Basic English for Computing | Computer Data Storage | Computer Hardware

NHA TRANG UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES

BASIC ENGLISH FOR COMPUTING
Compiled by Le Cao Hoang Ha

Updated January 2010

English for Computer Learners

TABLE OF CONTENT
Page Table of content Unit 1: What is a computer? Unit 2: History of computers Unit 3: Characteristics Unit 4: Computer Capabilities and Limitations Unit 5: Type and Click Unit 6: Hardware and software Unit 7: The Central Processing Unit Unit 8: Primary and Secondary Memory Unit 9: Operating system Unit 10: Electronic communication 1 2 7 14 19 23 27 32 36 41 44

Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages

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English for Computer Learners

UNIT 1: WHAT IS A COMPUTER?
When you read the following text, you will probably meet words and expressions that are new to you. First try to understand their meaning from the context – read the same passage a few times. When you have read the whole text, check new words in a dictionary. Most of the words in bold typeface and your teacher will explain them at the end of this text. [1] A computer is a machine with an intricate network of electronic circuits that operate switches or magnetize tiny metal cores. The switches, like the cores, are capable of being in one of two possible states, that is, on or off; magnetized of demagnetized. The machine is capable of storing and manipulating numbers, letters, and characters. The basic idea of a computer is that we can make the machine do what we want by inputting signals that turn certain switches on and turn others off, or that magnetize or do not magnetize the cores. [2] The basic job of computers is the processing of information. For this reason, computers can be defined as devices which accept information in the form of instructions called a program and characters called data, perform mathematical and/or logical operations on the information, and then supply results of these operations. The program, or part of it, which tells the computers what to do and the data, which provide the information needed to solve the problem, are kept inside the computer in a place called memory. [3] Computers are thought to have many remarkable powers. However, most computers, whether large or small have three basic capabilities. First, computers have circuits for performing arithmetic operations, such as: addition, subtraction, division, multiplication and exponentiation. Second, computers have a means of communicating with the user. After all, if we couldn’t feed information in and get results back, these machines wouldn’t be of much use. However, certain computers (commonly minicomputers and microcomputers) are used to control directly things such as robots, aircraft navigation systems, medical instruments, etc. [4] Some of the most common methods of inputting information are to use punched cards, magnetic tape, disks, and terminals. The computer’s input device (which might be a card reader, a tape drive or disk drive, depending on the medium used in inputting information) reads the information into the computer.

Punched cards

Magnetic tape

Disk drive

Terminal

For outputting information, two common devices used are a printer which prints the new information on paper, or a CRT display screen which shows the results on a TV-like screen. [5] Third, computers have circuits which can make decisions. The kinds of decisions which computer circuits can make are not of the type: “Who would win a war between two countries?” or “Who is

Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages

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English for Computer Learners
the richest person in the world?” Unfortunately, the computer can only decide three things, namely: Is one number less than another? Are two numbers equal? And, is one number greater than another? [6] A computer can solve a series of problems and make hundreds, even thousands, of logical decisions without becoming tired or bored. It can find the solution to a problem in a fraction of the time it takes a human being to do the job. A computer can replace people in dull, routine tasks, but it has no originality; it works according to the instructions given to it and cannot exercise any value judgments. There are times when a computer seems to operate like a mechanical “brain”, but its achievements are limited by the minds of human beings. A computer cannot do anything unless a person tells it what to do and gives it the appropriate information; but because electric pulses can move at the speed of light, a computer can carry out vast numbers of arithmetic-logical operations almost instantaneously. A person can do everything a computer can do, but in many cases that person would be dead long before the job was finished. EXERCISES 1 Main idea Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1. Computers have changed the way in which many kinds of jobs are done. 2. Instructions and data must be given to the computer to act on. 3. Computers are machines capable of processing and outputting data. 4. Without computers, many tasks would take much longer to do. 2 Understanding the passage Decide whether the following statements are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statement becomes true. T F 1. A computer can store or handle any data even if it hasn’t received information to do so. 2. All computers accept and process information in the form of instructions and characters. 3. The information necessary for solving problems is found in the memory of the computer. 4. Computers can perform arithmetic operations, make decisions, and communicate in some way with the user. 5. Computers can still be useful machines even if they can’t communicate with the user. 6. There are many different devices used for feeding information into a computer. 7. There aren’t as many different types of devices used for giving results as there are for accepting information. 8. Computers can make any types of decision they are asked to. 9. Computers can work endlessly without having to stop to rest unless there is a breakdown. 3 Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give line references as in the example below. ..l8-10..1. Computers accept information, perform mathematical and/or logical operations then supply new information. ……….2. All computers have three basic capabilities. ……….3. A computer is a machine that can be made to operate by receiving signals. ……….4. A computer cannot work without being told what to do. ……….5. A computer can make three types of decisions. ……….6. The fundamental job of a computer is processing information. ……….7. A computer can do the work of hundreds of people in a very short time. ……….8. The memory of a computer is used for storing information.

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7) ……………………. Their function is to take your thought back to something that has already been mentioned. she. 4. they. works with an opposite meaning) for the following words.e. who. A computer is a ……………… that processes information in the form of ……………… and ……………… and can store this information in a ……………… 4. 5. computers are used when the time saved offsets their cost which is one of the many reasons they are used so much in business. Other words which are often used to refer backwards are the former. A ……………… with a screen is normally referred to as a ………………unit. he. Then complete the following statements with the appropriate words. the last. 10. The speed at which a computer works can replace weeks or even months of pencil-and-paper work. a way (l. 6. fundamental (l. such. uninterested (l. Every computer has circuits for performing arithmetic operations. 3. 7. the second. 3.31) ……………………. that.English for Computer Learners 4 Understanding words Refer back to the text and find synonyms (i. unusual (l. Make sure you use the correct form. 1. words with a similar meaning) for the following words. these. them. When pronouns such as it. Sample paragraph A computer like any other machine. 2. the first. they refer to a word.37) ……………………. 8.2) ……………………. or disk drives are different ……………… for inputting information. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 4 .16) ……………………. (Some can be used more than once). reject (l. 5 Content review Try to think of a definition for each of these items in the box before checking them in the Glossary. tape drives. large (l. which. small (l. i. Therefore. mentioned earlier in the sentence or paragraph. whose. or words. industry and research. Now refer back to the text and find antonyms (i. 9. that.e. singular or plural.8) ……………………. and demonstrative adjectives such as this. is used because it does certain jobs better and more efficiently than humans. It can receive more information and process it faster than any human. operating ……………. one. the latter. core program device memory data circuit terminal medium CRT display switch 1. Thus they serve as synonyms or substitutes.35) ……………………. 6 Grammar Transitional markers Transitional markers are words used to link ideas together so that the text is smoother to read.e..1) ……………………. receiving (l. those are used as transitional markers. complex (l. …………… or magnetized ……………… 2. Card readers. accomplishments (l.20) ……………………. etc.5) …………………….

and after processing it they output the results. It is usually a single-user machine. 1……………………… : the smallest and most common. 4. ……………………. : found in medium-sized businesses and university departments. They accept data and instructions as input. Computers are electronic machines that process information. Then join the and the with arrows. are found in large organizations such as national companies and government departments. used in small businesses. There are four different kinds of computers in use today: mainframe. 2. The former refers to the actual machinery.. ……………………. The first computer was built in 1930 but since then computer technology has evolved a great deal. : can often serve several hundreds of users simultaneously. corresponding to their memory capacity and processing speed. When talking about computers. minicomputer. draw a rectangle around the word.. 7 Further exercise Match the name of each computer in the box with its definition and picture. of doing different kinds of arithmetic operations and of making three kinds of decisions. Mainframe minicomputer microcomputer supercomputer There are 4 sizes of digital computer. whereas the latter refers to the programs which control and coordinate the activities of the hardware while processing the data. They are capable of communicating with the user. at home and in schools. They may support from 12 to 30 users at once.. or words. : mostly used for highly complex scientific tasks. that the circled words refer to. 3. such as analyzing the results of nuclear physics experiments and weather forecasting. they are incapable of thinking. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 5 . both hardware and software need to be considered. However.English for Computer Learners Exercise Using the sample paragraph as a model. supercomputer and microcomputer. These all have one thing in common: they operate quickly and accurately in solving problems. ………………….

Mary: What kind are you going to buy? Jim: I think I'll buy a desktop. How's it going? Jim: Pretty good. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 6 . and the prices are really coming down. Mary: Those are very popular in America. Linda: Hmm. email it to me .that might be faster. Mary: Hi Jim. The report has graphs. maybe a Gateway or Compaq. but the printer is broken. Dialogue 1: Buying your first computer.English for Computer Learners A B C D 8 Conversations Pair work. Dialogue 2: Printer problems Linda: I finished my report. We can use my printer. Practice the conversations and then make your own dialogues. Linda: That's a great idea. that won't work. What can I do? Mary: Save the file on a floppy and bring it to my house. Mary: Or. I'm going to buy a new computer this afternoon.

except for providing the machine with the necessary facts about the problem to be solved. [2] During the 17th and 18th centuries many people tried to find easy ways of calculating. Then the abacus was invented. They named their new invention ENIAC. the first analog computer was built by an American named Vannevar Bush. Mark I. was completed in 1944. [4] In 1930. an Englishman. but many of his ideas were the basis for building today’s computers. Second-generation computers were smaller. This machine. a bead frame in which the beads are moved from left to right. Abacus Analytical Engine Analog computer [5] The first generation of computers. which used vacuum tubes. This device was used in World War II to help aim guns. The men responsible for this invention were Professor Howard Aiken and some people from IBM. This. in fact. an Englishman. which saves a great deal of time and reduces the possibility of making mistakes. J. In 1830 Charles Babbage. another branch of mathematics. designed a machine that was called “The Analytical Engine”. [3] The first real calculating machine appeared in 1820 as the result of several people’s experiments. Napier. and Leibnitz. which is how the modern slide rule works. a German mathematician. and it is still being used in some parts of the world because it can be understood without knowing how to read. the name given to the first digital computer. is why today we still count in tens and multiples of tens. Calculus. Eckert and J. He never finished this work.English for Computer Learners UNIT 2: HISTORY OF COMPUTERS [1] Let us have a look at the history of the computer that we know today. faster and more dependable than first-generation Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 7 . Mauchly built the first digital computer using parts called vacuum tubes. People went on using some form of abacus well into the 16th century. depends on a series of ten-toothed gear wheels. This was the first machine that could figure out long lists of mathematical problems. the second generation of computers was developed and these could perform work ten times faster than their predecessors. Univac I is an example of these computers which could perform thousands of calculations per second. J. devised a mechanical way of multiplying and dividing. Another important advancement in computers came in 1947. In 1960. when John von Newmann developed the idea of keeping instructions for the computer inside the computer’s memory. The very first calculating device used was the ten fingers of a man’s hands. all at a very fast rate. was an attempt to cut out the human being altogether. a Scotsman. was independently invented by Sir Isaac Newton. which Babbage showed at the Paris Exhibition in 1855. Henry Briggs used Napier’s ideas to produce logarithm tables which all mathematicians use today. The reason for this extra speed was the use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes. came out in 1950. This type of machine. In 1946 two engineers at the University of Pennsylvania.

Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 8 . The slide rule was invented hundreds of years ago. During the early 1880s. Today’s computers have more circuits than previous computers. Mark I Univac I [6] At the rate computer technology is growing. Computers.English for Computer Learners computers. T F 1.000 instructions per second. as many as 1000 tiny circuits now fit onto a single chip. 10. As computers evolved. ceramic or metal. 2 Understanding the passage Decide whether the following statements are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text. 6. Using transistors instead of vacuum tubes did nothing to increase the speed at which calculations were done. an Englishman. a trip across the Atlantic Ocean today would take a few seconds. EXERCISES 1 Main idea Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1. Computer technology has developed to a point from which new developments in the field will take a long time to go. The abacus and the fingers are two calculating devices still in use today. 9. 4. Fourth-generation computers have now arrived. after which the circuit is encapsulated in plastic. today’s computers might be obsolete by 1985 and most certainly by 1990.000. usually from 1/10 to ¼ inch. 5. as we know them today. These computers could do a million calculations a second. 7. which is 1000 times faster than first-generation computers. these are controlled by tiny integrated circuits and are consequently smaller and more dependable. which means that the circuits are much smaller than before. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statement becomes true. Fourth-generation computers are 50 times faster than third-generation computers and can complete approximately 1. It has been said that if transport technology had developed as rapidly as computer technology. 2. upon which several layers of an integrated circuit are etched or imprinted. could be called the father of computers. Today’s computers probably won’t be around for long. and the integrated circuits that are being developed have been greatly reduced in size. 3. 8. 2. The first computer was invented and built in the USA. Instructions used by computers have always been kept inside the computer’s secondary memory. have gone through many changes. their size decreased and their dependability increased. A chip is a square or rectangular piece of silicon. Charles Babbage. 3. This is due to microminiaturization. The third-generation computers appeared on the market in 1965. Computers have had a very short history. Unlike second-generation computers. many people worked on inventing a mechanical calculating machine.

6. chip g. made computers smaller and faster 8. 2. 5a Content review Match the following words in column A with the statements in column B. used in mathematics 5. 1.7) …………………….4. words with a similar meaning) for the following words. ………. digital computer d. invented by Americans in 1944 7. ………. transistors f. an instrument used for counting 4. analog computer c. The computers of the future may be quite different from those in use today. a few (l. 10. logarithm tables and calculus were developed. used in the first digital computers 3. The first one is done for you. a branch of mathematics 5b Content review Use the information in the text on “History of computers” to complete the following table. ………. 9. A B c 1. solve (l.2. Now refer back to the text and find antonyms (i. ………. Integrated circuitry has further changed computers.3. calculus b. ………. It wasn’t until the 19th century that a calculating machine was invented which tried to reduce manpower.e. ………. 4. circuitry of fourth-generation computers 6.43) ……………………. 5. slide rule i. 6.13) …………………….English for Computer Learners 3 Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. machine (l. 4 Understanding words Refer back to the text and find synonyms (i. 8. People used their fingers to count. 3.12) ……………………. microminiaturization h.5. to include (l. Give the line references. old (l. contemporaries (l.8.11) ……………………. 7. used to help aim guns 9. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 9 .1. ……….2) ……………………. abacus a. the reduction of circuitry onto a chip 10. designed (l. Then an instrument with beads was invented for counting before a mechanical way for multiplying and dividing was devised. ………. still in use (l.7. logarithm tables j.30) …………………….21) ……………………. a lot (l. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes. errors (l. During the same period in history. vacuum tubes e. Today’s computer circuits can be put on a chip.15) ……………………. instrument used for doing multiplication and division 2. works with an opposite meaning) for the following words.7) …………………….e.

23) ……………………. 8.14) …………………….English for Computer Learners TIME Primitive times 17 and centuries th EVENT Abacus invented Henry Briggs produced logarithm tables Charles Babbage designed 18 th 1930 First use of 1947 Second-generation computer using Now Future 6 Focus review Now look back at the text “History of computers” and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to. They named their new invention (l.12) ……………………. 7. that was called “The Analytical Engine” (l. and these could perform (l.28) ……………………. which could perform (l. that are being developed (l.1) ……………………. on the other hand. 10. that could figure out long lists (l. Prefixes usually change the meaning of the word.29) ……………………. 2. Both prefixes and suffixes are referred to as affixes. that we know today (l.36) ……………………. 1. and it is still being used (l. Suffixes. which saves a great deal of time (l. 7 Grammar Word formation: Suffixes A suffix is what is attached to the end of the stem. 4.21) ……………………. NOUNS -ance -ence -or -er -ist -ness VERBS -ize -ate -fy -en -ify SUFFIXES ADJECTIVES -able -ible -less -ic -ical -ish -ive ADVERBS -ly in Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 10 . 5.4) ……………………. change the word from one part of the speech to another. 9.8) ……………………. 6. 3. which all mathematicians use today (l.

execution. independence action/ state of -ance/ -ence programmer. operator a person who -or/-er complier. coding. accumulator a thing which hesitation. logically. activate. comparably. Noun-forming suffixes SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES performance. competition. full of characterized by without like having quality of to make or do EXAMPLES computational. automatic electrical comparable divisible dangerous religious helpful careless yellowish computered. mathematician a person who -ian magnetism pertaining to -ism freedom condition/state -dom relationship. quality -ity electrician. conversion -ation/-tion/-sion/-ion action/ state of action. Use your dictionary if necessary. multiplexing Adverb-forming suffixes SUFFIX MEANING -ly in the manner of Adjective-forming suffixes SUFFIX -al -ar -ic -ical -able -ible -ous -ious -ful -less -ish -ed -ive -ing Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 11 . widen EXAMPLES electronically. punched interactive programming. analyst a person who -ist/ -yst cleanliness quality/ state/ character of -ness multiplexing -ing measurement activity/ result of -ment electricity state. calculate simplify harden.English for Computer Learners Exercise 1 Study these tables and try to find additional examples. helpfully MEANING having the quality of capable of being like. partnership domain/condition -ship binary condition/state -ary Verb-forming suffixes SUFFIX -ize -ate -fy -en MEANING to make EXAMPLES computerize automate. logical circular magnetic. complexion /-ition/-xion typist. processing.

The students are still waiting for their……………………into the Computer Science program. b. 5. b. The job of a computer operator is to ……………………the various machines in a computer installation. accepted. operating a. Exercise 3 Some forms of the words in 1-5 below were used in the text “What is a computer?” (Unit 1). 6. A computer must be able to……………………with the user. communicative. communicable. 1. 9. Binary arithmetic is based on two digits: 0 and 1. solve.English for Computer Learners Exercise 2 Read the following sentence and underline all the suffixes. Today’s computers are……………………faster than their predecessors. A computer can……………………a problem faster than any human being. processes and gives out information. A computer is a machine with an intricate network of electronic circuits that operate switches or magnetize tiny metal cores. operationally. remarkably. b. b. operation. It may take a lot of time to find a……………………to a complex problem in programming. Fill in each blank with the appropriate form of the words. 7. acceptably a. c. 10. 8. Systems analysts will often make……………………about existing programs so as help make the operations more efficient. communicably a. Computers are machines designed to process electronically specially prepared pieces of information. acceptance. There have been ……………………developments in the field of computer science in the last decade. remark. d. acceptable. 1. Multiplexing is when many electrical signals are combined and carried on only one optical link. c. c. remarked a. operate. The new machines in the computer installation are not yet …………………… 2. In very large and modern installations. 4. 5. communicate. solver a. communication. The system analysts provide the programmer with the details of the data processing problems. A computer is a device which……………………. Then try to find out what parts of speech the words are. A computer has often referred to as a problem…………………… 4. 2. CRT terminals are very useful interactive devices for use in offices because of their speed and quietness. operational. Fibre optics is a new development in the field of…………………… Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 12 . 3. A computer can perform mathematical……………………very quickly. It is ……………………to work without a template if the flowcharts are not kept on file. 3. One of the first people to note that the computer is malfunctioning is the computer…………………… c. operator. The computed results were printed in tables. The new microcomputer we purchased does not have a Fortran compiler. b. accept. It is programmable in Basic only. solvable. the computer operator sits in front of a screen that shows an up-to-date summary of the computer jobs as they are being processed. remarkable. solution. The introduction of terminals and screens has partly replaced the use of punched cards.

7. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 13 . depend on. mechanics. mechanic. necessary. mechanize. b. mechanism. Some forms of the words in 6-10 below were used in the text “History of Computers” (Unit 2) Fill in each blank with the appropriate form of the words. depending a. needed a. calculator. necessity. mechanical. technologist a. The……………………devices in a computer system operate more slowly than the electromagnetic devices. technology. mechanistic. One can always……………………a computer to obtain accurate answers because it’s probably the most……………………machine in the world today. A computer can……………………numbers much faster than a manual……………… d. need. calculus a. c. calculated. b. Today’s computer are less……………………than they used to be. technologically. Computer ……………………is a fast growing discipline. technological. The ……………………of the brain is very complicated but unlike a computer it isn’t……………………. mechanically. calculable. ……………………is a branch of mathematics for making……………………without the use of a……………………machine. necessities. necessitate. dependable. Student’s lack of understanding of the basic concepts in computer science may……………………the instructor to restructure the course. 10. necessarily. A good programmer isn’t……………………going to be a good systems analyst. dependent.English for Computer Learners c. dependably. 9. Because it is expensive to set up a computer department it is……………………to budget well for the basic……………………of the installations. calculation. b. 8.. b. 6. mechanization. mechanized a. Some problems aren’t ……………………without logarithm tables. b. A computer can do many kinds of…………………… quickly and accurately. The length of time a programmer takes to make a programme will vary……………………on the complexity of the problem and his ability and experience. dependency. Some people working in computer installations aren’t very ……………………because they are shy. The……………………improvements of the computers are reducing man’s workload. calculating. calculate. c. c. dependence.

INPUT COMPUTER SECONDARY STORAGE OUTPUT [3] The above figure shows schematically the fundamental hardware components in a computer system. usually. Handling or manipulating the information that has been given to the computer. and the high-speed internal memory in which data and calculations are stored during actual execution of programs. the central processing unit (CPU). CPU Monitor Mouse Keyboard Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 14 . the processing. and output occur in almost every aspect of human life whether at work or at play. Information. the processing is the sewing together of these pieces. through complex circuits with different functions. at enormous speeds. regardless of make or design.English for Computer Learners UNIT 3: CHARACTERISTICS [1] Computers are machines designed to process. after which the machine acts on it. they are stored on various secondary memory devices or storage devices such as magnetic tapes or magnetic disks. in the form of instructions and data. processing. When data or programs need to be saved for long periods of time. and the result. adding information or making comparisons is called processing. The term "computer" includes those parts of hardware in which calculations and other data manipulations are performed. the output. in clothing manufacturing. The information presented to the machine is the input: the internal manipulative operations. in such ways as doing calculations. especially prepared pieces of information which are termed data. The centerpiece is call either the computer. electronically. the input is the pieces of cut cloth. and a result is then returned. For example. These three basic concepts of input. is given to the machine. and the output is the finished garment. Computers are made up of millions of electronic devices capable of storing data or moving them. [2] All computers have several characteristics in common. or. the processor. Attached to the CPU are the various peripheral devices such as card readers and keyboards (two common examples of input devices).

a processor output and a storage device. ………. 8. 2 Understanding the passage Decide whether the following statements are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text. 2. Computers haven't changed our working conditions very much. 4. Computers today cost less. and cheaper. 10. Although a computer can only respond to a certain number of instructions. Memory devices are used for storing information. Computers have changed the way in which we live. thereby leaving us with more time for interesting. 2. are smaller. All other devices used in a computer system are attached to the CPU. they were very expensive to own and run. its versatility is limited only by the imagination of those using it. 7. 4. ………. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statement becomes true. It goes without saying that computers have created whole new areas of work that did not exist before their development. EXERCISES 1 Main idea Which statement(s) best express the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1. Computers have decreased man's workload. All computers have the same basic hardware components. a computer has no limit on the kinds of things it can do. Give the line references. their size and reliability were such that a large number of support personnel were needed to keep the equipment operating. creative work. Computers are very much restricted in what they can do. All computers are basically the same. Therefore. All information to be processed must be prepared in such a way that the computer will understand it. The processor is the central component of a computer system. Computers are limited by man's imagination more than anything else. 6. 9. Because of the complex electronic circuitry of a computer. data can be either stored or moved about at high speeds. more compact. Computers can remove many of the routine and boring tasks from our lives. Computers can process data and instructions given to them and produce results.English for Computer Learners [4] Computers have often been thought of as extremely large adding machines. computers have greatly changed the way in which many kinds of work are performed. The basic concepts of data processing are restricted to computers alone. and need fewer people to operate them than in the past.1. [6] In only a very short period of time.2. T F 1. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 15 . but this is a very narrow view of their function. [5] In the late 1950s and early 1960s when electronic computers of the kind in use today were being develops. 3. All computers have an input. 5. Moreover. This has all changed now that computing power has become portable. 3. 3 Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. it is not a single-purpose machine since these instructions can be combined in an infinite number of sequences.

new information is presented to the user. additionally.22) ……………………. 10. complicated.9) ……………………. 1.5) ……………………. ………. Some people are good at inventing……………………stories. react (l.24) ……………………. imagine. A computer is limited in its ability by the ……………………of man. they are stored on tapes or disks. complicating. 6. words with a similar meaning) for the following words.e. 6. 8.27) ……………………. 3.5) ……………………. or moving them (l.3.2) ……………………. 2. limited (l. the kinds of things it can do (l. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary.23) …………………….25) ……………………. ideas (l. c. called (l. There can be many……………………involved in setting up a computer in an old building. First the computer accepts data. b. All the equipment used in a computer system is the hardware.e. additional. ……….27) ……………………. wide (l. 9. 2. 6 Word forms First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences. 10. addition.8) ……………………. the machine acts on it (l.2) ……………………. b. 7. they are stored on (l. add. ……….19) ……………………. 1. It is practically impossible to ……………………the speed at which a computer calculates numbers. If the programs or data need to be kept for a long time.6. 2.31) ……………………. taken away (l. Now refer back to the text and find antonyms (i. imaginary a. imaginable. works with an opposite meaning) for the following words. added. 8. take away (l. 5 Understanding words Refer back to the text and find synonyms (i. Many terminals can be……………………to a basic system if the need arises. which are termed data (l. Moreover. 3. tremendous (l. 9.English for Computer Learners ……….24) ……………………. imagination. complication. ……………………and subtraction are two basic mathematical operations. 4.7. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 16 . When buying a system there is often no ……………………charge for the programs. that did not exist (l. it is not a single-purpose machine (l. of those using it (l. complicatedly a.5. 4 Contextual reference Now look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to. imaginative. Finally.22) …………………….33) ……………………. 5. additive a. c. 1. ………. they were very expensive to own (l. 5. Computers are electronic machines used for processing data.7) ……………………. their size and reliability (l.4. 3. immovable (l. 7.33) ……………………. complicate.29) ……………………. 4. after (l.

..... 5......... rely on... 4. differential............. There are many……………………computer manufacturers today...... Information ........ differ... storage devices......................... 5.machine and may require quite specialized .. reliability a.... Then complete the following statements with the appropriate words. 6. Computers are……………………machines....... There isn't a very big……………………in flowcharting for a program to be written in Cobol or Fortran....... and . 4..... A computer isn't usually a ... It is sometimes very……………………to explain computer concepts.... you cannot always……………………an all-purpose dictionary for the answers.... c.......English for Computer Learners b.takes place in the ....... reliable. 2. . Control unit 3......... b.... 7b Content review Summarize the text on "Characteristics" by completing the following table. The.... Page 17 A. difference...... units are used as ......................device..refers to all the electromechanical devices used in a computer installation.......... 4. processing secondary memory input hardware processor output personnel magnetic tape magnetic disk single-purpose 1........ and a buyer must be able to ……………………between the advantages and disadvantages of each..... 3.... c............... Make sure you use the correct form.....not in the .. 2... to operate it and all its related equipment................. differentiate a. different.. 1... SYSTEM Hardware COMPONENTS PARTS 1.... singular or plural. Computers can do mathematical operations quickly and …………………… 7a Content review Try to think of a definition for each of these items in the box before checking them in the Glossary. differently............. If you don't know the meaning of a computer term.. c......device or..... reliably.................... The opinions of programmers as to the best way of solving a problem often …………………greatly...... Others Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages .... 2............. Disks 3.. It is sometimes a very……………………process getting into a computer installation for security reasons......... b. Peripheral devices B.........e... (Some can be used more than once)....... i..

that's a nice computer. and I read the manual three times. and nothing happens.English for Computer Learners 8 Conversations Pair work. Linda: Are all the cables plugged in? Jim: Yes. Dialogue 2 Mary: What's in these boxes? Jim: The big one is my scanner and the little ones are my speakers and modem. Jim: Well. turn on the computer.. Make your brochure interesting enough to attract the customers to your shop. 9 Project You are from an IT company.. Dialogue 1 Jim gets the new computer home. Look. here you are . Oh. I don't understand! Linda: Let me look at it. but it doesn't work.you didn't plug it in. Your boss asks you to make a brochure about the components of computers as well as services your company provides. and nothing happens. Jim: Oh no. turns it on.. Practice the conversations. Mary: You sure bought a lot of peripherals. Linda: Hey Jim. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 18 . Jim: Yeah. I turn on the monitor. I still want to buy a laser jet printer.

but input-output operations. without becoming bored. tired. The following kinds of things need be done for each employee on the payroll.one after another. Because they are man-made machines. has no intuition. unlike a human being. In spite of newspaper headlines such as "Computer Fails". input information about the employee such as wage rate.English for Computer Learners UNIT 4: COMPUTER CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS [1] Like all machines. [4] Thirdly. no matter how capable it is. A person may suddenly find the answer to a problem without working out too many of the details. Speeds for performing decision-making operations are comparable to those for arithmetic operations. Even the most sophisticated computer. millions of times faster than a skilled mathematician. or even careless. not even how to accept or reject data. it should be recognized that computers are capable of doing repetitive operations. On a typical computer system. Until such time as a program is prepared and stored in the computer's memory. computers can process information at extremely rapid rates. cards are read at an average speed of 1000 cards per minute and as many as 1000 lines can be printed at the same rate. unemployment insurance. a computer needs to be directed and controlled in order to perform a task successfully. Third. for instance. Second. However. hours worked. One of the most important reasons why computers are so widely used today is that almost every big problem can be solved by solving a number of little problems . do some simple arithmetic and decision-making operations. [6] Finally. general-purpose computers can be programmed to solve various types of problems because of their flexibility. must be told what to do. The most elaborate computers must be programmed in order to be useful. Until the capabilities and the limitations of a computer are recognized. First. it is due to human error and is not the fault of the computer at all. tax rate. For example. can be done quite easily. By repeating this process over and over again. EXERCISES 1 Main idea Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1. [3] Secondly. A computer can perform similar operations thousands of times. the payroll will eventually be completed. involve mechanical motion and hence require more time. these machines are very accurate and reliable especially when the number of operations they can perform every second is considered. [5] In the fourth place. and pension deductions. however. computers may be programmed to calculate answers to whatever level of accuracy is specified by the programmer. the computer "knows" absolutely nothing. [2] In the first place. the task of producing a university payroll. they sometimes malfunction or break down and have to be repaired. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 19 . in most instances when the computer fails. but a computer can only proceed as it has been programmed to. modern computers can solve certain classes of arithmetic problems. a computer. output a few printed lines on a cheque. its usefulness cannot be thoroughly understood. [7] Using the very limited capabilities possessed by all computers.

4. 10. 2 Understanding the passage Decide whether the following statements are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text. 9. 3 Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. 7. 4. 1. 7. one after another (l. 4 Contextual reference Now look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to. Knowledge of a computer's capabilities and limitations is important. 8. A computer is a single-purpose machine in that it can not be programmed to solve various types of problems. 10. A computer can think and solve problems by itself. 6.24) ……………………. 5. 9. T F 1. 5. The following kinds of things needs to be done (l.11) ……………………. A computer usually solves problems by doing some mathematical and decision-making operations. It is important to know what a computer can and can not do.7. ………. ………. Computers are used because they are fast and exact. because of their flexibility (l.26) …………………….33) ……………………. By repeating this process (l.8. 2.18) ……………………. 6.18) ……………………. one after another (l.2. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 20 . ……….English for Computer Learners 2. A computer must work out the details of a problem before reaching a solution. as it has been programmed to (l.4) …………………….e. ………. ………. no matter how capable it is (l.3. they sometimes malfunction (l. 3. 5 Understanding words Refer back to the text and find synonyms (i. Computers do not usually make mistakes unless they break down. Input and output devices operate more slowly than the arithmetic and decision-making device. The speed at which different computer components function is considered to be one of the limitations of a computer. ………. A computer can not do anything until it has been programmed. 3.29) …………………….24) …………………….5. A computer can do the same operation millions of times without stopping. 2. A computer can repeat the same operation over and over again forever if permitted. 8. ………. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statement becomes true. words with a similar meaning) for the following words.1. to those for arithmetic operations (l. Computers can solve many kinds of different problems. they are man-made machines (l.6. A computer is a useless machine if its capabilities and limitations are unknown. ………. A computer can process information very quickly. Computers are exact and dependable. A computer is useless without a programmer to tell it what to do. 3.22) …………………….4. Give line references as in the example below. Computer can solve big problems by following a series of simple steps. A computer needs to be told what to do.

A B 1. 4. run well (l..30) ……………………. repetition. 6 Word forms First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences.25) ……………………. repairable. comparable... decision-making operations a... c.30) ……………………. repetitive. c.. salary sheet (l. repeat. 1.. There are some people who ……………………arrive late to class whenever they're working on a program because they forget the time.... 2. 2... 8. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary.... b..the same operation over and over again accurately without becoming tired or bored.. Computers can produce results quickly and ………………… 7a Content review Match the following words in column A with the appropriate statements in column B. repairs... repaired. Electronic equipment often takes a long time to…………………… c. repeating a...5) ……………………. The first one is done for you. 3. exceptional (l. accuracy. 10.4) ……………………. basic (l... c..1) ……………………. b. process and output information Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 21 . 6. Now refer back to the text and find antonyms (i. slowly (l... comparative a.. Computers can……………………numbers. job (l.. ……………………is one of the advantages of using computers in research or in statistical analysis.... can solve different types of problems 2. Renting a computer isn't……………………to owning one.. repair a.19) ……………………... ……………………. d... d... 5.. which can be a boring and unproductive task.. has been eliminated with the use of computers. employer (l.... repeatedly...small. The difference in price of microcomputers from different manufacturers can be. compare. A computer can. accurately a.. When the computer is down it needs to be…………………… b. A computer can do……………………operations without getting tired or bored. 7. words with an opposite meaning) for the following words.. 3.10) ……………………. ……………………to a computer system are often done by the same company who manufactured the system. accurate.. clever (l... comparatively. all the equipment needed input. cases (l. comprehended (l...13) ……………………. 4.English for Computer Learners 1..e. A computer is always……………………in its results if well-prepared.19) ……………………. comparison.. 9. programmer b. There is sometimes very little ……………………to be made between two different brand-name microcomputers.... b.

under main idea(s). The assignment also requires each group to provide a short talk to outline their main point. finds a solution after working out all the details 11. very accurate and dependable 8. 1. organize the information in Unit 4. decides what the program is to be 7b Content review Decide which of the following statements are computer capabilities or limitations (C or L in each box). producing a payroll is an easy task 8 Focus review Organizing information On a separate sheet. major details and minor details. Topics · · · · · · Computers in the home Computers in business Computers in banking Computers in government Computers in education Computers in transportation Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 22 . can solve different types of problems 10. man-made machine 9. 4. general-purpose computers 4.English for Computer Learners 3. must be told what to do 3. those which compare numbers d. "Computer capabilities and Limitations". Each group will write approximately one page to briefly outline how’computers can be used in that area. can't think for itself 12. never get bored or tired 5. directed and controlled 2. computer system c. 9 Writing The class is divided into six groups and allocated one area of study. capable of doing repetitive operations. input-output operations are slower 7. fast and careful 6.

Special keys: used to issue commands or to produce alternative characters in key combinations.……………… …………………. the Alt key. 3. Look at the picture of a PC-compatible keyboard and identify these groups of keys. a trackball.…… ………………… …………………. Cut.…. Function keys: used by various programs to instruct the PC to perform specific tasks. etc.. such as Save. The most common are the keyboard and the mouse. 5. We can also interact with a computer by using one of these : a light pen. Alphanumeric keys: arranged in the same order as a typewriter. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 23 . 1. for example. Numeric keypad: set of numeric or editing keys. Editing keys: cursor and other keys usually used within word processors to page up and down in a long document or to edit text (using Insert or Delete keys). The Num Lock key is used to switch from numbers to editing functions.…. 1 ………………………… . Look at the illustrations and see if you can name them. 2. Copy.English for Computer Learners UNIT 5: TYPE AND CLICK Interacting with your computer Input devices are the pieces of hardware which allow us to enter information into the computer. 2 About the keyboard A. or a joystick. a graphics tablet. 4. ………………………… ……….. Help. a scanner.. Paste.

What are the advantages of a computer mouse over a keyboard? Read the text to check your answers or to find the right answers. Alt (= …………………………. (= ………………………….) 9. It removes the character on the left of the cursor or any specific actions. arrow keys 1. It produces UPPER-CASE characters (or the upper-case character of the key). (= …………………………. Then find them on the keyboard. (= …………………………. as an alternative to the mouse. it produces a blank space. It moves the cursor horizontally to the right for a fixed number of Backspace spaces (in tabulations and data fields). What are the functions of the mouse buttons? 4. It works in combination with other keys to produce special characters or specific actions.) Shift 4.) 3..) Return/ Enter 2. It stops a program without losing the information from the main Caps lock memory. It produces upper-case letters. It is also used to confirm commands. They are used to move the cursor.) 8.) 3 About the mouse A. What does the mouse pointer look like on the screen? 3.) 7. It moves the cursor to the beginning of a new line. Try to answer these questions 1. Match these descriptions with the name of keys on the right. (= …………………………. How is the mouse connected to the computer? 2.) Escape 6. (= ………………………….. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 24 . (= …………………………. Sometimes its use depends on the applications. (= …………………………. A long key at the bottom of the keyboard. (= ……………………….) Tab 5.English for Computer Learners A PC-compatible keyboard B. but it does not affect numbers and Space bar symbols. Each time it is pressed.

Position the pointer on something. Dialogue 1 Paul: Each window has three buttons on the right side of the strip at the top. Here are some basic mouse actions. (You do this to load a program. then release the button. When you have the image where you want it. (You do this to move an image to a new location on the screen. Go to the Netscape site. press the mouse button and drag the image from one place on the screen to another. and the one on the left minimizes. A. Mice are also used to load documents into a program: you put the pointer on the file name and double-click on the name – that is. The mouse is designated to slide around on your desktop. The mouse also issues instructions to the computer very quickly.) 2. Move the desktop mouse half an inch and the screen cursor will leap four inches. Match the term in the box with the explanations below. it moves an image on the screen called a pointer or mouse cursor. (Adapted from Your First Computer. a click b double-click c drag 1. You position the pointer on an object on the screen. Position the pointer on something.English for Computer Learners Point and click! Typically. to do with keyboard keys.) 4 Conversations Pair work. and it mimics the movements of the mouse on your desktop. click on the mouse. Similarly. and the option has been chosen. on a menu or a tool in a paint program. the middle one maximizes. Point to an available option with the cursor. On top of the mouse there are one or more buttons for communicating with the computer. the way you move an image with a mouse is to put the pointer on the object you want to move. Practice the conversations. you press a mouse button twice in rapid succession. slightly smaller than a pack of cards. Paul: That's right. and choose the one you want. or to close a window. Now it's called the restore button. a mouse is a palm-sized device. hold on the mouse button and move the mouse to the desired position. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 25 . open a document or select text or graphics. 1992) B. Jim: What do they do? Paul: The one on the right closes the window. Mice are so widely used in graphics applications because they can do things that are difficult. the mouse is used to grab one corner of the image (say a square) and stretch it into another shape (say a rectangle). then press and release the mouse button. What makes the mouse especially useful is that it is a very quick way to move around on a screen. The buttons on the mouse are used to select items at which the mouse points. to choose an option. Position the pointer on something. Sybex. then rapidly press and release the mouse button twice. Both of these actions are so much more difficult to perform with a keyboard that most graphics programs require a mouse. and then you press the mouse button to ‘select’ it. A ‘tail’ or wire extends from the mouse to a connection on the back of the computer. Jim: Look. for example. As it moves. Making the same movements with the arrow keys takes much longer. (You do this to place the insertion point. Jim: Is it difficult? Paul: Not really. the middle one changed when I clicked on it. if not impossible. you release the mouse button and the image stays there. The pointer usually looks like an arrow or I-bar. For example. Simpson.) 3. Dialogue 2 Jim: I want to get the newest version of Netscape. How do I do it? Paul: You will need to use FTP to download it from Netscape.

you send money to the author. I see. If you like it. Jim: Oh. don't forget which folder it's in. Jim: What's shareware? Paul: Shareware is software you can try for free. Dialogue 3: Jim: Thanks for finding that new program. and it costs $20. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 26 .English for Computer Learners Jim: Anything else? Paul: Yes. How much is it? Paul: It's shareware.

Software alone doesn't constitute a computer system. computer systems are devised. EXERCISES 1 Main idea Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1.the physical. or usually the central processing unit (CPU). [4] Computer software can be divided into two very broad categories. when brought into internal memory. 3. These complete hardware/software products are called turnkey systems.the programs that control and coordinate the activities of the computer hardware and that direct the processing of data. INPUT COMPUTER OUTPUT SECONDARY STORAGE Hardware components of a basic computer system [3] The figure shows diagrammatically the basic components of computer hardware joined together in a computer system. are attached to the CPU. A "system" implies a good mixture of integrated parts working together to form a useful whole. The centerpiece is called the computer. Computer systems may be discussed in two parts. [2] The first part is hardware. A computer system needs both hardware and software to be complete. and so on. These. electronic. 2 Understanding the passage Indicate whether the following ideas are stated or not stated (S/NS) in the text. The term "computer" usually refers to those parts of the hardware in which calculations and other data manipulations are performed. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 27 . and to the internal memory in which data and instructions are stored during the actual execution of programs.English for Computer Learners UNIT 6: HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE [1] In order to use computers effectively to solve problems in our environments.systems software and applications software. direct the computer to perform tasks. The various peripherals. The second part is software. A poorly chosen system can be a monstrosity incapable of performing the tasks for which it was originally acquired. which include input and/ or output devices. various secondary memory devices. 2. the processor. Only hardware is necessary to make up a computer system. The latter may be provided along with the hardware by a systems supplier as part of a computer product designed to answer a specific need in certain areas. The former is often simply referred to as "systems". and electromechanical devices that are thought of and recognized as "computers". [5] The success or failure of any computer systems depends on the skill with which the hardware and software components are selected and blended.

4 Contextual reference Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to.2. The latter may be provided along with (l. 7. 3.16) …………………….1. There are two parts of a computer system. ……….10) ……………………. the former is often simply referred to (l. These. Input and output devices operate more slowly than the decision-making devices.5.15) ……………………. 5. 9. 3 Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed.2) ……………………. ……….21) …………………….15) ……………………. The word "computer" means the processor and the internal memory. narrow (l. words with a similar meaning) for the following words. 6. in which calculations (l.e. 3. The hardware consists of the physical devices of the computer. that control and coordinate (l.20) ……………………. ………. The control unit and the arithmetic-logical unit are parts of the processor.4) ……………………. ………. 6.4. useless (l. The peripheral devices are attached to the CPU.2) ……………………. 5. chosen (l.20) ……………………. 5 Understanding words Refer back to the text and find synonyms (i.7. ……….English for Computer Learners S NS 1. for which it was originally acquired (l. works with an opposite meaning) for the following words. 5.e. tapes and disks. ………. 8. 8. The "computer" is the hardware. Computers process specially prepared items of information. in which data and instructions (l. Give line references. The success or failure of a computer system depends on the proper mixture of hardware and software. The software is the programs. Complete hardware/ software products are called turnkey systems. 10. 9. when brought into (l. 6. Software is the programs on cards. In order to solve problems. 2.14) ……………………. computer systems may be discussed in two parts (l. 7.3) ……………………. The processor is usually referred to as the CPU. The "computer" is the CPU and the internal memory. 10. ……….9) …………………….2) ……………………. 4. well (l. developed (l.3. 1. 2. 7.5) …………………….8. 1. Computer software can be divided into two parts. Now refer back to the text and find antonyms (i.2) ……………………. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 28 . segregated (l. 8. infers (l.2) …………………….6. 3. 4. an appropriate computer system must be developed. joined (l. that are thought of (l. and that direct the processing (l. A system implies a good mixture of parts working together. ……….6) ……………………. Systems software is usually referred to as “programs”. 2. 4.

.........of labour within a computer company. peripherals d.. Are all numbers................. 7a Content review Match the following words in column A with the words or statements in column B.... applications software f... Very often manufacturers provide.............. b.the many activities in a computer department is the job of the department head...... ............................. There is a big difference between an input and an output............of all its parts to form a useful whole.. hardware a......both input and output devices into one terminal..................... turnkey systems g.......... coordinating. A...... The control unit of a processor...............................the flow of information between the arithmetic unit and the memory. c... physical electronic and electromagnetic devices 5........of the many programs........ divisible a.English for Computer Learners 6 Word forms First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences...... coordinated....... interchanged a. 2.... integration...... the computer 2...... A few ideas have been ............... There is often an ........ hardware/software packages 7....... b...... integrate......for you in this book.representations of the internal workings of a computer....of ideas among computer scientists....... c........ b.........................by three? c.......their time up proportionally between studying and programming.......... 4... interchange. divide....... hardware plus software 6........... A B 1............. division.............................. processor c...... The success of any computer system depends on the .. It is often difficult for computer science students to .. diagram............. interchangeable......................... timetables... software b......... diagrammed a.... of a language institute has assistants to help him and may have access to a computer to help him with the ..... coordinator a.... short for central processing unit 4....... These cannot be.... c....... The .................. integrated..... integrating a............... interchangeably....... system software e. b... b......... The words "arithmetic logic" and "arithmetic-logical" can be used................. computer systems h....... Some computer manufacturers have ..... direct the computer 9........ input/output and secondary memory devices 3....... Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary.. There is always a ................input and output devices into one peripheral has reduced the area needed for a computer installation.is a drawing that shows how something is arranged rather than what it actually looks like. diagrammatically.... c.. coordination.. the programs Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 29 . used for a specific job 8............. diagrammatic..... coordinate.................... space and student results..... ........ CPU i......... 3....... 5........ 1......................

. devices......constitute the ............................ major details and minor details... Paul: It has great graphics and sound files.....English for Computer Learners 7b Content review Use the following diagram which shows the relationship between the system and its parts to complete the paragraph............ Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 30 .................................. Mary: Great! Let's go play your first game...... comprise the . Dialogue 2 Jim: This is a new multi-media authoring tool.... and I can use .... .......... Mary: Let's see........ I put it in the CD-ROM drive and install it this way....... It's a kind of "edutainment" software.avi files to show movies...... organize the information in Unit 5........ The Central Processing Unit and the .. How does it work? Hmm............. Now I can make applications with sound and graphics.... Devices that are used for secondary storage are considered part of the ....... 9 Conversations Dialogue 1 Mary: Look...... Mary: Can you also put in animation? Jim: Yes.............. Each component is subdivided into different parts.. These devices along with Input and Output devices are referred to as ........ and ..... A computer system consists of two components: ...................... component........... Systems software and ............ I bought the new Encarta encyclopedia on CD-ROM.. component............. 8 Focus review Organizing information On a separate sheet. under main idea(s)....................... "Hardware and Software".... component....

Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 31 . It will close when the file is finished playing.English for Computer Learners Dialogue 3 Jim: How do I play this movie file? It has an .avi.avi extension. How do I control the video player? Paul: If you want to get the controller.avi file you want to see. Just double-click on the . Paul: Windows 95 has a Multimedia Player which is powerful but simple. just double click on the title bar of the playing . Jim: I see.

multiplication. the CPU can be divided into two functional units called the control unit (CU) and the arithmetic-logical unit (ALU). selects instructions and data from memory. These two units are made up of electronic circuits with millions of switches that can be in one of two states. on the other hand. [2] The CPU coordinates all the activities of the various components of the computer. either on or off. Manufacturers design the CPU to control and carry out basic instructions for their particular computer. namely. if located on secondary memory devices such as disks or tapes. called for in the instructions are performed. or during maintenance and repair. Many mini and micro systems do not have a console. The internal memory or main storage. The control unit is that portion of the computer that directs the sequence or step-by-step operations of the system. must be in internal memory in order to be processed. [7] Main storage and the CPU are connected to a console. piece of equipment. All the operations of the ALU are under the direction of the control unit. It is used mainly when the computer is being started up. addition. but special purpose. [3] In digital computers. and controls the flow between main storage and the arithmetic-logical unit.English for Computer Learners UNIT 7: THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT CONTROL UNIT ARITHMETICLOGICAL UNIT MEMORY of MAIN STORAGE [1] It is common practice in computer science for the words "computer" and "processor" to be used interchangeably. It determines which operations should be carried out and in what order. [4] The function of the control unit within the central processor is to transmit coordinating control signals and commands. subtraction. It also performs some kinds of logical operations such as comparing or selecting information. The console is an important. The CPU can also retrieve information from memory and can store the results of manipulations back into the memory unit for later reference. programs and data are first loaded into internal memory. "computer" refers to the central processing unit (CPU) together with an internal memory. on which the control unit and the ALU operate. interprets the program instructions. More precisely. Thus. where manual control operations can be performed by an operator. [5] The arithmetic-logical unit. [6] Programs and the data. is that portion of the computer in which the actual arithmetic operations. EXERCISES 1 Main idea Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 32 . control and processing components make up the heart of the computer system.

The CPU is made up of the control unit. 4. Only after the data has been processed by the CPU can results be transmitted to an output device. …………………….14) (l. that can be in one of two states 5. ……………………. ………. on which the control unit and the arithmetic-logical unit operate 9. Main storage is not a part of a processor. where manual control operations 10. 2. 3.19) (l. 10. 8. The central processing unit is made up of three components. 6. It determines which operations 3. in which the actual arithmetic operations 7. ………. the arithmetic-logical unit and internal memory. Give line references. The arithmetic-logical unit does the calculations and decision-making operations. 2. ………. The control unit coordinates the sequencing of events within the processor. ……….24) (l. The CPU is responsible for all the activities taking place within a computer. These two units are made up of 4. The arithmetic-logical unit is also responsible for choosing and comparing the appropriate information within a program. ……………………. The processor can not operate on any information if that information is not in main storage. The CPU is composed of the arithmetic-logical unit and control unit only. It is used mainly when the computer 5 Understanding words (l.5. …………………….6) (l.1.25) …………………….17) (l. …………………….6. The CPU directs all the activities of the computers. The CPU can get information from memory and put old or new information back into memory. ………. ……………………. ……………………. for their particular computer 2. 7. ………. T F 1. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 33 .21) (l. 1. It is also performed some kind of 8.12) (l. The word "computer" usually refers to the CPU plus internal memory. The control unit directs the flow of information within the processor. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statement becomes true. that directs the sequence 6. The arithmetic-logical unit of the processor is responsible for the interpretation of program instructions.2. ………. 9. 5.English for Computer Learners 1.3. …………………….11) (l. Secondary memory and internal memory are located in the same place in the computer system. 3 Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. 4 Contextual reference Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to. 2 Understanding the passage Decide whether the following statements are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text.7. Computers can solve problems more quickly if they operate on new information. …………………….4. 3.5) (l. The processor operates on information that is in internal storage. The processor itself has three components. The processor is the control unit and the arithmetic-logical unit.

.6) ……………………. 7..... 1.... Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 34 ......... 6. job (l.................... shut down (l......to the processor unless the computer is programmed otherwise.......1) …………………….. 5.. 3. connected................. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary.. computerized.... The central processing unit has many............. c...properly. In order for the computer to. 4......... there should be no fluctuation in the electronic current... On-line equipment is usually .. computational a..........16) ……………………. 2..... 5... 4.................... works with an opposite meaning) for the following words........ words with a similar meaning) for the following words...... Whether one is writing computer science related information or not... Malfunctioning equipment can often be traced to a bad electrical . Data must be presented................... computer.. 1...26) …………………….............requirements necessary to produce the payroll for a large company take a very long time......23) ……………………...... logic.... b..operations performed by the arithmetic-logical unit are under the control of the control unit................................... c..18) …………………….as fast as.....in one’s approach to a problem............is very important................ b....... connection. sequentially a.13) ……………………. one must be.................... 3...e................ Learning to program is a.................... b... specific (l. sequential.. movement (l....to a computer... The ......... The banking industry has become more and more .... To be a good programmer.. not needed (l...... connect............................. logical.................. computed...... computation......... 10. situated (l...................... taken out (l.......operations of the system.... 6 Word forms First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences....... 2. c...... generally (l.....organized if successful results are to be obtained........ functional....22) ……………………... b.... c........ exceptional (l. b..............................English for Computer Learners Refer back to the text and find synonyms (i.e. It is a fact that humans can not............ connective a.. function.part of any course in computer science...... c. compute.......2) …………………….... sequence. The control unit of the CPU directs the........ the processor must follow to solve the problem..... 9. 8... Now refer back to the text and find antonyms (i.. A program must be . A program must be a detailed account of the. decides (l..................................... The.................... logically a....... the use of ........... functionally a...........5) …………………….....

Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 35 . The most important part is the data you use.English for Computer Learners 7 Content review Use the text you have studied so far to complete the following table. FUNCTIONS Arithmetic Output devices 8 Conversation When problems happen Pair work. 1. 4. Jim: Why? Paul: It's the only part of your computer that can't be replaced.you will never see your data again. 2. SYSTEM Computer SUBSYSTEMS Input devices Processor PARTS Memory 1. If you didn't made a back-up copy of it . Jim: What's the most important part of the computer? Paul: The most important part of your computer isn't the hard disk or the monitor or the printer. 2. Practice the conversation. Paul: That's a very good idea. Jim: I should buy a back-up tape drive. 3.and something bad happens to your computer .

depending on their storage capacity. For example. or accessed. [4] Secondary memory devices fall into two categories: sequential devices and random-access devices. this is called virtual storage. But since computers must process vast quantities of data and programs. An example of such a device is the magnetic tape. There are two types of memory: primary and secondary. [3] Most primary memory is costly. or parts of it. The information present in these compartments is called the contents of the memory. For example.English for Computer Learners UNIT 8: PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MEMORY [1] The term "memory" is usually used to refer to the internal storage locations of a computer. referred to as a dedicated function. On the other hand. Because they are always fixed. In order to get at a particular data item. The former means that any part of the memory may be read. thus making them immediately available for processing by the CPU. It is also called real storage or primary memory. where the storage locations are like a series of tiny. and each byte equal to 8 bits. These addresses are like the addresses of houses. in that they do not change. This. Its cost is low. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 36 . When it finds them. These devices bypass large quantities of irrelevant data and therefore reduce access time considerably. which is faster than the magnetic tape and also more expensive. is not true for mini and micro applications where the computer performs the same function. the control unit knows where to find them at a very high speed. it puts into the compartments whatever must go there and wipes out whatever was stored there. This is made possible by the system of addresses in primary memory. equally quickly. 2 Understanding the passage Indicate whether the following ideas are stated or not stated (S/NS) in the text. but access to specified data may take a considerable length of time. For this reason various secondary memory technologies have been developed. which means that a program. each having its own address. An example of this technology is the magnetic disk. or almost direct. a computer with 256K bytes of real storage may seem to have 512K bytes of virtual storage by using disks to provide additional storage. EXERCISES 1 Main idea Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1. and therefore it is used transiently. and is expressed as quantities of K. Each k is equal to 1024 bytes. Sequential devices permit information to be written on to or read off some storage medium in a fixed sequence only. a lot of storage space is required. two things are needed: random access and speed. however. Primary memory is more important than secondary memory. all the time. [2] Primary memory is closely associated the CPU because it stores programs and data temporarily. is kept in internal storage while the program is being executed. To facilitate processing. Secondary memory devices are unimportant in a computer system. 2. it is necessary to pass over all the data preceding it. access to specified data. When disks are hooked up to the computer and used as an extension of internal storage in order to increase the capacity of primary memory. computers are advertised as having memories of 16K or 152K. compartments. random-access devices are designed to permit direct. 3.

10) (l.4.23) (l. 2. Information stored on magnetic disk can be retrieved faster than if that same information were on tape. The term "memory" can be expressed in other ways. 7. The control unit needs to know the location where information is stored or needs to be stored.. whatever must go there 10. The CPU and primary memory work closely together.15) ……………………... …………………….. 5. words with a similar meaning) for the following words.e... …………………….12) (l. 2.3.. Speed and random access are important in processing information. .6) (l.Computers can process information even if complete programs are not put in internal storage 3 Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. where to find them 9. ……………………. depending on their storage capacity 3. 1. ………. ……….. 6..12) (l. 4. Minicomputers and microcomputers have a similar memory capacity...11) (l.3) (l.6. 5 Understanding words Refer back to the text and find synonyms (i.9) (l. 4 Contextual reference Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to. Random-access devices are more efficient than sequential devices. each having its own address 7.5.2) (l.7.15) (l..26) …………………….. in that they do not change 8. thus making them 4. Only parts of programs are kept in primary storage while a program is being run through. Give line references.. ……………………. It is also called 2. There are two types of secondary memory device. 5. ………. 10. ………. ……………………..1.. and primary memory are all the same. 3. The former means that 5. ………. Where the storage locations 6. The CPU can easily access information from internal storage.English for Computer Learners S NS 1. presented erases carried out before very much (l. ……………………. Now refer back to the text and find antonyms (i.2.. ……….. 4. ………..1) (l. …………………...e..7) (l..9) (l.. 9. ……………………. works with an opposite meaning) for the following words. Primary memory is more expensive than secondary memory. Virtual storage increases the memory capacity of a computer.. or parts of it (l. 1.. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 37 .. ……………………. ……………………. Information is stored in memory in compartments with a specific location....8. ……………………. There are two classes of secondary memory devices... Disks and tapes can be stored in a library. 3.. Real storage. …………………….... ………. Computers are often advertised according to their memory capacity. 8. internal storage.

...... equally........ advertisement........such as "He or she has a computer for a brain" means that he or she is a fast-thinking person.........a minicomputer in flexibility... expression...difficult..... computer............. expressive................ Computers are ... Computers understand commands .. random access c. b.... are faced with a more challenging job.. A B 1..... c.................. means any part of memory that can be read equally quickly 2.......... The Computer Center will soon ........ c......... Career opportunities in computer science and related fields can usually be found in the .... Information sent via a computer is faster than using the ... b.. go through 10........ An. 4.. disallow 8........... c......... design............... equality...... 7 Content review Match the following words in column A with the appropriate statements in column B..........system of airlines or postal services. Computer architects are constantly trying to improve on the ......... 3............ Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary................. latter 7. considerably a........ internal storage a............. The symbol ≠ means that two things are not.... consider...30) ……………………........ unnecessary 9. equal...................section of newspapers........in The New York Times.of computers..... express........................... ……………………. ……………………....difference between written and spoken English.......... 6 Word forms First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences...... b..... ……………………..7) (l.. real storage b.... refers to memory Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 38 .......... advertised a... ......... 1.............. Due to the advances in computer technology........ b....................... advertise... It is important to ..................to process information accurately and quickly........faster than previously. designation.... imaginary (l........ The two computer languages Pascal and PL 1 are ... expressed a. c...the capabilities and limitations of a computer before buying one........... equalize a...... designer(s).......... 2..... There are many computer-related jobs ............... addresses d...21) (l.............22) (l....... consideration. the information contained in the storage locations 3...........25) (l..... designing a.... b......for more operators programmers...... A microcomputer doesn't ...English for Computer Learners 6..... c.......... are storage locations in internal storage 4.in the form of 0 and 1........ considerable....... designed..... New printers can print results ..... 5.............. There is a ...

Read the text and complete it with the phrases in the box. both contained in electronic chips connected to the main board of the computer.……………………. instead of looking for the data in sequential order.. Consequently. which are installed in the motherboard of the computer. The RAM capacity can sometimes be expanded by adding extra chips. These are usually contained in single in-line memory modules or SIMMs. [4]c. When running an application. hooking up secondary memory devices onto memory increase their capacity f. Therefore. All the information stored in the RAM is temporary Microcomputers make use of two types of main memory ROM chips have ‘constant’ information the size of RAM is very important Main memory : RAM and ROM The main memory of a computer is also called the ‘immediate access store’. if we want to use this information later on. that is. It is called ‘random access’ because the processor can find information in any cell or memory address with equal speed. as distinct from any storage memory available on disks. RAM stands for ‘random access memory’ and is the working area of the computer.. We can designate a certain amount of RAM space as a cache in order to store information that an application uses repeatedly. if we want to increase the performance of a computer when several applications are open at the same time or when a document is very complex. (1)……………………………………………… ………………………………………………. PARA [1] [4]a. sometimes called primary memory g. sequential access 7. the microprocessor finds its location in the storage device (the floppy or hard disk) and transfers a temporary copy of the application to the RAM area. we have to save it and store it on a disk. the basic location where the microprocessor stores the required information. (2)………………………………………………. contents 6. so it is lost when the machine is turned off. : RAM and ROM. virtual storage e.English for Computer Learners 5. virtual storage ITEM(S) TO BE EXAMPLIFIED quantities of K an example magnetic disk EXAMPLE MARKER EXAMPLE 9 Further reading 1. ……………………………. A RAM Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 39 . information must be read from secondary memory devices in a fixed pattern 8 Focus review Giving examples Complete the following table by refering back to the text on "Primary and secondary memory". ………………………………………. [4]b. (3) …………………………….

but can not put information into it. but it means that we need enough internal memory or a special cache card. optical and video disks. 16 MB. What are the main parts of the CPU? 2. 1. 1. Speed: ……………. Useful expressions It has got … It’s very fast. These instructions are used to start up the computer. 32 MB or other major increments. What memory section is also known as ‘firmware’? 4. 2.. needed by the CPU to function correctly. CPU: ……………. etc.. including instructions and routines for the basic operations of the CPU.. ROM. Memory which can be expanded by adding SIMMs of 8 MB.. They can not be changed and are not erased when the power is turned off. Now describe it to your partner. Your ideal computer system Make notes about the features of the computer that you would like to have. For this reason. What is the meaning of the acronym SIMM? 4. 3.. 3. or secondary storage). Software: ……………. ROM is an acronym for ‘read-only memory’. Optical disk drives: ……………. which implies that the processor can read and use the information stored in the ROM chip.. What is RAM? What does ROM stand for? 3. Minimum/ maximum RAM: ……………. Look through this list of features and decide which types of memory they refer to (RAM. 2. to read the information from the keyboard. What is the ALU? What does it do? 6. Any section of the main memory can be read with equal speed and ease. 6. What information is lost when the computer is switched off? 5. It is available in magnetic. It stores basic operating instructions. the ROM section is also referred to as firmware. Monitor: ……………. 5. 7. write the answers to these questions. It runs at … The standard RAM memory… and it is expandable … The hard disk can hold I need a SuperVGA monitor because … As for the Internet … Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 40 . Information is permanent and can not be deleted. The winners are the group that answers the most questions correctly in two minutes. Vocabulary quiz In group of three. A certain amount of this memory can be designated as ‘cache’ memory to store information in applications that are used very frequently. You can save and store your document and applications.. 4. to send characters to the screen.English for Computer Learners cache may speed up our work. (4) ………………………………………………… ………………………………………. Hard disk: …………….

2 Reading Read the text and find: 1. the function of the Finder in Macintosh computers 4. the text-based operating system delivered with most PCs 2. mouse. an anti-virus program. the meaning of ‘multitasking’ Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 41 .) Computer (CPU. a back-up utility) and language translators (e.is the most important type of system software.g. It is usually supplied by the manufacturers and comprises a set of programs and files that control the hardware and software resources of a computer system.refers to all those applications – such as word processors and spreadsheets – which are used for specific purposes. Programs are sets of instructions that make the computer execute operations and tasks.refers to all the programs which control the basic functions of a computer. a compiler – the software that translates instructions into machine code). keyboard. system utilities (e.. The (4)…………………………. the OS is automatically loaded into the RAM section when the computer is started up. main memory) Operating system Applications/ programs (word processors. They include operating systems. the mail package included with Windows ‘98 3. and it communicates directly with the computer.. databases. What is the function of the operating system? Peripherals (printer. · The (3)…………………………. There are two main types of software: · The (2)…………………………. In most configurations..English for Computer Learners UNIT 9: OPERATING SYSTEM 1 Warm-up A Look at the diagram. It controls all the elements that the user sees. etc.. Applications are usually stored on disks loaded into the RAM memory when activated by the user. etc. Applications software operating system software system software Information provided by programs and data is known as (1)………………………….) Users B Read the text below and complete it with the phrases in the box.g.

It has a graphical interface with many Macintosh-like features. For example. Internet access becomes part of the user interface. transferring data from disks to peripherals and controlling the RAM space. network or the Web. The IBM OS/2 Warp includes easy access to networks via modem. support for Java applications and voice recognition technology. Thus. Linux is used as a high value. and DEL (delete files). Alpha™ and Sun SPARC® platforms. programs and files. UNIX is the most commonly used system for advanced CAD programs. including Windows NT. COPY (makes a duplicate of a file). It is written in C language. It provides true multitasking. Linux is the open source. The program manager is called Windows Explorer. It allows multitasking. the operating system which is written in C language and has been adopted by many corporate installations as standard 6. an email program and a Web browser. With Windows ’98. It is the standard OS for all IBM PC compatibles or clones. not only can numerous programs run simultaneously. From the very first. from IBM PS/2s to Macs to Cray supercomputers. Its active desktop lets you find information easily with the same view of content on your PC. This is the PC world’s most technically sophisticated operating system. some basic DOS commands include DIR (shows a list of all the files in a directory). Linux (Linus Torvalds) Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 42 . Most Of The Mac OS Code is in the ROM chips. Buttons and scroll-bars have an attractive. It offers support for new technologies like DVD and it also enables you to watch TV on your PC. three-dimensional look. fully-functional UNIX® workstation for applications ranging from Internet Servers to reliable work group computing. Linux is available for Intel®. you communicate with the computer by typing commands that exist within its library. The Finder displays the Macintosh’s desktop and enables the user to work with disks. the OS created to run Java applications Operating systems This is the disk operating system developed in 1981 by Microsoft Corp. kept in the System folder. the OS used by Digital computers 8. The content of the System file is loaded automatically at start-up. It has an Internet set-up assistant. In this text-based operating system. it was designed to be a multitasking system. multitasking operating system. It supports multimedia applications and comes with Internet software. NetMeeting conference software. many of which can be run at the same time. The system includes Outlook Express for e-mail. These contain hundreds of routines (sequences of instructions) which perform such tasks as staring up the computer. allowing a program to be divided into ‘threads’. Windows ’95 is a bootable operating system in its own right. designed by Bell Laboratories in the USA for minicomputers. This operating system. It has become an operating environment for software development. cooperatively-developed POSIX-based. Large parts of the Mac OS are also inside the System file and the Finder. a chat program and a Web-page editor. available for any type of machine. but one program can perform numerous tasks at the same time. Protected under the GNU general public license. has been widely adopted by many corporate installations. the OS that is freely redistributable under the GNU general public license 7.English for Computer Learners 5. Window 2000 is an update to all Windows version.

DISKCOPY e. creates a subdirectory 8. DIR c. 1. What is the abbreviation for “International Business Machines’? 8. Which company developed UNIX? 9. What does ‘MS-DOS’ stand for? 4. BACKUP f. play music. Where exactly are these? 6. copies all files from one floppy disk to another 3. a programming language that allows Web pages to display animation. saves the contents of the hard disk on floppy disks for security purposes 4 Quiz Work with a partner. REN (or RENAME) g. Try to answer as many questions as possible. 1. FORMAT a. changes names of your files 7. the applications programs and the computer? 2. Open VMS supports all types of Digital and multivendor networks This is designed to execute Java programs on Web-based PCs. What types of programs are designed for particular situations and specific purposes? 3. Can you give a synonym for the term ‘routine’? 7. DEL h. etc. changes your current directory 4. The Macintosh operating system is kept in various locations. initializes a floppy disk and prepares it for use 5.English for Computer Learners The Open VMS operating system is Digital’s popular general purpose OS for all VAX computers. It’s written in Java. Some commands are abbreviations of English words. erases files and programs from your disk 2. The central component of JavaOS is known as the Java Virtual Machine. CD (or CHDIR) b. displays a list of the files of a disk or directory 6. 3 Basic DOS commands Match the DOS commands on the left with the explanations on the right. It provides data and access security. Which programming language allows you to play animations on the Web? Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 43 . What is the basic DOS command for copying a file? 5. What name is given to the set of programs that interface between the user. MD (or MKDIR) d.

1. you can participate in newsgroups and live conversations. What can you do with a modem? A modem is your computer’s link to the external world. TV. That’s why we need a modem – a bridge between digital and analogue signals. electronic mail (e-mail) 3. a scientific article – from Trento University to Cambridge University. To receive shareware and public domain programs from a user group. it sends very rapid on/off pulses. How can a PC be connected to another computer? 2. Modem transmission speeds are measured in kilobits Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 44 . However. radio. To send a copy of a paper document – for instance. To access massive databases containing all kinds of information. d. 1. fax 2. When a modem modulates. The list of applications is endless. the telephone system is an analogue device. Channels of communication What are ‘telecommunications’? This term refers to the transmission of information over long distances using the telephone system. satellite or computer links. What data communication systems can you think of? Make a list. or to be connected with an airline reservation service. Examples are two people speaking on the phone. Today a lot of companies find it more efficient to have some employees doing their work at home. The computer on the other end translates (demodulates) those signals into intelligible text or graphics. they transfer their work into the office where it is printed and distributed. To send a personal message to a friend who is at a different workstation. current affairs. b. commercial online service a. telecommunications mainly mean transferring information from one PC to another via modern and phone lines (or fibre-optic cables). e.. The word ‘modem’ is an abbreviation of MOdulator/DEModulator. etc. local bulletin board system (BBS) 5. a sales department sending a fax to a client or someone reading the teletext pages on TV. Using a modem. With a modem you can exchange e-mails and files with friends and colleagues. 2 Reading A Match the data communication services on the left with the requirements on the right. c. teletext 4. Then read the passage and check your answers. designed to transmit the sounds and tones of the human voice. entertainment. you can access the web and search for information about the stock market. To find out weather forecasts and sports information from the television.English for Computer Learners UNIT 10: ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION 1 Before you read Try to answer these questions. But in the modern world. A modem Your PC is a digital device (it works with strings of 1s and 0s). You can also access your office from your computer at home or your laptop in a hotel room. you can make bank transactions and buy things from the comfort of your home.

2. You need a……………………. Once you have installed and configured your modem. It provides constantly updated and real time information. To communicate via the Internet you need a PC. 4. For example. 33. The first time you make a BBS connection you are required to register your name.to convert computer data into a form that can be transmitted over the phone lines. Both offer Internet access. they offer airline reservations. Prodigy. and (2) they have extra services for members only (but they charge higher prices). Teletext on ITV and Channel Four is an information service in Britain which broadcasts a database alongside the TV signal. Most ISPs charge a flat monthly or annual fee that gives you unlimited access to the Internet. modem network online download newsgroup services account telephone 1. a modem connected to the computer and the telephone line. You can also upload (send) programs. you can communicate with people through bulletin boards and online services. a program to download files from FTP sites. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 45 . or you can participate in ongoing discussions. When you are connected to the Internet you are described as being…………………….8.6. Then write the words in the crossword. but the latter provides exclvusive services. online shopping. Typical speeds are 28.line. games and programs. but make sure they are shareware or public domain programs. a modem and a ……………………. What do you need to telecommunicate? You just need a PC (or a terminal). easyto-use interface. The person who administers the BBS is called sysop (system operator).with an Internet service provider. They also let you search their online encyclopedias and special databases. professional forums. an e-mail address. Online service providers To gain access to the Internet you must first open an account with an Internet service provider (ISP) or a commercial online service provider. They differ from dedicated ISPs in two ways: (1) they use a smooth. You can use a BBS to download artwork. · The main commercial online services are America Online. and communication software. and 56 kbps. phone number and other information such as the kind of computer and modem you are using. Local bulletin boards Bulletin board systems (BBS) are frequently free because they are run by enthusiasts and sponsored by user groups or small businesses. 3. · Internet service providers usually offer access to the Web and newsgroups. To have access to the Internet you must first open an ……………………. A fax machine sends and receives copies of original documents via a phone line.English for Computer Learners per second. and the Microsoft Network. address. CompuServe. B Complete the sentences by using a term from the box. and IRC software so that you can have live chats with other users. and stories for children.

8. 7. tele. look them up in a dictionary. usually just some seconds. Linda: Why is it so popular? Paul: Because it is easy to use and connects people around the world who want to locate information and share knowledge. The Internet is a global……………………of computer networks. Jim: It must take a long time to search all those pages. Linda: Thanks. C Match and link the pairs of expressions that have the same meaning. 1 auto.(means ‘across) 3 inter. How do I find what I'm looking for? Paul: Use a search engine like Google. I think I'll go and surf for a new salad recipe.mean ‘at/over a distance’ 1 telegram 8 telegrapher 2 telephoto 9 telegraphic 3 televise 10 telegraphically 4 television 11 telepathy 5 teletype 12 telepathic 6 teletext 13 telescope 7 telegraph 14 telescopic 15 telephonist B Now write down some words formed by adding these prefixes. The public discussion areas on the Internet are called……………………. look at the words below and decide · What part of speech each word is · Where the stress falls on each item If you are not sure. file of structured data system operator bulletin board system telephone wires BBS kbps IRC FTP facsimile machine Internet relay chat modulator/demodulator file transfer protocol kilobits per second phone network database fax modem sysop 3 Word building A In pairs.clip-art.to their customers.(means ‘self’) 2 trans. Paul: Not really. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 46 . ‘among’) 4 Conversations Pair work: Practise the conversations.English for Computer Learners 5. Jim: How does it work? Paul: You enter the name or topic you are interested in then ask the search engine to find pages about your topic. Dialogue 2 Jim: There are millions of web pages on the net.(means ‘between’. CompuServe and America Online offer exclusive……………………. Dialogue 1 Linda: Where did the Web come from? Paul: It started in 1989 at a Laboratory in Europe known as CERN where physicists around the world work together. games and shareware to your PC. 6. You can use a BBS to…………………….

lighting. etc. online chatting.544 kbps) or a high-speed T-3 connection (at 44. Linda: Last month my brother downloaded an infected file. drinks.) · the type of furniture · the things that can help you create a relaxing atmosphere (music. Linda: Make sure that you check it for viruses before you un-zip it. 5 Mini-project: Plan your own cybercafé! Imagine you want to open an Internet café in town. etc. chess and card games. classical literature or magazines about computers and the Internet Make decisions about: · the type of Internet connection: via a modem (carrying data at … kbps). games on CD-ROMs. etc. etc. fax.) · how much you will charge customers for your services · introductory and advanced classes for users Now choose a name and a slogan for your cybercafé. a T-1 line (at 1. decoration. look at the HELP box and make a project about a café. printer. It was a big problem.736 kbps) · hardware equipment (Macs and PCs. In pairs. HELP box Consider the following: · the money you need to set up and run your cybercafé · the kind of visitors you would like to have · the location (try to find a place accessible to people who are likely to use a cybercafé) · the services you want to offer (food.) · whether you want to have second-hand books.English for Computer Learners Dialogue 3: Jim: I just downloaded a new program for writing web pages.) · software (web browser. e-mail. Jim: That's a good idea. an ADSL line (at … kbps). coffees. private areas. Nha Trang University – Department of Foreign Languages Page 47 .

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