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University of Mauritius

Course:

B.Eng Chemical and Environmental Engineering

Module:

Applied Mechanics (MECH1213)

Report submitted by

To

Dr.K.Elahee

Applied Mechanics

We are all familiar with the effects of centrifugal force, we experience it for

example every time we are in a car and take a bend - we feel a force pushing us to the

outside of the curve. If, for example, you have placed your sunglasses on the seat next to

you it would come as no surprise if, when taking a sharp bend at speed, they slide across

the seat.

present only for an accelerated object and does not exist in an inertial frame. An inertial

frame is where an object moves in a straight line at a constant speed. But Einstein's

general theory of relativity allows observers even in a non-inertial frame to regard

themselves at rest, and the forces they feel to be real. Centrifugal force is not fictitious, it

is a real force.

Centrifugal force arises due to the property of mass known as inertia - the

reluctance of a body to change either its speed or direction. A body that is at rest will stay

at rest until some force makes it move, and then will continue to move at the same speed

and in the same direction unless and until some force changes the way it is moving. This

is all neatly summed up by Isaac Newton's three laws of motion.

I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion

unless an external force is applied to it. (This is sometimes referred to as The Law of

Inertia)

II. The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied

force F is F = ma.

An object moving in a circle at a constant speed changes direction and therefore velocity, and so

is subject to acceleration towards the centre.

The resultant force is called the centrifugal or centripetal force. For and object of mass m moving

with speed v in a circle of radius r the magnitude of this force is (mv2/r)

The apparatus allows both v and r to be varied independently with the resultant force being

balanced against the tension in a spiral spring.

Applied Mechanics

between centrifugal force, mass of a rotating body, its distance from the axis, and its

angular velocity. It consists of 2 pivoted counter balanced bell-cranked (A) housed in the

slideable blocks (B) as shown in fig 1. Various combinations of accurately machined

masses (C) can be fitted to the end of the bell of the bell-crank arms. The slideable blocks

are held in position by locating pins (D). each block can be fitted in five different radial

positions corresponding to five equally spaced holes in each end of the horizontal

member (E).

The rotating member is belt driven from a variable speed 12 V d.c electric motor

contained in the base unit (F). The motor is controlled by the E67 speed controller. An

optical tachometer sensor is also incorporated, and an output socket for connecting the

E64 Tachometer Unit is provided on the front of the module unit.

A transparent safety dome covers the rotating assembly. Removal of the dome

disconnects the motor from the power supply.

With the upper masses (Ma) at radius r and rotating at ω rad/s, the force on each mass is

given by: F = Maω2r.The centrifugal force at the condition of the balance is equal to the

weight of the lower mass Mb.

(1)

The angular velocity ω can be determined by measuring the speed of the rotation when

the upper masses move outwards.

Applied Mechanics

Introduction:-

When a body moves in a circle, it is accelerated even if its speed is constant. Its velocity

is changing and the acceleration acts towards the center of rotation- the centripetal

acceleration. It may also have a linear acceleration in the case of motion in the case of

motion at non-uniform speed.

dv = (rω)dθ

=> dv = rω dθ

dt dt

a = ω2r.

Centripetal Force:

F = ma

= mω2r.

This is reaction due to the centrifugal force acting on the centre 0. It is brought by the

tension in the string in the case of a body attached to a string undergoing circular motion.

Applied Mechanics

Each factor that affects the centrifugal force can be investigated separately. In the first

series of tests, the effects of varying the angular velocity and the mass of the rotating

body are determined for a constant radius. The procedure is as follows:

1. Raise the locating pins on the sliding blocks and the position the blocks so that

they are both the same distance from the center. Then push down the pins to

locate the blocks firmly on the horizontal member. Note the distance from the axis

to the pivots of the bell-cranks.

2. Screw a body of mass 25g on each vertical arm of the two bell cranks. Screw a

combination of the bodies’ equivalent to; say 125g, on each horizontal arm of the

two bell-cranks. The magnitude of the masses on the respective arms of the bell-

crank must be the same.

3. Replace the dome and start the motor using the E90 speed control unit. Slowly

increase the speed until the bell-cranks are flung outwards with an audible

“click”. Note the approximated speed at which this happens. The movement of the

bell-crank can also be seen by carefully observing them from a position level with

the plane of rotation.

4. Decrease the speed until the bell-cranks return to their original positions, then

increase the speed very slowly and repeat the reading. Record the speed indicated

on the E64 Tachometer at the instant when the upper arm of the bell-cranks

moves outwards. The effect of stiction in the pivots may mean that the two bell-

cranks do not move simultaneously. If that is the case, always record the speed

when the first one moves. Note that when the bell-cranks move outwards, their

configuration is altered so that a substantial reduction in the speed is required to

return them to their original positions.

5. By reducing the masses of the lower bodies B by 25g at a time, obtain further

results foe each value of Mb (mass of the lower body) down to 25g.

6. Repeat this series of tests for two more values of Ma ( mass of the upper body ),

the mass of each of the two upper bodies A (see Table 1).

Applied Mechanics

7. To determine the effect of radius, for the two values of the upper masses Ma,

(Ma = 25, and 50g) conduct series of tests with the slider brackets set at different

radial positions. For each different position, take readings of the speed for a range

of lower masses Mb, as in the first series of tests (see Table 2). Note: you should

have two (2) different Table 2, i.e, one When M a = 25g, and another one when

Ma= 50g.

R= 125 mm

Mb/g Ma = 40 g Ma = 65 g Ma = 90 g

N(rpm) N(rpm) N(rpm)

215 200 151 130

190 187 142 125

165 172 130 117

140 156 120 105

115 145 108 92

90 125 90 85

65 105 79 70

40 82 65 50

Signature

Table 1.0

Applied Mechanics

Ma = 40 g

Mb/g r = 125 mm r = 95 mm r = 65 mm

N(rpm) N(rpm) N(rpm)

40 82 92 110

65 105 125 147

90 125 138 170

115 145 162 190

140 156 180 218

165 172 198 235

190 187 212 250

215 200 228 270

Signature

Table 2.0

Ma = 65 g

Mb/g r = 125 mm r = 95 mm r = 65 mm

N(rpm) N(rpm) N(rpm)

40 62 72 87

65 81 92 112

90 94 109 132

115 111 122 150

140 122 134 164

Signature

Table 3.0

Applied Mechanics

R= 125 mm

Mb/g Ma = 40 g Ma = 65 g Ma = 90 g

ω2/rad s-2 ω2/rad s-2 ω2/rad s-2

215 439 250 185

190 384 221 171

165 324 185 150

140 267 158 121

115 231 128 92.8

90 171 88.8 79.2

65 121 68.4 53.7

40 73.7 46.3 27.4

Table 1.1

Ma = 40 g

Mb/g r = 125 mm r = 95 mm r = 65 mm

ω2/rad s-2 ω2/rad s-2 ω2/rad s-2

40 73.7 92.8 133

65 121 171 237

90 171 209 317

115 231 288 396

140 267 355 521

165 324 430 606

190 384 493 685

215 439 570 799

Table 2.1

Ma = 65 g

Mb/g r = 125 mm r = 95 mm r = 65 mm

ω2/rad s-2 ω2/rad s-2 ω2/rad s-2

40 42.2 56.8 83.0

65 72.0 92.8 138

Centrifugal Force Experiment

Applied Mechanics

115 135 163 247

140 163 197 295

Table 3.1

Applied Mechanics

2 -2

velocity,ω /rad s .

2.5

Radial Force,

2

M bg/N

1.5

1

0.5

0

0 100 200 300 400 500

Angular velocity,ω2/rad s-2

Applied Mechanics

Applied Mechanics

Table 1.2

Applied Mechanics

When Ma = 40 g.

Applied Mechanics

Table 2.2

When Ma = 65 g.

Applied Mechanics

Applied Mechanics

Table 3.2

2.3. When Ma = 40 g.

Applied Mechanics

2

The graph of Centrifugal Force,(F = Maω r)/N

2 -2

against Angular velocity,ω /rad s .

2.5

Force,(F=M aω r)/N

2

2

Centrifugal

1.5

1

0.5

0

0 200 400 600 800 1000

Angular velocity,ω2/rad s-2

r = 125 mm r = 95 mm r = 65 mm

3.3 When Ma = 65 g.

Applied Mechanics

angular velocity,ω2/rad s-2

1.4

force,(F = Maω2r)/N

1.2

Centrifugal

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Angular velocity,ω2/rad s-2

r = 125 mm r = 95 mm r = 65 mm

Applied Mechanics

Applied Mechanics

Applied Mechanics

centrifugal force.

Its clearly seen that the value obtained for the centrifugal force is closer to the theoretical

one. But when Ma(the upper mass) and the Radius, r increases so do the speed of rotation

and in this case the two values are more precise.

The effect of the centrifugal force on the upper mass,Ma and the effect

of the lower mass,Mb on the movement of he bell-cranked.

It is observed that, when Mb decreases the centrifugal also decreases, so a lower speed is

required to rotate the bell-cranked and to lift the mass Mb.

Internet –

www.DAnote:centrifugal.int.com

www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/centrifugalforce

www.centrifugal/apparatus.edu

www.centrifugalapparatus.com

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