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A slave is someone who is owned by another person. A slave has no

choice, no freedom and no freedom.

A slave has to do what is asked of him by his master, usually this is work
of some kind. Slaves are punished for not following their masters orders,
working too slowly or attempting to run away


Q1. Why were so many slaves packed onto the ships?

A1. British ship owners would make more money if they packed on more
slaves to sell. The theory was that many would die so they packed in
more to compensate.

Q2. What words can you think of to describe the conditions on the slave
A2. Cruel, inhumane, cramped, unsanitary, horrific, scarring.

Q3. What was the triangular trade so popular?

A3. The crew would make a profit from this route as they were visiting
these countries anyway

Q4. What is your opinion of the owners and crews of the ships?
A4. I believe they were cruel and heartless without compassion or
sympathy. Although it was an acceptable trade back then and a way to
make a living does not excuse the fact that they treated them like vermin
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Q1. Look at source C. What does Gustavas Vassa think about the
appearance of the crew?
A1. He thinks that they look very different from the people he is used to.
Their long hair, language, facial expressions and red faces scared him.

Q2. Why do you think Gustavas would not eat?

A2. He says, ³I wished I were dead´, so I presume he was trying to
commit suicide by starvation.

Q3. What was his opinion of the behavior of the white people?
A3. He had never seen people act ³in such a savage manner´. He had
never seen such brutal cruelty before.

Q4. Why were the slaves chained together?

A4. There were many people to control so it made it easier to keep track
of them. It also limited their movement hence making it harder for

Q5. What do you think would be the worst part of the journey during the
µmiddle passage¶?
A5. I think the worst part would be the last half of the journey. This is
because most people will have been very sick and close to dying. The
amount of filth would be disgusting, as you would be lying in it.

› The first black people in America were African servants who arrived at
Jamestown in 1619
› As the American colonies developed, they demanded more and more
slave labour.
› [ost slaves were sent to the largely agricultural southern colonies
where they grew cotton and other crops
› Living conditions on the plantations were poor and slaves were under
the complete control of their masters
› ruropean immigrants supplied labour to the northern colonies so the
slave system slowly disappeared there
› Blacks soon discovered that the new ideals of liberty, and equality
from the American Revolution only applied to white citizens of the
United States


1. Copy and complete the following:

a. Slaves were first brought to American colonies because there was

an increase in the demand for slave labour on farms and plantations

b. An indentured servant was a servant that was required to serve for

a specific period of time.

c. The South had greater demand for slaves than the North because
rngland¶s textile mills demanded more cotton and the slaves in the
South were put to work growing and cleaning cottonseed.

d. Abolitionists were opposed to slavery and protested in the humanity

of the slave system. They provided speeches and writings that helped
shape a sense of cultural identity and help some slaves escape

e. By the 19th century blacks were extremely discontented because

freedom for slaves was ignored and the Declaration of Indepen dence
and the Constitution did not apply to the blacks and only the whites.

2. The extract ³Before I¶d be a slave, Freedom! Freedom! Oh freedom

over me, I¶d be buried in my grave, and go home to my maker and be
free.¶ [eans that they would prefer to die than be a slave

› In February 1839, Portuguese slave hunters abducted a large group of

Africans from Sierra Leone and shipped them to Havana, Cuba.

› 53 Africans were purchased by 2 Spanish planters and put abroad the

Cuban schooner, Amistad for shipment to a Caribbean plantation
› On July 1, 1839, the Africans seized the ship, killed the captain and
Cook, and ordered the planters to sail to Africa

› On 24 August 183, the Amistad was seized off Long Island, New York
by the US brig Washington

› The planters were freed and the Africans imprisoned on charges of


› The murder charges were dismissed but the Africans to be held in jail
as the focus of a case turned to salvage claims and property rights

› A lower court ruled the claims to the Africans as property were not
legitimate because they were held illegally as slaves

› In January 1841, the case went to the Supreme Court, which decided
in favor of the Africans and the remaining 35 of them were returned

Q1. Who was Ramon Ferrer, Jose Ruiz, Pedro [ontez and Antonio?
A1. Roman Ferrer was the master and Jose Ruiz and Pedro [ontez were
Spanish subjects owning slaves with Ruiz owning 49 and [ontez 4.
Antonio was [ontez¶s young slave.

Q2. What were Lieutenant Gedreys roles in the Amistad [utiny?

A2. He discovered the Amistad on the 26 th August from the US brig
Washington. He seized some Negroes who were on shore. He brought
back the ship of Negroes to Connecticut in the US.

Q3. Who made claims or libels (plaintiffs written declaration) to the vessel
µAmistad´, the Negro¶s slaves and cargo?
A3. Ruiz and [ontez made claims asserting their ownership of the
Negroes as their slaves and certain parts of the cargo.

Q4. Which events of the mutiny do Ruiz and Antonio agree on?
A4. They both agree it was very dark and that it occurred after 4 days at
sea. They both say that Ruiz and [ontez had their hands tied as the
slaves ransacked the cabin, loosening them after

Q5. How do the statements of Ruiz and Antonio differ?

A5. Ruiz says he tried to quell the mutiny and heard someone cry
µmurder¶. This is not in Antonio¶s account as he said no one groaned while
being killed. Ruiz says nothing of [ontez

Q6. Why was Pedro [ontez unable to recollect some of the events of the
A6. He was disoriented because he had lost a lot of blood from his head

Q7. The mutineers commanded [ontez to ³steer for their country´,

however, where did he steer to?
A7. He steered for Havana. He did this because it was the closest
destination, there would be many people to take charge of the slaves.

Q8. Where did Cinque want to go after the mutiny?

A8. He wanted to go to Sierra Leone



Q1. What was a cheap supply of labour needed?
A1. The southern states had to depend on agriculture for their economy
and livelihood and were not willing to work for each other so there was a
lack of labour needed so slavery was brought in. 

Q2. What were the other alternatives to slaves?
A2. Firstly the native Indian population was enslaved but they were good
at escaping and evading hunters so they were not a long-term solution.
The second major alternative was indentured slaves, promising to serve
for 3-7 years in return for passage to America. They were plentiful in the
17th century but supply dwindled as they became wary of the scheme.
The other disadvantage was they had to be freed after their time.
Criminals from rngland were the 3 rd source of labour. This was frowned
upon and ended in 1776. The fourth was African slaves as there was no
need to free them

Q3. Why do you think slaves were the most popular choice? 
A3. They were a free source of labour after they were paid for, they were
owned for life and could work until they died and their children would be
slaves also.

Q4. For what sort of things was Delia punished? 

A4. She was punished for when the baby cried (even though it was not
her fault), using her mistress¶ make up and mocking her resulting in her
being hit with a block of wood over the head, she was scared and her
owner got someone to beat her up.

Q5. What was Delia sold and separated from her mother? In her account
you have read, how many times was Delia sold? 
A5. She was sold firstly because she was a slave in a warehouse. She was
sold again for being disobedient and was taken to a hotel. She got sold
again when the hotel failed (she was sold with the hotel) and went to a
plantation. She was sold five times. 


Q6. What different jobs did Delia do while she was a slave? 
A6. She nursed babes, waited on tables in a hotel and in a house. She
then worked in a field plowing, hoeing and chopping cotton.

Q7. Where did Delia¶s last name come from?
A7. Her last name came from her last master¶s name, which was Garlic. 

Q8. On what basis were the slave¶s chosen? 
A8. The buyer would try to see who was strong by throwing a woman
down and seeing if she put up a good fight. If she did, she would be
paired with a strong male and told to have children, then bought. 

Q9.How do you think the Africans chosen by the buyer in this account
would have felt?
A9. I think they would have felt violated and abused

Q10. List what was for sale at the auction?
A10. 3 male slaves were being sold, male and females were being leased,
rice, gram, paddy, books, muslins, needles, pins and ribbons 

rxplain in 4-5 sentences the treatment of slaves:

The slaves were treated horribly and punished frequently, even for crimes
they did not commit. The seemingly favorite punishment was whipping,
they would whip people so fiercely that blood would pool around them
and their flesh would come off. Families were broken apart and sold to
different people. If someone had children, they would also ne slaves 

Write down 3 arguments for slavery:
Cheap labour, The Bible encouraged it and it was better to be a slave
than to live in Africa

Write down 3 arguments against slavery.
Inhumane, forced by kidnapping, The Declaration of Independence stated
that ³all men are created equal´

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› Without slaves, the Southern economy would collapse

› Their factory workers live in worse conditions than our slaves 

› Slaves have to be punished. Its what they understand 

› They have no right to tell us how to run our plantations

› Black Africans are inferior to whites and born to be slaves 

› Negro slaves have no worries. They have food, shelter and are not

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› All people should be equal

› You should pay your workers a wage

› Slavery is cruel and should be abolished 

› You cannot call yourself a good Christian if you keep slaves

› Slaves have the right to choose what to do with their lives

› The U.S. Civil War was the bloodiest war in American history with over
600,000 American soldiers killed 
› A civil war is a conflict between groups within a country
› In the U.S. the northern or µFree¶ states were against slavery whilst the
southern or µSlave¶ states were for slavery.
› The southern states believed the new U.S. President Abraham Lincoln
would destroy their way of life and 10 states decided to leave (secede)
from the United States
› Lincoln and the Northern States (Union) went to war with the Southern
States (confederacy) to stop the break up of the United States and
over the issue of slavery
› The war lasted between 1861 and 1865 and resulted in the defeat of
the South and an end to slavery.

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Q1. What did Lincoln mean in Source A by µa house divided against itself¶?
A1. He means that the country is divided about the issue of slavery as
they have conflicting views.

Q2. Why was the South angry when Lincoln was elected President?
A2. The South believed that Lincoln would lead their way of life to
destruction by abolishing slavery.

Q3. rxplain the causes of the war.

A3. The country was divided over the issue of slavery and the South
wanted to break away from the North. On December 20th 1860 the
Confederate States of America was formed

Q4. What was the most significant cause?

A4. The United States was no longer united, and President Lincoln would
not allow the break up of the US.

Q5. Could the civil war have been avoided?

A5. I don¶t think the war could have been avoided. The Southern states
were so set with their way of life, and would have to be forced out of it.
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o   o

Q1. How would you describe Alexander Stephens¶s view of the war?
A1. As he was the vice president of the South, he feels they should fight
until the death for slavery. He thinks that death is a necessary sacrifice.

A2. Why did Frederick Douglass see the war as a µgolden opportunity¶?
A2. Frederick Douglass was an African slave and saw this war as a golden
opportunity to be freed from slavery

3. rxplain in your own words the view of soldiers in Source r?

A3. He thinks the war is absolutely horrible and hundred of people are
dying. The War is nothing but pain, death and misery. Old veterans and
very young boys are dying0unnecessarily. Hospitals were bad.

Q4. What reasons did Lincoln give in support of the war?

A4. They are a new nation dedicated that all men were created equally,
their forefathers had fought to free their country from the British and they
must keep the tradition going.

Q5. rxplain why these people held differing views about the war.
A5. The all come from different backgrounds and held different values,
morals and opinions. Obviously the leaders would have different views to
the soldiers, as they were not the ones fighting. The Southerners would
have verydifferent views to the black people as the southerners wanted to
keep slavery and the black people wanted freedom
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Q1. What evidence is there that many black Americans welcomed the Civil
A1. Source C and F by Frederick Douglass, a black soldier, shows he
welcomed the war and wanted to fight for freedom for the black slaves.

Q2. What evidence is there that even in the army, they were not treated
A2. They were in separate regiments to white soldiers; they were only
paid $7 a month instead of $13 like a white soldier would receive. They
were looked down upon and were not accepted as equals. A Union
General said ³I cannot bring myself to trust Negroes with arms in position
of danger and trust.´ Some Northern soldiers blamed them for being the
cause of the war.

3. What evidence is there that black Americansplayed a full part in the

overthrow of slavery??
A3. They fought in the army, with black regiments fighting 449 battles (a
total of 186,107 African men served.) 200,000 blacks served as laborers,
cooks and nurses. 17 black union solders and 4 black sailors were given
the Congressional [edal of Honor, the highest military award in America.

A4. How useful is Source G?

A4. Source G, The favorite campsong of black soldiers is useful as it
shows how willing the blacks were to fight for their freedom, feeling they
needed to fight so ³the Union must be saved by the coloured volunteer´.
It shows how they were willing to forget the past (µlet us never mind the
past¶) to fight alongside with the white men even after having a µ hard
road to trace;´

Q5. How reliable and useful are sources F, H and I in helping a historian
understand the attitudes about black soldiers.
A5. They are all reliable and useful as they show the opinions of a black
soldier, a Union General and a white soldier.


Q1. How did Lincoln make it clear that the war was about slavery?
A1. He made the rmancipation Proclamation. Stating all salves in the US
were free and no longer slaves. This was after the Union beat the South
in the Civil War

Q2. Do you think it is important to know that he wrote out the

rmancipation Proclamation in his own handwriting?
A2. Yes. Because it showed the American citizens that he believed in what
he talked about, and that he would fight for the freedom of all people.
Writing it himself re-assured everyone of the reason why they elected

Q3. Why did Angie Garret think Lincoln was µpartly God¶?
A3. This is because it seemed to be a miracle that they were finally freed
from slavery. They were very greatful and respected him greatly as it was
a great feat.

o   o + 

Q1. How do you think the Northerners and Southerners felt at the end of
the Civil War about the defeat of the South and the ending of slavery?
A1. The Northerners would have been happy that the war was finally over
and they no longer had to fight and fear for their family and friends
fighting. Some may have been really happy that the slaves were finally
free and equal.
The Southerners would have been very angry that they no longer had any
slavery and would have feared for their economy and the future of their
plantations. It would have been difficult to find cheap labour for their

Q2. Which people would not have been happy that the slaves had been
A2. The Southerners would be very unhappy and outraged that they had
no more slaves. The farmers and plantation owners would because they
would need to find more labour that wouldn¶t be free. Slave traders would
have no more trades, white people in general may not be have found
them equal.

Q3. Do you think relations between black and white people in the South
were likely to be good after the war?
A3. No. This is because Southerners would have been angry they no
longer had free slaves. They would have felt the blacks were still inferior
and White people were better and superior. T

Q1. Over what main issues was the Civil War fought?
A2. The war was caused by a mix of economic, social and pol itical factors
but slavery seemed to be the main issue. Another major issue was the
Southern States trying to secede from the Union (North), and Lincoln
would fight to preserve the United States

Q2. Why did Lincoln emancipate the slaves?

A2. Lincoln emancipated the slaves of the North and South as a war
measure designed to restore the Union, ensuring him a supply of loyal
northern black troops and to de-stabilize the enemy.

Q3.What problems faced newly freed slaves?

A3. They were still discriminated against and were only allowed a limited
right to vote

Q4. What legislation during and after the Civil War, protected the rights of
black people?
A4. The Act of rmancipation protected black peoples rights and new hope.

Q5. What happened to black people during the period of reconstruction?

A5. During this period, black Americans were heading towards citizenship
and equality, they were determined to have freedom.

Q6. Name the pieces of legislation which gave blacks the right to vote
A6. The Act of rmancipation was embodied in the 13 th Amendment to the
Constitution. The 14 th Amendment granted them a limited right to vote.
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Q1. Why did racism often instensify after the rmancipation?

A1. White people viewed the blacks progress with dismay and many
former abolitionists wanted to see them restored to their ³place´

Q2. Describe the system of share-cropping as it existed in the post-war

A2.In return for housing, seed and credit at a planters store, a family
would work for a crop. In theory, they could share in the profits when the
crop was sold but generally the planter kept the share-croppers in debt,
binding them to the land under conditions, little different from those of

Q3. Why did reconstruction collapse?

A3. The old leadership at the South was restored, and Southern States
adopted Black Codes, allowing them to segregate transport and facilities

Q4. What was µlynching¶?

A4. When they hung the black people, it was an organized mob

Q5. What were µJim Crow¶ laws?

A5. These were segregation laws with µJim Crow¶ being a insulting term
for black people, eventually referring to the practice or policy of
segregation and discrimination against blacks. They weren¶t allowed in
restaurants, schools, shops, libraries, theatres, parks, hotels, jails, old
peoples homes and even cemetaries. This was because they put up µWhite
Only¶ signs

Q6. Describe the social and political position of American blacks by the
end of the nineteenth century.
A6. The social position of blacks was very low. They were being killed in
streets and were being majorly segregated. They were not allowed to go
to certain places as there were µWhite Only¶ signs . A series of state laws
were designed to reduce blacks to an inferior role and there were
comprehensive laws for segregation. Despite the activites of a highly
cultural black middle class, little was done to improve social conditions for
poor blacks or for escapees of the South
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