses and network voltage drop. resulting in improved voltage regulation. In distribution and industrial systems. and efficient capacity utilization. Improved transmission voltage regulation can be obtained during heave power transfer conditions when the system consumes a large amount of reactive power that must be replaced by compensation.9.Other applications • • Power Flow Control Transient Stability Improvement 2. a phenomenon getting more prominent for increasing line voltage.9. Benefits • • • • • Improved power factor Reduced transmission losses Increased transmission capability Improved voltage control Improved power quality Other applications • Harmonic Filters 2.4 Shunt Capacitors Regulation of the power factor to increase the transmission capability and reduce transmission losses. it is common to use shunt capacitors to compensate for the highly inductive loads.
2. 18 . Further improved system steady state performance can be obtained from SVC applications. A better fine tuning of the reactive power can be made by the use of a tap changer in the shunt reactor. as an economically attractive and environmentally friendly investment in infrastructure. the receiving terminals of the transmission lines will exhibit a “voltage rise” characteristic and many types of power equipment cannot withstand such over voltages.6 SVC Static VAR Compensators are used in transmission and distribution networks mainly providing dynamic voltage support in response to system disturbances and balancing the reactive power demand of large and fluctuating industrial loads. The SVC can elegantly be used to counteract the unbalances and mitigate the harmonics such that the power quality within the transmission grid is not impaired. No harmonics created which may require filter banks. this would result in significant unbalanced voltage affecting most neighboring utility customers. Electrification of railways. A Static VAR Compensator is capable of both generating and absorbing variable reactive power continuously as opposed to discrete values of fixed and switched shunt capacitors or reactors. The traction system is a major source of unbalanced loads. It can be possible to vary the reactive power between 50 to 100 % of the needed power. has introduced an unbalanced and heavy distorted load on the three-phase transmission grid. Without compensation.conditions which must be absorbed by compensation. With continuously variable reactive power supply. This entails the reduction of network losses and provision of adequate power quality to the electric energy end-users. Benefits • • • Simple and robust customer solution with low installation costs and minimum maintenance No losses from an intermediate transformer when feeding reactive compensation from a lower voltage level. Otherwise.9. the voltage at the SVC bus may be maintained smoothly over a wide range of active power transfers or system loading conditions.
SVCs can also effectively counteract system oscillations. SVC is used most frequently for compensation of disturbances generated by the Electrical Arc Furnaces (EAF). can provide dynamic voltage support in response to system disturbances and balance the reactive power demand of large and fluctuating industrial loads. However. when connected to the grid. is highly irritating for those affected. when properly placed and controlled. The random voltage variations can also be disturbing to other process equipment fed from the same grid. has the ability to increase the damping factor (typically by 1-2 MW per Mvar installed) on a bulk power system which is experiencing power oscillations.Static Var Compensators are mainly used to perform voltage and reactive power regulation. A SVC. A STATCOM is capable of both generating and absorbing variable reactive power continuously as opposed to discrete values of fixed and switched 19 . the random variation in light intensity from incandescent lamps caused by the operating of nearby fluctuating loads on the common electric supply grid.9. Voltage Balancing) Grid voltage support • 2. With a well-designed SVC. The proper mitigation of flicker is therefore a matter of power quality improvement as well as an improvement to human environment. It does so by effectively modulating its reactive power output such that the regulated SVC bus voltage would increase the system damping capability. disturbances such as flicker from the EAF are mitigated Flicker. Benefits • • • • • Increased Power Transfer Capability Additional flexibility in Grid Operation Improved Grid Voltage Stability Improved Grid Voltage Control Improved Power Factor Other applications • • Power Oscillation Damping Power Quality (Flicker Mitigation. in effect.7 STATCOM STATCOM.
In order to stabilize voltage and reduce disturbing flicker successfully. and to mitigate voltage fluctuations generated by the traction loads. This entails the reduction of network losses and provision of sufficient power quality to the electric energy end-users. erratic nature of an electric arc furnace (EAF) causes significant fluctuating reactive power demand. Voltage Balancing) Grid Voltage Support 20 . the STATCOM can elegantly be used to restore voltage and current balance in the grid.shunt capacitors or reactors. STATCOM® is an effective method used to attack the problem of flicker. Benefits • • • • • Increased Power Transfer Capability Additional flexibility in Grid Operation Improved Grid Voltage Stability Improved Grid Voltage Control Improved Power Factor Eliminated Flicker Harmonic Filtering Voltage Balancing Power Factor Correction Furnace/mill Process Productivity Improvement • • • • • Other applications • • Power Quality (Flicker Mitigation. the voltage at the STATCOM bus may be maintained smoothly over a wide range of system operation conditions. Similar to SVC. it is necessary to continuously measure and compensate rapid changes by means of extremely fast reactive power compensation. The unbalanced. STATCOM® uses voltage source converters to improve furnace productivity similar to a traditional SVC while offering superior voltage flicker mitigation due to fast response time. which ultimately results in irritating electric lamp flicker to neighboring utility customers. With continuously variable reactive power supply.
5 1 Maximum THD (%) 5 2. to harmonic isolation between utilities and consumers. draw non sinusoidal currents containing harmonics from the supply which in turn causes voltage harmonics.5 1.2. furnaces. Harmonic currents result in increased power system losses. interference with nearby communication circuits and control circuits.5 Bus Voltage 69 kV and below 115 kV to 161 kV Above 161 Kv The objectives and functions of active power filters have expanded from reactive power compensation. Depending on the compensation objectives. bulk rectifiers. various types of active power filter topologies have evolved.1 and Table 3. etc. etc. It has become imperative to maintain the sinusoidal nature of voltage and currents in the power system. The limits for various current and voltage harmonics specified by IEEE-519 for various frequencies are given in Table 3. voltage regulation. and harmonic damping throughout the distribution as harmonics propagate through the system. Table 2.8 Shunt Active Filters The various nonlinear loads like Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD’s).2 IEEE 519 Voltage Limits Minimum Individual Harmonic Components (%) 3 1.2. excessive heating in rotating machinery. which put limits on various current and voltage harmonics. a proper briefing provided in further.9. Active power filters are either installed at the individual consumer premises or at substation and/or on distribution feeders. computer supplies. 21 . etc. Various international agencies like IEEE and IEC have issued standards.
0 8.5 2.5 7.10. but they have restricted frequency of switching.0 1. They are considered sufficiently reliable.5 4.0 17 to 23 1.0 2.3 0.0 6.0 1. It is more popular in UPS-based applications.0 5.3 IEEE 519 Current Limits SCR=Isc/Il <20 20 – 50 50 -100 100 – 1000 >1000 h<11 4. because in the presence of mains. GTO-based configurations do not need the series diode. as shown in Fig 3.0 20.7 1. but have higher losses and require higher values of parallel ac power capacitors. they cannot be used in multilevel or multistep modes to improve performance in higher ratings.5 2. However.0 7.6 1.0 15.5 35<h 0. Moreover.0 12.4 THD 5.0 10. It has a self-supporting dc voltage bus with a large dc capacitor. since it is lighter. 22 .2) are two classifications in this category.Table 2.10 CLASSIFICATIONS OF ACTIVE POWER FILTERS 2.0 23 to 35 0.1 Converter based classification Current Source Inverter (CSI) Active Power Filter (Fig 3.1) and Voltage Source Inverter Active Power Filter (VSI) (Fig 3. It has become more dominant. and expandable to multilevel and multistep versions.0 15.0 11 to 17 2.5 5.2. to enhance the performance with lower switching frequencies. A diode is used in series with the selfcommutating device (IGBT) for reverse voltage blocking. The other converter used as an AF is a voltage-fed PWM inverter structure. Current Source Inverter behaves as a nonsinusoidal current source to meet the harmonic current requirement of the nonlinear loads. cheaper.0 2.0 12. the same Inverter bridge can be used as an AF to eliminate harmonics of critical nonlinear loads.5 0.0 3.5 4.
It can be installed by electric utilities to compensate voltage harmonics and to damp out harmonic propagation caused by resonance with line impedances and passive shunt compensators. to eliminate voltage harmonics.5 Voltage fed type AF Fig 2.4 shows the basic block of a stand-alone active series filter. It is mainly used at the load end.2 Topology based Classification AF’s can be classified based on the topology used as series or shunt filters. using a matching transformer.10.4 shows the basic block of a stand-alone active series filter. It has been used to reduce negative-sequence voltage and regulate the voltage on three-phase systems.3 is an example of an active shunt filter.4 Current fed type AF Fig 2. It is connected before the load in series with the mains. to eliminate voltage harmonics. Fig 3. and to balance and regulate the terminal voltage of the load or line. Combinations of active series and passive shunt filtering are known as hybrid filters. Fig 2. It has been 23 . which is most widely used to eliminate current harmonics. It can also be used as a static VAR generator (STATCOM) in the power system network for stabilizing and improving the voltage profile. It injects equal compensating currents. Fig 2. and balancing unbalanced currents. and unified power quality conditioners use a combination of both. to cancel harmonics and/or reactive components of the nonlinear load current at the point of connection. because current harmonics are injected by nonlinear loads. and to balance and regulate the terminal voltage of the load or line.2. reactive power compensation (also known as STATCOM. using a matching transformer. opposite in phase. It is connected before the load in series with the mains.
6 Shunt-type AF Fig 2.7 Series-type AF Fig 2. It is quite popular because the solid-state devices used in the active series part can be of reduced size and cost (about 5% of the load size) and a major part of the hybrid filter is made of the passive shunt L–C filter used to eliminate lower order harmonics. which is a combination of an active series filter and passive shunt filter. Fig 2.9 Unified Power Quality Conditioner 24 . It can be installed by electric utilities to compensate voltage harmonics and to damp out harmonic propagation caused by resonance with line impedances and passive shunt compensators. It has the capability of reducing voltage and current harmonics at a reasonable cost.8 Hybrid filter Fig 2.used to reduce negative-sequence voltage and regulate the voltage on three-phase systems.5 shows the hybrid filter. Fig 2.
commercial lighting. such as computers. current-source PWM bridge with inductive energy storage element and voltage-source PWM bridge with capacitive dc-bus energy storage elements. Active shunt 25 .9 shows a unified power quality conditioner (also known as a universal AF). It is considered an ideal AF. Both converter configurations. In some cases.1–3. active filtering is included in the power conversion stage to improve input characteristics at the supply end.10. etc.Fig 2. with three wires on the ac side and two wires on the dc side. medical equipment. AF’s may also be classified accordingly as two-wire. such as domestic appliances. Its main drawbacks are its large cost and control complexity because of the large number of solid-state devices involved. incorporate AF’s intheir frontend design. Some three-phase nonlinear loads are without neutral. 2) Three-Wire AF’s Three-phase three-wire nonlinear loads. It can balance and regulate terminal voltage and eliminate negative-sequence currents. active shunt. It is used in single-phase as well as three-phase configurations. All the configurations shown in Figs 3. etc. and four-wire types. A large number of publications have appeared on three-wire AF’s with different configurations. connected to single-phase supply systems. There are many nonlinear loads. which is a combination of active shunt and active series filters. are major applications of solid-state power converters and. lately. are used to form two-wire AF circuits.6 are developed. 1) Two-Wire AF’s Two-wire (single phase) AF’s are used in all three modes as active series. three-wire. Hence.. which eliminates voltage and current harmonics and is capable of giving clean power to critical and harmonic-prone loads. many ASD’s. etc. The dc-link storage element (either inductor or dc-bus capacitor) is shared between two current-source or voltage-source bridges operating as active series and active shunt compensators. 2. such as computers. and a combination of both as unified line conditioners. such as ASD’s. fed from three-wire supply systems. There are many nonlinear single-phase loads distributed on four-wire three-phase supply systems. such as ASD’s.3 Supply-System-Based Classification This classification of AF’s is based on the supply and/or the load system having single-phase (two wire) and three-phase (three wire or four wire) systems. in three-wire AF’s.
Harmonic voltages with Reactive power compensation. harmonic and reactive power burden. A combination of active series and active shunt is used for unified power quality conditioners (Fig 3.10. and reliable compensation with unbalanced systems. Active shunt AF’s are also designed with three single-phase AF’s with isolation transformers  for proper voltage matching.4 Compensated Variable Based Classification (1) Harmonic Compensation (2) Multiple Compensation This is the most important system parameter requiring compensation in power systems and it is subdivided into voltage. independent phase control. four-wire AF’s have been attempted.4) or hybrid mode with passive shunt filters (Fig 3. They have been developed as: 1) active shunt mode with current feed and voltage feed. 3) Four-Wire AF’s A large number of single-phase loads may be supplied from three-phase mains with neutral conductor. 2) active series mode. Harmonic currents and voltages with reactive-power compensation. 26 .5).AF’s are developed in the current-fed type (Fig 3. They cause excessive neutral current. and unbalance. The following are the most frequently used combinations. Active series filters are developed for stand-alone mode (Fig 3. Harmonic currents and voltages. The compensation of voltage and current harmonics is interrelated. To reduce these problems. Different combinations of the above systems can be used to improve the effectiveness of filters. • • • • Harmonic currents with Reactive power compensation. 2.6) and universal filters.2) or multi-step/multilevel and multi-series configurations.and current-harmonic compensation. The latter (hybrid) has become quite popular to reduce the size of power devices and cost of the overall system.1) or voltage-fed type with single-stage (Fig 3. and 3) hybrid form with active series and passive shunt mode.
the current-type active power filter will become more attractive when the super conducting coils are available in the future. A current source is connected in parallel with nonlinear load and controlled to generate the harmonic currents needed for the load. In order to reduce the harmonic contamination in power lines and improve the transmission efficiency Active power filters become essential. In other words. 27 . Losses are less important in low. A choice depends on source of distortion at the specified bus.10. Current-type converters have advantages of excellent current controllability. However.2. equipment cost. The drawback of the current source APF is larger power losses of the dc-link inductor. Their combined switching rate can be increased if they are carefully controlled so that their individual switching times do not coincide. the power quality of the AC main system has become a great concern due to the rapidly increased number of electronic equipment. For systems with several connected in parallel. Voltage type converters are lighter and less expansive than current-type converters.11 Operation of Three Phase Active Power Filters In recent years. 2.5 Voltage Type Vs Current Type APF’s A clear trend for preferred type of APF’s does not exist. and amount of correction desired. Voltage-type has an advantage in that they can be readily expanded in parallel to increase their combined rating. Current type APF’s will continue to popular for single-node distortion problems. voltage type APF’s are likely to be used for network wide compensation. The main drawback of voltage-type converters lies in the increased complexity of their control system. while industrial users likely to use both type of converters. Therefore. electric utility interest will likely to be focused on voltage type converters. Since they are easily expandable. easy protection and high reliability over Voltage source APF. which result in a faster response in time varying load environment and lower dc energy storage requirement. More over CSI topology has superior characteristics compared to VSI topology in terms of direct injected current. using parallel voltage-type converters with out increasing individual converter switching rates can eliminate higher order harmonics. this complexity is greatly increased.power applications but very important in high power applications.
The current-controlled voltage-source inverter (VSI) is shown connected at the load end. sometimes back to AC power at the same or different frequency. One major variation is the phase angle at which conduction begins and ends. This results in a current waveform and harmonic spectrum . This PWM inverter consists of six switches with antiparallels diode across each switch.9 The diode bridge rectifier is used as an ideal harmonic generator to study the performance of the Active filter. 28 .1 Sources of Harmonic Current The main sources of harmonic current are at present the phase angle controlled rectifiers and inverters. Obviously. The capacitor is designed in order to provide DC voltage with acceptable ripples.11. In order to assure the filter current at any instant. These devices feed current into a capacitor. weight and cost. The firing scheme refers to the controlling mechanism that determines how and when current is conducted. The AC voltage is converted into a DC voltage.The basic configuration of a three-phase three-wire active power filter is shown in Fig 2. the diode will conduct current through it. such as printers. 2. In order to do so. which is further converted into other voltages that the equipment needs to run. The rectifier consists of semi-conductor devices (such as diodes) that only conduct current in one direction. the voltage on the one end must be greater than the other end. the DC voltage Vdc must be at least equal to 3/2 of the peak value of the line AC mains voltage. based on the firing scheme. A typical such converter is the switching-type power supplies found in most personal computers and peripheral equipment. where the voltage value on the cap at any time depends on how much energy is being taken out by the rest of the power supply. While they offer many benefits in size. When the input voltage value is higher than voltage on the capacitor. These are often called static power converters. Figure shows how a switching-type power supply works. this is not a pure sinoidal waveform with only a 60 Hz frequency component. These devices take AC power and convert it to another form. the large increase of this type of equipment over the past fifteen years is largely responsible for the increased attention to harmonics.
Fig. as the ballasts are non-linear inductors.2.2.10 Output current waveform Fig. the third harmonic current from each phase in a four-wire wye or star system will be additive in the neutral.11 Harmonic spectrum Fluorescent lights can be the source of harmonics. The third harmonic is the predominate harmonic in this case. As previously mentioned. instead of cancelling out Some of the newer electronic 29 .
AC voltage regulators for light dimmers and small induction motors adjust the phase angle or point on the wave where conduction occurs. and high voltage DC transmission employ large power converters. Some harmonics have zero value for part of the time. which includes all of the wiring and transformers back to the source of the electricity. or input voltage on each leg are not equal) will cause harmonics. Like any power 30 . as they operate somewhat like a switching power supply. winding impedance. in the 2-20MVA rating. effectively shorting one phase to the other and resulting in large current transients. the current drawn is different from the steady state condition. The harmonics during this period varies over time. This type of 3-phase equipment may also cause other types of power quality problems. and include such equipment as ASDs (adjustable speed drives) and VFDs (variable frequency drives). This commutation period is a time when two semiconductor devices are both conducting current at the same time.ballasts have very significant harmonic problems. An unbalanced transformer (where either the output current. Metal reduction operations. This happens under “naturally” commutated conditions.2 Occurrence of Harmonics Wherever the aforementioned equipment is used. and the source impedance. as will overvoltage saturation of a transformer. Ohm’s Law says that Voltage equals Current multipled by Impedance. and then increase for a while before returning to zero. This is true for harmonic values as well. This is caused by the inrush of the magnetizing current. When transformers are first energized. one can suspect that harmonics are present. Medium power converters are used for motor control in manufacturing and railroad applications. where the voltage that was larger on the anode side compared to the cathode is now the opposite. When the semiconductor device is supposed to turn-off. The amount of voltage harmonics will often depend on the amount of harmonic currents being drawn by the load. like electric arc furnaces. Low power. This occurs each cycle as the voltage waveform goes through the sine waveform.11. 2. where the semi-conductor device has a “gate”-type control mechanism built in to it. but can result in current harmonic distortion levels over 30%. It also happens under “forced” commutation conditions. If the source harmonic impedance is very low (often referred to as a “stiff” system) then the harmonic currents will result in lower harmonic voltages than if the source impedance were high (such as found with some types of isolation transformers). it does not do so abruptly.
indicating the presence of non-linear loads in the facility.2.11. A business cycle is how long it takes for the normal operation of the plant to repeat itself. monitoring will last for one business cycle. then a business cycle would be eight hours. 1/9. The phase voltages and currents.. Power Quality Monitor with Harmonic Analysis Typically. then on a Wednesday. For example.1. However. that can point the investigator towards the source. as well as the neutral-to-ground voltage and neutral current should be monitored. as different operations take place on a Monday.3 Detection of harmonics Hand-held harmonic meters can be useful tools for making spot checks for known harmonic problems.) and p is the number of pulses in the circuit.. This requires the use of a harmonic monitor or power quality monitor with harmonic capabilities which can record the harmonic values over a period of time. Monitoring the neutral will often show a high 3rd harmonic value. This is related to the number of pulses. or detecting marginal systems. This will aid in pinpointing problems. harmonic values will often change during the day. and the magnitude decreases as the ration of 1/h (1/3. n is any integer (1. If the source is suspected to be from the utility service side (such is the case when there is a neighboring factory that is known to generate high harmonics). 1/7.3. Certain types of loads also generate typical harmonic spectrum signatures. where h is the harmonic number. a business cycle is one week. The general equation is h = ( n * p ) +/. 2. or paths of conduction. More typically.).. when only a skelton crew may be working. where the utility service meets the building distribution system. when the plant equipment is restarted after being off over the weekend. 2. as different loads are turned on and off within the facility or in other facilities on the same electric utility distribution system. it is often easier to start the monitoring process there. then monitoring usually begins at the PCC. the search can begin at the equipment effected by the problem or at the point-of-common-coupling (PCC). where possible. seven days a week.quality investigation. If only one piece of equipment is effected (or suspected). Table 4 shows examples of such...11. if a plant runs three identical shifts. or a Saturday. 1/5.4 Problems Faced in Harmonics 31 .
a number of standards have been developed by various organizations. There are two parameters typically used.11. which means that the positive half of the waveform looks like a mirror image of the negative half. ANSI/IEEE C57. more customers will be effective. Early detection of this condition in a UPS system can prevent a complete failure when the load is switched onto back-up power. Isolating harmonic pollution devices on separate circuits with or without the use of harmonic filters are typical ways of mitigating the effects of such. Phase conductors are particularly important with some modular office partition-type walls. The presence of these even harmonics should cause the investigator to suspect there is a half-wave rectifier on the ciruit. Neutral conductors should be properly sized. The operating limits of transformers and motors should be derated.Most electrical loads (except half-wave rectifiers) produce symmetrical current waveforms. hence. in accordance with industry standards from IEEE. At the higher voltages. the voltage level of the system is used to determine the limits. Some power quality harmonic monitors will automatically calculate these values. To determine what is normal or acceptable levels. The European Community has also developed susceptibility and emission limits for harmonics. 2. IEEE 519-1992 Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems provides guidelines from determining what are acceptable limits. PF correcting capacitors and the system impedance. This results in only odd harmonic values being present.110 Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Compatibility when supplying non sinusoidal load currents is a useful document for determining how much a transformer should be derated from its nameplate rating when operating in the presence of harmonics. the lower limits. For voltage harmonics. This also result from a full wave rectifier when one side of the rectifier has blown or damaged components. ANSI and NEMA on 32 . Formerly known as the 555-2 standard for appliances of less than 16 A. a more encompassing set of standards under IEC 1000-4-7 are now in effect. Even harmonics will disrupt this half-wave symmetry. called K-factor and TDF . which can exhibit high impedance values.5 Precaution to Prevent Harmonics Care should be undertaken to make sure that the corrective action taken to minimize the harmonic problems don’t actually make the system worse. Loads can be relocated to try to balance the system better. This can be the result of resonance between harmonic filters.
its operation cannot be limited to a certain load or group of loads. resonance can occur due to the interaction between the passive filters and others loads. Electronic filters can be: • • • • • • passive or active analog or digital high-pass. A filter in which the signal passes through an inductor. or both. then the filter presents less attenuation to high-frequency signals than low-frequency signals and is a high-pass filter.such. low-pass. can eliminate lower harmonic values. notch). discrete-time (sampled) or continuous-time linear or non-linear infinite impulse response (IIR type) or finite impulse response (FIR type) 2. These types are collectively known as passive filters. or all-pass. but at the expense of creating higher harmonic values. 2.1 Passive Filter The passive filters have been used as a conventional solution to solve harmonic currents problems. inductors (L) and capacitors (C). If the signal passes through a capacitor.12 INTRODUCTION FOR FILTERS Electronic filters are electronic circuits which perform signal processing functions. band-reject (band reject. specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal. such as 24-pulse rectifiers.12. or has a path to ground through an inductor. Resistors on their own have no frequency-selective properties. presents less attenuation to low-frequency signals than high-frequency signals and is a low-pass filter. Passive implementations of linear filters are based on combinations of resistors (R). but they present some disadvantages: they only filter the frequencies they were previously tuned for. Inductors block high-frequency signals and conduct low-frequency signals. to enhance wanted ones. but are added to inductors 33 . with unexpected results. or in which a capacitor provides a path to ground. while capacitors do the reverse. because they do not depend upon an external power supply and/or they do not contain active components such as transistors. band pass. Use of higher pulse converters.
include only one reactive element.2. These inductive or capacitive pieces of metal are called stubs. and therefore the frequencies to which it responds. At high frequencies (above about 100 megahertz). In this context. one in series and one in parallel. and the capacitors consist of adjacent strips of metal. RC and RL filters. Fig.12 A low-pass electronic filter A low-pass electronic filter realized by an RC circuit The simplest passive filters. The number of elements determines the order of the filter.and capacitors to determine the time-constants of the circuit.13 Low-pass π filter 34 . The inductors and capacitors are the reactive elements of the filter. except hybrid LC filter which is characterized by inductance and capacitance integrated in one element. Fig.2. sometimes the inductors consist of single loops or strips of sheet metal. An L filter consists of two reactive elements. an LC tuned circuit being used in a band-pass or band-stop filter is considered a single element even though it consists of two components.
An active filter is a type of analog electronic filter. Likewise. distinguished by the use of one or more active components i.Fig. More elements are needed when it is desired to improve some parameter of the filter such as stop-band rejection or slope of transition from pass-band to stop-band. or band-stop characteristic is possible. That means that it can be inserted in a transmission line. the circuit can be connected to a transmission line. depending on the required frequency characteristics. 2. a lowpass. resulting in the high frequencies being passed and low frequencies being reflected.14 High-pass T filter Three-element filters can have a 'T' or 'π' topology and in either geometries. for the illustrated low-pass π filter. and also to balance the power supply currents (distributing the loads for the three-phases in equal form.T and π designs of filters. Using m-derived filter sections with correct termination impedances. or solid-state (transistor or operational amplifier). the input impedance can be reasonably constant in the pass band.e. and compensating zero sequence current). 35 . These can be seen as a continuation of the L. and a very high impedance at low frequencies. voltage amplifiers or buffer amplifiers. The highpass T filter in the illustration has a very low impedance at high frequencies. transmitting low frequencies and reflecting high frequencies. band-pass.12.2 Active Filter With this filter it is possible to effectively compensate the harmonic currents and the reactive power (correcting power factor to the unity). The components can be chosen symmetric or not. Typically this will be a vacuum tube.2. Multiple element filters are usually constructed as a ladder network. high-pass.
variations in which could otherwise significantly affect the shape of the frequency response Fig 2. • The amplifier powering the filter can be used to buffer the filter from the electronic components it drives or is fed from.Active filters have three main advantages over passive filters: • Inductors can be avoided. and the tuned frequency can often be set easily by varying resistors. It also deals with the harmonic present in the system.13 SUMMARY In this chapter. but with them are often large and expensive (at low frequencies). may have significant internal resistance. and may pick up surrounding electromagnetic signals. • The shape of the response. the functions of active filter and passive filter are explained.15 Active Filter 2. Passive filters without inductors cannot obtain a high Q (low damping). the Q (Quality factor). in some filters one parameter can be adjusted without affecting the others. 36 . Variable inductances for low frequency filters are not practical.
There are two basic types of filters.1 shows the configuration of Shunt passive Filter. Active filters have the advantage of being able to compensate for harmonics without fundamental frequency reactive power concerns. In addition. namely capacitors and inductors. Passive filter ratings must be co-ordinate with reactive power requirements of the loads and it is often difficult to design the filters to avoid leading power factor operation for some load conditions. The increasing use of power electronics-based loads (adjustable speed drives. They are active filter and passive filter. Shunt passive filter is the Combination of L and C elements.CHAPTER 3 MODELLING 3. which are connected in parallel with the line.) to improve system efficiency and controllability is increasing the concern for harmonic distortion levels in end use facilities and on the overall power system. 37 . switch mode power supplies. It uses the reactive storage components. The simplest method of harmonic filtering is with passive filters. It is a LC circuit. Fig-3. This means that the rating of the active power can be less than a comparable passive filter for the same non-linear load and the active filter will not introduce system resonances that can move a harmonic problem from one frequency to another. The application of passive tuned filters creates new system resonances which are dependent on specific system conditions.1 INTRODUCTION Filters are used to restrict the flow of harmonic currents in the Power Systems. etc. It will restrict the flow of harmonics through the line. passive filters often need to be significantly overrated to account for possible harmonic absorption from the power system. which passes all frequencies in its pass bands and stops all frequencies in its stop bands.
Reduction in the harmonic voltage distortion occurs because the harmonic currents flowing through the source impedance are reduced. Therefore.3. Therefore.Fig. the dc capacitors and the filter components must be rated based on the reactive power associated with the harmonics to be 38 . The active filter does not need to provide any real power to cancel harmonic currents from the load. the filter is connected in parallel with the load being compensated. the configuration is often referred to as an active parallel or shunt filter. The active filter uses power electronic switching to generate harmonic currents that cancel the harmonic currents from a non-linear load.1The configuration of Shunt passive filter The active filter concept uses power electronics to produce harmonic current components that cancel the harmonic current components from the non-linear loads. The active filter configuration investigated in this lecture is based on a Pulse-Width Modulated (PWM) voltage source inverter that interfaces to the system through a system interface filter as shown in Figure 3. In this configuration. The harmonic currents to be cancelled show up as reactive power. The voltage source inverter used in the active filter makes the harmonic control possible.1 . This inverter uses dc capacitors as the supply and can switch at a high frequency to generate a signal that will cancel the harmonics from the non-linear load. Figure 1 illustrates the concept of the harmonic current cancellation so that the current being supplied from the source is sinusoidal.
is fed by SVPWM control signal from the controller. This is important because relatively high values of di/dt may be needed to cancel higher order harmonic components.2 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION The power circuit topology of a combination series active filter with shunt passive filters on three phase system. both are parallel connected to the power line before the load. The desired current waveform is obtained by accurately controlling the switching of the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) in the inverter. Therefore. The designed LC passive filters is single-tuned at 5th and 7th harmonic frequency. A larger inductor is better for isolation from the power system and protection from transient disturbances. in 39 . 3.cancelled and on the actual current waveform (rms and peak current magnitude) that must be generated to achieve the cancellation. Harmonic mitigation by active filters is entirely depends on modulation method where SVPWM technique has distinct advantages and displays very good characteristics over this matters. feeding non-linear loads which is a three phase bridge diode rectifier with smoothing dc capacitor. Control of the current wave shape is limited by the switching frequency of the inverter and by the available driving voltage across the interfacing inductance. and also helps in lowering the power rating of active power filter. This VSI is three phase bridge configuration consist of six Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switch connected with anti-parallel diodes and snubber circuit. Installation of such passive filter in the vicinity of the non-linear load due to its responsibility as a harmonic sink path for the tuned harmonic frequency. switching losses are low. The driving voltage across the interfacing inductance determines the maximum di/dt that can be achieved by the filter. the larger inductor limits the ability of the active filter to cancel higher order harmonics. The current waveform for cancelling harmonics is achieved with the voltage source inverter in the current controlled mode and an interfacing filter. However. there is a trade-off involved in sizing the interface inductor. The filter provides smoothing and isolation for high frequency components. A three-phase Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is connected in series with the power line via three single phase series coupling transformer in order to inject the compensation voltage. SVPWM has the following advantages over other control schemes in terms of the use factor of the DC side voltage is high.
with implementation of Mat lab/Simulink. Vq. Hence. and also it is easy to digitally implement the modulation scheme. This type of transformer is not only isolate SVPWM-VSI from the power line. determination of stationary d-q reference frame vectors Vd. In order to implement SVPWM following steps needs to be determined. but also matching the voltage and current rating of SVPWM inverter with that of the power line. and lastly.applications such as motor drives it can be conveniently used as flux tracking control or current control. To determine the switching time of each switch applied in VSI. The turn ratio of the series coupling transformer connecting the active power filter to the power line is chosen to be 1:1 ratio. Fig 3. while load resistance is 50Ω. 40 . T2 and T0. Firstly. Smoothing dc capacitor capacitance value is 1000 (μF). Vref and is required for SVPWM generator block. For the simulation study using Matlab/Simulink. next step is to determine the time duration T1.3 indicates the basic switching and sectors applied in SVPWM technique. and reference voltage vector vref and angle. the simulation and performance of the system is executed well. only the configuration of Shunt passive Filter Vd. Vq. System parameters used in the simulation is depicted on Table 1. The harmonic-producing load is a three-phase diode rectifier with capacitive dc load having characteristics of voltage-type harmonics.
Fig 3.2 Series Hybrid Power Filter Circuit Configuration 42 .
Fig 3.3 Basic switching vectors and sectors 43 .
two methods are dominant and widely used in reference generation control. (3.…….Table 3. SRF control theory is utilized for the proposed system. Practically the series active filter is controlled in a manner where there is no impedance at fundamental frequency and insertion of gain K (Ω) between source and load at harmonic frequency. .1: System Parameters 3.1) 44 .1 Positive Sequence Component and Source Phase Angle Calculation Based on series active filter control used in. 3. derivation of balanced positivesequence components from unbalanced voltages but without predicted reference voltages. The balanced positive components is derived from unbalanced sets can be expressed in equation below. control of the system begins to be designed.3 CONTROL SCHEME For accurate estimation of the fundamental component. It has been confirmed that SRF controller achieves significant performance improvement for active filter implementation without any assumptions regarding supply power quality.3..
2 Compensation of Source Voltage Unbalance The equations (3. b=377 (rad/s) and c=π/2. …. 45 . as depicted in (3. (3.3. θ by employing d-q transformation. the balanced positive sequence components is used to derive source phase angle. The variables ea(+).5) Where. the superscript “e” means a quantity in SRF.(3.3) ……… (3.The j meaning phase shift angle of 90..3).4) employs that the d-q quantities which are transformed into SRF based on equation proposed by ……….(3. is obtained using all-pass filter which is given using the following equation. required fundamental component of balanced source voltage is obtained from.3) and (3..….. and ec(+). eb(+).4) 3.2) Here. …….. Thus.
6). is h is expressed as.3 Current Harmonics Compensation Scheme Two compensation schemes according to harmonic source type will be performed.(3. Initially. ……. zsh represents source side harmonic impedance. and load voltage harmonic.10) 46 . ………(3.3.(3. injected voltage. reference voltage for unbalance compensation is determined by. reference generation for voltage compensating for current harmonics due to the voltage-type harmonic source is derived.9) If esh. vc and vLh are harmonic of source voltage.8) 3. respectively.7) Using (3.. The source side harmonic current.6) Ku is a gain to recover the required fundamental magnitude of source voltage that is derived based on the following equation.. Whereby. ………(3.……. ………. vc expressed as.. Given the reference voltage for current harmonic compensation.(3.
(3.…..…. while vL is load voltage. 47 .13) Whereby. which is equal to ….. …….14) The respective mean value of source current transformed in SRF. ……. and vc has no fundamental component.11) Avoiding additional voltage sensor..(3. 1 is fundamental component of source current. Source impedance zs is assumed to be negligible because it is usually 2%-5% p. . Secondly. This value is derived from the following equation. the estimated load voltage is obtained from. es and is are source voltage and current respectively...(3.. Since zsh is so small that can be neglected. vLh is can be assumed using following equation.(3.The harmonic source current is suppressed to be zero provided that the source voltage is assumed to be sinusoidal. ………...12) Here.u. reference voltage compensating for the current-type harmonic source is calculated from the harmonic current comes from the source side.. are given by. Hence.
…......…..(3.15) Thus by combining eqns. (3.4) & (3.6), new reference voltage for the current harmonics compensation is formed, which is expressed by,
………..(3.16) Here ,Kvh is a controller gain which is far bigger than Zf, an equivalent impedance of the shunt passive filter . To achieve optimized and good performance in controlling the reference voltage and balance voltage magnitude, Kvh and Kh, both is set to 1.
3.3.4 Control of SVPWM-VSI
Therefore, from (8) and (16) the reference voltages are current harmonics compensation and unbalance compensation are add together to become,
…….......(3.17) The resultant reference voltage or control voltage signal then is transformed into dq axis, after being transformed into 2 phase quantities from three phase quantities using Clarke transformation to obtain vd,c and vq,c. These two values is then used to calculate for the magnitude and angle for reference voltage vector , vref,c. Hence,
………….(3.19) As a result, these values are used in generating the gating signal fired by SVPWM.
3.3.5 Passive LC Filter and SVPWM Harmonics Filtering
In order to tuned LC shunt passive filter, resonant frequency for specific harmonic frequency need to be calculated first, hence, using well-known fact that the passive filter presents good filtering characteristics around vicinity of the resonant frequency. Given Lf and Cf are respective filter inductance and capacitance , therefore the equation for resonant frequency ,fr is as follows,
………..(3.20) In order to determine the sharpness of tuning frequency or quality factor, Q, this can be formulated as equation below,
………..(3.21) Let X L, XC and R represent inductive reactance , capacitive reactance and resistance respectively. Usually , a value of Q is chosen to be of range between 20 and 100. On the other hand to tune harmonic order, n is calculated using the following equation,
.……. (3.22) Even though SVPWM-VSI generates harmonics, usually the magnitude is very low and PWM harmonics order is higher because it totally depends on switching frequency. Since fn is tuned frequency, whereas, f1 is the fundamental frequency. Seeing
from the primary of the series transformer, Zpwm is the amplitude of the sum of the source impedance, Zs and load impedance, ZL. If “a” is the transformer ratio, thus, corresponding equation as given above. At switching frequency, relationship between the ripple filter parameters has to be satisfied according to the condition below, hence,
……….(3.23) Where XCr and XLr are the capacitive and inductive reactance of the ripple filter respectively. The harmonics current caused by switching voltage ripple, Vr are completely shunted by Cr, the ripple filter capacitor.
Fig.3.4 (Upper trace) Before filtering
3.6 (Upper trace) THD spectrum before filtering A simulation study used the following unbalanced phase voltages of the source. …………(3.Fig.5 (Lower trace) after filtering Fig 3.24) 51 .
52 . the magnitudes are decreasing. source current harmonics is significantly decreased due to the harmonics has been mitigated. source current looks almost fundamental waveform in shape. Hence.Two different condition of bar plots for in total 25 orders of spectrum harmonics which is calculated using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. Obviously. 5th and 7th are high in magnitude. This is due to harmonics produced by diode rectifier with RC load flowing back to the source that in turn affected the source current. The plot also shows typical harmonic producing load characteristics that as the order of harmonic increased. the source current looks smooth and clean as shown at lower trace. while it is measured a total up to 68% content of total harmonic distortion (THD). Upper trace plot which is the uncompensated source current owns substantial distorted harmonics spectrum that can be observed. From the upper plot. the current effective value has been dropped to more than half. it can be seen that dominant harmonics such as 3rd.5% harmonics left in the current. Measured THD for filtered source current shows only 0. The 3rd harmonic is more dominant than expected 5th or 7th harmonic because of source voltage unbalance influence. 2/3 of it is 3rd harmonic alone.Fig 3. whereas the much higher order harmonics can be considered much lower in magnitude. after combination filter system is installed on the power circuit. but after filtered by hybrid power filter. where. However.7 (Lower trace) THD spectrum after filtering Upper trace shows severely distorted source current harmonics before filtering.
53 . There is significant reduction of harmonics content in the source current after filtering.Provided that for lower trace plot.4 SUMMARY The system configuration of shunt active filter and the control scheme for suppressing harmonics is verified in this chapter. 3. Clearly. the outcome has surpassed well below the standard level of 5% for IEEE519-1992. the 3 rd harmonic is mainly compensated through series active filter that provides high resistance for the harmonics but allowing only fundamental component flows into the source current. Although the passive filters only tuned the 5th and 7th harmonics. harmonic order other than fundamental is hardly to be seen.
4. 54 .5Ω. The non-linear load has the following parameters of capacitance 1µF. data visualization.2 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A SYSTEM WITHOUT SHUNT ACTIVE FILTER A simple power system with non linear load is considered and its output waveform is found out and given below. Using the MATLAB product. inductance 0.1 INTRODUCTION MATLAB is a high-level technical computing language and interactive environment for algorithm development. and numeric computation.CHAPTER-4 DESIGN OF FILTERS 4. such as C. and FORTRAN.5mH and resistance of 0. you can solve technical computing problems faster than with traditional programming languages. C++.From the simulation result the output waveform has total harmonic distortion of 5%. data analysis. The simple power system has the source input voltage of 230V and frequency of 50Hz.
55 .4 SUMMARY From the system performance and simulation results.Fig 4.3 SIMULATION RESULT 4. the output waveform with harmonics is found out without using filters.1 A system with nonlinear load 4.
6 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE SYSTEM WITH FILTERS Fig 4.5 INTRODUCTION FOR A SYSTEM WITH FILTERS Various filters are designed in various systems in order to reduce harmonics present in the system and the value of total harmonic distortions for that system.2 – Three . 4.Phase Thyristor Converter 56 .4.
7 SIMULATION RESULTS Fig 4.4.3 – Three – Phase Thyristor Converter’s current and voltage waveforms 57 .
4 – Three – Phase Harmonic Filter with total harmonic distortion value 58 .Fig 4.
Fig 4.5 – Three Phase Harmonic Filters with sampling time period 59 .
8 SUMMARY The output of the system with filters describes the system without harmonics or any other voltage unbalance or current unbalance in the output. 60 .4.
5. filters are added to the system and the harmonics are deleted and the THD value is calculated using 5.CHAPTER-5 CONCLUSIONS Finally. 2. Output waveform and the order of the harmonics of the system with tunable band pass filter are evaluated.1 SUMMARY OF THE THESIS Initially a simple system is considered with non linear load and the harmonics present in the system is analyzed without using filters and the output harmonics as well as the order of the harmonics present in the system are found out from the output results.2 SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK 1. it has been concluded that the simulation of the system presented in this thesis shows harmonic supression of source current to the level that comply the standard of IEEE519-1992 and IEC61000 by using filters. To implement harmonic blocking compensator in the power system to suppress harmonics. Finally. 61 .
D. An Luo. Applicat. ‘‘Development of Hybrid Active Power Filter Based on the Adaptive No. pp.H.S and Divan. pp 1-35. pp. 1995. Vol 54. Jan.F. January 2001. “A Passive Series Active Shunt Filter for High Power Application”. Wenji Zhu. 51. on Power Delivery./Dec. “A New Approach to Harmonic Compensation in Power System-A Combined System of Shunt Passive and Series Active Filters”. pp. 983-990. pp. pp.G. 4. Akagi. The Ohio State University. “Synchronous Reference Frame Based Controller Implementation for a Hybrid Series Active Filter System”. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences. on Ind. Dong-Choon Lee and Jul-Ki Seok. Ruixiang Fan. 2004. Vol. 3. Zhikang Shuai. Nov. No. Vol. IEEE Trans.H and Nabae. No. Feb. Electron. 2. Fuzzy Dividing Frequency-Control Method’’. IEEE Trans. Vol. Vol. 1.3. 5.. 16(1). Ali Keyhani. “Modern active filters and traditional passive filters”. Oct. 132139. 3. 2006. 26. “Control of Series Active Power Filters Compensating for Source Voltage Unbalance and Current Harmonics”. IEEE Trans. Ind. Myoung Lee. Adil M-Zamil and Torrey. Peng. 24. 1010-109. 7. D..REFERENCES 1. 62 . 2009.A. “Lecture notes: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Techniques” Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. 1990. 424-432. pp. 2531-2540. and Chunming Tu. 6. . Bhattacharya.A .255-269. Akagi.Z . IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. 1. Conference Records of Thirtieth IAS Annual Meeting.
S and Zahrul. IEEE PEDS 2005. Mining & Technol. 63 . 4. China Univ. Mekhilef. pp. 9. Zhou Juan. “Design and Implementation of Single Phase Hybrid Active Power Filter Controller”. 0590-0594. I . N.. No.A . Dec. Dai Peng. Kuala Lumpur.pp. J. Malaysia. 17. “Simulation Research on SVPWM Control Algorithm for a Four-Leg Active Power Filter”.8. Geng Yi-wen. Vol. 944-948. 2007. Wu Xiao-jie. Rahim.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.