CEBC61A7d01 | Code Division Multiple Access | Modulation

ICCAD 1997 Tutorial

Design Technology for Building Wireless Systems
Rajesh Gupta University of California, Irvine Mani Srivastava UCLA
T Y• O F•










Copyright 1997 © Rajesh Gupta & Mani Srivastava

Phenomenal Growth in Wireless Voice & Data Services
q q q q q q q

35-60% annual growth in PCS users By 2000, one in three phones will be mobile (42% in US) Nordic countries: 10 mobile phones being added for every wireline phone Japan: number of users doubled from 10M to 21M from March to october 1996 600M mobile phone users by 2001 $17B in PCS license auctions 300% growth in wireless data from 1995 to 1997

Big demand for portable computers:
q q

2m ($290M) in 1988 to 74M ($54B) in 1998 20% of all computers sold are laptops





“Anytime Anywhere Anyform” Information Systems

PCS & Multimedia Messaging on the road

Fax & email on the beach

mani <1>


Wireless Sensors

Multimedia wireless LANs & PBXs in offices, schools, hospitals, homes

Networked sensors everywhere

Size & Battery Life are Critical in Wireless Devices

Battery technology is a key hurdle - no Moore’s Law here!
Battery Rechargeable? NO NO NO NO YES YES Gravimetric Density (Wh/lb) 65.8 60 105 140 23 65-90 Volumetric Density (Wh/l) 347 500 550 1150 125 300-415

alkaline-MnO2 (typical AA) silver oxide Li/MnO2 zinc air NiCd Li-Polymer

Nominal Capacity (Watt-hours / lb)

40 30 20 10 0 65 70 75 80 Year 85 90 95 4 NiMH


Where does the Battery Power go?
Laptop Microprocessor Memory Logic Hard Disk Display Programmable DSP RF Transceiver Commn. Processing Sound/Audio I/O
q q

Cellular Phone

Laptop + Wireless Adapter 1-4 W 1W 2W 1W 2-6 W

Personal Wireless Terminal

1-4 W 1W 2W 1W 2-6 W 0.5 W 2/4W ?

0.3 W 0.185 W 0.6 / 1.8 W 2.5 W 0.085 W

0.6 / 1.8 W 2.5 W ?

Typical laptop: 30% display, 30% CPU + memory, 30% rest Wireless devices: increasing communication & multimedia processing

Low power VLSI are a key to wireless

Wireless Systems Design: Key Driving Forces


Increasing integration of communication & multimedia system components due to advances in semiconductor technology & circuits - RF CMOS circuits - MEMS structures RF components, display


Relentless digitization continues - high speed digital circuits & A/D converters IF and even RF processing in digital domain direct conversion techniques - complex communication algorithms favor digital implementation - increasing CPU MIPS make even a “software radio” possible

A wireless-system-on-a-chip is becoming possible


Building a Wireless System on a Chip
RF & IF Transceiver Baseband Processing
Custom ASIC Logic Algorithm Acceleration Coprocessors


Wireless Network Protocol Processor (Microcontroller)


Application Processor


Network/Host/Peripheral Interface

Challenge to VLSI & CAD
RF & IF Transceiver Baseband Processing
Custom ASIC Logic Algorithm Acceleration Coprocessors

Computer with Radios analog circuits that minimize special analog process steps maximize digital and minimize analog computation reusable communication & multimedia modules


Wireless Network Protocol Processor (Microcontroller)


energy efficient embedded software synthesis
Application Processor RAM/ROM DRAM

Network/Host/Peripheral Interface

low cost & low power protocol processor cores


digital communications: modulation.technological evolution in the design of wireless communication systems Wireless Systems Design .Tutorial Goals Present basics of wireless systems.example designs VLSI Circuits for Wireless Systems . coding. multiple access .detailed CAD algorithms for solving system design problems .theory of radio and communication systems design . and analysis tools Pre-designed Core Blocks and IP Issues for Wireless Future Outlook and Conclusions q q q q q 10 . and tools for building integrated wireless systems This tutorial will NOT describe: . validation.micro-architecture for wireless systems-on-a-chip .detailed architecture of any wireless communication systems 9 Tutorial Outline q Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems . entry. and VLSI design for digital communications using VLSI Design technology for Wireless Systems .system and medium characteristics .

35 & 5. IS-95) ISM PCS ISM U-NII Frequency in MHz 12 . IS-136.5.725 .825 GHz Cordless (CT-1) Cellular (AMPS.15 .5.Part 1: Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems Wireless Spectrum Frequency in Hz 104 MF 106 108 UHF 1010 1012 1014 IR 1016 UV Light 1018 1020 X-Ray 1022 1024 LF VHF HF Cosmic Rays Radio 46 49 824-849 869-894 902-928 1850-1990 2400-2483 5.

Wireless Data: Mobitex. CDPD. GPS Building Stationary Walking Outdoors Vehicular Environment q Multimega bits/sec throughput for robust. battery capacity.variable link quality (noise. PACS.easier snooping necessitates encryption more signal processing q Mobility .user and terminal location dynamically changes .Diversity of Applications in Wireless Communications Information Content (Mbps) Low Voice Interactive Data Data Rate Video teleconferencing 100. and storage . other users) . bandwidth. pACT. PHS.0 10. disconnections.easier spoofing necessitate authentication more protocol processing q Portability .0 0.heterogeneous air interfaces . IS95.01 Office Indoors Wireless ATM Wireless LAN: IEEE 802. reliable multimedia networking over wide range of environments.11 Cordless: DECT.1 0. 13 Characteristics of Wireless Systems q Wireless . WLL Mobile Wireless Multimedia Cellular: GSM. high latency .speed of terminal mobility impacts wireless bandwidth .0 1. computing.small dimensions higher energy efficiency 14 .

g.Time Varying Wireless Environment LOS R S D No LOS! D q Available wireless resource undergoes dramatic & rapid changes .multipath reflection. noise-like Rayleigh Fading when multipath signals are summed 15 q Simplified View of a Digital Radio Link Sources Source Coder Multiplex Source Coder antenna Multiple Access Channel Coder Modulator Power Amplifier carrier fc “Limited b/w” “Highly variable b/w” “Random & Noisy” “Spurious disconnections” transmitted symbol stream RADIO CHANNEL received (corrupted) symbol stream Destinations antenna Demultiplex Multiple Access Channel Decoder Demodulator & Equalizer RF Filter Source Decoder Source Decoder carrier fc 16 . doppler fading. frequency collisions Rapid signal fades & distortions as the receiver moves .e.

depends on propagation environment Environment Free Space Urban area cellular radio Shadowed urban cellular radio In-building LOS Obstructed in building Obstructed in factories n 2 2.k. + X σ  d 0 . then 100% reflection . angle q Diffraction . walls.Propagation of Radio Waves q Line of Sight (LOS) .if perfect (lossless) dielectric space P r = ( P t G t G r λ 2 ) ⁄ ( ( 4π ) 2 d 2 L ) q Reflection (with Transmittance and Absorption) .rough surfaces.surface of earth.3.explains how RF energy can travel even without LOS.8 4 to 6 2 to 3 q q q Problem: “Environment clutter” may differ at two locations at same d Measurements show that at a given d path loss has a normal distribution d PL ( d ) = PL ( d 0 ) + 10n log  ---. small objects (e.6 to 1. n. atmospheric layers .secondary waves “bend” around the obstacle (Huygen’s principle) . polarization.7 . frequency.similar principles as diffraction. buildings. street signs) 17 Log-normal Shadowing Path Loss Model q Assume average power (in dB) decreases proportional to log of distance d PL ( d ) = PL ( d 0 ) + 10n log  ---. wave impinges on an object >> λ (30 cm @ 1 GHz) .when medium has large number of objects < λ (30 cm @ 1 GHz) . foliage.if perfect conductor.reflection a function of material. then zero absorption .v.a “shadowing” q Scattering (diffusion) . lamp path obstructed by an impenetrable surface with edges .X σ is a zero-mean Gaussian r.5 3 to 5 1.σ says how “good” the model is 18 .  d 0 Path-loss exponent.g. (in dB) with standard deviation σ (in dB) . energy reradiated in many directions .

we must have Pr > (-119+25) = -94 dBm Pt = 0. random frequency modulation due to varying Doppler shifts In urban areas. d < 5.Pr < 122 dB λ = c/f = 1/3 m Assuming d0 = 1 km. and noise figure F = 10 dB What will be the maximum distance? Solution: N = -174 dBm + 10 log 30000 + 10 dB = -119 dBm For SNR > 25 dB.replicas of signals with different delays (reflection.6W = 27.5 dB For free space.5 km Similarly. 122 > 91. d < 33.unity gain antenna.cellular phone with 0. rapid changes in signal strength (up to 30-40 dB) over small ∆x<λ or ∆t 3. 900 MHz carrier frequency . PL(d0) = 91.78 dBm This allows path loss PL(d) = Pt .SNR must be at least 25 dB for proper reception . transmitted power (with fixed BW) Given: .8 km 19 Small-Scale Fading q Fading manifests itself in three ways 1.usually no LOS from basestation Mobile receiver may stop in a deep fade (null) Moving surrounding objects also cause time-varying fading q q q Fading affects available channel data rate 20 .receiver BW is B = 30 KHz. diffraction etc. so that: 122 > 91.Example Link Budget Calculation q Maximum separation distance vs.) 2. n = 2. mobile antenna heights << height of buildings . for shadowed urban with n = 4.5 + 10*2*log(d/(1 km)) or. time dispersion caused by different delays limits transmission rate .6W transmit power .5 + 10*2*log(d/(1 km)) or.

a 50 kmph car in 900 MHz band: 1 ms long >20dB fade every 100 ms .g.1 maximum data rate without significant errors = ----------------------------delay spread .69 µs. a function of frequency. . e. GSM has a bit period of 3. multiple frequencies 21 Data Rate Limitation in Frequency Selective Fading q “Frequency selective fading” results in inter-symbol interference 0. or reduced channel capacity Good BER = 10-5 In Fade BER = 10-1 q Function of speed of mobile as well as other objects.g.Error Bursts due to Raleigh Flat Fading q Received signal a sum of contributions from different directions . GSM can tolerate up to 15 µs of delay spread . or a rate of 270 kbps q Data rate can be improved by “equalization” . and re-training during data transmission q GSM example . GSM would be limited to 7 kbps 22 . tracking..otherwise. with 15 µs of delay spread.must be adaptive since channel is unknown & time varying training.a 2 kmph pedestrian in 900 Mhz band: 25 ms long >20dB fade every 2.with its equalizer.5s q q Also. and fade depth Diversity techniques help .random phases make the sum behave as noise (Rayleigh Fading) .“fades”: intervals of increased BER.multiple antennas.equalizer is a signal processing function (filter) cancels the inter-symbol interference usually implemented at baseband or IF in a receiver .e.

combining diversity .“coding gain” provides “fading margin” . but costly and greatly reduces battery life q (Adaptive) Equalization .selection diversity vs.transmit redundant data bits .counters flat fading. separated by λ/2 . scanning diversity vs. selective-repeat etc. 23 A Digital Radio Link Source Coder Multiplex Source Coder antenna Multiple Access Channel Coder Modulator Power Amplifier carrier fc “Limited b/w” “Highly variable b/w” “Random & Noisy” “Spurious disconnections” transmitted symbol stream RADIO CHANNEL received (corrupted) symbol stream Destinations antenna Demultiplex Multiple Access Channel Decoder Demodulator & Equalizer RF Filter Source Decoder Source Decoder carrier fc 24 . go-back-N.compensates for intersymbol interference q Antenna or space diversity for “multipath” .retransmission protocol for blocks of data (e.stop-and-wait.usually.Combating the Wireless Channel Problems q Increase transmitter power .not very effective in slowly varying channels or long fades q Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) protocols .g.“adaptive antenna arrays” or “smart antennas” q Forward error correction . two (or more) receiving antennas. packets) in error .

) . anywhere . RAM) q Third Generation: Digital . video.micro-architecture for wireless systems-on-a-chip .voice. validation. MANs (Metricom).analog modulation . and analysis tools Pre-designed Core Blocks and IP Issues for Wireless Future Outlook and Conclusions q q q q q 26 .cellular & PCS phones with seamless communications: modulation.technological evolution in the design of wireless communication systems Wireless Systems Design . ARDIS. WANs (CDPD. integrated paging (IS-54.cellular phone (AMPS) with manual roaming . multi-zone modulation . data. sensor etc. wireless PBXs .example designs VLSI Circuits for Wireless Systems . GSM etc.wireless data LANs (802.11). 25 Tutorial Outline q Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems .Voice & Data .direct-conversion for digital communications using VLSI Design technology for Wireless Systems . IS-136. music. coding.system and medium characteristics .Evolution of Mobile & RF Wireless Systems q First Generation: Analog .design entry.cordless phones .Voice .packet radio networks q Second Generation: Digital . cordless.unified digital wireless access anytime.Multimedia . images. multiple access .

Part 2-A: Wireless Systems Design: Basics Simplified View of a Digital Radio Link Sources Source Coder Multiplex Source Coder antenna Multiple Access Channel Coder Modulator Power Amplifier carrier fc “Limited b/w” “Highly variable b/w” “Random & Noisy” “Spurious disconnections” transmitted symbol stream RADIO CHANNEL received (corrupted) symbol stream Destinations antenna Demultiplex Multiple Access Channel Decoder Demodulator & Equalizer RF Filter Source Decoder Source Decoder carrier fc 28 .

. M-ary modulation SM t=0 t=TS n = floor(log2 M) 29 Commonly Used Digital Modulation Techniques Coherent Phase-shift keying (PSK) Frequency-shift keying (FSK) Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) Continuous phase modulation (CPM) Hybrids Non-Coherent FSK ASK Differential PSK (DPSK) CPM Hybrids q q Coherent or Synchronous Detection: process received signal with a local carrier of the same frequency and phase Noncoherent or Envelope Detection: requires no reference wave 30 .. fading.Digital Modulation & Demodulation ..(0110) (0111) (0000). MOD CHANNEL noise..g. DEMOD S1 S2 Set S = {S1.(0110) (0111) (0000).... n-bit digital symbol ... S2. maximum likelihood decision TS-long analog symbol corrupted best effort output . SM} of M waveforms of length TS e..A “User’s View” q q Modulation: maps sequence of “digital symbols” (groups of n bits) to sequence of “analog symbols” (signal waveforms of length TS) Demodulation: maps sequence of “corrupted analog symbols” to sequence “digital symbols” .e.g.. etc. obtained by distinctively modifying the phase and/or frequency and/or amplitude of a carrier M=2 is “binary modulation” Otherwise.

impacts battery life! q Bandwidth Efficiency η B .g.g. Energy Efficiency) η P .ratio of signal energy per bit to noise power spectral density required required at the receiver for a certain BER (e. .Selecting a Modulation Schemes q q q q q q q q Provides low bit error rates (BER) at low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) Occupies minimal bandwidth Performs well in multipath fading Performs well in time varying channels (symbol timing jitter) Low carrier-to-cochannel interference ratio Low out of band radiation Low cost and easy to implement Constant or near-constant “envelope” .measures ability to accommodate data within a given bandwidth q Often a trade-off between power and bandwidth efficiencies.a matter of trade-offs! 31 Metrics to Evaluate Modulation Schemes q Power Efficiency (or.constant: only phase is modulated may use efficient non-linear amplifiers .measures ability to give low BER at low signal power levels .modulation schemes with higher values of M decrease B but increase E b for a given BER 32 . e. 10-5) ηP = Eb ⁄ N 0 .adding redundancy (FEC) reduces bandwidth efficiency.non-constant: phase and amplitude modulated may need inefficient linear amplifiers No perfect modulation scheme . but reduces the received power required for a given BER .ratio of throughput data rate to bandwidth occupied by modulated signal η B = R ⁄ B bps/Hz .

s M(t) } represents points in a vector space Vector space defined by a set of N ≤ M orthonormal (i.7 42 Bit-Rate Gain Factora 1 2 3 4 5 6 Energy Penalty Factora 1 1 1. 33 A Geometric View of Modulation q q Signal set S = { s 1(t). 2. s 2(t).1 7 M 2 4 8 16 32 64 q q a.3.001% BER and a fixed transmission bandwidth: Power Penalty Factora 1 2 4.25 with BT = 0.N is the dimension of the vector space q q Every s i(t) can be expressed as a linear combination of basis signals Example: BPSK signals s 1(t) = s 2(t) = 2E b ⁄ T b cos ( 2π f c t ) 0 ≤ t ≤ T b and 2E b ⁄ T b cos ( 2π f c t + π ) can be represented as: φ 1(t) = 2 ⁄ T b cos ( 2π f c t ) E b φ 1(t) s 1(t) = s 2(t) = – E b φ 1(t) 34 . …. ….Choice of a Modulation Scheme q At 0. N } . Relative to BPSK (M=2) BPSK and QPSK has the same energy efficiency but QPSK has two times more bandwidth efficiency (bit rate gain factor) than BPSK. The drawback of using QPSK is in the poor achievable energy efficiency in practice => use GMSK to achieve a bandwidth efficiency of 1.56 2. orthogonal and with unit energy) basis signals { φ j(t) j = 1.e.7 10 20.5 4.

s M–1 q M-ary PSK Q I d M=4 π d = 2 E s sin ---M 36 .a densely packed modulation scheme is more bandwidth efficient .however.. e.g.. q M-ary QAM Q d I M=16 6 -E d 2 = ------------. for BPSK: Q I – Eb Eb q Bandwidth occupied by the modulation scheme decreases as the number of signal points / dimension increases . bandwidth increases with dimension N q Probability of bit error is a function of the distance between the closest points in the constellation diagram .The Constellation Space q Geometric representation of S is called the Constellation Diagram.a densely packed modulation scheme is less power efficient 35 Some Examples.

: Wireless Information Networks by Pahlavan & Levesque.Comparison of Several Modulation Methods q Ref. 1995 37 Simplified View of a Digital Radio Link Sources Source Coder Multiplex Source Coder antenna Multiple Access Channel Coder Modulator Power Amplifier carrier fc “Limited b/w” “Highly variable b/w” “Random & Noisy” “Spurious disconnections” transmitted symbol stream RADIO CHANNEL received (corrupted) symbol stream Destinations antenna Demultiplex Multiple Access Channel Decoder Demodulator & Equalizer RF Filter Source Decoder Source Decoder carrier fc 38 .

Multiple Access q Fundamental problem How to share the Time-Frequency space among multiple co-located transmitters? Frequency Shared Time-Frequency Subspace Allocated Spectrum Time 39 Basestation versus Peer-to-Peer Models Basestation (infrastructure .fully-connected vs. multihop) 40 .centralized) Peer-to-Peer (ad hoc network .

costly bandpass filters at basestation to eliminate spurious radiation .continuous transmission implies no framing or synchronization bits needed .tight RF filtering to minimize adjacent band interference . DQRUMA “Packet Oriented” Controlled Random Access 41 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) q Assign different frequency bands to individual users or circuits .no sharing of the frequency bands: idle if not used . PRMA Carrier-sensing e.Approaches to Wireless Multiple Access Sharing of Time-Frequency Space Slotted-time vs. little or no equalization required .frequency band (“channel”) assigned on demand to users who request service . Non-slotted time Static (Fixed) Assignment e.g.usually available spectrum divided into number of “narrowband” channels symbol time >> average delay spread. Time-division & Frequency-division Demand-based Assignment Contention-based Conflict-free Random Access e.g. Token-passing & Polling “Connection Oriented” Scheduled Access e.g.usually combined with FDD for duplexing f2 Frequency f 2’ f1’ f1 f2’ f1’ f2 f1 Time 42 . ALOHA.g.

8 kbps 200 kHz 0.417 ms 12 TDD 67% system control overhead GMSK none PHS 384 kbps 300 kHz 0.. on two frequencies Sync Data Guard slot 2 slot 6 slot 1 slot 5 Frequency frame i-1 1 2 56 frame i frame i+1 Time 43 Some TDMA Systems GSM Bit rate Carrier spacing (b/w) Time slot duration Slots/frame FDD or TDD? % payload in time slot 270. i.7 ms 3 (or 6) FDD 80% adaptive equalizer training overhead π/4 DQPSK required DECT 1. 5 bits of ISI .e. half downlink TDMA/FDD: identical frames.adaptive equalization is usually needed due to high symbol rate .larger overhead . i. lower battery consumption .usually combined with either TDD or FDD for duplexing TDMA/TDD: half the slots in a frame used for uplink..728 MHz 0.625 ms 4 TDD 71% Modulation Adaptive equalizer q π/4 DQPSK none GSM handles time dispersion widths up to 18-20 µs.. guard bits guard bits for variations in propagation delay and in delay spread .152 Mbps) 44 .577 ms 8 (or 16) FDD 73% adaptive equalizer training overhead GMSK required IS-54 48.less complex equalizer needed than GSM| q q Need equalization indoors at rates > 2 Mbps (DECT is only 1. with skew (why?).. 2 symbols might interfere .6 kbps 30 kHz 6.synchronization bits for each data burst.Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) q Multiple users share frequency band via cyclically repeating “time slots” .152 Mbps 1.e.“channel” == particular time slot reoccurring every frame of N slots .transmission bandwidth >> channel coherence bandwidth IS-54 handles time dispersion up to 40 µs.transmission for any user is non-continuous: buffer-and-burst digital data & modulation needed.

channel == (frequency band.may do “frequency hopping” on a frame-by-frame basis to combat multipath interference (Time Division Frequency Hopping: TDFH) increases system capacity (f5. t3) f6 f5 f4 f3 f2 f1 frame i-1 frame i frame i+1 45 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) q Multiplexing in the Code Space . t1) Frequency (f3. time slot) tuple . t4) (f2.multiple carriers with multiple channels per carrier .multiple transmitters occupy the same frequency-time space . t1) t1 t2 t3 t4 (f1.require tight timing tolerances q Most TDMA systems actually employ hybrid FDMA/TDMA .Hybrid FDMA/TDMA q “Pure” TDMA with single frequency band is undesirable .receiver retrieves a specific transmission with its corresponding code q CDMA may be combined with TDMA or FDMA Frequency c1 c5 c3 c2 Code 46 .transmissions encoded with codes with very low cross-correlation .

g.originally developed for military communication systems .uniform small energy (W/Hz) over a large bandwidth hides the signal ⇒ Note: use of spread-spectrum does not imply use of CDMA Spreading is done using a unique code Receiver does the “despreading” by using a time-synchronized duplicate of the spreading code Inefficient for a single user.delayed versions appear as uncorrelated noise . narrowband interferers) Resistant to multipath effects .indicates improvement in signal-to-interference ratio due to spreading 47 What is Spread Spectrum Communication? spectral density Ai interference spread signal Aspread fspread frequency TRANSMIT Spreading Code running at f spread . but multiple users can share band Inherent interference rejection capabilities (e.can even exploit multipath signals by combining them q q q q q q Processing Gain: Gp = Bspread / Bsignal .Spread Spectrum Signalling q Spread Spectrum is the most common CDMA encoding technique .signal appears pseudo-random with noise like properties . spectral density RECEIVE spectral density Adata unspread signal fdata frequency Adata Ai.“spread” the signal over a much larger bandwidth than the minimum .received despread signal spread interference fdata frequency Wide Band Anti-jam -> high capacity CDMA Combats multipath -> diversity LPI -> Privacy LPD -> low power density f spread PG = -------------------f bit 48 .

bandwidth of a frequency band in the hopset is the instantaneous b/w B .available spectrum divided into bands with central frequencies as carriers .sequence of data bursts with time-varying pseudo-random carrier frequencies .CDMA Using Direct Sequence (DS) Spread Spectrum q Spread the narrowband data by multiplying with a wideband pseudorandom code sequence .g. or “chipped”. 1.g.code sequences have little cross-correlation (orthogonal) .bits sampled. at a higher frequency (e.time duration between hops is the hop duration or hopping period Th .bandwidth of spectrum over which hopping occurs is total hopping b/w Wss . 1.can be low pass filtered Other receivers 49 CDMA Using Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum q Transmission frequency is periodically changed .signal energy is “spread” over a wider frequency (e.25MHz in IS-95) .228 Mcps in IS-95) .code sequences have little correlation with shifted versions of self q q Received signal multiplied by synchronized replica of the code sequence Energy of each “chip” is accumulated over a full data bit time transmitted signal 01101011 X 01101011 = Recovered signal PN Sequence (code) Intended receiver X X Chip digital data 10110010 = Noise .processing gain is Wss/B q q Fast frequency hopping: more than one hop during each transmitted symbol Slow frequency hop: one or more symbols transmitted in a hop channel #2 channel #1 f6 f5 f4 f3 f2 f1 Frequency 50 .

scheduled access...what matters is the collision at a receiver .can’t listen while transmitting therefore cannot detect collisions .. Following attributes make contention-based multiple access interesting with wireless: .“carrier sensing” is much costlier in wireless 20-30 µs .Contention-based Multiple Access q q q Many transmitters access a channel with no or minimal coordination Transmission in bursts of data Collisions may happen: need ACK or NACK with retransmission .effects of spatial distribution of wireless nodes hidden terminal problem exposed terminal problem near-far problem (capture effect) 52 ..delays induced . hybrid access Transmitter # 1 Packet B Packet C Transmitter # 2 Packet A One Packet Time (τ) Vulnerable Period (2τ) Time 51 Contention-based Multiple Access in Wireless Systems? q q Ethernet uses contention-based medium access. but the transmitter can’t sense the channel at the receiver! .lower spectral efficiency q Three categories: random access.

multiple networks in same area and channel space . IR @ 1 and 2 Mbps Efficient medium sharing without overlap restrictions .if no ACK.11 MAC (contd.IEEE 802.Distributed Coordination Function: using CSMA /CA .also used in the defer decision 54 .CSMA/CA+ACK for unicast frames with MAC level retransmission Protection against Hidden Terminal problem: Virtual Carrier Sense .g. else defer & back-off DIFS DIFS PIFS DATA SIFS defer access contention window source other q DATA select slot & decrement back-off as long as idle CSMA/CA + ACK: receiver sends ACK immediately if CRC okay . co-channel interference) .) q CSMA/CA: direct access if medium free for > DIFS.based on carrier sense mechanism called Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) Robust against interferers (e.11 MAC q q Support for multiple PHYs: ISM band DSSS and FHSS. retransmit frame after a random back-off DIFS source receiver other DATA SIFS ACK DIFS defer access contention window DATA select slot & decrement back-off as long as idle q RTS/CTS with duration: distribute medium reservation information .via parameterized use of RTS/CTS frames with duration information Provision for Time Bounded Services via Point Coordination Function Configurations: ad hoc & distribution system connecting access points Mobile-controlled hand-offs with registration at new basestation ad hoc network distribution system q q q q q infrastructure network 53 IEEE 802.

spot beam antennas (sectorized antennas) . & code) .required relatively minor technological changes frequency reuse & co-channel interference channel allocation hand-offs 55 Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) q Control radiated energy for each user in space . TDMA) or different frequencies (FDMA) .in future.Cellular Systems MSC Pre-Cellular Post-Cellular PSTN q Replace single high power transmitter covering the entire service area with lots of low power transmitters (basestations) each covering a fraction of the service area (cell) .different areas served by different antenna beams may use same frequency (CDMA.mobiles in sufficiently distant basestations may be assigned identical channel (frequency. time slot.system capacity may be increased without adding more spectrum q Major conceptual breakthrough in spectral congestion & user capacity . adaptive antennas 56 .

ISM .JTACS Digital .POSCAG .CT-2 .AMR .RACE 58 Analog .Comvik .MIRS .11 .ISM Analog .NMT900 .HIPerLAN .Part 2-B: Wireless Systems Design: Standards.TETRA PCN/PCS .FPLMTS .NMT-0 .Mobitex Conv .IVHS .PHP .IS-136 .CT-300 Digital .PHP .ETACS .DCS1800 .PHP .IS-54 .802.DECT .RCR-27 .GSM .ARDIS .ISM WLAN PMR/SMR Mobile Data .Control Cordless Cellular Paging WPABX .Omnitracs .AMPS .LEO .CT-1 .ERMES .DECT . and Examples The Un-wired World Wireless Communications Amateur Industrial Consumer Business Military/Aero Long-Haul Automotive .IS-95 .CT-2 .DECT .Cellular/CDPD ESMR .SSB .NMT450 .GPS Monitoring .CT-0 .Metricom .USCT . Design Issues.USCT .UMTS .

pair needed for a duplex channel FDD+FDMA: 834 duplex channels 7-way frequency reuse (18 dB min.40-50 connections per cell No on-air privacy. 869-894 MHz downstream Divided into 30 MHz frequency bands .MSC becomes a bottleneck Capacity constraints . and Services Macro-cellular Cellular Micro-cellular Messaging Phone point Cordless PABX Cordless Wide Area Data Micro-cells Macro-cells WLANs PAST WLANs PRESENT ? ? ? WLANs FUTURE 59 Satellites? Paging ? High-tier PCS Low-tier PCS Grand Unification? AMPS System (First Generation Analog) q q q q q q q q Two 25 MHz bands: 824-849 MHz upstream. signal-to-co-channel interference) Two types of channels: control and voice channels Network controlled handoff . fraud a major problem Proprietary SS7 AMPS Common Air interface BS OMC mobility management MSC (MTSO) BS MS BS BS BS BS MSC (MTSO) PSTN HLR VLR databases AUC 60 .Evolution of PCS Technologies. Systems.

data or bearer.same 30 KHz channels Data packets are sent over unused voice channels Channel hopping ensures non-interference with voice Raw data rate is 19. and multipoint services Reliable and unreliable classes .615 ms frame. Data Sense Multiple Access (DSMA) MAC on uplink Variety of connection-less.2 kbps Reed-Solomon coded . 22.8 kbps/user Frequency hopping to combat multipath problems Two types of logical channels: traffic channels and control channels Mobile assisted handoff .125 in each direction FDD+TDMA+FH: 8 slots/4. registration at basestation to reduce paging “Home MD-IS” tunnels incoming traffic to current MD-IS MD-BS MD-BS MD-IS mobility management IS connection-less router IS Data n/w (internet) MD-IS M-ES M-ES MD-BS F-ES 62 MD-BS . IP (Internet Protocol) datagram connectivity Mobile controlled handoff.BSC reduce the load on MSC Features: subscriber identity module and on-air privacy Services: telephone.833333 kbps raw. 270. 935-960 MHz downstream Divided into 200 KHz frequency bands .handling over radio link In particular. short messaging BTS OMC GSM Radio Air interface BSC BTS MS BTS BTS BTS BTS MSC (MTSO) MSC (MTSO) BSC HLR VLR databases PSTN AUC SS7 Abis Interface A Interface 61 Cellular Data Packet Network (CDPD) q q q q q q q q q q Packet data network overlay on AMPS . connection-oriented.GSM System (Second Generation Digital) q q q q q q q q Two 25 MHz bands: 890-915 MHz upstream.real rate much less Broadcast downlink.

N modem ethernet transceiver • • • • • • antenna RF + A/D digital transmitter/receiver channel codec source codec network protocols ETHERNET 63 Generic Mobile & Wireless System Architecture Application & Services OS & Middleware Network Data Link Radio. N PHONE http://www. Power Management QoS Management Rerouting Impact on TCP Location Tracking Multiple Access Link Error Control Channel Allocation Modulation Schemes Channel Coding RF/Optical Circuits 64 . IR Partitioning Source Coding & DSP Context Adaptation Disconnection Mgmnt.Designing Mobile Wireless Multimedia Systems PSTN BASE STATION WIRED NODE WIRELESS NODE http://www.

Radio Design Challenges q q q q High speed digital processing High performance in Eb/N0 Low complexity Energy efficient (mW/MSps or nJ/OP) Algorithm Fixed Point RF Front-end Architecture Digital Modem IC Architecture Partition 65 Partition between Analog and Digital Processing Analog RF Signal Processing Analog IF Transceiver Baseband Analog-to-Digital Converter Digital Baseband Signal Processing Analog RF Signal Processing IF Analog-to-Digital Converter Digital IF Transceiver Digital Baseband Signal Processing q Advantages allows for adaptability with little component replacements achieves Eb/N0 performance close to optimum (coherent BPSK) parameterizable to provide ease of redesign and upgrade q Challenges digital circuits operate at IF signal rate rather than baseband rate digital implementation can be more complex to minimize loss in Eb/N0 66 .

Chien & R. UCLA To SIR Est.A Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Radio Modem CODE PROCESS SELECT GAIN Carrier Detect TX Data POWER CONTROL PN Acquisition LOOP Spread Data TX LPF VGA AMP PN GENERATOR BPF FREQ CNTRL FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER LPF LNA CLOCK RECOVERY LOOP CARRIER RECOVERY LOOP Decision A/D 6 AGC Ack. high speed. and energy efficient transceiver in a single-chip 67 Transceiver Chip Design Issues q Challenge: Implement a complete coherent receiver on a single chip q Circuit Design Issues finite wordlength parameterizability critical path optimization complexity reduction q System Design Issues maintain stability in three feedback loops.: C. Recv. 68 . Jain. adaptable. Data q Low complexity.

N 2 ) ). Chien & R.8 MHz sample rate requirement 200 100 100 50 0 5 10 15 IF Input Quantization Size (Bits) 0 4 8 12 16 IF Input Quantization Size (Bits) 0 j Minimize IF quantization size reduce complexity and power dissipation at required throughput.Costas Loop Filter Optimization INPUT Ec/N0= -17 dB 20 30 Eb/N0 (dB) 0 −20 −40 −60 −80 40 30 10 25 10 dB 20 N2 9 dB 15 0 dB -10 dB N2 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 N1 5 10 15 20 25 30 N1 Coefficient as powers of two shifts: C1 = 2 C2 = 2 –N 1 –N 2 C2 C1 D Optimization Criteria: min ( max ( N 1. UCLA 70 Multiplier Sample Rate (MHz) 40 150 . Chien & R.: C.5 Ack. Jain.: C. E b ⁄ N 0 ≥ 10 ± 0. Jain. E b ⁄ N 0 ≥ 10 ± 0.5 N Ack. UCLA 69 IF Wordlength Optimization 300 Complexity Increase (%) 10 dB Output Eb/N0 (dB) 30 0 dB 20 -11 dB 10 0 -17 dB Complexity increase in receiver Sample rate through the multiplier 50. N DDFS N min ( N ).

800 kbps at 12.4 MHz Ack.7 Mchips/sec Scalable Performance -.7 MHz 406.7 mJ/MSample Maximum Chip Rate -. 21 dB.Data Rates and Processing Gain: 100.12.2 Micron CMOS DSSS Radio Modem DIGITAL BASEBAND TRANSMITTER DATA INPUT DIFFERENTIAL ENCODER SPREAD DATA GOLD CODE GENERATOR (PNGEN) DIGITAL IF RECEIVER 50. 18.8 MHz 12.7 MHz DDFS IF SIGNAL LOOP FILTER PHASE DETECTOR PN-ACQUISITION LOOP LATE PN EARLY PN PN TRACK CONTROL IF SAMPLING CLK INTEGRATE DUMP Q1 INTEGRATE DUMP Q2 COSTAS LOOP Performance CHIP DELAY INTEGRATE DUMP Q1 + LOOP FILTER INTEGRATE DUMP I1 j NCO Low Complexity -. 400.7 MHz INTEGRATE DUMP I2 (100-800) kHz DIFFERENTIAL DECODER DATA OUT 100 kHz -12. 200. Jain.8 MHz INTEGRATE DUMP I1 12.: C. respectively 72 j j j CLOCK RECOVERY 50.51 K Transistors High Power Efficiency -.PN-Acquisition: Complexity/Performance Trade-off q PN acquisition: correlation between the incoming bits and the P/N sequence of the desired transmitter Serial Acquisition Received PN PN-Code Generator Energy Slope Detection Clock Generation Timing j 800 Gates Match Filter Acquisition Timing Received PN N-Tap Matched Filter Energy Detection Clock Generation Generator PN-Code j Nc * Nif * 12 Gates + 800 Nc = #chips/bit Nif = IF Quantization j 10 000 Gates with Nc = 127 and Nif = 6 71 A Single-Chip 1. Chien & R. UCLA .21. 15.

Packet Interface.Integration of Radio into a System Custom Frame Grabber Camera Video Codec FPGA CPU DT Frame Grabber Proxim RangeLAN2 Single-chip DSSS Modem IC Keyboard Memory and Mass Storage Adaptive Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Radio RF Front-end DSSS IF modem. Jain.: C. Analog-Digital Conversion Ack. UCLA 73 Example 1: UCLA’s Wireless Multimedia Node Video Capture 16-bit YUV Video Buffer Compressed Data Interface Control Frame Buffer VGA 12-bit RGB Host Interface PC-104 Bus Controller Video Codec Network Interface Chip Serial Data Interface Packet Buffer Host Interface Modem Wireless Channel Host CPU 74 . Chien & R. Adaptation Interface.

8 W (transmit) 20 MIPS.6 W (receive) 1.Example 2: Bell Labs’ SWAN Wireless ATM System Connection Switching ETHER WA RE SYSTEM S/ W Mobility Management Drivers for Adapter Cards BASESTATION CPU Mobile Notebook Peripheral Interface Interface Interface Peripheral Peripheral Host Interface Bus Interface Bus Interface CPU CPU FAWN Flexible Adapter For Wireless Networking Host Interface Peripheral Interface mani <1> MAC PHY BACKBONE ATM ADAPTER CARD CPU CPU Lucent XCVR Interface XCVRInterface Interface XCVR FHSS RF XCVR XCVR Interface FHSS RF XCVR FHSS RF XCVR FHSS RF XCVR Personal Multimedia Terminal To Antenna Personal Communicator BASESTATION ATM SWITCH MOBILE END-POINTS 75 FAWN Reconfigurable Wireless Adapter to host processor ARM CPU Peripheral Interface RF Modem ADC Modem Controller UART Control PAL PCMCIA PCMCIA Interface Dual Port RAM Dimensions Power Consumption of FAWN Power Consumption of radio transceiver Firmware resources Reconfigurable hardware resources 10.8 cm (W) x 1.4 cm (D) 2.9 cm (H) x 11.0 W 0. 4 MByte 10000 Gates equivalent SRAM 76 .

audio.eecs. pad. video. and type servers Medley Gateway: transport & coding of video.berkeley. and text/graphics streams to the terminal Infonet: network infrastructure for Infopads .no local general purpose processing (“dumb terminal” model) . graphics.speech and pen controlled user interface . audio.Example 3: Personal Mobile Terminal microphone LCD display Soft keys Personal Terminal 6808 SCANNER ↓ PRESS TO SCAN ↓ Scanner switch Bar code scanner q Simple hardware .based on cell. bar code q Dumb end-point for “network-hosted mobile services” 77 Example 4: Berkeley’s Infopad Project q Infopad: low power wireless multimedia terminal .edu/ q q q 78 . & graphics to Infopad http://infopad. soft card + FAWN adapter q Multimedia interface .

. proxy agents (per tab). CSMA MAC . 128K memory Basestation transceiver (on ceiling of a room nanocell) .2x4.IR communication at 19.” in IEEE Personal Communications.38. 3 buttons q q q Tab Basestation 80 . link level protocol checks .9W .2K.ubiq.7.2 kbaud with CSMA MAC.15W 1 Mbps ARM Custom H/W B&W LCD Low Power Infopad Bus Color LCD VIDEO IF LCD IF ucb <1> PEN IF AUDIO IF Pen Digitizer Codec Voltage Converters Crystals Test H/W Total Color Infopad q References: 1.2475 137 . 38. 6.5x2.4 cm3. 215 gm.eecs.8x10. and gateways (datagram service to tab) http://www.4K. PWM modulation .3800 3900 150 50 2411 75 629 9. al.297 550 .performs coding/decoding. buffering.berkeley. http://infopad. April ‘96 79 Example 5: Xerox PARCTAB q Extremely portable mobile unit .IR with variable data rate: 9.4K serial link up to 30m with 10 unit daisy chain capability . 19.5 cm2 & 128x64x1 touch screen.Infopad Terminal Architecture 250 Kbps Proxim Uplink Radio Plessey Downlink Radio Subsystem Radios RX/TX Interface ARM Subsystem mW 1490 877 .12 MHz Signetics 87C524/528 CPU. “Application and Network Support for 2. [Narayanaswamy96] Narayanaswamy et.connected to LAN via serial port of nearby workstations Remote host based applications.

service cost 81 Design Issues q Adaptive process gain improves throughput q Multipath fading requires equalization q Bit rate limited by equalizer complexity Throughput can be improved by physical layer processing 82 .terminal cost .Design Trade-offs in Wireless Nodes Laptops Terminal Complexity Notebooks ra Sto ge Palmtops PDAs Co mp tio uta n Terminals Communication Needs & Infrastructure Dependence q Computation-communication trade-off affects: .

Synth.118 W Total Radio Power = 11.75W Total IF Power = 6. Bottom AGC Receive Power Reg. Total RF Power = 5.87W 84 .Adaptive Process Gain Improves Throughput 100 Desired PG = 12 dB 80 Throughput (kbps) 60 PG = 15 dB 40 Achieved 20 PG = 21 dB 0 −15 −10 −5 0 5 Signal-to-Interference Ratio (dB) 83 RF Processing: Power Dissipation Top Control Transmit Freq.

87W Note: Power budget figures includes power dissipation from regulation inefficiencies.∑ f k No k Linear feedback equalizer Transversal No interference equalizer 31 taps in transversal equalizer 16 feedforward and 15 feedback taps in linear feedback equalizer 25 30 35 SNR.75 W Total Radio Power = 11. db (10 log γ) Dense Foliage Urban Clutter 86 .12W Total RF Power = 5. 85 Multipath Fading Requires Equalization 0 2 1 3 t0 t2 t1 t3 10-1 5 2 Transversal equalizer Linear feedback equalizer Transversal equalizer } Wireless Channel Mobile 0 t Probability of error τ • τ > Its / 10 ⇒ ISI causes degradation in BER and will require equalization • τ is a function of transmit power and cluttering in the environment Linear feedback equalizer 10-2 5 2 10-3 5 2 10-4 0 5 10 15 20 1 2 γ = -----.IF/Baseband Processing: Power Dissipation Top Bottom DSSS Analog IF Control Packet Interface Power Regulation DSSS Total IF Power = 6.

complexity ∼ O (4 τ Rs M τRs) . complexity ~ 1600 operations ~ 30k gates processing ~ 1600 * 2MHz = 3.e. min(Theader) capture-time accumulates in multihop networks throughput = max(throughput) ⇒ Theader is protocol dependent • TCP/IP header • ATM header • MAC/link layer header Tpreamble is physical layer dependent • time to acquire / capture packet • settling time of LO frequency Aggressive signal processing can reduce this! 88 . M=2.Bit Rate Limited by Equalizer Complexity q Improved performance using MLSE over DFE/FFE 1 MlSE simulation Probability of error 10-1 10-2 Destination-feedback equalizer Correct bits fed back 10-3 No interference MlSE bounds Detected bits fed back 10-4 0 5 10 15 20 25 SNR. MLSE has high complexity and processing requirements .g.2 GOPS 87 Physical Layer Processing to Improve Throughput preamble header DATA Tdata Tpreamble + Theader + Tdata min(Tpreamble).short training sequence O(100) vs. O(1000) bits q But. Rs = 2 Mbaud = 2 Mbps then. τ = 3ms. dB (10 log γ) .

N Increased parallelism & reduced voltage can increase energy efficiency .g.0 2.degradation of speed-up .5 2.0 5.0 7.0 3.compiler techniques are the key q Architectural bottlenecks: .g..0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Supply Voltage.0 1. V q Parallelism.0 1.0 5.0 1..5 3.0 Speedup 1.0 3. Speech Coding Video Compression Make f low or 0 Shutdown when inactive Reduce αC Energy efficient s/w System partitioning Efficient Circuits & Layouts e.capacitance overhead due to increased communication 90 . X Display Server Disk I/O Communication 89 Voltage-Parallelism Trade-Off for Low Power Ideal Speedup Normalized Delay 7.Understanding Energy Efficiency P = α C V2 f “Continuous” Only Throughput is Important “Event-Driven” Latency is Important (Burst throughput) Reduce V Increase h/w and algorithmic concurrency e.more processors or functional units or pipelining .

• Hard drives.18W GEC Plessey DE6003: 20 dBm.6W sleep = 0.Energy Efficiency is not just an Architecture Issue! q Radios consume a significant fraction of node power Lucent’s WaveLAN: 23 dBm 915MHz radio network interface transmit = 3W receive = 1.4GHz radio transceiver transmit = 1. etc.8W receive = 0.2W sleep = 0.05W Newton PDA active = 1. 2. Low power protocols remain DSPs 92 .3W Radios need to be actively managed for low power via energy efficient wireless link protocols. 91 Low Power Design for Wireless • Display HDD • µProc Link Layer Protocols MAC Layer Protocols Radio Modem Hardware has been addressed • Low power CMOS. • Displays.164W Magic Link PDA active = 0.7W sleep = 0.48W sleep = 0.

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