ICCAD 1997 Tutorial

Design Technology for Building Wireless Systems
Rajesh Gupta University of California, Irvine rgupta@ics.uci.edu Mani Srivastava UCLA mbs@ee.ucla.edu
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Copyright 1997 © Rajesh Gupta & Mani Srivastava

Phenomenal Growth in Wireless Voice & Data Services
q q q q q q q

35-60% annual growth in PCS users By 2000, one in three phones will be mobile (42% in US) Nordic countries: 10 mobile phones being added for every wireline phone Japan: number of users doubled from 10M to 21M from March to october 1996 600M mobile phone users by 2001 $17B in PCS license auctions 300% growth in wireless data from 1995 to 1997

Big demand for portable computers:
q q

2m ($290M) in 1988 to 74M ($54B) in 1998 20% of all computers sold are laptops
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E BE

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ER

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“Anytime Anywhere Anyform” Information Systems

PCS & Multimedia Messaging on the road

Fax & email on the beach

mani <1>

UCLA

Wireless Sensors

Multimedia wireless LANs & PBXs in offices, schools, hospitals, homes

Networked sensors everywhere
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Size & Battery Life are Critical in Wireless Devices
q

Battery technology is a key hurdle - no Moore’s Law here!
Battery Rechargeable? NO NO NO NO YES YES Gravimetric Density (Wh/lb) 65.8 60 105 140 23 65-90 Volumetric Density (Wh/l) 347 500 550 1150 125 300-415

alkaline-MnO2 (typical AA) silver oxide Li/MnO2 zinc air NiCd Li-Polymer

Nominal Capacity (Watt-hours / lb)

40 30 20 10 0 65 70 75 80 Year 85 90 95 4 NiMH

NiCd

Where does the Battery Power go?
Laptop Microprocessor Memory Logic Hard Disk Display Programmable DSP RF Transceiver Commn. Processing Sound/Audio I/O
q q

Cellular Phone

Laptop + Wireless Adapter 1-4 W 1W 2W 1W 2-6 W

Personal Wireless Terminal

1-4 W 1W 2W 1W 2-6 W 0.5 W 2/4W ?

0.3 W 0.185 W 0.6 / 1.8 W 2.5 W 0.085 W

0.6 / 1.8 W 2.5 W ?

Typical laptop: 30% display, 30% CPU + memory, 30% rest Wireless devices: increasing communication & multimedia processing

Low power VLSI are a key to wireless
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Wireless Systems Design: Key Driving Forces

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Increasing integration of communication & multimedia system components due to advances in semiconductor technology & circuits - RF CMOS circuits - MEMS structures RF components, display

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Relentless digitization continues - high speed digital circuits & A/D converters IF and even RF processing in digital domain direct conversion techniques - complex communication algorithms favor digital implementation - increasing CPU MIPS make even a “software radio” possible

A wireless-system-on-a-chip is becoming possible

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Building a Wireless System on a Chip
RF & IF Transceiver Baseband Processing
Custom ASIC Logic Algorithm Acceleration Coprocessors

DSP Core RAM/ROM

Wireless Network Protocol Processor (Microcontroller)

RAM ROM DRAM

Application Processor

RAM/ROM DRAM

Network/Host/Peripheral Interface
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Challenge to VLSI & CAD
RF & IF Transceiver Baseband Processing
Custom ASIC Logic Algorithm Acceleration Coprocessors

Computer with Radios analog circuits that minimize special analog process steps maximize digital and minimize analog computation reusable communication & multimedia modules

DSP Core RAM/ROM

Wireless Network Protocol Processor (Microcontroller)

RAM ROM DRAM

energy efficient embedded software synthesis
Application Processor RAM/ROM DRAM

Network/Host/Peripheral Interface

low cost & low power protocol processor cores

8

digital communications: modulation.design entry. coding. techniques.detailed architecture of any wireless communication systems 9 Tutorial Outline q Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems .theory of radio and communication systems design . validation.micro-architecture for wireless systems-on-a-chip .example designs VLSI Circuits for Wireless Systems .technological evolution in the design of wireless communication systems Wireless Systems Design .detailed CAD algorithms for solving system design problems .direct-conversion for digital communications using VLSI Design technology for Wireless Systems .Tutorial Goals Present basics of wireless systems. multiple access . and tools for building integrated wireless systems This tutorial will NOT describe: . and analysis tools Pre-designed Core Blocks and IP Issues for Wireless Future Outlook and Conclusions q q q q q 10 .system and medium characteristics . and VLSI design issues.

IS-95) ISM PCS ISM U-NII Frequency in MHz 12 .Part 1: Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems Wireless Spectrum Frequency in Hz 104 MF 106 108 UHF 1010 1012 1014 IR 1016 UV Light 1018 1020 X-Ray 1022 1024 LF VHF HF Cosmic Rays Radio 46 49 824-849 869-894 902-928 1850-1990 2400-2483 5.35 & 5.5. IS-136.15 .725 .5.825 GHz Cordless (CT-1) Cellular (AMPS.

01 Office Indoors Wireless ATM Wireless LAN: IEEE 802.easier snooping necessitates encryption more signal processing q Mobility . IS54. pACT.heterogeneous air interfaces .0 1. disconnections. Wireless Data: Mobitex. other users) .speed of terminal mobility impacts wireless bandwidth .limited battery capacity. computing. CDPD. WLL Mobile Wireless Multimedia Cellular: GSM. PHS. reliable multimedia networking over wide range of environments. IS95.0 0.Diversity of Applications in Wireless Communications Information Content (Mbps) Low Voice Interactive Data Data Rate Video teleconferencing 100.small dimensions higher energy efficiency 14 . PDC.1 0.user and terminal location dynamically changes . and storage .easier spoofing necessitate authentication more protocol processing q Portability .11 Cordless: DECT. PACS.limited bandwidth.0 10.variable link quality (noise. high latency . GPS Building Stationary Walking Outdoors Vehicular Environment q Multimega bits/sec throughput for robust. 13 Characteristics of Wireless Systems q Wireless .

Time Varying Wireless Environment LOS R S D No LOS! D q Available wireless resource undergoes dramatic & rapid changes . doppler fading. frequency collisions Rapid signal fades & distortions as the receiver moves .g.e.multipath reflection. noise-like Rayleigh Fading when multipath signals are summed 15 q Simplified View of a Digital Radio Link Sources Source Coder Multiplex Source Coder antenna Multiple Access Channel Coder Modulator Power Amplifier carrier fc “Limited b/w” “Highly variable b/w” “Random & Noisy” “Spurious disconnections” transmitted symbol stream RADIO CHANNEL received (corrupted) symbol stream Destinations antenna Demultiplex Multiple Access Channel Decoder Demodulator & Equalizer RF Filter Source Decoder Source Decoder carrier fc 16 .

frequency. n. a.8 4 to 6 2 to 3 q q q Problem: “Environment clutter” may differ at two locations at same d Measurements show that at a given d path loss has a normal distribution d PL ( d ) = PL ( d 0 ) + 10n log  ---.free space P r = ( P t G t G r λ 2 ) ⁄ ( ( 4π ) 2 d 2 L ) q Reflection (with Transmittance and Absorption) . buildings.reflection a function of material. + X σ  d 0 .similar principles as diffraction.when medium has large number of objects < λ (30 cm @ 1 GHz) .radio path obstructed by an impenetrable surface with edges .3.7 .radio wave impinges on an object >> λ (30 cm @ 1 GHz) .v. then zero absorption . depends on propagation environment Environment Free Space Urban area cellular radio Shadowed urban cellular radio In-building LOS Obstructed in building Obstructed in factories n 2 2. energy reradiated in many directions . street signs) 17 Log-normal Shadowing Path Loss Model q Assume average power (in dB) decreases proportional to log of distance d PL ( d ) = PL ( d 0 ) + 10n log  ---.explains how RF energy can travel even without LOS. polarization.σ says how “good” the model is 18 . foliage.k.g. (in dB) with standard deviation σ (in dB) . then 100% reflection .5 3 to 5 1.if perfect conductor. walls.rough surfaces.  d 0 Path-loss exponent. lamp posts.6 to 1.surface of earth.Propagation of Radio Waves q Line of Sight (LOS) .if perfect (lossless) dielectric object. atmospheric layers .X σ is a zero-mean Gaussian r. angle q Diffraction .a “shadowing” q Scattering (diffusion) .secondary waves “bend” around the obstacle (Huygen’s principle) . small objects (e.

5 + 10*2*log(d/(1 km)) or. for shadowed urban with n = 4. diffraction etc.replicas of signals with different delays (reflection. we must have Pr > (-119+25) = -94 dBm Pt = 0.5 km Similarly.6W transmit power . n = 2. transmitted power (with fixed BW) Given: . d < 33.SNR must be at least 25 dB for proper reception . random frequency modulation due to varying Doppler shifts In urban areas. so that: 122 > 91.Pr < 122 dB λ = c/f = 1/3 m Assuming d0 = 1 km. and noise figure F = 10 dB What will be the maximum distance? Solution: N = -174 dBm + 10 log 30000 + 10 dB = -119 dBm For SNR > 25 dB. 122 > 91.cellular phone with 0.78 dBm This allows path loss PL(d) = Pt . d < 5. mobile antenna heights << height of buildings .6W = 27.8 km 19 Small-Scale Fading q Fading manifests itself in three ways 1. PL(d0) = 91.Example Link Budget Calculation q Maximum separation distance vs.unity gain antenna.usually no LOS from basestation Mobile receiver may stop in a deep fade (null) Moving surrounding objects also cause time-varying fading q q q Fading affects available channel data rate 20 .) 2. rapid changes in signal strength (up to 30-40 dB) over small ∆x<λ or ∆t 3.5 + 10*2*log(d/(1 km)) or.5 dB For free space. time dispersion caused by different delays limits transmission rate . 900 MHz carrier frequency .receiver BW is B = 30 KHz.

multiple antennas.a 50 kmph car in 900 MHz band: 1 ms long >20dB fade every 100 ms . . or reduced channel capacity Good BER = 10-5 In Fade BER = 10-1 q Function of speed of mobile as well as other objects.otherwise.69 µs.with its equalizer. GSM would be limited to 7 kbps 22 . e.equalizer is a signal processing function (filter) cancels the inter-symbol interference usually implemented at baseband or IF in a receiver .a 2 kmph pedestrian in 900 Mhz band: 25 ms long >20dB fade every 2. and re-training during data transmission q GSM example .must be adaptive since channel is unknown & time varying training.e.g.“fades”: intervals of increased BER. GSM can tolerate up to 15 µs of delay spread .5s q q Also. GSM has a bit period of 3. a function of frequency.. multiple frequencies 21 Data Rate Limitation in Frequency Selective Fading q “Frequency selective fading” results in inter-symbol interference 0. tracking.1 maximum data rate without significant errors = ----------------------------delay spread . and fade depth Diversity techniques help .random phases make the sum behave as noise (Rayleigh Fading) .Error Bursts due to Raleigh Flat Fading q Received signal a sum of contributions from different directions . or a rate of 270 kbps q Data rate can be improved by “equalization” .g. with 15 µs of delay spread.

selection diversity vs. selective-repeat etc.g.usually.counters flat fading.“adaptive antenna arrays” or “smart antennas” q Forward error correction . go-back-N.not very effective in slowly varying channels or long fades q Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) protocols . 23 A Digital Radio Link Source Coder Multiplex Source Coder antenna Multiple Access Channel Coder Modulator Power Amplifier carrier fc “Limited b/w” “Highly variable b/w” “Random & Noisy” “Spurious disconnections” transmitted symbol stream RADIO CHANNEL received (corrupted) symbol stream Destinations antenna Demultiplex Multiple Access Channel Decoder Demodulator & Equalizer RF Filter Source Decoder Source Decoder carrier fc 24 . but costly and greatly reduces battery life q (Adaptive) Equalization . packets) in error . two (or more) receiving antennas.stop-and-wait.Combating the Wireless Channel Problems q Increase transmitter power . combining diversity .“coding gain” provides “fading margin” .retransmission protocol for blocks of data (e. scanning diversity vs. separated by λ/2 .transmit redundant data bits .compensates for intersymbol interference q Antenna or space diversity for “multipath” .

IS-136.unified digital wireless access anytime. MANs (Metricom). ARDIS. and analysis tools Pre-designed Core Blocks and IP Issues for Wireless Future Outlook and Conclusions q q q q q 26 .system and medium characteristics .digital cordless.11).) . data. RAM) q Third Generation: Digital . WANs (CDPD.voice.example designs VLSI Circuits for Wireless Systems .digital communications: modulation. coding. images.design entry. integrated paging (IS-54.cordless phones .cellular & PCS phones with seamless roaming.packet radio networks q Second Generation: Digital .analog modulation . IS-95.micro-architecture for wireless systems-on-a-chip . GSM etc.Voice & Data . 25 Tutorial Outline q Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems .direct-conversion for digital communications using VLSI Design technology for Wireless Systems .cellular phone (AMPS) with manual roaming .wireless data LANs (802. music. video.digital modulation . multiple access . anywhere .Evolution of Mobile & RF Wireless Systems q First Generation: Analog . wireless PBXs .Voice . sensor etc.Multimedia . validation.technological evolution in the design of wireless communication systems Wireless Systems Design . multi-zone cordless.

Part 2-A: Wireless Systems Design: Basics Simplified View of a Digital Radio Link Sources Source Coder Multiplex Source Coder antenna Multiple Access Channel Coder Modulator Power Amplifier carrier fc “Limited b/w” “Highly variable b/w” “Random & Noisy” “Spurious disconnections” transmitted symbol stream RADIO CHANNEL received (corrupted) symbol stream Destinations antenna Demultiplex Multiple Access Channel Decoder Demodulator & Equalizer RF Filter Source Decoder Source Decoder carrier fc 28 .

obtained by distinctively modifying the phase and/or frequency and/or amplitude of a carrier M=2 is “binary modulation” Otherwise. n-bit digital symbol .Digital Modulation & Demodulation ... S2.. DEMOD S1 S2 Set S = {S1. etc... maximum likelihood decision TS-long analog symbol corrupted best effort output ..e.A “User’s View” q q Modulation: maps sequence of “digital symbols” (groups of n bits) to sequence of “analog symbols” (signal waveforms of length TS) Demodulation: maps sequence of “corrupted analog symbols” to sequence “digital symbols” ..g. SM} of M waveforms of length TS e..(0110) (0111) (0000). MOD CHANNEL noise. M-ary modulation SM t=0 t=TS n = floor(log2 M) 29 Commonly Used Digital Modulation Techniques Coherent Phase-shift keying (PSK) Frequency-shift keying (FSK) Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) Continuous phase modulation (CPM) Hybrids Non-Coherent FSK ASK Differential PSK (DPSK) CPM Hybrids q q Coherent or Synchronous Detection: process received signal with a local carrier of the same frequency and phase Noncoherent or Envelope Detection: requires no reference wave 30 .. fading..g..(0110) (0111) (0000).

g.a matter of trade-offs! 31 Metrics to Evaluate Modulation Schemes q Power Efficiency (or.Selecting a Modulation Schemes q q q q q q q q Provides low bit error rates (BER) at low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) Occupies minimal bandwidth Performs well in multipath fading Performs well in time varying channels (symbol timing jitter) Low carrier-to-cochannel interference ratio Low out of band radiation Low cost and easy to implement Constant or near-constant “envelope” . Energy Efficiency) η P .adding redundancy (FEC) reduces bandwidth efficiency.ratio of signal energy per bit to noise power spectral density required required at the receiver for a certain BER (e. but reduces the received power required for a given BER .g.non-constant: phase and amplitude modulated may need inefficient linear amplifiers No perfect modulation scheme .measures ability to give low BER at low signal power levels . .impacts battery life! q Bandwidth Efficiency η B .measures ability to accommodate data within a given bandwidth q Often a trade-off between power and bandwidth efficiencies.ratio of throughput data rate to bandwidth occupied by modulated signal η B = R ⁄ B bps/Hz .modulation schemes with higher values of M decrease B but increase E b for a given BER 32 . 10-5) ηP = Eb ⁄ N 0 .constant: only phase is modulated may use efficient non-linear amplifiers . e.

orthogonal and with unit energy) basis signals { φ j(t) j = 1.25 with BT = 0.3. …. …. s M(t) } represents points in a vector space Vector space defined by a set of N ≤ M orthonormal (i. 33 A Geometric View of Modulation q q Signal set S = { s 1(t).001% BER and a fixed transmission bandwidth: Power Penalty Factora 1 2 4. s 2(t).5 4.Choice of a Modulation Scheme q At 0.N is the dimension of the vector space q q Every s i(t) can be expressed as a linear combination of basis signals Example: BPSK signals s 1(t) = s 2(t) = 2E b ⁄ T b cos ( 2π f c t ) 0 ≤ t ≤ T b and 2E b ⁄ T b cos ( 2π f c t + π ) can be represented as: φ 1(t) = 2 ⁄ T b cos ( 2π f c t ) E b φ 1(t) s 1(t) = s 2(t) = – E b φ 1(t) 34 .56 2. Relative to BPSK (M=2) BPSK and QPSK has the same energy efficiency but QPSK has two times more bandwidth efficiency (bit rate gain factor) than BPSK.1 7 M 2 4 8 16 32 64 q q a. The drawback of using QPSK is in the poor achievable energy efficiency in practice => use GMSK to achieve a bandwidth efficiency of 1.7 10 20. 2.7 42 Bit-Rate Gain Factora 1 2 3 4 5 6 Energy Penalty Factora 1 1 1.e. N } .

.a densely packed modulation scheme is less power efficient 35 Some Examples. bandwidth increases with dimension N q Probability of bit error is a function of the distance between the closest points in the constellation diagram .. q M-ary QAM Q d I M=16 6 -E d 2 = ------------.s M–1 q M-ary PSK Q I d M=4 π d = 2 E s sin ---M 36 .a densely packed modulation scheme is more bandwidth efficient .g.however.The Constellation Space q Geometric representation of S is called the Constellation Diagram. for BPSK: Q I – Eb Eb q Bandwidth occupied by the modulation scheme decreases as the number of signal points / dimension increases . e.

Comparison of Several Modulation Methods q Ref.: Wireless Information Networks by Pahlavan & Levesque. 1995 37 Simplified View of a Digital Radio Link Sources Source Coder Multiplex Source Coder antenna Multiple Access Channel Coder Modulator Power Amplifier carrier fc “Limited b/w” “Highly variable b/w” “Random & Noisy” “Spurious disconnections” transmitted symbol stream RADIO CHANNEL received (corrupted) symbol stream Destinations antenna Demultiplex Multiple Access Channel Decoder Demodulator & Equalizer RF Filter Source Decoder Source Decoder carrier fc 38 .

Multiple Access q Fundamental problem How to share the Time-Frequency space among multiple co-located transmitters? Frequency Shared Time-Frequency Subspace Allocated Spectrum Time 39 Basestation versus Peer-to-Peer Models Basestation (infrastructure .fully-connected vs. multihop) 40 .centralized) Peer-to-Peer (ad hoc network .

DQRUMA “Packet Oriented” Controlled Random Access 41 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) q Assign different frequency bands to individual users or circuits . Token-passing & Polling “Connection Oriented” Scheduled Access e.usually combined with FDD for duplexing f2 Frequency f 2’ f1’ f1 f2’ f1’ f2 f1 Time 42 .no sharing of the frequency bands: idle if not used .tight RF filtering to minimize adjacent band interference . PRMA Carrier-sensing e. Non-slotted time Static (Fixed) Assignment e. little or no equalization required .usually available spectrum divided into number of “narrowband” channels symbol time >> average delay spread.Approaches to Wireless Multiple Access Sharing of Time-Frequency Space Slotted-time vs.g. ALOHA.g.frequency band (“channel”) assigned on demand to users who request service .g.continuous transmission implies no framing or synchronization bits needed .costly bandpass filters at basestation to eliminate spurious radiation . Time-division & Frequency-division Demand-based Assignment Contention-based Conflict-free Random Access e.g.

transmission bandwidth >> channel coherence bandwidth IS-54 handles time dispersion up to 40 µs.e.“channel” == particular time slot reoccurring every frame of N slots .152 Mbps) 44 ...less complex equalizer needed than GSM| q q Need equalization indoors at rates > 2 Mbps (DECT is only 1.152 Mbps 1. lower battery consumption .7 ms 3 (or 6) FDD 80% adaptive equalizer training overhead π/4 DQPSK required DECT 1.adaptive equalization is usually needed due to high symbol rate .larger overhead .417 ms 12 TDD 67% system control overhead GMSK none PHS 384 kbps 300 kHz 0.e.8 kbps 200 kHz 0.Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) q Multiple users share frequency band via cyclically repeating “time slots” .. i.synchronization bits for each data burst.transmission for any user is non-continuous: buffer-and-burst digital data & modulation needed.625 ms 4 TDD 71% Modulation Adaptive equalizer q π/4 DQPSK none GSM handles time dispersion widths up to 18-20 µs.usually combined with either TDD or FDD for duplexing TDMA/TDD: half the slots in a frame used for uplink. 2 symbols might interfere . with skew (why?).728 MHz 0. 5 bits of ISI . half downlink TDMA/FDD: identical frames. guard bits guard bits for variations in propagation delay and in delay spread . on two frequencies Sync Data Guard slot 2 slot 6 slot 1 slot 5 Frequency frame i-1 1 2 56 frame i frame i+1 Time 43 Some TDMA Systems GSM Bit rate Carrier spacing (b/w) Time slot duration Slots/frame FDD or TDD? % payload in time slot 270. i.6 kbps 30 kHz 6.577 ms 8 (or 16) FDD 73% adaptive equalizer training overhead GMSK required IS-54 48..

may do “frequency hopping” on a frame-by-frame basis to combat multipath interference (Time Division Frequency Hopping: TDFH) increases system capacity (f5. time slot) tuple . t1) Frequency (f3.Hybrid FDMA/TDMA q “Pure” TDMA with single frequency band is undesirable .multiple transmitters occupy the same frequency-time space .require tight timing tolerances q Most TDMA systems actually employ hybrid FDMA/TDMA . t4) (f2.transmissions encoded with codes with very low cross-correlation .multiple carriers with multiple channels per carrier .channel == (frequency band. t1) t1 t2 t3 t4 (f1. t3) f6 f5 f4 f3 f2 f1 frame i-1 frame i frame i+1 45 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) q Multiplexing in the Code Space .receiver retrieves a specific transmission with its corresponding code q CDMA may be combined with TDMA or FDMA Frequency c1 c5 c3 c2 Code 46 .

received despread signal spread interference fdata frequency Wide Band Anti-jam -> high capacity CDMA Combats multipath -> diversity LPI -> Privacy LPD -> low power density f spread PG = -------------------f bit 48 .g.“spread” the signal over a much larger bandwidth than the minimum .delayed versions appear as uncorrelated noise . narrowband interferers) Resistant to multipath effects .can even exploit multipath signals by combining them q q q q q q Processing Gain: Gp = Bspread / Bsignal .Spread Spectrum Signalling q Spread Spectrum is the most common CDMA encoding technique .uniform small energy (W/Hz) over a large bandwidth hides the signal ⇒ Note: use of spread-spectrum does not imply use of CDMA Spreading is done using a unique code Receiver does the “despreading” by using a time-synchronized duplicate of the spreading code Inefficient for a single user.originally developed for military communication systems . spectral density RECEIVE spectral density Adata unspread signal fdata frequency Adata Ai.indicates improvement in signal-to-interference ratio due to spreading 47 What is Spread Spectrum Communication? spectral density Ai interference spread signal Aspread fspread frequency TRANSMIT Spreading Code running at f spread .signal appears pseudo-random with noise like properties . but multiple users can share band Inherent interference rejection capabilities (e.

signal energy is “spread” over a wider frequency (e.processing gain is Wss/B q q Fast frequency hopping: more than one hop during each transmitted symbol Slow frequency hop: one or more symbols transmitted in a hop channel #2 channel #1 f6 f5 f4 f3 f2 f1 Frequency 50 .bits sampled.sequence of data bursts with time-varying pseudo-random carrier frequencies . 1.g.g. at a higher frequency (e. or “chipped”.CDMA Using Direct Sequence (DS) Spread Spectrum q Spread the narrowband data by multiplying with a wideband pseudorandom code sequence .bandwidth of spectrum over which hopping occurs is total hopping b/w Wss .bandwidth of a frequency band in the hopset is the instantaneous b/w B .25MHz in IS-95) .228 Mcps in IS-95) .code sequences have little correlation with shifted versions of self q q Received signal multiplied by synchronized replica of the code sequence Energy of each “chip” is accumulated over a full data bit time transmitted signal 01101011 X 01101011 = Recovered signal PN Sequence (code) Intended receiver X X Chip digital data 10110010 = Noise .time duration between hops is the hop duration or hopping period Th .available spectrum divided into bands with central frequencies as carriers . 1.can be low pass filtered Other receivers 49 CDMA Using Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum q Transmission frequency is periodically changed .code sequences have little cross-correlation (orthogonal) .

can’t listen while transmitting therefore cannot detect collisions .lower spectral efficiency q Three categories: random access. hybrid access Transmitter # 1 Packet B Packet C Transmitter # 2 Packet A One Packet Time (τ) Vulnerable Period (2τ) Time 51 Contention-based Multiple Access in Wireless Systems? q q Ethernet uses contention-based medium access.effects of spatial distribution of wireless nodes hidden terminal problem exposed terminal problem near-far problem (capture effect) 52 .. scheduled access.delays induced .Contention-based Multiple Access q q q Many transmitters access a channel with no or minimal coordination Transmission in bursts of data Collisions may happen: need ACK or NACK with retransmission ...what matters is the collision at a receiver .. Following attributes make contention-based multiple access interesting with wireless: .“carrier sensing” is much costlier in wireless 20-30 µs . but the transmitter can’t sense the channel at the receiver! .

via parameterized use of RTS/CTS frames with duration information Provision for Time Bounded Services via Point Coordination Function Configurations: ad hoc & distribution system connecting access points Mobile-controlled hand-offs with registration at new basestation ad hoc network distribution system q q q q q infrastructure network 53 IEEE 802. IR @ 1 and 2 Mbps Efficient medium sharing without overlap restrictions .multiple networks in same area and channel space .IEEE 802. co-channel interference) .if no ACK.g.11 MAC (contd.) q CSMA/CA: direct access if medium free for > DIFS.Distributed Coordination Function: using CSMA /CA .also used in the defer decision 54 .11 MAC q q Support for multiple PHYs: ISM band DSSS and FHSS.CSMA/CA+ACK for unicast frames with MAC level retransmission Protection against Hidden Terminal problem: Virtual Carrier Sense . else defer & back-off DIFS DIFS PIFS DATA SIFS defer access contention window source other q DATA select slot & decrement back-off as long as idle CSMA/CA + ACK: receiver sends ACK immediately if CRC okay .based on carrier sense mechanism called Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) Robust against interferers (e. retransmit frame after a random back-off DIFS source receiver other DATA SIFS ACK DIFS defer access contention window DATA select slot & decrement back-off as long as idle q RTS/CTS with duration: distribute medium reservation information .

different areas served by different antenna beams may use same frequency (CDMA.required relatively minor technological changes frequency reuse & co-channel interference channel allocation hand-offs 55 Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) q Control radiated energy for each user in space .mobiles in sufficiently distant basestations may be assigned identical channel (frequency. TDMA) or different frequencies (FDMA) .system capacity may be increased without adding more spectrum q Major conceptual breakthrough in spectral congestion & user capacity . & code) . time slot. adaptive antennas 56 .spot beam antennas (sectorized antennas) .Cellular Systems MSC Pre-Cellular Post-Cellular PSTN q Replace single high power transmitter covering the entire service area with lots of low power transmitters (basestations) each covering a fraction of the service area (cell) .in future.

HIPerLAN .CT-0 .DECT .ISM .DCS1800 .MIRS . Design Issues.ERMES .PHP .AMPS .Mobitex Conv .IS-136 .IVHS .USCT .PHP .Metricom .Cellular/CDPD ESMR .802.UMTS .11 .CT-1 .RCR-27 .CT-300 Digital .FPLMTS .NMT900 .NMT450 .USCT . and Examples The Un-wired World Wireless Communications Amateur Industrial Consumer Business Military/Aero Long-Haul Automotive .IS-54 .CT-2 .Omnitracs .IS-95 .LEO .RACE 58 Analog .Comvik .ETACS .DECT .Part 2-B: Wireless Systems Design: Standards.CT-2 .PHP .DECT .TETRA PCN/PCS .ISM Analog .GPS Monitoring .POSCAG .NMT-0 .ISM WLAN PMR/SMR Mobile Data .GSM .JTACS Digital .AMR .SSB .ARDIS .Control Cordless Cellular Paging WPABX .

40-50 connections per cell No on-air privacy. and Services Macro-cellular Cellular Micro-cellular Messaging Phone point Cordless PABX Cordless Wide Area Data Micro-cells Macro-cells WLANs PAST WLANs PRESENT ? ? ? WLANs FUTURE 59 Satellites? Paging ? High-tier PCS Low-tier PCS Grand Unification? AMPS System (First Generation Analog) q q q q q q q q Two 25 MHz bands: 824-849 MHz upstream. Systems. signal-to-co-channel interference) Two types of channels: control and voice channels Network controlled handoff .pair needed for a duplex channel FDD+FDMA: 834 duplex channels 7-way frequency reuse (18 dB min.Evolution of PCS Technologies.MSC becomes a bottleneck Capacity constraints . fraud a major problem Proprietary SS7 AMPS Common Air interface BS OMC mobility management MSC (MTSO) BS MS BS BS BS BS MSC (MTSO) PSTN HLR VLR databases AUC 60 . 869-894 MHz downstream Divided into 30 MHz frequency bands .

8 kbps/user Frequency hopping to combat multipath problems Two types of logical channels: traffic channels and control channels Mobile assisted handoff . and multipoint services Reliable and unreliable classes . data or bearer.615 ms frame. registration at basestation to reduce paging “Home MD-IS” tunnels incoming traffic to current MD-IS MD-BS MD-BS MD-IS mobility management IS connection-less router IS Data n/w (internet) MD-IS M-ES M-ES MD-BS F-ES 62 MD-BS .GSM System (Second Generation Digital) q q q q q q q q Two 25 MHz bands: 890-915 MHz upstream. short messaging BTS OMC GSM Radio Air interface BSC BTS MS BTS BTS BTS BTS MSC (MTSO) MSC (MTSO) BSC HLR VLR databases PSTN AUC SS7 Abis Interface A Interface 61 Cellular Data Packet Network (CDPD) q q q q q q q q q q Packet data network overlay on AMPS .2 kbps Reed-Solomon coded . 935-960 MHz downstream Divided into 200 KHz frequency bands .125 in each direction FDD+TDMA+FH: 8 slots/4.handling over radio link In particular.BSC reduce the load on MSC Features: subscriber identity module and on-air privacy Services: telephone. 22. connection-oriented.same 30 KHz channels Data packets are sent over unused voice channels Channel hopping ensures non-interference with voice Raw data rate is 19.real rate much less Broadcast downlink. IP (Internet Protocol) datagram connectivity Mobile controlled handoff. Data Sense Multiple Access (DSMA) MAC on uplink Variety of connection-less.833333 kbps raw. 270.

Power Management QoS Management Rerouting Impact on TCP Location Tracking Multiple Access Link Error Control Channel Allocation Modulation Schemes Channel Coding RF/Optical Circuits 64 . N modem ethernet transceiver • • • • • • antenna RF + A/D digital transmitter/receiver channel codec source codec network protocols ETHERNET 63 Generic Mobile & Wireless System Architecture Application & Services OS & Middleware Network Data Link Radio. N PHONE http://www. IR Partitioning Source Coding & DSP Context Adaptation Disconnection Mgmnt.Designing Mobile Wireless Multimedia Systems PSTN BASE STATION WIRED NODE WIRELESS NODE http://www.

Radio Design Challenges q q q q High speed digital processing High performance in Eb/N0 Low complexity Energy efficient (mW/MSps or nJ/OP) Algorithm Fixed Point RF Front-end Architecture Digital Modem IC Architecture Partition 65 Partition between Analog and Digital Processing Analog RF Signal Processing Analog IF Transceiver Baseband Analog-to-Digital Converter Digital Baseband Signal Processing Analog RF Signal Processing IF Analog-to-Digital Converter Digital IF Transceiver Digital Baseband Signal Processing q Advantages allows for adaptability with little component replacements achieves Eb/N0 performance close to optimum (coherent BPSK) parameterizable to provide ease of redesign and upgrade q Challenges digital circuits operate at IF signal rate rather than baseband rate digital implementation can be more complex to minimize loss in Eb/N0 66 .

UCLA To SIR Est. Chien & R. high speed. and energy efficient transceiver in a single-chip 67 Transceiver Chip Design Issues q Challenge: Implement a complete coherent receiver on a single chip q Circuit Design Issues finite wordlength parameterizability critical path optimization complexity reduction q System Design Issues maintain stability in three feedback loops.: C.A Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Radio Modem CODE PROCESS SELECT GAIN Carrier Detect TX Data POWER CONTROL PN Acquisition LOOP Spread Data TX LPF VGA AMP PN GENERATOR BPF FREQ CNTRL FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER LPF LNA CLOCK RECOVERY LOOP CARRIER RECOVERY LOOP Decision A/D 6 AGC Ack. Recv. Data q Low complexity. Jain. adaptable. 68 .

5 N Ack. E b ⁄ N 0 ≥ 10 ± 0.8 MHz sample rate requirement 200 100 100 50 0 5 10 15 IF Input Quantization Size (Bits) 0 4 8 12 16 IF Input Quantization Size (Bits) 0 j Minimize IF quantization size reduce complexity and power dissipation at required throughput. Jain. UCLA 69 IF Wordlength Optimization 300 Complexity Increase (%) 10 dB Output Eb/N0 (dB) 30 0 dB 20 -11 dB 10 0 -17 dB Complexity increase in receiver Sample rate through the multiplier 50. Jain. Chien & R.: C.: C. Chien & R.5 Ack. E b ⁄ N 0 ≥ 10 ± 0. N DDFS N min ( N ). UCLA 70 Multiplier Sample Rate (MHz) 40 150 .Costas Loop Filter Optimization INPUT Ec/N0= -17 dB 20 30 Eb/N0 (dB) 0 −20 −40 −60 −80 40 30 10 25 10 dB 20 N2 9 dB 15 0 dB -10 dB N2 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 N1 5 10 15 20 25 30 N1 Coefficient as powers of two shifts: C1 = 2 C2 = 2 –N 1 –N 2 C2 C1 D Optimization Criteria: min ( max ( N 1. N 2 ) ).

7 Mchips/sec Scalable Performance -. respectively 72 j j j CLOCK RECOVERY 50.8 MHz INTEGRATE DUMP I1 12.2 Micron CMOS DSSS Radio Modem DIGITAL BASEBAND TRANSMITTER DATA INPUT DIFFERENTIAL ENCODER SPREAD DATA GOLD CODE GENERATOR (PNGEN) DIGITAL IF RECEIVER 50.12.: C.7 MHz 406. 400. 18.51 K Transistors High Power Efficiency -.7 MHz INTEGRATE DUMP I2 (100-800) kHz DIFFERENTIAL DECODER DATA OUT 100 kHz -12.21. 800 kbps at 12.Data Rates and Processing Gain: 100. 200. 21 dB. 15.7 MHz DDFS IF SIGNAL LOOP FILTER PHASE DETECTOR PN-ACQUISITION LOOP LATE PN EARLY PN PN TRACK CONTROL IF SAMPLING CLK INTEGRATE DUMP Q1 INTEGRATE DUMP Q2 COSTAS LOOP Performance CHIP DELAY INTEGRATE DUMP Q1 + LOOP FILTER INTEGRATE DUMP I1 j NCO Low Complexity -.PN-Acquisition: Complexity/Performance Trade-off q PN acquisition: correlation between the incoming bits and the P/N sequence of the desired transmitter Serial Acquisition Received PN PN-Code Generator Energy Slope Detection Clock Generation Timing j 800 Gates Match Filter Acquisition Timing Received PN N-Tap Matched Filter Energy Detection Clock Generation Generator PN-Code j Nc * Nif * 12 Gates + 800 Nc = #chips/bit Nif = IF Quantization j 10 000 Gates with Nc = 127 and Nif = 6 71 A Single-Chip 1. UCLA . Jain.7 mJ/MSample Maximum Chip Rate -.8 MHz 12. Chien & R.4 MHz Ack.

Packet Interface. Jain. UCLA 73 Example 1: UCLA’s Wireless Multimedia Node Video Capture 16-bit YUV Video Buffer Compressed Data Interface Control Frame Buffer VGA 12-bit RGB Host Interface PC-104 Bus Controller Video Codec Network Interface Chip Serial Data Interface Packet Buffer Host Interface Modem Wireless Channel Host CPU 74 .Integration of Radio into a System Custom Frame Grabber Camera Video Codec FPGA CPU DT Frame Grabber Proxim RangeLAN2 Single-chip DSSS Modem IC Keyboard Memory and Mass Storage Adaptive Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Radio RF Front-end DSSS IF modem. Analog-Digital Conversion Ack. Adaptation Interface. Chien & R.: C.

4 cm (D) 2.9 cm (H) x 11.Example 2: Bell Labs’ SWAN Wireless ATM System Connection Switching ETHER WA RE SYSTEM S/ W Mobility Management Drivers for Adapter Cards BASESTATION CPU Mobile Notebook Peripheral Interface Interface Interface Peripheral Peripheral Host Interface Bus Interface Bus Interface CPU CPU FAWN Flexible Adapter For Wireless Networking Host Interface Peripheral Interface mani <1> MAC PHY BACKBONE ATM ADAPTER CARD CPU CPU Lucent XCVR Interface XCVRInterface Interface XCVR FHSS RF XCVR XCVR Interface FHSS RF XCVR FHSS RF XCVR FHSS RF XCVR Personal Multimedia Terminal To Antenna Personal Communicator BASESTATION ATM SWITCH MOBILE END-POINTS 75 FAWN Reconfigurable Wireless Adapter to host processor ARM CPU Peripheral Interface RF Modem ADC Modem Controller UART Control PAL PCMCIA PCMCIA Interface Dual Port RAM Dimensions Power Consumption of FAWN Power Consumption of radio transceiver Firmware resources Reconfigurable hardware resources 10.0 W 0. 4 MByte 10000 Gates equivalent SRAM 76 .8 cm (W) x 1.8 W (transmit) 20 MIPS.6 W (receive) 1.

pad.audio.edu/ q q q 78 .speech and pen controlled user interface . bar code q Dumb end-point for “network-hosted mobile services” 77 Example 4: Berkeley’s Infopad Project q Infopad: low power wireless multimedia terminal . & graphics to Infopad http://infopad. and type servers Medley Gateway: transport & coding of video.peripheral card + FAWN adapter q Multimedia interface .based on cell. soft keys. graphics.eecs.berkeley. and text/graphics streams to the terminal Infonet: network infrastructure for Infopads . audio.Example 3: Personal Mobile Terminal microphone LCD display Soft keys Personal Terminal 6808 SCANNER ↓ PRESS TO SCAN ↓ Scanner switch Bar code scanner q Simple hardware .audio.no local general purpose processing (“dumb terminal” model) . video.

19. “Application and Network Support for Infopad.ubiq. 38.2475 137 .9W .” in IEEE Personal Communications.15W 1 Mbps ARM Custom H/W B&W LCD Low Power Infopad Bus Color LCD VIDEO IF LCD IF ucb <1> PEN IF AUDIO IF Pen Digitizer Codec Voltage Converters Crystals Test H/W Total Color Infopad q References: 1.4K serial link up to 30m with 10 unit daisy chain capability .12 MHz Signetics 87C524/528 CPU. proxy agents (per tab).IR with variable data rate: 9.2 kbaud with CSMA MAC.2x4. 128K memory Basestation transceiver (on ceiling of a room nanocell) . CSMA MAC .6K.connected to LAN via serial port of nearby workstations Remote host based applications. PWM modulation .5 cm2 & 128x64x1 touch screen. 215 gm. [Narayanaswamy96] Narayanaswamy et.7. buffering.38. and gateways (datagram service to tab) http://www.2K.297 550 . 3 buttons .performs coding/decoding..berkeley. 6.3800 3900 150 50 2411 75 629 9.com/parctab q q q Tab Basestation 80 .4K.Infopad Terminal Architecture 250 Kbps Proxim Uplink Radio Plessey Downlink Radio Subsystem Radios RX/TX Interface ARM Subsystem mW 1490 877 .5x2.IR communication at 19. link level protocol checks . April ‘96 79 Example 5: Xerox PARCTAB q Extremely portable mobile unit .8x10.edu/research/terminal 2.eecs. al. http://infopad.4 cm3.

terminal cost .service cost 81 Design Issues q Adaptive process gain improves throughput q Multipath fading requires equalization q Bit rate limited by equalizer complexity Throughput can be improved by physical layer processing 82 .Design Trade-offs in Wireless Nodes Laptops Terminal Complexity Notebooks ra Sto ge Palmtops PDAs Co mp tio uta n Terminals Communication Needs & Infrastructure Dependence q Computation-communication trade-off affects: .

Bottom AGC Receive Power Reg.118 W Total Radio Power = 11. Total RF Power = 5.87W 84 .75W Total IF Power = 6.Adaptive Process Gain Improves Throughput 100 Desired PG = 12 dB 80 Throughput (kbps) 60 PG = 15 dB 40 Achieved 20 PG = 21 dB 0 −15 −10 −5 0 5 Signal-to-Interference Ratio (dB) 83 RF Processing: Power Dissipation Top Control Transmit Freq. Synth.

87W Note: Power budget figures includes power dissipation from regulation inefficiencies. 85 Multipath Fading Requires Equalization 0 2 1 3 t0 t2 t1 t3 10-1 5 2 Transversal equalizer Linear feedback equalizer Transversal equalizer } Wireless Channel Mobile 0 t Probability of error τ • τ > Its / 10 ⇒ ISI causes degradation in BER and will require equalization • τ is a function of transmit power and cluttering in the environment Linear feedback equalizer 10-2 5 2 10-3 5 2 10-4 0 5 10 15 20 1 2 γ = -----.IF/Baseband Processing: Power Dissipation Top Bottom DSSS Analog IF Control Packet Interface Power Regulation DSSS Total IF Power = 6.75 W Total Radio Power = 11. db (10 log γ) Dense Foliage Urban Clutter 86 .12W Total RF Power = 5.∑ f k No k Linear feedback equalizer Transversal No interference equalizer 31 taps in transversal equalizer 16 feedforward and 15 feedback taps in linear feedback equalizer 25 30 35 SNR.

complexity ~ 1600 operations ~ 30k gates processing ~ 1600 * 2MHz = 3.complexity ∼ O (4 τ Rs M τRs) .g. MLSE has high complexity and processing requirements .Bit Rate Limited by Equalizer Complexity q Improved performance using MLSE over DFE/FFE 1 MlSE simulation Probability of error 10-1 10-2 Destination-feedback equalizer Correct bits fed back 10-3 No interference MlSE bounds Detected bits fed back 10-4 0 5 10 15 20 25 SNR. min(Theader) capture-time accumulates in multihop networks throughput = max(throughput) ⇒ Theader is protocol dependent • TCP/IP header • ATM header • MAC/link layer header Tpreamble is physical layer dependent • time to acquire / capture packet • settling time of LO frequency Aggressive signal processing can reduce this! 88 .short training sequence O(100) vs.2 GOPS 87 Physical Layer Processing to Improve Throughput preamble header DATA Tdata Tpreamble + Theader + Tdata min(Tpreamble). O(1000) bits q But. dB (10 log γ) . M=2. τ = 3ms. Rs = 2 Mbaud = 2 Mbps then.e.

0 3.compiler techniques are the key q Architectural bottlenecks: . V q Parallelism..Understanding Energy Efficiency P = α C V2 f “Continuous” Only Throughput is Important “Event-Driven” Latency is Important (Burst throughput) Reduce V Increase h/w and algorithmic concurrency e.0 5..0 1.0 5.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Supply Voltage.5 2.degradation of speed-up .capacitance overhead due to increased communication 90 .0 1. Speech Coding Video Compression Make f low or 0 Shutdown when inactive Reduce αC Energy efficient s/w System partitioning Efficient Circuits & Layouts e.0 7.5 3.0 Speedup 1.more processors or functional units or pipelining .0 3.0 1.0 2.g. N Increased parallelism & reduced voltage can increase energy efficiency .g. X Display Server Disk I/O Communication 89 Voltage-Parallelism Trade-Off for Low Power Ideal Speedup Normalized Delay 7.

91 Low Power Design for Wireless • Display HDD • µProc Link Layer Protocols MAC Layer Protocols Radio Modem Hardware has been addressed • Low power CMOS. etc.Energy Efficiency is not just an Architecture Issue! q Radios consume a significant fraction of node power Lucent’s WaveLAN: 23 dBm 915MHz radio network interface transmit = 3W receive = 1. • Hard drives.4GHz radio transceiver transmit = 1.164W Magic Link PDA active = 0.7W sleep = 0.8W receive = 0.2W sleep = 0. • Displays.6W sleep = 0.48W sleep = 0.18W GEC Plessey DE6003: 20 dBm.3W Radios need to be actively managed for low power via energy efficient wireless link protocols. Low power protocols remain DSPs 92 . 2.05W Newton PDA active = 1.

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