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Applied Mechanics

University of Mauritius

Course:
B.Eng Chemical and Environmental Engineering

Module:
Applied Mechanics (MECH1213)

Report submitted by

Tirukumaren Periacarpen 0612824,

To

Dr.K.Elahee

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

We are all familiar with the effects of centrifugal force, we experience it for
example every time we are in a car and take a bend - we feel a force pushing us to the
outside of the curve. If, for example, you have placed your sunglasses on the seat next to
you it would come as no surprise if, when taking a sharp bend at speed, they slide across
the seat.

Centrifugal force is sometimes referred to as a 'fictitious' force, because it is


present only for an accelerated object and does not exist in an inertial frame. An inertial
frame is where an object moves in a straight line at a constant speed. But Einstein's
general theory of relativity allows observers even in a non-inertial frame to regard
themselves at rest, and the forces they feel to be real. Centrifugal force is not fictitious, it
is a real force.

Centrifugal force arises due to the property of mass known as inertia - the
reluctance of a body to change either its speed or direction. A body that is at rest will stay
at rest until some force makes it move, and then will continue to move at the same speed
and in the same direction unless and until some force changes the way it is moving. This
is all neatly summed up by Isaac Newton's three laws of motion.

I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion
unless an external force is applied to it. (This is sometimes referred to as The Law of
Inertia)

II. The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied
force F is F = ma.

III. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

An object moving in a circle at a constant speed changes direction and therefore velocity, and so
is subject to acceleration towards the centre.
The resultant force is called the centrifugal or centripetal force. For and object of mass m moving
with speed v in a circle of radius r the magnitude of this force is (mv2/r)

The apparatus allows both v and r to be varied independently with the resultant force being
balanced against the tension in a spiral spring.

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

The TQ TM105 Centrifugal Force Apparatus is designed to demonstrate the relationship


between centrifugal force, mass of a rotating body, its distance from the axis, and its
angular velocity. It consists of 2 pivoted counter balanced bell-cranked (A) housed in the
slideable blocks (B) as shown in fig 1. Various combinations of accurately machined
masses (C) can be fitted to the end of the bell of the bell-crank arms. The slideable blocks
are held in position by locating pins (D). each block can be fitted in five different radial
positions corresponding to five equally spaced holes in each end of the horizontal
member (E).

The rotating member is belt driven from a variable speed 12 V d.c electric motor
contained in the base unit (F). The motor is controlled by the E67 speed controller. An
optical tachometer sensor is also incorporated, and an output socket for connecting the
E64 Tachometer Unit is provided on the front of the module unit.

A transparent safety dome covers the rotating assembly. Removal of the dome
disconnects the motor from the power supply.

With the upper masses (Ma) at radius r and rotating at ω rad/s, the force on each mass is
given by: F = Maω2r.The centrifugal force at the condition of the balance is equal to the
weight of the lower mass Mb.

F = Maω2r =Mb g …………………………………………………………………


(1)

The angular velocity ω can be determined by measuring the speed of the rotation when
the upper masses move outwards.

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

Introduction:-

When a body moves in a circle, it is accelerated even if its speed is constant. Its velocity
is changing and the acceleration acts towards the center of rotation- the centripetal
acceleration. It may also have a linear acceleration in the case of motion in the case of
motion at non-uniform speed.

Calculation of Centripetal Force.

dv = (rω)dθ

=> dv = rω dθ
dt dt

a = ω2r.

Where a : linear acceleration.

Centripetal Force:

From Newton’s Law

F = ma
= mω2r.

The Centrifugal Force.

This is reaction due to the centrifugal force acting on the centre 0. It is brought by the
tension in the string in the case of a body attached to a string undergoing circular motion.

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

Each factor that affects the centrifugal force can be investigated separately. In the first
series of tests, the effects of varying the angular velocity and the mass of the rotating
body are determined for a constant radius. The procedure is as follows:

1. Raise the locating pins on the sliding blocks and the position the blocks so that
they are both the same distance from the center. Then push down the pins to
locate the blocks firmly on the horizontal member. Note the distance from the axis
to the pivots of the bell-cranks.

2. Screw a body of mass 25g on each vertical arm of the two bell cranks. Screw a
combination of the bodies’ equivalent to; say 125g, on each horizontal arm of the
two bell-cranks. The magnitude of the masses on the respective arms of the bell-
crank must be the same.

3. Replace the dome and start the motor using the E90 speed control unit. Slowly
increase the speed until the bell-cranks are flung outwards with an audible
“click”. Note the approximated speed at which this happens. The movement of the
bell-crank can also be seen by carefully observing them from a position level with
the plane of rotation.

4. Decrease the speed until the bell-cranks return to their original positions, then
increase the speed very slowly and repeat the reading. Record the speed indicated
on the E64 Tachometer at the instant when the upper arm of the bell-cranks
moves outwards. The effect of stiction in the pivots may mean that the two bell-
cranks do not move simultaneously. If that is the case, always record the speed
when the first one moves. Note that when the bell-cranks move outwards, their
configuration is altered so that a substantial reduction in the speed is required to
return them to their original positions.

5. By reducing the masses of the lower bodies B by 25g at a time, obtain further
results foe each value of Mb (mass of the lower body) down to 25g.

6. Repeat this series of tests for two more values of Ma ( mass of the upper body ),
the mass of each of the two upper bodies A (see Table 1).

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

7. To determine the effect of radius, for the two values of the upper masses Ma,
(Ma = 25, and 50g) conduct series of tests with the slider brackets set at different
radial positions. For each different position, take readings of the speed for a range
of lower masses Mb, as in the first series of tests (see Table 2). Note: you should
have two (2) different Table 2, i.e, one When M a = 25g, and another one when
Ma= 50g.

R= 125 mm

Mb/g Ma = 40 g Ma = 65 g Ma = 90 g
N(rpm) N(rpm) N(rpm)
215 200 151 130
190 187 142 125
165 172 130 117
140 156 120 105
115 145 108 92
90 125 90 85
65 105 79 70
40 82 65 50
Signature

Table 1.0

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

Ma = 40 g

Mb/g r = 125 mm r = 95 mm r = 65 mm
N(rpm) N(rpm) N(rpm)
40 82 92 110
65 105 125 147
90 125 138 170
115 145 162 190
140 156 180 218
165 172 198 235
190 187 212 250
215 200 228 270
Signature

Table 2.0

Ma = 65 g

Mb/g r = 125 mm r = 95 mm r = 65 mm
N(rpm) N(rpm) N(rpm)
40 62 72 87
65 81 92 112
90 94 109 132
115 111 122 150
140 122 134 164
Signature

Table 3.0

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

R= 125 mm

Mb/g Ma = 40 g Ma = 65 g Ma = 90 g
ω2/rad s-2 ω2/rad s-2 ω2/rad s-2
215 439 250 185
190 384 221 171
165 324 185 150
140 267 158 121
115 231 128 92.8
90 171 88.8 79.2
65 121 68.4 53.7
40 73.7 46.3 27.4
Table 1.1

Ma = 40 g

Mb/g r = 125 mm r = 95 mm r = 65 mm
ω2/rad s-2 ω2/rad s-2 ω2/rad s-2
40 73.7 92.8 133
65 121 171 237
90 171 209 317
115 231 288 396
140 267 355 521
165 324 430 606
190 384 493 685
215 439 570 799

Table 2.1

Ma = 65 g

Mb/g r = 125 mm r = 95 mm r = 65 mm
ω2/rad s-2 ω2/rad s-2 ω2/rad s-2
40 42.2 56.8 83.0
65 72.0 92.8 138
Centrifugal Force Experiment
Applied Mechanics

90 96.9 130 191


115 135 163 247
140 163 197 295

Table 3.1

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

1.3. When r = 125 mm.

The graph of Radial Force,Mbg/N against angular


2 -2
velocity,ω /rad s .

2.5
Radial Force,

2
M bg/N

1.5
1
0.5
0
0 100 200 300 400 500
Angular velocity,ω2/rad s-2

Ma= 40g Ma=90g Ma=65g

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

When r = 125 mm.

When Ma = 40 g When Ma = 65 g When Ma = 90 g

Mb/g F = Mb.g /N F = Maω2r/N F = Maω2r/N F = Maω2r/N

215 2.11 2.20 2.03 2.08

190 1.86 1.92 1.80 1.92

165 1.62 1.62 1.50 1.69

140 1.37 1.34 1.28 1.36

115 1.13 1.16 1.04 1.04

90 0.883 0.855 0.722 0.891

65 0.638 0.605 0.556 0.604

40 0.392 0.369 0.376 0.308

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

Table 1.2

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

When Ma = 40 g.

When r = 125 mm When r = 95 mm When r = 65 mm

Mb/g F = Mb.g /N F = Maω2r/N F = Maω2r/N F = Maω2r/N

40 0.392 0.369 0.353 0.346

65 0.638 0.605 0.650 0.616

90 0.883 0.855 0.794 0.824

115 1.13 1.16 1.09 1.03

140 1.37 1.34 1.35 1.35

165 1.62 1.62 1.63 1.58

190 1.86 1.92 1.87 1.78

215 2.11 2.20 2.17 2.08

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

Table 2.2

When Ma = 65 g.

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

When r = 125 mm When r = 95 mm When r = 65 mm

Mb/g F = Mb.g /N F = Maω2r/N F = Maω2r/N F = Maω2r/N

40 0.392 0.343 0.351 0.351

65 0.638 0.585 0.573 0.583

90 0.883 0.785 0.803 0.807

115 1.13 1.10 1.01 1.04

140 1.37 1.32 1.22 1.25

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

Table 3.2

2.3. When Ma = 40 g.

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

2
The graph of Centrifugal Force,(F = Maω r)/N
2 -2
against Angular velocity,ω /rad s .

2.5
Force,(F=M aω r)/N

2
2
Centrifugal

1.5
1
0.5
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Angular velocity,ω2/rad s-2

r = 125 mm r = 95 mm r = 65 mm

3.3 When Ma = 65 g.

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

The graph of centrifugal force,(F = M aω2r)/N against


angular velocity,ω2/rad s-2

1.4
force,(F = Maω2r)/N

1.2
Centrifugal

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Angular velocity,ω2/rad s-2

r = 125 mm r = 95 mm r = 65 mm

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

Centrifugal Force Experiment


Applied Mechanics

 Compare the measured value of centrifugal force and the theoretical


centrifugal force.

Its clearly seen that the value obtained for the centrifugal force is closer to the theoretical
one. But when Ma(the upper mass) and the Radius, r increases so do the speed of rotation
and in this case the two values are more precise.

 The effect of the centrifugal force on the upper mass,Ma and the effect
of the lower mass,Mb on the movement of he bell-cranked.

It is observed that, when Mb decreases the centrifugal also decreases, so a lower speed is
required to rotate the bell-cranked and to lift the mass Mb.

Internet –

 www.DAnote:centrifugal.int.com
 www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/centrifugalforce
 www.centrifugal/apparatus.edu
 www.centrifugalapparatus.com

Centrifugal Force Experiment