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Institute of Mathematical Methods in Engineering Numerical Analysis and Geometric Design U NIVERSITAT ¨ S

Institute of Mathematical Methods in Engineering Numerical Analysis and Geometric Design

Institute of Mathematical Methods in Engineering Numerical Analysis and Geometric Design U NIVERSITAT ¨ S TUTTGART

UNIVERSITAT¨

STUTTGART

Seminar at 11:00 on Friday, December 12

Title

Finite Element Method with B-splines for Electromagnetics

Speaker

Gokhan¨

Apaydin (gapaydin@hsz-t.ch)

Affiliation Applied Research and Development University of Technology Zurich¨

Abstract

Technoparkstrasse 1, Zurich¨

8005-CH

The solution of partial differential equations is necessary in a wide variety of engineer- ing applications in electromagnetics. They are usually solved by using either analytical or numerical methods. Analytical methods are however suitable for simple geometries. Hence, the numerical methods are required in most practical engineering applications with complex boundary conditions. Finite Element Method (FEM) is one of the popular numerical methods when studying the complex geometries and arbitrary boundaries with inhomogeneous media. However, mesh generation causes consumption in com- putation time for higher dimensions.

Due to their flexibility and continuity between the points, b-splines can be considered as basis functions instead of Lagrange functions which are generally used as shape functions for FEM analysis. Consequently, more accurate results can be obtained by using b-spline basis functions as shape functions in order to solve electromagnetic field problems for rectangular regions and using higher order b-splines is simple to implement for the approximation of FEM applications.

However, there have been some restrictions for arbitrary domain. The boundary con- ditions have not been modeled easily. The basis functions should vanish outside the domain; and if homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition is taken into consideration, the function must be zero on the domain. Secondly, some b-splines, which are near the boundary, have a little effect and this causes instability for the approximation. Web- splines overcome these problems. For the Dirichlet boundary conditions, the weight functions are used. For the instability problem, the extended b-splines are considered.

In this research, the cutoff wave numbers of waveguides have been studied and the error analysis of using web-splines has been shown. Later; it has been applied to show the scalar potential and the electromagnetic field distributions of various modes of rectangular, circular, and coaxial waveguides which have been studied in literature. The results show the suitability of the proposed method. Then, the implementations for waveguides of arbitrary domain have been illustrated. The cutoff wave number analysis for arbitrary domain has been studied and compared with the standard FEM method. More accurate results have been obtained by using fewer nodes.

Institute of Mathematical Methods in Engineering Numerical Analysis and Geometric Design U NIVERSITAT ¨ S

Institute of Mathematical Methods in Engineering Numerical Analysis and Geometric Design

Institute of Mathematical Methods in Engineering Numerical Analysis and Geometric Design U NIVERSITAT ¨ S TUTTGART

UNIVERSITAT¨

STUTTGART

Analysis and Geometric Design U NIVERSITAT ¨ S TUTTGART The standard ( • ), extended inner

The standard (), extended inner ( ) and outer () cubic b-splines

Table of Contents

1. Introduction to EM Computation

2. Finite Element Method for EM

3. Finite Element Method with b-splines

4. EM Applications

• Reflection from dielectric slab

• EM waves between parallel plates

• Wave equation analysis

• Waveguide applications

5. Conclusions

• Advantages, disadvantages of web-splines

• Efficient frequency range with web-splines

• Future studies