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Proprietary Notice
Patent information
Service mark information
i i
Trademark information
trotter lm
report
Contact information
Table of Contents
Proprietary Notice ............................................................................ 2
Patent information............................................................................ 2
Service mark information ................................................................ 2
Trademark information .................................................................... 2
Contact information ......................................................................... 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................... 3
DOCUMENT CONVENTIONS............................................ 10
PIPESIM HOT KEYS........................................................ 10
1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................... 15
1.1 Setting up............................................................................. 15
1.2 Documentation..................................................................... 17
1.2.1 PIPESIM
1.3 PIPESIM overview................................................................ 19
1.4 File Management.................................................................. 25
1.5 Security ................................................................................ 26
PIPESIM
1.6 New features ........................................................................ 28
1.7 Schlumberger Support Services........................................ 28
1.8 What to do next.................................................................... 28
2 MODEL OVERVIEW.................................................... 31
2.1 Steps in building a model ................................................... 31
2.2 Starting PIPESIM.................................................................. 31
2.3 Units System........................................................................ 31
2.4 Fluid data.............................................................................. 32
2.5 Model components overview.............................................. 35
2.6 Flow correlation................................................................... 40
2.7 Run an operation................................................................. 40
2.8 Saving & Closing PIPESIM.................................................. 41
2.9 How to build models............................................................ 41
3 FLUID & MULTIPHASE FLOW MODELING............... 52
3.1 Black Oil ............................................................................... 52
PIPESIM
3.2 Compositional...................................................................... 60
3.3 Pressure Drop Calculation.................................................. 65
3.4 References ........................................................................... 80
4 RESERVOIR, WELL & COMPLETION MODELING ... 87
4.1 Vertical Completions........................................................... 87
4.2 Horizontal Completions ...................................................... 91
PIPESIM
4.3 Multiple Layers / Completions.......................................... 103
4.4 Artificial Lift........................................................................ 104
4.5 Tubing................................................................................. 105
4.6 Chokes................................................................................ 106
4.7 Heat transfer....................................................................... 113
4.8 Reservoir Depletion........................................................... 113
4.9 References ......................................................................... 115
5 FIELD EQUIPMENT................................................... 119
5.1 Compressor........................................................................ 119
5.2 Expander ............................................................................ 120
5.3 Single Phase Pump ........................................................... 121
5.4 Multiphase Boosting ......................................................... 121
PIPESIM
5.5 Separator............................................................................ 135
5.6 Reinjection point .............................................................. 135
5.7 Heat Transfer...................................................................... 135
5.8 References ......................................................................... 135
6 OPERATIONS............................................................ 139
6.1 Check model ...................................................................... 139
6.2 No operation....................................................................... 139
6.3 Run model .......................................................................... 140
6.4 System Analysis ................................................................ 140
6.5 Pressure Temperature profile........................................... 140
6.6 Flow correlation matching................................................ 140
6.7 Wax Prediction................................................................... 141
6.8 Nodal Analysis................................................................... 141
6.9 Artificial Lift Performance................................................. 142
6.10 Gas Lift Design & Diagnostics ......................................... 145
6.11 Horizontal well analysis .................................................... 148
6.12 Reservoir tables................................................................. 148
6.13 Network analysis ............................................................... 149
6.14 Production Optimization................................................... 149
PIPESIM
6.15 Field Planning.................................................................... 150
6.16 Multilateral well analysis.................................................. 155
6.17 Post processor................................................................... 155
6.18 References ......................................................................... 156
7 CASE STUDIES ......................................................... 159
7.1 Pipeline & facilities Case Study – Condensate Pipeline 161
7.2 Well Performance Case Study – Oil Well Design............ 175
7.3 Network Analysis Case Study – Looped Gas Gathering
Network ...................................................................................... 7184
PIPESIM
7.4 Optimization.................................................................... 7194
7.5 Field Planning................................................................. 7194
7.6 Multilateral...................................................................... 7194
8 INDEX......................................................................8194
PIPESIM
Document conventions
edit/copy
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
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PIPESIM
PIPESIM Hot Keys
File
PIPESIM
Simulation
Windows
Tools
Editing/General
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
1 Introduction
Schlumberger’s PIPESIM
1.1 Setting up
PIPESIM
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1.1.1.2 Check the PIPESIM package
PIPESIM
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1.1.1.3 Make backup copies
1.1.1.4 Read the additional notes document
PIPESIM 2000
1.1.2 Running setup
PIPESIM
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1.1.3 Changing Options after quitting setup
1.2 Documentation
1.2.1 PIPESIM additional documentation
PIPESIM
1.2.1.1 Artificial lift Performance curve
PIPESIM 2000
1.2.1.2 User Defined Multiphase flow correlation
PIPESIM
1.2.1.3 OpenLink
PIPESIM
1.2.1.4 PVT file format
PIPESIM
1.2.1.5 Sentinel LM Security
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
1.2.2 Case Studies
PIPESIM
1.2.3 Online Help
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1.2.3.1 Help contents
PIPESIM 2000
PIPESIM
1.3.1 Modules
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1.3.1.1 Pipeline & Facilities
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1.3.1.3 Network analysis module
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1.3.1.4 Production Optimization (GOAL)
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1.3.1.5 Multilateral wells (HoSim)
PIPESIM 2000
1.3.1.6 Field Planning (FPT)
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1.3.2 Options
1.3.2.1 Compositional option
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1.3.2.2 OLGAS 2000
PIPESIM 2000
1.3.2.3 ECLIPSE 100
1.3.2.4 ECLIPSE 300
1.3.2.5 MBAL
1.4 File Management
PIPESIM
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Input data (*.BPS, *.BPN, *.PGW, *.FPT,*.HSM)
Output data (*.OUT, *.SUM)
Transfer files (*.PLT, *.PLC, *.PWH, *.PBT, *.TNT, *.PST)
PIPESIM
PVT table (*.PVT)
PIPESIM
PIPESIM 2000
Database files (*.MDB)
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Units file (*.UMF)
1.5 Security
PIPESIM
1.5.1 Standalone security (dongle)
Dongle Utility.
PIPESIM 2000
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
1.6 New features
Release Notes
1.7 Schlumberger Support Services
PIPESIM
Center Tel
United Kingdom
America
1.8 What to do next
New users
• PIPESIM
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PIPESIM 2000
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PIPESIM 2000
2 Model Overview
2.1 Steps in building a model
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2.2 Starting PIPESIM
PIPESIM <start/program
files/Schlumberger/PIPESIM>.
2.3 Units System
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2.4 Fluid data
PIPESIM
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2.4.1 Black Oil
PIPESIM 2000
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2.4.2 Compositional
PIPESIM
PIPESIM 2000
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2.4.3 Steam
PIPESIM
2.5 Model components overview
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Pipeline & facilities module
Component Type Description
PIPESIM 2000
Well Performance module
Component Type Description
PIPESIM
Network module
Component Type Description
PIPESIM 2000
2.5.1 Model & Component limitations
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2.6 Flow correlation
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2.7 Run an operation
PIPESIM 2000
2.8 Saving & Closing PIPESIM
PIPESIM
2.9 How to build models
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
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2.9.1 Fluid calibration
2.9.1.1 Black Oil
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2.9.1.2 Compositional
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2.9.2 Pipeline & facilities
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2.9.2.1 Correlation matching
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2.9.2.2 Pressure/Temperature profile
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2.9.2.3 Equipment/Flowline sizing (1 parameter)
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2.9.2.5 Multiphase booster design
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2.9.3 Well Performance
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2.9.3.1 Correlation matching
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2.9.3.3 Pressure/Temperature profile
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2.9.3.4 Equipment/Tubing sizing (1 parameter)
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2.9.3.6 Artificial Lift analysis
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2.9.3.7 Well performance curves for GOAL
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2.9.3.8 Well performance curves for Network Solver
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2.9.3.9 Reservoir Tables
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2.9.3.10 Horizontal completion length
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2.9.3.11 Gas Lift Rate v's Casing head pressure
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2.9.4 Network Analysis
2.9.4.1 Fluid properties
PIPESIM 2000
2.9.4.2 Boundary Conditions
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2.9.4.3 Network model
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PIPESIM
3 Fluid & Multiphase Flow Modeling
PIPESIM
3.1 Black Oil
Fluid properties can be predicted by blackoil correlations that have been
developed by correlating gas/oil ratios for live crude’s with various
properties, such as oil and gas gravities. The selected correlation is used to
predict the quantity of gas dissolved in the oil at a particular pressure and
temperature.
3.1.1 Lasater
3.1.1.1 Bubble point pressure
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
PIPESIM 2000
Step 4:
3.1.1.2 Solution gas
3.1.2 Standing
3.1.2.1 Bubble point pressure
Step 1:
Step 2:
3.1.2.2 Solution gas
3.1.2.3 Oil formation volume factor  saturated systems
Step 1:
Step 2:
3.1.3 Vazques and Beggs
PIPESIM
3.1.3.1 Bubble point pressure
3.1.3.2 Solution gas
3.1.3.3 Oil formation volume factor  saturated systems
3.1.3.4 Oil formation volume factor  undersaturated systems
3.1.4 Glasø
PIPESIM
3.1.4.1 Bubble point pressure and solution gas
3.1.4.2 Oil formation volume factor  saturated systems
3.1.4.3 Oil formation volume factor  undersaturated systems
3.1.5 Coning
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PIPESIM
3.1.6 Liquid Viscosity
3.1.7.1 Beggs and Robinson method
3.1.7.2 Glasø method
3.1.7.3 User's data method
3.1.8 Live Oil Viscosity
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PIPESIM
3.1.8.1 Chew and Connally
3.1.8.2 Beggs and Robinson
3.1.9 Undersaturated Oil Viscosity
3.1.9.1 Vasquez and Beggs
PIPESIM
3.1.9.2 Kousel method
3.1.9.3 No calculation
3.1.10 Oil/Water Mixture Viscosity
3.1.10.1 Inversion method
3.1.10.2 Volume ratio method
PIPESIM
3.1.10.3 Woelflin method
3.1.11 Gas Viscosity
3.1.11.1 Lee et al. Method
3.2 Compositional
3.2.1 EOS (Equations of State)
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3.2.1.1 SoaveRedlichKwong
PIPESIM
3.2.1.2 PengRobinson
3.2.1.3 SMIRK
3.2.2 Viscosity model
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3.2.2.1 Lower Alkanes
3.2.2.2 Higher Alkanes
3.2.2.3 Petroleum Fractions
3.2.2.4 Water
PIPESIM
3.2.2.5 Methanol
3.2.2.6 Emulsion
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3.2.3 BIP (Binary Interaction Parameter) Set
3.2.4 Hydrates
PIPESIM
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3.3 Pressure Drop Calculation
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ρ θ ρ ν ρ ν ν
ρ
PIPESIM
ν
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3.3.1 Flow regimes
Flow Regimes Classification for Vertical Two Phase Flow
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
Flow Regimes Classification for Horizontal Two Phase Flow
PIPESIM
3.3.2 Single Phase Flow Correlations
ρ ν µ
ρ
ν
µ
3.3.2.1 Moody
ε
ε
3.3.2.2 AGA
ε
PIPESIM
3.3.2.3 Panhandle 'A'
3.3.2.4 Panhandle 'B'
3.3.2.5 HazenWilliams
ν
3.3.2.6 Weymouth
3.3.3 Vertical Multiphase Flow Correlations
3.3.3.1 Ansari
upward twophase flow
3.3.3.2 Baker Jardine Revised
gascondensate
pipelines with a noslip liquid volume fraction of lower than 0.1
PIPESIM
BJA
BJA
BJA
3.3.3.3 Beggs & Brill Original
horizontal and inclined pipes
3.3.3.4 Beggs & Brill Original, Taitel Dukler map
3.3.3.5 Beggs & Brill Revised
PIPESIM
3.3.3.6 Beggs & Brill Revised, Taitel Dukler map
3.3.3.7 Brill & Minami
3.3.3.8 Duns & Ros
vertical flow
3.3.3.9 Duns & Ros, Taitel Dukler map
3.3.3.10 Govier & Aziz
gas
and condensate
PIPESIM
3.3.3.11 Gray
vertical flow in gas and condensate systems which
are predominantly gas phase
3.3.3.12 Hagedorn & Brown
small diameter vertical conduits
BJA
3.3.3.13 Hagedorn & Brown, Duns & Ros map
3.3.3.14 Lockhart & Martinelli
3.3.3.15 Lockhart & Martinelli, Taitel Dukler map
3.3.3.16 Mukherjee & Brill:
Note
PIPESIM
twophase
inclined flow
3.3.3.17 NOSLIP Correlation
NOSLIP
MOODY Note
3.3.3.18 OLGAS 2000 Steady State
PIPESIM
3.3.3.19 Orkiszewski
in vertical pipe
3.3.3.20 Shell SIEP Correlations
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3.3.3.21 Shell SRTCA Correlations
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3.3.3.22 GRE Mechanistic Model BP
PIPESIM
3.3.4 Horizontal Multiphase Flow Correlations
3.3.4.1 Baker Jardine Revised
gascondensate pipelines with a
noslip liquid volume fraction of lower than 0.1
BJA
BJA
BJA
3.3.4.2 Beggs & Brill Original
BBO BJA
horizontal and inclined pipes
3.3.4.3 Beggs & Brill Original, Taitel Dukler map
PIPESIM
3.3.4.4 Beggs & Brill Revised
3.3.4.5 Beggs & Brill Revised, Taitel Dukler map
3.3.4.6 Brill & Minami:
3.3.4.7 Dukler, AGA + Flanigan
horizontal and
inclined two phase flow of gascondensate gathering systems
3.3.4.8 Dukler , AGA + Flanigan (Eaton holdup)
3.3.4.9 Duns & Ros, Taitel Dukler map
BJA
vertical flow
PIPESIM
3.3.4.10 Lockhart & Martinelli
3.3.4.11 Lockhart & Martinelli, Taitel Dukler map
3.3.4.12 Mukherjee & Brill
Note
twophase inclined flow
3.3.4.13 NOSLIP Correlation
NOSLIP
MOODY Note
3.3.4.14 OLGAS 2000 SteadyState:
PIPESIM
3.3.4.15 Oliemans
large
diameter condensate pipelines
3.3.4.16 Xiao
two
phase flow in horizontal and near horizontal pipelines
PIPESIM
3.3.4.17 Shell SIEP Correlations
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3.4 References
J. Cdn. Pet. Tech.
Oil & Gas Journal
Trans. AIME
PIPESIM
J. Pet. Tech.
J. Pet. Tech.
et al.
SPEJ
TwoPhase Flow in Pipes
The Technology of Artificial Methods
Trans. 23
et al.
Trans.
JPT
Oil and Gas J. 56
PIPESIM
J.
Pet. Tech.
Well Performance
J. Pet. Tech.
et al. Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering
Trans.
et al. Trans.
Chem. Eng.
Prog. 45
JPT
Int. J. of Multiphase
Flow
SPE
J. Prod. Eng.
PIPESIM
JPT
The Flow of Homogeneous Fluids Through Porous
Media
J. Pet. Tech.
PIPESIM
Volumetric and Phase Behavior of Oil Field
Hydrocarbon Systems
Drill. and
Prod. Prac.
Trans.
AICHE J.
Drill. and Prod.
Prac.
PIPESIM
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PIPESIM
4 Reservoir, Well & Completion Modeling
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4.1 Vertical Completions
4.1.1 Liquid Reservoirs
4.1.1.1 Fetkovich / Normalized back pressure
4.1.1.2 Jones
PIPESIM
4.1.1.3 PseudoSteady state / Darcy
µ
µ
4.1.1.4 (Straight line) Well productivity Index
4.1.1.5 (Straight line) Well productivity Index (with Vogel
correction below bubble point)
4.1.1.6 Vogel
4.1.1.7 Hydraulic Fracture
PIPESIM
4.1.1.8 Multirate tests
• multipoint
• Isochronal
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4.1.2.1 Back pressure / C and n
4.1.2.2 Forchheimer
4.1.2.3 Jones
PIPESIM
4.1.2.4 PseudoSteady state / Darcy
µ
µ
4.1.2.5 (Straight line) Well productivity Index
4.1.2.6 Hydraulic Fracture
4.1.2.7 Multirate tests
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4.2 Horizontal Completions
• Thin reservoirs
• Heterogeneous reservoirs
• Reduce water/gas coning
• Vertical permeability
4.2.1 Effect of Pressure Drop on Productivity
toe
heel
PIPESIM
Figure 4.1
ρ u
≥
PIPESIM
Figure 4.2
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PIPESIM
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4.2.2 Single Phase Pressure Drop
∆p x f q L
m
=
−
( . ) / 114644 10
5 2
ρ d
5
∆
ρ
q
p p d
TZL
g
g
=
−
15320
1
2
2
2 16 3
( )
/
γ
PIPESIM
γ
4.2.3 Multiphase Pressure Drop
4.2.4 Inflow Production Profiles
PIPESIM
Figure 4.3
4.2.5 SteadyState Productivity
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∇
PIPESIM
Figure 4.4
q =
0. 007078k h p ( B )
ln[
a + a L
L
h L)ln[
h
2r
]
h
h o o
w
∆ /
−( / )
/
 +( /
2 2
u
2
2
a = (L 0. 25+(2r L) ]
4 0.5
/ )0. 5 + / 2
eh
∆
u
q =
0. 007078k h p ( B )
ln[
r
(L )
]
h
h o
eh
o
∆ /
/
u
4
k = k k
eff v h
PIPESIM
h = h
k
k
h
v
q =
0. 007078k h p ( B )
ln[
a + a L
L
h L)ln[
( h
2r
]
h
h o o
2 2 2 2
w
∆ /
−( / )
/
 +( /
/ ) +
2
u
β
β β 2
2
2 δ
β =
k
k
h
v
δ
r = r exp(s)
w,eff w
r =
r (L
a L a h r
w,eff
eh
w
h L)
/ )
1+ 1−( / )  +( / )
2
2
2 β
β ( /
PIPESIM
4.2.6 PseudoSteady State Productivity
q
kh p B
A C R s s Dq
v
o o
A w m v
=
+ + +
∆ / .
ln [ . / ( )]
1412
2 2458
2
u
q =
kh p . 2 B
ln[(
r
r
)  0. 75]
v
o o
e
w
∆ /141 u
s = ln[ C C
CA A,ref A
/ ]
PIPESIM
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0. 007078b k k p ( B )
ln[
A
r
]+ lnC  0. 75+s
h
x z o o
1
w
H R
∆ / u
PIPESIM
4.2.7 Solution GasDrive IPR
q
q
=[1 V(
p
p
)  (1 V)(
p
p
) ]
o
o,max
wf
R
wf
R
2 n
4.2.8 Horizontal Gas Wells
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PIPESIM
∫
=
p
dp
z
p
p m
0
2 ) (
u
q =
0. 007027k h(p  p )
ln[
r
r
] ZT
h
h
e
w,eff
e
2
wf
2
u
u
q =
0. 007027kh(p  p )
[ln[
r
r
] 0. 75+s +s +s  c + Dq ] ZT
h
e
w
m ca h
r
2
wf
2
u
D =
2. 222x10 ( k h )
r h
15
g a
pwf w
p
2
γ β
u
β = 2. 73x10 k
10
a
1.1045
β = 2. 33x10 k
10
a
1.201
PIPESIM
u
u
β
γ
4.3 Multiple Layers / Completions
PIPESIM
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4.4 Artificial Lift
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4.4.1 Gas Lift
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
4.4.2 ESP Lift
PIPESIM
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
4.5 Tubing
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
PIPESIM
4.6 Chokes
•
•
4.6.1 AshfordPierce
q Cd
o
= 351
2
. αβ
e
) ( α = +
−
B F
o wo
1
2
( ) ( )
 
( )
 
β
γ γ γ
γ γ γ
=
−

\

.

− −

\

.
 + −
× + +
¦
´
¦
¹
¦
¹
`
¦
)
¦
+ −
+ +
−
−
n
n
T z R R e p e R F
T z
p
R R e R F
s
n
n
g s wo w
s
n
g wo w
1
1 198 6 1 0 000217
198 6 0 000217
1 1
1
1 0
1 1
1
1
0
1
2
. .
. .
PIPESIM
γ
γ
γ
Assumptions:
•
•
•
•
•
Choke size (64th in.) C
4.6.2 Omana
N N N Q
qL Pl d D
=
−
0263
3 49 3 19 0 657 1 8
.
. . .
ρ
N
.
PIPESIM
N q
qL L
o L
L
=

\

.

184
1 25
.
.
ρ
σ
N
G
L
ρ
ρ
ρ
=
N P
pl
L L
= ×
−
174 10
1
2
1
.
ρ σ
Q
R
d
=
+
1
1
1
N D
D c
L
L
= 120872 .
ρ
σ
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) q R D
L
o
L L c G
= × +
−
−
−
−
1953 10 1
3
1 245 1 545
1
0 657
1 8 3 49
1
3 19
.
. .
.
. .
σ ρ ρ P
.
ρ
σ
4.6.3 Gilbert, Ros, Baxendall, Achong and Pilehvari
PIPESIM
c b o
L
d GOR aP q
−
= ) (
1
Correlation A B c
4.6.3.1 PDVSA modification
e c b o
L
d GOR aP q
− −
= ) ) ( (
1
PIPESIM
4.6.4 PoettmannBeck
( )
( )
q
A
GOR
P
V m
R
R
o
o c
L
o
G
=
+
+
+
+
88992
561 0 0765
92736
1 05
0 4513 0 766
05663
0
1
1 1
1
1
1
1
. .
.
.
.
.
. ( . )
.
ρ γ
( ) ( )
( )
R
T z GOR R
PB
s
o
1
1
1 1
0
1
1
0 00504
=
− .
PIPESIM
m
R
G
L
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
=
+
ρ
ρ
V
m
L
1
1
=
ρ
γ
ρ
4.6.5 Mechanistic Correlation,
∆ ∆ ∆ p p p
TP L L G G
= + λ λ
∆p
g
q
C A
L
L
c
L
L c
=

\

.

ρ
2 144
2
∆p
g
q
YC A
G
L
c
G
G c
=

\

.

ρ
2 144
2
PIPESIM
( ) Y
d
d
K
p p
p
= − +

\

.

− 
\

.
 10 041 035 1
2
1
2
2 1
1
. . . /
C
C
d
d
d
=
−

\

.
 1
1
2
4
∆ ∆ p p
C
YC
TP L G
dL
dG
= +

\

.


−
1 1
2
λ
∆p
d
d
q
d C
L L
m
dL
= −

\

.

ρ 1
8083
1
2
4
1
2
λ
λ
q
L
q
G
A
c
p
1
p
2
ρ
PIPESIM
4.6.6 API 14B Formulation
λ
ρ
∆ ∆ p p
C
YC
TP L G
dL
dG
= +

\

.


−
1 1
2
λ
∆p
d
d
q
d C
L N
m
dL
= −

\

.

ρ 1
8083
1
2
4
1
2
∆ ∆ p p
Y
tp L G
= +
−
1
1121
1
2
λ
.
∆p
d
d
q
d
L N
m
= −

\

.

ρ 1
687055
1
2
4
1
2
.
PIPESIM
λ
q
m
∆
∆
ρ
N
4.7 Heat transfer
4.8 Reservoir Depletion
PIPESIM
4.8.1 Volume Depletion Reservoirs
∆p p p
i
= −
PIPESIM
G G
G
E
E
p
i
= −
E
p
ZT
= 3537 .
p
Z
p
Z
G
G
i
i
p
= −

\

.
 1
PIPESIM
4.8.2 Gas Condensate Reservoirs
4.9 References
JPT
Journal of
Petroleum Technology,
SPE
Reservoir Engineering
PIPESIM
Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering
JPT
World Oil
PIPESIM
J. Pet. Tech.
Horizontal Well Technology
Chem. Eng.
Prog. 45
PIPESIM
JPT
The Flow of Homogeneous Fluids Through Porous
Media
World Oil
PIPESIM
5 Field Equipment
5.1 Compressor
•
•
•
•
•
Adiabatic Route
Polytropic Route
Mollier Route (compositional cases only)
PIPESIM
5.2 Expander
•
•
•
•
•
Adiabatic Route
Polytropic Route
Mollier Route (compositional cases only)
PIPESIM
5.3 Single Phase Pump
•
•
•
•
•
5.4 Multiphase Boosting
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
Traditional Approach
The incoming fluid is separated in its
constituent gas and liquid phases.
The separated liquids are pumped up
to the required pressure and exported
via the liquid export line.
Separated gas is compressed up to the
required pressure and exported via the
gas export line.
Alternative Approach
The incoming fluid is separated in its
constituent gas and liquid phases.
The separated liquids are pumped up
to the required pressure and separated
gas is compressed up to the required
pressure, before the two phases are
recombined and exported via a
multiphase export line.
Multiphase Boosting
The incoming fluid is directly boosted
up to the required pressure without
separation of the gas and liquid
phases, and exported via a multiphase
export line.
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
Outflow curve
THP curve
Production System Analysis
PIPESIM
Outflow curve  No boosting
Outflow curve  Boosting 20 bar
THP curve
Production System Analysis
5.4.1 Multiphase Boosters – Positive Displacement Type
PIPESIM
5.4.2 Twin Screw Type Multiphase Boosters
PIPESIM
Twin Screw Multiphase Pump  Performance Curve
(valid for GVF=0%, p1=1 bara)
Pump differential pressure [bar]
F
l
o
w
r
a
t
e
[
m
3
/
h
]
S
h
a
f
t
p
o
w
e
r
[
k
W
]
Twin Screw Multiphase Pump  Performance Curve (valid
for GVF=85%, p1=1 bara)
Pump differential pressure [bar]
F
l
o
w
r
a
t
e
[
m
3
/
h
]
S
h
a
f
t
p
o
w
e
r
[
k
W
]
PIPESIM
5.4.3 Progressing Cavity Type Multiphase Boosters
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
5.4.4 Multiphase Boosters – Dynamic Type
PIPESIM
5.4.5 HelicoAxial Type Multiphase Boosters
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
M
a
x
i
m
u
m
s
p
e
e
d
M
i
n
i
m
u
m
s
p
e
e
d
8
0
%
s
p
e
e
d
9
0
%
s
p
e
e
d
M
a
x
.
D
P
l
i
n
e
Maximum booster differential pressure
B
o
o
s
t
e
r
d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t
i
a
l
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Total volumetric flow rate at suction
Best efficiency line
Helicoaxial type multiphase booster  Performance curve
(valid for given GVF, p
suction
and fluid density)
5.4.6 ContraRotating Axial Type Multiphase Booster
PIPESIM
Figure 511 Contrarotating axial (CRA) compressor
PIPESIM
5.4.7 Alternative approach
PIPESIM.
PIPESIM
5.5 Separator
5.6 Reinjection point
•
•
•
5.7 Heat Transfer
5.8 References
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY
6 Operations
PIPESIM
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
6.1 Check model
6.2 No operation
ProdMan
PIPESIM 2000
6.3 Run model
6.4 System Analysis
Pressure/Temperature Profiles
6.5 Pressure Temperature profile
6.6 Flow correlation matching
PIPESIM 2000
6.7 Wax Prediction
PIPESIM
6.8 Nodal Analysis
PIPESIM
Inflow
Outflow
PIPESIM 2000
6.9.1 Well Performance Curves
6.9.2 Optimization module performance curves
GOAL
GOAL
6.9.2.1 Well head chokes
GOAL
PIPESIM 2000
Manifold
Flowline
Wellhead
Wellhead Choke
Well
GOAL
GOAL
•
•
•
GOAL
PIPESIM 2000
GOAL
6.10 Gas Lift Design & Diagnostics
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
6.10.1 Check for Gas Lift instability
PIPESIM 2000
:
•
•
C F
r
F
r
F
v
v
v
v
c 1 1 3 1
2
= −

\

.

+
−
. .
u u
.
C F
r r
F
v
v
v
c
2 1 1 = −

\

.

+ .
u
( )
F
B g q J
C A Y V q
f
go
D p
v
a fo
1
2
2
=
. . .
. .
ρ ( )
( )
F
q q A
g
P
q
fo go t
f g
to
fo
3
=
+
−
.
.
.
ρ ρ
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
F
C A Y C A Y
r r
C A Y
r r
c
D p
ch
D p
v
ch v
ch
D p
v
ch v
ch
=
+
−

\

.


−
2 2
2
2
2
.
.
u
u
r
P
P
v
to
co
=
( )
( )
u
v
t
c
zT
zT
=
r
P
P
ch
co
m
=
( )
( )
u
ch
c
m
zT
zT
=
PIPESIM 2000
ρ
ρ
u
SUBSCRIPTS
•
•
•
•
GOAL)
PIPESIM 2000
i c e n s e d t o : B J A i n h o u s e ( K 
0 0 0 1 )
P I P E S I M P l o t A u g 0
1 9 9 6
P I P E S I M f o r W i n d o w s © B a k e r J a r d i n e & A s s o c i a t e s
W e l l P A 1 3  A l h a n a t i
L 9
6.11 Horizontal well analysis
PIPESIM's
6.12 Reservoir tables
PIPESIM 2000
•
•
•
•
•
6.13 Network analysis
•
•
•
6.14 Production Optimization
•
PIPESIM 2000
•
PIPESIM.
•
•
GOAL
6.15 Field Planning
6.15.1 Dynamic Eclipse link
PIPESIM 2000
PROS:
•
•
•
CONS:
•
•
•
•
Capabilities:
•
•
•
Limitations:
•
•
PIPESIM 2000
6.15.2 Lookup tables
Sample decline curve
Cumulative liquid production [mmstb]
PROS:
•
•
•
•
CONS:
•
PIPESIM 2000
PROS:
•
•
CONS:
•
Capabilities:
•
•
Limitations:
•
•
6.15.4 Event handling
•
•
•
•
•
PIPESIM 2000
FPT
6.16 Multilateral well analysis
HoSim
6.17 Post processor
•
• PIPESIM
•
•
•
•
•
• PIPESIM
6.17.1 Graphical plots
PIPESIM.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
PIPESIM 2000
6.17.2 Tabular data
PIPESIM
6.17.3 Onscreen data
6.18 References
PIPESIM 2000
THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY
PIPESIM 2000
7 Case Studies
PIPESIM
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
PIPESIM
7.1 Pipeline & facilities Case Study – Condensate Pipeline
7.1.1 Task 1. Develop a Compositional Model of the Hydrocarbon
Phases

PIPESIM <File/New/pipeline and facilities model>
<setup/compositional...>
"Add>>"
Petroleum
Fractions
Add to composition>>
PIPESIM
Component
Selection
Phase
Envelope
7.1.2 Task 2. Identify the Hydrate Envelope


<setup/compositional...> Add>>
Phase Envelope
PIPESIM
7.1.3 Task 3. Select a Pipeline Size

PIPESIM
operations/pressuretemperature profiles…
PIPESIM
7.1.4 Task 4. Determine the Pipeline Insulation Requirement


operations/pressuretemperature profiles
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
7.1.5 Task 5. Screen the Pipeline for Severe Riser Slugging

setup/define output...
↑
PIPESIM
operations/pressuretemperature profiles
reports/view output
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
7.1.6 Task 6. Size a Slug Catcher

PIPESIM
reports/view summary
PIPESIM
7.1.7 Data Available
Layout:
Boundary Conditions:
Pure Hydrocarbon Components:
Petroleum Fraction:
PIPESIM
Aqueous Component:
Pipeline Sizes Available:
Pipeline Data:
Pipeline Insulation Study Data:
Data for Risers 1 and 2:
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
7.2 Well Performance Case Study – Oil Well Design
7.2.1 Task 1. Develop a Calibrated Blackoil Model



PIPESIM
PIPESIM <File/new/well>
<setup/blackoil...>
OK
<setup/blackoil/advanced calibration data>
plot PVT data
<series>
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
<setup/blackoil/viscosity data>
PIPESIM
<setup/blackoil/advanced calibration data>
PIPESIM
7.2.2 Task 2. Develop a Well Inflow Performance Model

7.2.3 Task 3. Select a Tubing Size for the Production String

PIPESIM

operations/systems analysis
PIPESIM
7.2.4 Data Available
Reservoir Conditions:
Stock Tank Oil Properties:
Bubble Point Properties:
Blackoil Calibration Data:
PIPESIM
Deviation Survey:
Minimum Pressure Allowed at the Wellhead:
Multiphase flow correlation
Production Strings Available:
Drill String Test:
Production plan obtained from reservoir simulation:
PIPESIM
7.3 Network Analysis Case Study – Looped Gas Gathering
Network
7.3.1 Task 1. Build a Model of the Network

PIPESIM <file/new/network>
PIPESIM
edit/copy edit/paste
PIPESIM
setup/compositional...> export
setup/compositional...>
import
PIPESIM
edit/copy edit/paste
PIPESIM
↑
PIPESIM
7.3.2 Task 2. Specify the Network Boundary Conditions

PIPESIM
PIPESIM

Setup/boundary conditions
7.3.3 Task 3. Solve the Network and Establish the deliverability




setup/options/network iterations
PIPESIM
7.3.4 Data Available
Layout:
Completion and Tubing Data:
Pure Hydrocarbon Components (Wells 1 & 2):
PIPESIM
PIPESIM
Petroleum Fraction (Wells 1 & 2):
Aqueous Component (Wells 1 & 2):
Pure Hydrocarbon Components (Well 3):
Petroleum Fraction (Wells 3):
Aqueous Component (Well 3):
Data for Looped Gathering Lines (B1, B2, B3, and B4):
Data for Deliver Line (B5):
Boundary Conditions:
7.4 Optimization
7.5 Field Planning
7.6 Multilateral
PIPESIM
8 Index
Analyse artificial lift
requirements
Create GOAL curves
Create reservoir tables Back pressure IPR
See
Find the optimal completion
length C and n IPR
Perform a Nodal Analysis
Darcy IPR
See
Set boundary conditions
Fetkovich,liquid IPR
Jones gas, IPR
Jones liquid, IPR
Forchheimer gas, IPR
Multirate tests
gas IPR
PIPESIM
liquid IPR
PseudoSteady state IPR
PseudoSteady state, IPR
Straight line PI liquid, IPR
Vogel, IPR
Well PI, IPR
PIPESIM
Proprietary Notice
Copyright 1985  2005 Schlumberger. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or translated in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, without the prior written permission of Schlumberger. Use of this product is governed by the License Agreement. Schlumberger makes no warranties, express, implied, or statutory, with respect to the product described herein and disclaims without limitation any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.
Patent information
Schlumberger ECLIPSE reservoir simulation software is protected by US Patents 6,018,497, 6,078,869 and 6,106,561, and UK Patents GB 2,326,747 B and GB 2,336,008 B. Patents pending.
Service mark information
The following are all service marks of Schlumberger: The Calculator, Charisma, ConPac, ECLIPSE 100, ECLIPSE 200, ECLIPSE 300, ECLIPSE 500, ECLIPSE Office, EDIT, Extract, Fill, Finder, FloGeo, FloGrid, FloViz, FrontSim, GeoFrame, GRAF, GRID, GridSim, NWM, OpenECLIPSE, PetraGrid, PlanOpt, Pseudo, PVTi, RTView, SCAL, Schedule, SimOpt, VFPi, Weltest 200.
Trademark information
Silicon Graphics and IRIX are registered trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. OpenGL® and the oval logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries worldwide. OpenInventor and WebSpace are trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. IBM, AIX and LoadLeveler are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. Sun, SPARC, Solaris, Ultra and UltraSPARC are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of UNIX System Laboratories. Motif is a registered trademark of the Open Software Foundation, Inc. The X Window System and X11 are registered trademarks of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. PostScript and Encapsulated PostScript are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems, Inc. OpenWorks and VIP are registered trademarks of Landmark Graphics Corporation. Lotus, 123 and Symphony are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation. Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Internet Explorer, Intellimouse, Excel, Word and PowerPoint are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Netscape is a registered trademark of Netscape Communications Corporation. AVS is a registered trademark of AVS Inc. ZEH is a registered trademark of ZEH Graphics Systems. Ghostscript and GSview are Copyright of Aladdin Enterprises, CA. GNU Ghostscript is Copyright of the Free Software Foundation, Inc. Linux is Copyright of the Free Software Foundation, Inc. IRAP is Copyright of Roxar Technologies. LSF is a registered trademark of Platform Computing Corporation, Canada. VISAGE is a registered trademark of VIPS Ltd. Cosmo is a trademark and PLATINUM technology is a registered trademark of PLATINUM technology, inc. PEBI is a trademark of Veritas DGC Inc./HOT Engineering GmbH. Stratamodel is a trademark of Landmark Graphics Corporation. GLOBEtrotter, FLEXlm and SAMreport are registered trademarks of GLOBEtrotter Software, Inc. CrystalEyes is a trademark of StereoGraphics Corporation. Tektronix is a registered trade mark of Tektronix, Inc. GOCAD and JACTA are trademarks of TSurf. Myrinet is a trade name of Myricom, Inc. This product may include software developed by the Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org). Copyright (c) 19992001 The Apache Software Foundation. All rights reserved. MPI/Pro is a registered trademark of MPI Software Technology, Inc. The TGS logo is a trademark of TGS, Inc. LAPACK is Copyright 1999 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, PA, http://www.netlib.org/lapack/.
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Contents
3
Table of Contents
Proprietary Notice ............................................................................ 2 Patent information............................................................................ 2 Service mark information ................................................................ 2 Trademark information .................................................................... 2 Contact information ......................................................................... 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................... 3 DOCUMENT CONVENTIONS ............................................ 10 PIPESIM HOT KEYS ........................................................ 10 1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................... 15
1.1 Setting up ............................................................................. 15 1.1.1 Before you run setup ...................................................... 15 1.1.2 Running setup ................................................................ 17 1.1.3 Changing Options after quitting setup ............................ 17 1.2 Documentation..................................................................... 17 1.2.1 PIPESIM additional documentation ................................ 17 1.2.2 Case Studies .................................................................. 18 1.2.3 Online Help..................................................................... 18 1.3 PIPESIM overview................................................................ 19 1.3.1 Modules .......................................................................... 20 1.3.2 Options ........................................................................... 23 1.4 File Management.................................................................. 25
1.5 Security ................................................................................ 26 1.5.1 Standalone security (dongle)......................................... 26 1.5.2 LAN Security................................................................... 27
PIPESIM
......... 50 2..................................................................................................................................................................5 Production Optimization ............................................9............................4 Network Analysis ......8 New features ....................................9..3 Steam .. 31 Steps in building a model ..............7 2.........................................................................................8 Flow correlation ..................1 Lasater.....................................1 2.................................................... 52 3........................... 48 2................................................... 31 Units System ....4.....1.......................... 31 2...................... 31 Starting PIPESIM...........9....1 Model & Component limitations.......... 50 2....7 Multilateral .............6 2.................... 52 PIPESIM ...................... 40 Run an operation ................................................................................................................................................. 32 2...............4 Contents 1..9............................................... 28 Schlumberger Support Services ......................2 Compositional.............1 Black Oil ............ 51 3 FLUID & MULTIPHASE FLOW MODELING ...... 45 2................4 Fluid data..... 28 What to do next.4.9....................... 28 2 2................................. 41 2.. 52 3......................6 Field Planning....9 How to build models.................... 35 2......2 2...................1 Fluid calibration ....9...........................7 1..................................................................5 Model components overview. 35 2..................... 40 Saving & Closing PIPESIM.............3 Well Performance ........................................................1 Black Oil ......................9...........................2 Pipeline & facilities................6 1....... 34 2................................................................ 42 2......................... 32 2...................... 39 2............3 MODEL OVERVIEW .................. 41 2.............................................5....... 41 2..................................................................................4...
.......... 94 4......1 Effect of Pressure Drop on Productivity.1................. 59 Gas Viscosity.................................................2 Compositional.....................5 SteadyState Productivity ...........11 Standing .. 101 PIPESIM .................... 91 4.. 54 Coning ............. 53 Glasø .....2...........................7 Solution GasDrive IPR .........................................................................................................................3 Multiphase Pressure Drop ................1. 87 4..............................8 3.........4 Inflow Production Profiles ............................... 60 3......... 61 3....4 References ....... 56 Dead Oil Viscosity ............................................1.............................3.1 Vertical Completions ..............1...................2.....1...................... 96 4..........2...................................................4 Hydrates .......................3 3........................................2..............2........7 3...............................1 Flow regimes ..............1................................................................... 65 3........................2...... 60 3........................................1 Liquid Reservoirs......... 95 4............................ 58 Oil/Water Mixture Viscosity.......1..1.. 60 3....10 3............6 3... 76 3.2....3 Pressure Drop Calculation....3.........3...... 55 Liquid Viscosity.... 53 Vazques and Beggs ................. 70 3...........2 Horizontal Completions . 91 4.....................2 3.........3 Vertical Multiphase Flow Correlations ...........................................2..6 PseudoSteady State Productivity ............. WELL & COMPLETION MODELING ..............1................ 89 4..................3 BIP (Binary Interaction Parameter) Set . 63 3.......................2 Viscosity model.....................................................................3..................1...............2................5 3.............2... 87 4......4 3....1......................................................................1 EOS (Equations of State) ...................... 87 4....9 3..................................1.. 66 3..........2......................Contents 5 3....... 57 Undersaturated Oil Viscosity ....................................2 Single Phase Pressure Drop ..........2 Single Phase Flow Correlations ...................................................... 56 Live Oil Viscosity ................ 69 3. 99 4.......................................................... 63 3......................... 80 4 RESERVOIR....2 Gas and Gas Condensate Reservoirs.........4 Horizontal Multiphase Flow Correlations ........... 95 4.................................
......4 Multiphase Boosting ..................................................................1 Gas Lift ................................ 112 4............2 5................... 133 PIPESIM ................................................. 101 Multiple Layers / Completions...............................................4.........................................................8 4.........................4 Multiphase Boosters – Dynamic Type ......6............................................................ 106 4....2 Gas Condensate Reservoirs ..6 Chokes.6 Contents 4...................4 Artificial Lift.......................... 119 Expander .....4..................8...............9 References ...... 110 4................................. 121 5......5 Tubing... 104 4. ........................ Achong and Pilehvari.............................................. 104 4....4...........3 FIELD EQUIPMENT ................... 115 4.2 Twin Screw Type Multiphase Boosters ................................................... 106 4.....6.................................................................5 HelicoAxial Type Multiphase Boosters ........................................................................1 5.....4.......... 120 Single Phase Pump .............. Baxendall.. 129 5. 121 5...3 Horizontal Gas Wells ...........3 Gilbert.................1 Volume Depletion Reservoirs .....5 Mechanistic Correlation..2........ 131 5......... 119 Compressor....... Ros.............................3 Progressing Cavity Type Multiphase Boosters....................6............... 108 4.... 113 4.......6..............................6........ 103 4........................................4....................................... 107 4.....................................................4......1 Multiphase Boosters – Positive Displacement Type...........2 Omana..2 ESP Lift.............8 Reservoir Depletion...............................................................................8........................... 115 5 5............... 126 5....6 ContraRotating Axial Type Multiphase Booster...... 130 5......4....... 105 4............. 113 4.7 Heat transfer.........4..... 127 5.....................................................6....................... 105 4..... 113 4........4 PoettmannBeck ....................................6 API 14B Formulation .............1 AshfordPierce.... 109 4............................
......................... 143 6................................. 140 Flow correlation matching ........... 148 Reservoir tables.................. 142 6............................................... 139 Check model ........................................7 5................2 Optimization module performance curves ...9 Artificial Lift Performance........................5 5....... 149 Production Optimization ...........................14 Horizontal well analysis ......................... 141 Nodal Analysis .....7 5............................................................................4....................................................11 6............................................................ 135 Reinjection point ............................................ 140 Pressure Temperature profile...... 134 Separator ..............8 OPERATIONS ............................................................. 141 6.......... 140 Wax Prediction.3 6......................... 140 System Analysis .....4 6...10....................1 Check for Gas Lift instability .6 5.................................................8 Alternative approach................................... 148 Network analysis ..... 135 Heat Transfer..................7 6................................................1 Well Performance Curves............................. 145 6....9........6 6...........5 6................................................................... 149 PIPESIM ....................................... 135 References ..............9................... 135 6 6......................................................................1 6...................................................2 6..........................Contents 7 5................ 143 6.............................................10 Gas Lift Design & Diagnostics ................... 139 Run model ......................................... 139 No operation............. 145 6..............................12 6................................13 6....
............................3 Network Analysis Case Study – Looped Gas Gathering Network ........ Determine the Pipeline Insulation Requirement 165 7......2............2...................1.......4 Event handling...3............................17 Post processor................ Build a Model of the Network.......... 150 6.......15.................................1........................ 152 6......1.............................................. 154 6..........1....2...................................1 Dynamic Eclipse link....16 Multilateral well analysis.............1 Task 1.... Specify the Network Boundary Conditions . 175 7.............15......................2 Well Performance Case Study – Oil Well Design...........................................3 Compositional tank models ........................17.... 156 6.8 Contents 6....... 150 6............................... Select a Tubing Size for the Production String 180 7.. 162 7........................... Develop a Calibrated Blackoil Model .....3 Task 3..... Size a Slug Catcher ..2 Task 2................. 7184 7...........4 Data Available ..... 172 7............ 7189 PIPESIM ............1.................................... 161 7........2 Task 2.............. 155 6..................2 Tabular data ..5 Task 5.. 175 7..................................1 Graphical plots... 163 7.15...... 155 6....... 155 6.........1 Task 1... Screen the Pipeline for Severe Riser Slugging 167 7........................ 156 7 CASE STUDIES .......... 182 7.. 170 7...................15.................... 153 6......3 Task 3.................1....................................... Identify the Hydrate Envelope... Develop a Compositional Model of the Hydrocarbon Phases ...18 References ........... 180 7................ 159 7........2 Task 2............. Select a Pipeline Size ............ Develop a Well Inflow Performance Model........1 Pipeline & facilities Case Study – Condensate Pipeline 161 7......2 Lookup tables ......... 7184 7.........4 Task 4................................................3 Onscreen data ............15 Field Planning ........ 156 6.6 Task 6.................................1 Task 1...................................................17..................1...................7 Data Available ..3...........2..........................17.................................................
............................... 7194 Field Planning ..........Contents 9 7............................................. 7192 Optimization .............3............... Solve the Network and Establish the deliverability 7190 Data Available ...............4 7..5 7.............3 7......................................8194 PIPESIM ...............4 7.................................................................................. 7194 Multilateral................................. 7194 8 INDEX .......3................6 Task 3......
10 Document conventions Conventions <edit/copy> .used to denote commands enter into the computer from either Microsoft Windows operating systems or PIPESIM PIPESIM .
Conventions THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY 11 PIPESIM .
12 Conventions PIPESIM Hot Keys File Create New Well Model Create New Pipeline Model Create New Network model Open model Open engine file Save model Close PIPESIM Text Edit Export to Engine file Purge Engine Files Simulation Run model Restart Model Check model Windows New Model Window Close Active Window Go to Next Window Go to Previous Window Tools Print Access Help Editing/General Access Pulldown menus Cut Copy Paste Delete Select All Find Sticky key mode PIPESIM CTRL+W CTRL+ CTRL+N CTRL+O CTRL+T CTRL+S ALT+F4 CTRL+T CTRL+E CTRL+Y CTRL+G CTRL+R CTRL+E CTRL+W CTRL+F4 CTRL+F6 or CTRL+TAB CTRL+SHIFT+F6 or CTRL+SHIFT+ TAB CTRL+P F1 ALT or F10 CTRL+X CTRL+C CTRL+V Del CTRL+A CTRL+F SHIFT .
Conventions Zoom in Zoom out Zoom Full View Restore View SHIFT+Z SHIFT+X SHIFT+F SHIFT+R 13 PIPESIM .
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the integrated Petroleum Engineer and Facilities package for Design.EXE. Operation and Optimization. 1.1 Setting up You install PIPESIM on your computer by using the program SETUP.Field Equipment 15 1 Introduction Welcome to Schlumberger’s PIPESIM . The setup up program installs ESI M .
3 Make backup copies Before you run the install procedure please back up copies of any important data stored on your PC. If any of the above are missing then please contact your nearest Schlumberger office. You are also encouraged to make a back up copy of the install CD.1.1.1.4 Read the additional notes document The additional notes' document (shipped with the package) lists any changes to the User Guide since its publication.1. This should be quoted on all correspondence. The security system uses the current PC date. The recommended system requirements are: • Pentium III processor 600MHz • 3Gb hard disk • A 4x CDROM drive • A SVGA display running in 1024x768 and 256 colors • A 2 button mouse • 64Mb of RAM • Microsoft Windows 2000 1.1. 1.16 • • • • Field Equipment A mouse 32Mb of RAM Microsoft Windows 98 or higher The PC system date is set to the current date.2 Check the PIPESIM package The following items should be in the PIPESIM package: • PIPESIM User Guide • PIPESIM Additional Notes • PIPESIM Service Pack Notes (if applicable) • PIPESIM Installation Guide • PIPESIM CD • Registration form (also available on our web site) • Software license reference number.1. PIPESIM 2000 . 1.
Field Equipment 1. The latest versions of these documents are available from any Schlumberger support office or can be downloaded directly from the Schlumberger web site in Adobe Acrobat PDF format.2 Running setup When you run the setup program To start Setup 17 Once you have installed PIPESIM the following links will be created on the Programs menu. However.1 Artificial lift Performance curve The optimizer module utilizes artificial lift performance curves to model the wells. PIPESIM 2000 . reinstall or remove components. These can be created by a suitable Nodal analysis software package.3 Changing Options after quitting setup You can run they setup program as many times as you like to install. 1.1. • Schlumberger • PIPESIM • GOAL • FPT • HoSim • Documentation • OpenLink • Utilities • B26 to P2K Converter • Security utilities • User defined DLL registry editor • Plotting utility 1.1. 1.2.1.1 PIPESIM additional documentation In addition to this User Guide the following documentation is available to assist users in using PIPESIM or some of its modules. only 1 copy of PIPESIM can be installed on a single PC.2.2 Documentation 1.
1. You can use the Contents PIPESIM 2000 . These are covered.2.2 User Defined Multiphase flow correlation The user can create their own multiphase flow correlations and link these into PIPESIM.2. choose Contents from the Help menu or press F1 and click the Contents button.1.3 Online Help You can access Help through.1. in the Help system. etc. 1. An up to date list of features and functionality can be obtained from the Schlumberger web site.3 OpenLink A collection of COM object that allows PIPESIM to be accessed from 3rd party applications. provide that it is supplied in the correct format.2. 1. in detail. • by searching for specific topics with the Help Search tool • pressing F1 to get contextsensitive Help. e. 1.1.2.2. 1. • the Help Contents command. along with all the necessary documentation. This document details that format.2 Case Studies The PIPESIM installation installs sample models on to your hard disk. Microsoft Excel.5 Sentinel LM Security The LAN version of PIPESIM utilizes Sentinel LM License manger as its security system The Sentinel LM Administrators Guide can be of assistance to IT personnel.2. Visual basic.1 Help contents For information on Help topics.2.3. 1.4 PVT file format The composition can be transferred from third party applications directly into PIPESIM.g. Note: This User Guide does not cover the menus or dialogs that are used within the software. supplied with PIPESIM. 1.18 Field Equipment 1.
Tc 0.000 Tc 0 Tw 13.98 t c m p e k a n s hh . 9 T t c t 0 6 o 0 5 0 n 0 7 2 1u 7 2 s 7 .Field Equipment 19 screen to jump to topics that tell you how to useaBT5/TT4 1. e 5 c a a n  g e t p T . c 9 8 h 0 m 0 b 1 3 u. h m ( t ee l l e S n t e ) T a j r1 3 .
3. Field Planning (FPT). Typical applications of the module includes: • Well design • Well optimization • Well inflow performance modeling • Gas Lift Design • ESP Design • Gas lift performance modeling • ESP performance modeling • Horizontal well modeling (including optimum horizontal completion length determination) • Injection well design • Annular and tubing flow PIPESIM 2000 .20 Field Planning Multilateral well Multizone wells Field Equipment This release of PIPESIM does not have all modules fully integrated. Multilateral well (HoSim).1 Pipeline & Facilities A comprehensive multiphase flow model with "System Analysis" capabilities.1.1. 1. Typical applications of the module include: • multiphase flow in flowlines and pipelines • point by point generation of pressure and temperature profiles • calculation of heat transfer coefficients • flowline & equipment performance modeling (system analysis) 1. i.3.1 Modules PIPESIM consists of the following modules: • Pipeline & Facilities • Well Performance Analysis • Network Analysis • Production Optimization (GOAL) • Field Planning (FPT) • Multilateral (HoSim) 1.3. Production Optimization (GOAL).e.2 Well Performance analysis A comprehensive multiphase flow model with "Nodal & System Analysis" capabilities.
3 Network analysis module Features of the network model include: • unique network solution algorithm to model wells in large networks • rigorous thermal modeling of all network components • multiple looped pipeline/flowline capability • well inflow performance modeling capabilities • rigorous modeling of gas lifted wells in complex networks • comprehensive pipeline equipment models • gathering and distribution networks 1. which allows current field production rates and pressures to be predicted and the results compared directly against actual field data. As an alternative to calculations based on produced oil the optimization can be performed on gross liquids. The program models the full network on a pointbypoint basis. PIPESIM 2000 . to optimize the total production.3. This could be. while taking into account any production constraints. GOAL has been designed with to allow answers to specific problems to be easily obtained. The module has been primarily developed for use by operations staff in the daytoday optimization and allocation of lift gas for complex multiwell networked configurations.1. The module can then be used to determine the best reallocation of the lift gas to the remaining wells. and offers a choice of flow correlation options for multiphase flow. when a well is shutin and the extra quantity of lift gas or horse power is made available.Field Equipment 21 1. gross gas or revenue. for example. In addition to being able to optimize field production it includes a unique production prediction mode.3. The module will predict the optimum artificial lift quantity (lift gas or ESP speed) so as to optimize oil production from the entire field.1.4 Production Optimization (GOAL) This module allows production optimization of an artificial lifted (gas lift or ESP) oil field to be performed given a number of practical constraints on the system.
To obtain the correct solution the pressure drop must be correctly accounted for along the surface network. modeling of the wells and the optimization process have been separated. to be generated in a very short time. This allows answers to specific problems.22 Field Equipment To allow the daytoday modeling of the system to be performed quickly. graphical plots or by utilizing the sophisticated graphical user interface to display a variety of rates and pressures. Input is taken from individual well performance models created from a multiphase flow simulator. The software uses a rigorous network solution algorithm to solve horizontal and multilateral wells as gathering networks. Results are displayed in tabular form. Full features of the model include: • interfaces with the well Analysis module • solves multiwell commingled scenarios • allows well production performance modeling • offers operator decision support functions • Black Oil only 1. by examining a number of scenarios. in the form of well performance curves. the flow rate and pressure at each manifold in the system and economic data.3. These performance curves should be generated and checked before being included in the model. The solution provides a comprehensive report that includes the required gas injection rate for each well or required operating speed for each well.1. In its production prediction mode of operation it can be used to validate the individual well gas lift or ESP lift performance curves by using them to predict current production rates. This is simulated by the use of (tuned) industrial standard multiphase flow correlation's to predict the pressure loss and liquid holdup in the pipeline. PIPESIM 2000 .5 Multilateral wells (HoSim) HoSim is designed to model horizontal and multilateral heterogeneous wells in detail.
3.Field Equipment 23 The program enables detailed horizontal well models to be built quickly and easily through a graphical user interface. 1.6 Field Planning (FPT) Allows the network module to be coupled to a “reservoir model” to model reservoir behavior over time. In addition conditional logic decision can be taken into account. Fluid description can be either black oil or compositional and different fluids can be specified which are mixed together using appropriate mixing rules. pumps etc. 1. gas lift. The reservoir may be described as either. and specify a detailed well description. Specifying either an outlet pressure or an outlet flow rate (or a range of values for a batch run) to run the model. The user can define various IPR relationships. i.2. which are common to the pipeline and facilities module. are available such as chokes. ESP’s and also separators.1 Compositional option Allows a PVT package to be used to determine the fluid properties. Certain equipment models.3. Options are • SIS Flash (provided by Schlumberger) • Multiflash (provided by InfoChem) PIPESIM 2000 . • Black oil tank model • Compositional tank model • lookup tables • Commercial reservoir simulator • Commercial material balance program 1. compressors.2 Options In addition to the above basic modules a number of options are available.1.e.3. bring well 56 on steam in year 5. Results can be displayed either as text (point values) or graphically for any part of the model. etc.
3. (i) 2phase and (ii) 3phase. etc) details • Viscosity models • Pederson • LBC In addition the Multiflash option has the following features. • Multiple Bubble point matching • Multiple Dew point matching • Multiple Viscosity data matching • Multistage flashing • Setting of BIPs • Emulsion options • User defined BIPs 1. This option has 2 versions. • Standard library of 50+ components • Petroleum Fraction • Phase envelope generation • Dew point line • Bubble point line • Critical point • Hydrate formation line (if present) • Ice formation line (if present) • Quality lines • EOS • PengRobinson (standard and advanced) • SRK (standard and advanced) • Corresponding EOS • SMIRK (limited access) • Stand alone flash (PT. PIPESIM 2000 .24 Field Equipment • SPPTS (for Shell users only) The compositional options have the following features.2.2 OLGAS 2000 Utilizes the steadystate version of the multiphase flow correlation from Scandpower as used in OLGA Transient. PH.
1. Multiflash.2. Input data (*. *. *. This file can (if required) be created by a commercial PVT package e. Output data (*.Field Equipment 25 1. *.2. Transfer files (*. units.BPN. *.HSM) Contains all the data that is necessary to run a model.g. 1. • ASCII files • Binary files • Microsoft Access Database. The system has been designed so that ECLIPSE can reside on UNIX or PC. PIPESIM 2000 . etc.PLT.4 File Management PIPESIM uses the following to store data.SUM) Contains program output data in different formats.3. *. PVT table (*. The support team requires these files when support queries are made. etc. *.PWH.2.PGW. or via the compositional module in PIPESIM.4 ECLIPSE 300 Allows the Field Planning module to use the ECLIPSE 300 reservoir simulator (Compositional) to model the reservoir performance. well IPR.3.TNT. The system has been designed so that ECLIPSE can reside on UNIX or PC.3.PST) Files that transfer data from one PIPESIM module to another.FPT. *. *.PVT) A file that contains a single stream composition and a table of fluid properties for a given set of pressure and temperature values. This includes data for. fluid composition. system data. 1.5 MBAL Allows the Field Planning module to use the material balance program Mbal (from Petroleum Experts) to model the reservoir performance. EQUI90. *.BPS.3 ECLIPSE 100 Allows the Field Planning module to use the ECLIPSE 100 (Black Oil) reservoir simulator to model the reservoir performance.PLC.OUT.*.PBT. Hysys. PVTSim.
so no particular care need be taken in handling it. The dongle is quite robust. 1. Local Area Network (LAN) versions are normally protected via License Manager software. they can both be plugged into the port at the same time. These files can be passed from usertouser. You can connect another device (or more Schlumberger dongles) to the parallel port while the dongle is still attached to it without affecting the operation of the device or the dongle. PIPESIM 2000 . Used to store user defined unit sets. If you already have another program protected by a similar dongle.26 Field Equipment Database files (*. the attached dongle license details for the various software modules are displayed. and are not replaceable if lost. • ESP performance curves • User defined pump and compressor curves Units file (*. Do this simply by plugging the device into the back of the dongle. When renewing or purchasing additional software licenses you will need to update the licenses on your dongle(s) by receiving instructions from Schlumberger. Users are able to view the Schlumberger software modules licensed on their dongles by using the Dongle Utility. • Black Oil fluid data.5 Security Standalone (single PC) versions of PIPESIM are protected from unauthorized use by means of either a license file or a hardware security module (generally referred to as a 'dongle' or 'bit lock'). The dongle remains the property of Schlumberger while in use by customers. and should not interfere with each other. On startup of the utility. 1.MDB) Microsoft Access Database file that contains.5.1 Standalone security (dongle) When the program executes the dongle must be attached to the parallel port of the computer otherwise it will not run.UMF) Units files.
It is important NOT to set your PC’s clock into the future and run PIPESIM. . as the dongle will prevent you from using PIPESIM after you have set your clock back. If you do accidentally do this. contact Schlumberger for information on how to “reset” your dongle.Field Equipment 27 The dongles have an internal timing mechanism to enforce the license periods.
New users • Familiarize yourself with the all PIPESIM modules.com Tel +44 1293 55 68 97 +1 713 513 2037 To offer the best and fastest support our preferred method for support services is via email.28 Field Equipment 1. PIPESIM 2000 .7 Schlumberger Support Services Schlumberger offers full technical support for PIPESIM from our offices worldwide. Center United Kingdom mailto:helpdeskgquk@lslb. • Work through the case studies for your particular area of interest Existing users • Read the Release Notes document to obtain an overview of new features.com America helpdeskhoustonsis@slb.8 What to do next Depending upon your needs the following is recommended. 1. Please see the web site for your nearest support center or contact the support centers in the United Kingdom or in Houston (USA). 1.6 New features You are advised to review the Release Notes document supplied with your version of the software for a complete list of new features. their function and application.
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• Select units • Set fluid data • Calibrate data (optional) • Define components in the model • Well components (completion.Model Overview 2 Model Overview 31 2. Thus you can use this feature to modify the units system to match reports or data supplied by a service company or to simply customize the units system to suit your own personal preferences. tubing) • Pipeline component • Field equipment • Set heat transfer options • Select multiphase flow correlation • Perform an operation • Analyze the results • Graphical • Tabular • Via schematic 2. • Engineering (oil field) and • SI.2 Starting PIPESIM The PIPESIM GUI can be run from the start menu <start/program files/Schlumberger/PIPESIM>. In addition the customizable unit sets are available. 2. Two noncustomizable unit sets are provided. These customized files can be provided to other PIPESIM users. Any number of customized unit sets can be created and saved (each one to a different external data file) under a new name.3 Units System The built in units system allows you the flexibility to select any variable and define the unit of measurement to be used. PIPESIM .1 Steps in building a model The steps involved in building a PIPESIM model are slightly different for each module but follow the same basic steps.
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Model Overview
The units system used for any particular model is saved with the model data, thus allowing models to be moved easily. Any unit set can be set as the default for new models or new sessions of PIPESIM. 2.4 Fluid data One of the first things that you need to do before using PIPESIM is to decide what type of fluid system you are going to use. PIPESIM can model the following fluid types: • Gas • Gas condensate • Liquid • Liquid & Gas • Steam The fluid can be described by one of the following methods; • Fully Compositional • Black Oil correlations • Steam tables The fluid model that you use will depend upon: • Properties of the fluids in the system • Flow rates and conditions (pressure & temperature) at which the fluid(s) enter and leave the system. • Available data, etc. For a quick screening study where the accuracy of the physical properties is not essential, we advise the user to use a Black oil fluid model specification. 2.4.1 Black Oil Black oil fluid modeling utilizes correlation models to simulate the key PVT fluid properties of the oil/gas/water system. These empirical correlation's treat the oil/gas system as a simple two component system  unlike the more rigorous multicomponent compositional model methods. The hydrocarbon is treated simply as a liquid
PIPESIM 2000
Model Overview component (if present) and a gas component related to stock tank conditions. All that is needed for most applications is a minimum of production data, oil gravity, gas gravity, solution gas/oil ratio and, if water is also present in the system, the watercut. Black oil fluid modeling is appropriate for use with a wide range of applications and hydrocarbon fluid systems. In general, the basic black oil correlations will provide reasonable accuracy in most PVT fluid property evaluations over the range of pressures and temperatures likely to be found in production or pipeline systems.
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However, care should be taken when applying the black oil approach to a highly volatile crude or a condensate where accurate modeling of the gaseous light ends is required. In this case, the user should consider the use of compositional modeling technique that describes the fluid as a multicomponent mixture. In order to increase the accuracy of the basic black oil correlations for modeling multiphase flow, PIPESIM provides the facility to adjust salient values of a number of the most important PVT fluid properties to match laboratory data. These PVT fluid properties are considered the single most important parameters affecting the accuracy of multiphase flow calculations. Calibration of these properties can greatly increase the accuracy of the correlations over the range of pressures and temperatures for the system being modeled. This facility is optional, but the above calibrations will significantly improve the accuracy of the predicted gas/liquid ratio, the flowing oil density and the oil volume formation factor. If the calibration data is omitted, however, PIPESIM will calibrate on the basis of oil and gas gravity alone and thus, there will be a loss in accuracy. It should be noted that the black oil calibration feature is only applicable to oil fluid types, as it is not appropriate for a gas fluid type. The following blackoil correlations are available: • Solution gas and bubble point pressure: Lasater, Standing, Vasquez and Beggs, Kartamodjo, Khan, or Glasø.
PIPESIM
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Model Overview • Oil formation volume factor of saturated systems: Standing, Vasquez and Beggs, or Glasø. • Oil formation volume factor of undersaturated systems: Vasquez and Beggs, or Glasø. • Dead oil viscosity: Beggs and Robinson, Glasø, or User’s data. • Live oil viscosity of saturated systems: Chew and Connally or Beggs and Robinson. • Live oil viscosity of undersaturated systems: Vazquez and Beggs, Kousel, or None. • Viscosity of oil/water mixtures: Inversion, Volume Ratio, or Woelflin. • Gas viscosity: Lee et al. • Gas compressibility: Standing, or Hall and Yarborough.
2.4.2 Compositional For compositional fluid modeling of hydrocarbon fluids and associated gas and water components, PIPESIM uses a PVT modeling package. Compositional fluid modeling is generally regarded as more accurate, but also more expensive in terms of time and computer resources than black oil modeling. It is justified for problems involving volatile fluids needing rigorous heat transfer calculations. However, the black oil modeling approach can often give satisfactory results with volatile fluids. Oil systems contain in reality many thousands of pure components, consisting of a spectrum of molecules with different carbon numbers and large numbers of different isomers. It would be impossible to model the behavior of such systems by explicitly defining the amount of each of these molecules, both because of the excessive computing power needed and the fact that laboratory reports could not possibly supply all this information. Since the alkane hydrocarbons are nonpolar and therefore mutually relatively ideal, lumping them together in the form of a number of 'pseudocomponents' results in fairly accurate phase behavior and physical property predictions.
PIPESIM 2000
When modeling stream systems the pressure and quality are required.Model Overview 35 Petroleum fractions are normally defined by splitting off sections of a laboratory distillation of the C7+ mixture.3 Steam For steam systems (production and injection) PIPESIM uses the GPSA stream tables. • Linking type components . etc can be found in the PIPESIM help system. Components are divided into 2 groups.4. Further details of the equations used. • critical pressure (PC).5 Model components overview A PIPESIM model is built (via the GUI) by adding components (from the toolbox) to the model window.Must be on the edge of the system and can only have one connection either leaving (source) or entering (sink). Curves of boiling point. 2. • Internal nodes . • specific gravity (SG) and • molecular weight (MW). • Measured Properties. density and molecular weight are produced from which the properties of the individual pseudocomponents may be derived. • boiling point (BP). 2. T • Critical Property • critical temperature (TC). If the quality is superheated (quality =100%) or subcooled (quality=0%) then the temperature is also required. Petroleum fractions are characterized by either. • acentric factor (Omega) and • specific gravity (SG).Joins 2 node type components PIPESIM .Cannot be on the edge of the system and can have any number of connections. • Node type components • Boundary nodes .
Multiphase Node A multiphase booster.up or down) to a point where it meets another riser or another object. It is a twophase separator. Booster Separator Internal Allows fluid separation to take place in Node the model. Compressor Expander Internal Node Internal Node PIPESIM 2000 . gross liquids. water or both. (i. Flowline Link A flowline to a point where it meets another flowline (with different characteristics) or another object. insulated or bare Riser Link A description of the riser (vertical or nearvertical . Pump Internal A single or multistage pump for the Node pumping of liquids. A single or multistage centrifugal gas compressor An expander. Details on the inputs for each component can be found in the help system. The components available depend upon the modules purchased. water or gas). Maybe horizontal or inclined and surrounded by air.36 Model Overview Node type components are connected by linking components and thus must be added to the model first. Pipeline & facilities module Component Type Description Source Boundary The point where the fluid enters the Node system. The removed fluid can be reinjected back into the network model via the injection point component.e. A full list of components and their type is listed below.
Allow key pieces of information to be retrieved at any point (between links) in the system. A full list of the keywords can be found in the Help system under keyword reference. This component has no effect on the temperature or pressure in the system. i. completion Node the IPR and the reservoir static pressure.e. These are then used to determine the bottom hole pressure.Model Overview Heat exchanger Choke Generic Equipment Injection point Internal Node Internal Node Internal Node Internal Node Allows a change in temperature and pressure to be modeled A device to restrict the flow of fluids. The fluid can flow either through the tubing PIPESIM . a zero length piece of pipe. Allows a side stream (compositional only) to be injected into the main stream. Allows engine keywords to be inserted into a model. Joins to nodes without having any effect on the calculations. These are then used to determine the bottom hole (heal) pressure Tubing Link Joins the reservoir top the surface. Horizontal Boundary Describes the horizontal completion. Changes the flowrate by the amount specified. The incoming pressure and flowrate (along with the composition) are required. 37 Multiplier/Adder Spot report Internal Node Internal Node Keyword tool Internal Node Link Connector A general device that can alter the pressure or temperature. Well Performance module Component Type Description Vertical Boundary Describes the well IPR and the completion Node reservoir static pressure for a vertical completion.
Node including tubing and completion. All the fluid removed from the separator is reinjected. Node The well is (normally) defined from the sand face to the point where it joins another object. inflow to the NA point and outflow from the NA point. Generic sink Boundary The point where the fluid leaves the Node systems. Any combination of flowline. The model is then broken into two parts. Nodal analysis point Node Network module Component Type Description Production well Boundary Models the source as a production well. well head. The point in the system where the (nodal) analysis is to be conducted.38 Model Overview or outside the tubing (inside the casing) or both. Can be used when a well is modeled from the well head. Injection well Boundary Models the sink as an injection well. i.the outlet stream 3 . When connected between a well and a node the resulting branch has no physical meaning Reinjection Node Connects 3 branches. node 1 .e. sources or sinks. etc. A model may have any number of sinks. The re PIPESIM 2000 .the incoming fluid stream 2 . The tubing may also have down hole equipment installed. manifold.the stream removed by the separator. Generic source Boundary The point where a fluid enters the Node system. Node Node A point in the system where 1 or more branches meets Branch Link Connects 2 or more nodes. riser or pieces of equipment can be used to describe a branch.
1 Model & Component limitations The following limitations. 2.024 30 256 1.000 1.500 1 5 39 PIPESIM . General: • Maximum number of components in a stream: Pipeline & facilities • Maximum number of sources: • Maximum number of sinks: • Maximum number pipe coatings: • Maximum number of nodes for a pipeline or riser: Well Performance • Maximum number of completions: • Maximum number of sinks • Maximum number tubing coatings: • Maximum number of nodes for a tubing: • Maximum number of geothermal survey points: • Maximum number of tubing strings: • Detailed model: • Simple model: Network • Maximum number of wells / branches: • Maximum number of nodes: • Maximum number of PVT files: • Maximum number of compositions: • Maximum number of Black Oil compositions: • Maximum number of PQ data points: Field Planning • Maximum number of stored timesteps: • Maximum number of auxiliary properties: • Maximum number of Eclipse models: • Maximum number of network models: 50 1 1 4 101 10 1 10 100 100 20 4 unlimited unlimited 500 1.Model Overview injected stream can be upstream or downstream of the separator.5.
500 99 500 1500 50 500 400 1 500 Production Optimization (GOAL) • Maximum number of wells/branches: • Maximum number of nodes: • Maximum number of sinks: Multilateral (HoSim) • Maximum number of multilaterals: 2. which can be obtained from Schlumberger or down loaded from our web site. • Single phase • Multiphase .horizontal A number of flow correlations have been proposed over the years.6 Flow correlation Flow correlations are used to determine the pressure drop and holdup in the system Flow correlations are split in to the following section.vertical • Multiphase . The linkages are documented in the user defined flow correlations document. PIPESIM 2000 . 2.40 • • • • • Model Overview Maximum number of events: Maximum number of schedule 'bean' lists: Maximum number of lookup tables: Maximum number of data lines in all lookup tables: Maximum number of tank reservoirs: 2.7 Run an operation Select the operation that is relevant to the model developed. In addition to the standard supplied flow correlations user's can create and add their own multiphase flow correlation in to PIPESIM via the user DLL facility. The simulation will commence and the postprocessor can then be used to analyze the results.
1 Black Oil The following basic steps are required to calibrate the black oil defined fluids.8 Saving & Closing PIPESIM When PIPESIM is closed all files (models) that have been modified during the session are checked and an option to save any that have changed is presented to the user.9.1 Fluid calibration 2. PIPESIM can build the following basic models.9 How to build models This section provides a brief overview of the steps involved in building a model with each of the basic PIPESIM modules. • Pipeline and facilities • Production well • Single completion well • Multiple completion well • Horizontal completion well • Injection well • Subsurface and surface Networks • Gathering systems • Looped systems • Distribution systems • Multilateral wells • Production • Injection 2.Model Overview 41 2. • Save the model! PIPESIM . 2.1. • Select the units set of your preference • Enter the basic fluid data • Enter the Bubble Point data • Enter the Advanced calibration data (optional) • Run the operation.9. See the PIPESIM Help system " How do I…" section for full details on setting up the basic models.
• Select the units set of your preference • Add the necessary components to the model (source. • Define the fluid specification (black oil or compositional).1 Correlation matching The following basic steps are required to determine the most suitable horizontal multiphase flow correlation.2 Pipeline & facilities The following basic steps are required to build a pipeline & facilities model.42 Model Overview In a network model the calibration data is "mixed" at junctions to provide average calibration data for the resulting stream. 2.9.2 Compositional The following basic steps are required to calibrate the compositionally defined fluids. petroleum fractions) • Produce the phase envelop (for reference) • Select the quantity to match to.2. • Build the pipeline & facilities model. • Define the flow correlation to use. • Select the Correlation matching operation • Determine the boundary condition to compute PIPESIM 2000 .1. 2. etc) and defined the necessary data.9.9. flowline. equipment. • Save the model! One the basic model has been developed a number of operations can be performed or the model can be utilized in additional PIPESIM modules. • Select the units set of your preference • Enter the basic fluid data (library components. Bubble Point or Dew point • Enter the matching data • Select viscosity matching options if applicable • Enter the viscosity data • Run the matching operation • Update the composition • Produce the new phase envelop • Save the model! 2.
Model Overview • • • • Select suitable Horizontal correlations Enter any known measured pressure and temperature values Run the operation. Save the model!
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Insure that the most suitable correlation is then selected from the horizontal flow correlation list for subsequent simulations. 2.9.2.2 Pressure/Temperature profile The following basic steps are required to determine the pressure or temperature profile along the system; • Build the well performance model. • Select the Pressure/Temperature profile operation • Determine the boundary condition to compute • Select any sensitivity parameters • Enter the sensitivity parameters • Run the operation • Save the model! 2.9.2.3 Equipment/Flowline sizing (1 parameter) The following basic steps are required to size a flowline/riser or a piece of equipment; • Build the pipeline and facilities model. • Include the flowline/equipment/riser to be sized. • Select the Pressure/Temperature profile operation • Select the sensitivity parameter • Enter the data for the sensitivity parameter • Run the operation. • Save the model! 2.9.2.4 Equipment/Flowline sizing (Multiple parameter) The following basic steps are required to size a flowline/riser or a piece of equipment; • Build the pipeline and facilities model. • Include the flowline/equipment/riser to be sized. • Select the System Analysis operation • Select the multiple sensitivity • Select the xaxis and sensitivity parameters
PIPESIM
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Model Overview • Enter the data for the sensitivity parameters • Decide if the sensitivity parameters are permuted or change in step. • Run the operation. • Save the model!
2.9.2.5 Multiphase booster design The following basic steps are required to complete a multiphase booster design; • Build the pipeline and facilities (including the well if required) model. • Include the multiphase booster. • Perform the analysis (nodal, PT profile, etc) with the booster inactive. • Invoke the generic Multiphase booster option and set the booster parameters. Details on efficiency factors are supplied in the help system. • Rerun the analysis. • Verify that multiphase booster van enhance production. • Decide upon the Multiphase booster type required (Helico Axial or Twin Screw). • For twin screw boosters • Select the generic twin screw module • Enter the required data and rerun the analysis • PIPESIM will automatically select the most suitable size of the twin screw booster. • Select the Twin screw booster module • Select the nominal booster as recommend by the previous operation • Enter the data required data and rerun the analysis • Select the vendor Twin screw module • Enter the data required data and rerun the analysis • For Helico Axial boosters • Enter the required a data and rerun the analysis • Save the model!
PIPESIM 2000
Model Overview
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2.9.3 Well Performance The following basic steps are required to build a well model (single or multiple completion); • Select the units set of your preference • Determine the completion of the well • Single • Multiple • Horizontal • Add the necessary components to the model (completion, tubing, etc) and defined the necessary data. • Define the fluid specification • Define the flow correlation to use. • Save the model! Once the basic model has been developed a number of operations can be performed or the well model can be utilized in additional PIPESIM modules.
2.9.3.1 Correlation matching The following basic steps are required to determine the most suitable vertical multiphase flow correlation; • Build the well o.aTm(well dules. )TjETEMC/P <</MMCID 7 >>BDCBT/C2_1 1 T
• Run the operation. • Save the model! 2.9.3. • Select the Pressure/Temperature profile operation • Determine the boundary condition to compute • Select any sensitivity parameters • Enter the sensitivity parameters • Run the operation • Save the model! 2.46 Model Overview • Determine the inflow and outflow parameters.5 Equipment/Tubing sizing (Multiple parameter) The following basic steps are required to size tubing or a piece of equipment.9. • Run the operation. • Build the pipeline and facilities model. • Include the tubing/equipment to be sized. • Save the model! 2. • Build the well model. • Select the System Analysis operation • Select the multiple sensitivity • Select the xaxis and sensitivity parameters • Enter the data for the sensitivity parameters • Decide if the sensitivity parameters are permuted or change in step.3 Pressure/Temperature profile The following basic steps are required to determine the pressure or temperature profile along the system. • Build the well performance model.4 Equipment/Tubing sizing (1 parameter) The following basic steps are required to size tubing or a piece of equipment.3. • Select the Pressure/Temperature profile operation • Select the sensitivity parameter • Enter the data for the sensitivity parameter • Run the operation.9. • Include the tubing/equipment to be sized. PIPESIM 2000 .3.
3. • Select the Artificial Lift operation • Select the GOAL curve format • Enter the required data • Run the operation.6 Artificial Lift analysis The following basic steps are required to analysis the effects of artificial lift on a well. • Select the Artificial Lift operation • Select the sensitivity parameters • Run the operation • Save the model! 2. • Insure that the gas lift or ESP lift depth has been set. • Build the well performance model. • Build the well performance model. • Build the well performance model. 2.Model Overview • Save the model! 2. These files must then be transferred (manually) to the required optimization (GOAL) directory. • Insure that the gas lift or ESP lift depth has been set. • Save the model! 47 The resulting data transfer files (*.9.WPI) are required by the network model if the well is to be represented by a performance curve.3.PLT & *.7 Well performance curves for GOAL The following basic steps are required to create well performance curves for the Optimization module (GOAL).9.8Well performance curves for Network Solver The following basic steps are required to create well performance curves for the Network module (GOAL). • Select the Well Performance operation • Select the sensitivity parameters • Enter the required data • Run the operation • Save the model! The resulting data transfer files (*. These PIPESIM .9.PWH) are required by the optimization model.3.
9.9 Reservoir Tables The following basic steps are required to create reservoir lookup tables. • Save the model! 2.48 Model Overview files must then be transferred (manually) to the required network directory. • Build the well (horizontal) performance model. • Select the Horizontal completion length operation • Enter the required data • Run the operation.9. the model must be either black oil. 2. • Save the model! The resulting ASCII file can then be used directly by the reservoir simulator. • Build the well performance model. • Select the reservoir tables operation • Select the reservoir simulator • Enter the required data • Run the operation. 2. PIPESIM 2000 . • Build the well performance model.4 Network Analysis 2.11 Gas Lift Rate v's Casing head pressure The following basic steps are required to analysis the effects of gas lift rate on the casing head pressure for a well.e.3. compositional or steam.4.10 Horizontal completion length The following basic steps are required to determine the optimal horizontal completion length. • Insure that the gas lift depth and quantity has been set.3. i.9. • Select the Gas Lift rate v's casing head pressure operation • Select the sensitivity parameters • Run the operation • Save the model! 2.1 Fluid properties In a network model different fluid descriptions can not be used.9.9.3.
reservoir temperature • Well 2: reservoir temperature PIPESIM . reservoir temperature • Well 3: Reservoir pressure. For example the above 3 well / 1 sink model could be specified as. production well.e. number of well (production and injection) + number of sources + number of sinks. For example a 3 production well system producing fluid to a single delivery point has 4 degrees of freedom (3+1) regardless of the network configuration between the well and the sink. 2: At least 1 pressure must be specified 3: All each source (production well & source) the fluid temperature must be set. injection well. The number of boundary conditions that are required for a model is known as the models Degrees of Freedom. 2. Flowrate. Each boundary can be specified in terms of. i. flowrate or PQ specifications must equal the degrees of freedom of the model.4. source and sink. Boundary nodes are those that have only one connecting branch.9.2 Boundary Conditions In order to solve the network model the correct number of boundary conditions must be entered. reservoir temperature • Sink: Delivery pressure OR • Well 1: Reservoir pressure. e. • Pressure • Flowrate OR • Pressure/Flowrate (PQ) curve.g.Model Overview 49 Each source can have it's own fluid description or use shared data. reservoir temperature • Well 2: Reservoir pressure. • Well 1: Reservoir pressure. This is computed by the total number of boundary nodes. To enable the system to be solved 1: the number of Pressure.
• building an optimization model • Calibrating the surface network • Calibrating the individual well models • Optimizing the field • Applying field constraints 2. reservoir temperature • Sink: Delivery pressure OR • • • • Etc.9. • Select the units set of your preference • Develop the surface network model • Set the outlet pressure • Develop individual well models • Create well performance curves for each well • Save the model! See the GOAL Used Guide for details on.4. Prebuilt models of wells/flowline can be used. • Set the fluid properties • Set the boundary conditions • Save the model! 2.50 Model Overview • Well 3: Reservoir pressure. • Select the units set of your preference • Develop the network model (wells and surface facilities).5 Production Optimization The following basic steps are required to build an optimization c (GOAL) model.6 Field Well 1: Flowrate. reservoir temperature Well 2: Flowrate.9. 2.9. reservoir temperature Well 3: Flowrate. reservoir temperature Sink: Delivery pressure .3 Network model The following basic steps are required to build a network model.
9.7 Multilateral The following basic steps are required to build a multilateral well model. 2. Select any auxiliary properties that are to be stored during the simulation and analyzed in the postprocessor. Link the wells to the reservoir description. branch. Specify any flowrate constraints Define the time dependent events. • Save the model! See the HoSim Used Guide for an example of building a multilateral well model.Model Overview 51 • • • • • • • • • Tanks • Tables • Reservoir simulator • Set the name of the host UNIX workstation • Material balance program Develop the network model (well and surface network) or models. Set the convergence tolerance Save the model! See the FPT Used Guide for an example of building a Field Planning model. • Define the flow correlation to use. • Select the units set of your preference • Add the necessary components to the model (horizontal well section. etc) and defined the necessary data. Define the conditional based events. PIPESIM . • Define the fluid specification (black oil or compositional).
1. The black oil correlations have been developed specifically for crude oil/gas/water systems and are therefore most useful in predicting the phase behavior of crude oil well streams.1 Lasater A correlation developed in 1958 from 158 experimental data points.1.562 Step 2: Calculate yg (mol fraction of gas) yg = (Rsb/379. 3.3 + 350g o/Mo) where g o = oil specific gravity Step 3: Calculate the bubble point pressure factor (pbg g/TR) PIPESIM 2000 .110(g API)1. the black oil correlations can produce accurate phase behavior data from a minimum of input data.223 Rsb (solution gas at bubble point pressure): 3 to 2. When used in conjunction with the calibration options. However. such as oil and gas gravities. if the accurate phase behavior prediction of light hydrocarbon systems is important.3)/(Rsb/379.52 Model Overview 3 Fluid & Multiphase Flow Modeling This section defines the fluid models and flow correlation modeled available in PIPESIM. The data points spanned the following ranges: pb (bubble point pressure): 48 to 5.780 psia TR (reservoir temperature): 82 to 272 °F g API (API gravity): 17.574 to 1. it is recommended that the more rigorous compositional models is employed.9 to 51. The selected correlation is used to predict the quantity of gas dissolved in the oil at a particular pressure and temperature.1.1 °API g g (gas specific gravity): 0.1 Bubble point pressure Step 1: Calculate Mo (molecular weight of the stock tank oil) For API <= 40: Mo = 630 .905 scf/STB 3.1 Black Oil Fluid properties can be predicted by blackoil correlations that have been developed by correlating gas/oil ratios for live crude’s with various properties. They are particularly convenient in gas lift studies where the effects of varying GLR and water cut are under investigation. 3.10g API For API > 40: Mo = 73.
The correlation was based on 105 experimentally determined bubble point pressure of California oil systems.yg)) 53 3.0.1.3 Vazques and Beggs Vasquez and Beggs used results from more than 600 oil systems to develop empirical correlations for several oil properties including bubble point pressure.25T Step 2: Calculate Bo (oil formation volume factor in bbl/STB) Bo = 0.972 + 0.1.000147F1.0125g API Step 2: Calculate pb pb = 18(Rsb/g g)0.1.1 Bubble point pressure Step 1: Calculate yg (mol fraction of gas) yg = 0.26yg3.56 + 1.000 psia.000 psia TR (reservoir temperature): 100 to 258 °F gAPI (API gravity): 16.2 Solution gas Rs = 132755 g o yg/(Mo(1 .204 3.2.323 For yg > 0.1.425 scf/STB 3.1.2.0.83 x 10yg 3.saturated systems Step 1: Calculate F (correlating factor) F = Rs (g g /g o)0.2 Standing Standing presented an equation to estimate bubble point pressures greater than 1.95 Rsb (solution gas at bubble point pressure): 20 to 1.59 to 0.2.00091TR . The data points spanned the following ranges: pb (bubble point pressure): 130 to 7. PIPESIM .5 to 63.3 Oil formation volume factor .175 3.786yg) .2 Solution gas Rs = g g (p/(18 x 10yg))1.1.6: pbg g/TR = 8.8 °API g g (gas specific gravity): 0.95 Step 4: Calculate pb pb = (pbg g/TR )(T/g g) 3.1.679 exp(2.5 + 1.Fluid & Multiphase Modeling For yg <= 0.6: pbg g/TR = 0.
60)(g API/g gc) where for g API <= 30: C1 = 4.67e4.56 to 1.1.931 3.751e5.54 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling Approximately 6. C2 = 1.3.931 3.1.60)(g API/g gc) + C3 Rs (T .1.3. C2 = 1.724 g API > 30: C1 = 0.0362.3.2 Solution gas Rs = C1 g g pC2 exp((C3 g API )/(T + 460)) where for g API <= 30: C1 = 0.187. C3 = 23. C3 = 1. C2 = 1.3.4 Oil formation volume factor . C2 = 1.0362. C2 = 1. C3 = 1.4 Glasø Glasø developed PVT correlations from analysis of crude oil from the following North Sea Fields:Ekofisk Stratfjord Forties Valhall COD 30/72A PIPESIM .337e9 3.1 Bubble point pressure pb = (Rsb/(C1g g exp(C3g API/( TR + 460))))1/C2 where for g API <= 30: C1 = 0.000 measured data points were collected across the following ranges: pb (bubble point pressure): 50 to 5.677e4.724 g API > 30: C1 = 0.811e8 g API > 30: C1 = 4.p)) 3.1e5.1.0937.saturated systems Bo = 1 + C1 Rs + C2 (T .0937.0178.070 scf/STB 3. C2 = 1.0178.1. C3 = 23. C3 = 25.undersaturated systems Bo = Bob exp(co (pb .3 Oil formation volume factor .250 psia TR (reservoir temperature): 70 to 295 °F g API (API gravity): 16 to 58 °API g g (gas specific gravity): 0.18 Rsb (solution gas at bubble point pressure): 20 to 2.187. C3 = 25.
Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3.1.1 Bubble point pressure and solution gas pb = f 1 [(Rs /g g )0.4.undersaturated systems Bt = f 3 [Rs (T 0. The relative permeability to oil in the pore spaces around the wellbore decreases as gas and water saturation increase.172/g API 0. In a homogeneous reservoir.989)] 3. The local saturations can be significantly different from the bulk average saturations (at distances such as a few hundred meters from the wellbore). The effect of increasing fluid velocity and energy loss in the vicinity of a well leads to the local distortion of a gasoil contact or a wateroil contact. analysis of the radial flow behavior of reservoir fluids moving towards a producing well shows that the rate dependent phenomenon of coning may be important.1.00027Rs 55 3. flowratedependent values of GOR and watercut may be entered.816 (T 0. The gas and water in the vicinity of the producing wellbore can therefore flow towards the perforation.526 + 0.1.1.3) g oA p1.saturated systems Bob = f 2 [Rs (g g/g o)0.3 Oil formation volume factor .4.2 Oil formation volume factor .1089] Where A = 2.968T] 3.5 Coning In order to simulate gas and/or water breakthrough from the reservoir.9 x 100.4.5 /g g0. The prediction of coning is important since it leads to decisions regarding: • Preferred initial completions • Estimation of cone arrival time at a producing well • Prediction of fluid production rates after cone arrival • Design of preferred well spacing PIPESIM .
or Users data. Calculate the saturated live oil viscosity at the flowing fluid pressure and temperature assuming that the oil is saturated with dissolved gas.6 Liquid Viscosity There are four steps to calculating the liquid viscosity as follows: 1 Calculate the dead oil viscosity at atmospheric pressure and the flowing fluid temperature.56 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3. Glasø method. The methods available for calculating live oil viscosity 2 . The methods available for calculating dead oil viscosity are: Beggs and Robinson.1.
3 User's data method A curve is fitted through the supplied data points of the following form: Log(mOD) µ (1/T) 3.0.1.447 3.2 Glasø method Dead oil viscosity is calculated as follows: mOD = c(loggAPI)d where c = 3.02023 gAPI 3.1 where x = yT1.1.7. The range of data analyzed was as follows: p (pressure): 50 to 5.141(1010 )T3.Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 57 3.1.1.313(logT) .250 psia T (temperature): 70 to 295 °F g API (API gravity): 16 to 58 °API Rsb (solution gas at bubble point pressure): 20 to 2.163 y = 10z z = 3.1 Beggs and Robinson method Beggs and Robinson used results from 600 oil systems to develop relationships for dead and live oil viscosity.073 live oil observations were taken.7.7.36.0324 . 460 dead oil observations and 2.8 Live Oil Viscosity The following live Oil Viscosity methods are available • Chew and Connally • Beggs and Robinson PIPESIM .070 scf/STB Dead oil viscosity is calculated as follows: m OD = 10x .444 d = 10.
000 0.645 psia T (temperature): 72 to 292 °F Rsb (solution gas at bubble point pressure): 51 to 3.273 1.000 0.615 0.715(Rs + 100).621 400 0.1.1 Chew and Connally Chew and Connally used results from 457 oil systems to develop relationships for live oil viscosity.515 B = 5.373 1.761 0.898 100 0.660 0.498 .400 0.522 0.447 800 0.000 50 0.703 300 0.1 Vasquez and Beggs Undersaturated oil viscosity is calculated as follows:m = mOb(p/pb)m PIPESIM B 1.721 0.600 0.9.9 Undersaturated Oil Viscosity 3.8.338 3.1.234 3.312 1.884 0.820 200 0.931 0.811 0.2 Beggs and Robinson Live oil viscosity is calculated as follows: mOb = AmODB where A = 10.548 0.251 1.200 0.1.0.0. The range of data analyzed was as follows:p (pressure): 132 to 5.44(Rs + 150).58 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3.550 600 0.1.544 scf/STB Live oil viscosity is calculated as follows:mOb = AmODB where A and B are given by the following table: Rs (cu ft/bbl) A 0 1.578 0.8.
2 Kousel method Undersaturated oil viscosity is derived from the equation Log(mp/ma) = p/1000(A + Bma0.Fluid & Multiphase Modeling where m = 2. and the mixture assumes the same viscosity as that of the water.9.1. 3.1. 3.01638 respectively.278) Where A and B are parameters entered by the user.187 exp(8. 3. At a watercut above the cutoff value.6p1.1 Inversion method The inversion method assumes that the continuous phase changes from oil to water at a given watercut cutoff point.10. and the mixture assumes the same viscosity as that of the oil. m a is the viscosity of the oil at the same temperature and atmospheric pressure.0239 and 0.10 Oil/Water Mixture Viscosity 3.1. 59 Suggested values for A and B are 0.513) For dead oils at high pressures the Vasquez and Beggs correlation overestimates the viscosity: Use Kousel.10. water bubbles are carried by oil.2 Volume ratio method Mixture viscosity is calculated as follows mm = mO Vo + mw Vw where mO = oil viscosity Vo = volume fraction of oil mw = water viscosity Vw= volume fraction of water PIPESIM .11. 3.1. at a watercut below or equal to the cutoff value.9. This means that.1.98x105 p .3 No calculation The undersaturated oil viscosity is assumed to be the same as the saturated live oil viscosity at the same temperature and pressure. oil bubbles are carried by water.
11 Gas Viscosity 3. an emulsion forms and the emulsion viscosity is given by the Woelflin equation for emulsions. The following equations of state are available:• SRK (advanced and standard) • PR (advanced and standard) • SMIRK 3.b)) + (a/(V(V + b))) PIPESIM . The Woelflin equation is as follows mm = mO (1 + 0.10. P = (NRT/(V .11. and the mixture assumes the same viscosity as that of the water.0063M)T1. volume and temperature behavior of pure components and mixtures.5/T + 0. This means that.77 + 0. at a watercut below or equal to the cutoff value.5/(122.1.1.1.2 Compositional 3.57 + 1914.3 Woelflin method The Woelflin option assumes that the continuous phase changes from emulsion to water at a given watercut cutoff point. Most thermodynamic and transport properties are derived from the equation of state. Method Gas viscosity is calculated as follows: mg = Kexp(Xr y) where K = (7. oil bubbles are carried by water.2.4 + 12. At a watercut above the cutoff value.04X M is the gas molecular weight r is the gas density 3.1 Lee et al.2.60 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3.2 ) 3.1 SoaveRedlichKwong The standard SRK equation is.11 + 0.0023 Vw2.0095M Y = 1.1 EOS (Equations of State) Equations of state describe the pressure.9M + T) X = 2.1.
3 SMIRK The Shell SPPTS package uses the SMIRK equation of state. 3.2 PengRobinson The standard PR equation is. These include the ability to match stored values for the liquid density (Peneloux correlation) and the saturated vapor pressure and a choice of mixing rule.2. The advanced implementation of SRK contains additional nonstandard features. and acentric factors.1.b)) + (a/(V2 + 2bV . The advanced implementation of PR contains additional nonstandard features. pressures. 3.1. pressures.2. • Pederson • LBC (LohrenzBrayClark) These are not available when using SMIRK (SPPTS) Preliminary testing has shown the Pedersen method to be the most widely applicable and accurate for oil and gas viscosity predictions. 3. PIPESIM . and acentric factors.2 Viscosity model The following methods are available to predict the liquid and gas viscosity. P = (NRT/(V .2. These include the ability to match stored values for the liquid density (Peneloux correlation) and the saturated vapor pressure and a choice of mixing rule.Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 61 The values of "a" and "b" in the above equations are derived from functions of the pure component critical temperatures.b2)) The values of "a" and "b" in the above equations are derived from functions of the pure component critical temperatures. Both methods are based on the corresponding state theory.
2. Ethyl Benzene.2. For both Methane and Pentane the Pedersen method predictions show close agreement with experimental data. However.2 Higher Alkanes The results for higher alkanes Eicosane and Triacontane are mixed: the Pedersen method is adequate for Eicosane whereas the LBC method is slightly better than Pedersen for Triacontane.3 Petroleum Fractions The LBC method describes viscosity as a function of the fluid critical parameters. 3.2. the Pedersen method has been modified especially for water so that it now accurately models the viscosity of water in the liquid phase.2.4 Water The Pedersen method suffers the same drawback as the LBC method in that it is unable to predict the temperature dependence of water. This was achieved by the introduction of a temperaturedependent correction factor. 3. For Octane. PIPESIM . The LBC model is therefore very sensitive to both density and the characterization of the petroleum fractions. The LBC method is more sensitive to equation of state effects than the Pedersen method. For Triacontane both LBC and the Pedersen methods are inadequate. acentric factor and density.62 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling The choice of the equation of state has a large effect on the viscosities predicted by both methods.1 Lower Alkanes Predicted liquid viscosities using LBC and Pedersen methods have been compared to experimental data for Methane and Octane as a function of both temperature and pressure and for Pentane as a function of temperature.2. a polar molecule. the Pedersen method is not as good as the LBC method. though in only a minor way.2. For the aromatic compound. in the majority of cases the higher hydrocarbons should be treated as petroleum fractions rather than as single named components. the Pedersen and LBC methods give comparable results. However the prediction of the viscosity of the gas phase is also affected.2. 3. To overcome this problem.2. 3.
It is unlikely that the value of kij will be greater than 1.2.Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 63 3. The closer the binary system to ideality the smaller the size of kij.2. BIPs apply between pairs of components. in the model description. 3. The phase behavior of the systems involving hydrates can be very complex because up to six phases must normally be considered. The behavior is particularly complex if there is significant mutual solubility between phases. The SRK and PR EOS (being cubic equations of state) require only a single BIP. They form at temperatures above the ice point and are therefore a serious concern in oil and gas processing operations. The model can explicitly represent all the effects of the presence of inhibitors. • Inversion method • Volume ratio method • Woelflin method The methods are as described for Black Oil emulsions. as both methods were developed for nonpolar components and mixtures.2. although it is possible for it to be negative. 3. which will be zero for ideal systems.4 Hydrates Natural gas hydrates are solid icelike compounds of water and light components of natural gas. 3. kij. It performs as well or better than the LBC method in nearly all situations. The Pedersen method works best with light alkanes and petroleum mixtures in the liquid phase. PIPESIM .6 Emulsion The following options are available for handing emulsions.2.2.2. The hydrate model uses a modification of the RKS equation of state for the fluid phases plus The van der Waals and Platteeuw model for the hydrate phases.5 Methanol Neither the LBC nor the Pederson method can deal with polar components with the Pederson method slightly worse than the LBC method.3 BIP (Binary Interaction Parameter) Set Binary Interaction parameters (BIPs) are adjustable factors which Are used to alter the predictions from a model until these reproduce as closely as possible the experimental data. This is not surprising.
The thermal properties (enthalpies and entropies) of the hydrates are included. This is particularly important for Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulphide which are relatively soluble in water. The model includes parameters for the commonly used inhibitors such as Methanol. ETHANE. A new mixing rule has been developed for the SRK equation of state to model the inhibitors' effects on the fluid phases. DEG and TEG. Proper allowance has been made for the solubilities of the gases in water so that the model parameters are not distorted by this effect. ISOBUTANE. The properties of the empty hydrate lattices have been investigated and the most reliable recent values have been adopted. • The vapor pressures of pure water are reproduced. PIPESIM . The model has been tested on a wide selection of open literature and proprietary experimental data. The properties of the hydrates have been fixed by investigating data for natural gas components in both simple and mixed hydrates to obtain reliable predictions of both structure I and structure II hydrates. CO2 AND H2S. The amount of water may influence the results of the calculations. BUTANE. permitting flashes involving these phases. In most cases the hydrate dissociation temperature is predicted to within 1 degree Kelvin. The following natural gas hydrate formers are included: METHANE. Hydrate inhibitors decrease the hydrate formation temperature or increase the hydrate formation pressure in a given gas mixture.64 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling Note: you must explicitly include water in the mixture if you wish to do hydrate calculations. and the glycols MEG. particularly when inhibitors or watersoluble gases are present. The main features of the model are: • The description of the hydrate phase behavior uses a thermodynamically consistent set of models for all phases. PROPANE. NITROGEN. Correct thermodynamic calculations of the most stable hydrate structure have been made.
• Elevation: conversion of fluid potential energy into hydrostatic pressure.e. including the depression of hydrate formation temperature. To investigate the effect of an inhibitor it must be added to the list of components in the mixture and the amount must be specified just as for any other component. gas and aqueous phases. DEG and TEG. • Friction: shear stress between pipe wall and fluid(s) • Acceleration: changes in velocity of the fluid.ρ ν /(gc dν /dl) PIPESIM . The amount of inhibitor typically needed would be approximately 35% by mass of inhibitor relative to water.Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 65 The treatment of hydrate inhibition has the following features. The solubilities of hydrocarbons and light gases in water/inhibitor mixtures have also been represented. the dehydrating effect) and the partitioning of water and inhibitor into the oil. only the total amount in the mixture. This is because the inhibitor will be split among the different phases present at equilibrium with the amount in a particular phase depending on the ambient conditions and the amounts of other components present in that phase This is exactly what happens in reality. depression of freezing point data and vaporliquid equilibrium data. The model can represent explicitly all the effects of inhibitors.ƒ ρ ν2/2gcd + . MEG. the reduction in the vapor pressure of water (i. the depression of the freezing point of water. 3. This leads to the equation:(dp/dl) = elevational + frictional + accelerational = (dp/dl)elev+ (dp/dl)fric+ (dp/dl)acc. It is not possible to specify the amount of inhibitor in a particular phase. The model has been developed using all available data for mixtures of water with Methanol. There is no fundamental difference between calculations with and without inhibitors. This involves simultaneously representing hydrate dissociation temperatures.3 Pressure Drop Calculation The Pressure change in a flow device is determined from the general momentum equations. where ƒ = friction factor ρ = fluid density = (ρ g sinθ )/gc + .
slugmist transition flow and mist flow. The problem consists of being able to predict the variation of pressure with elevation along the length of the flow string for known conditions of flow. A typical example of bubble flow is the liberation of solution gas from an undersaturated oil at and above the point in the flow string where its bubble point pressure is reached.1 Flow regimes Flow Regimes Classification for Vertical Two Phase Flow The general problem of predicting the pressure drop for the simultaneous flow of gas and liquid is complex. Multiphase vertical flow can be categorized into four different flow configurations or flow regimes. In the simultaneous transportation of liquid (oil & water) and gas along a single pipe (or well bore) the basic pressure drop equation is the same as for single phase flow with mixture density and friction factor specific to the correlation in which they are used. • In well • Elevation term (85100%) • Frictional (015%) • In pipes • Elevation term (030%) • Frictional (70100%) For single phase flow the accelerational term is negligible and is assumed to be zero. PIPESIM .3.66 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling ν = fluid velocity g = gravitational constant at current altitude gc = universal gravitational constant θ = flow angle d = pipe diameter The contribution from the major terms. slug flow. consisting of bubble flow. elevational and frictional can be summarized as. Thus the above equation reduces to an elevational and frictional term. 3.
the gas phase exists as large bubbles almost filling the pipe and separated by slugs of liquid. A typical example of mist flow is the flow of gas and condensate in a gas condensate well. the liquid slugs between the gas bubbles essentially disappear.Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 67 In vslug. both the gas and liquid phases significantly contribute to the pressure gradient. and at some point the liquid phases becomes discontinuous and the phase becomes continuous. In transition flow. vannular is characterized by a continuous gas phase with liquid occurring as entrained droplets in the gas stream and as a liquid film wetting the pipe walls. but are more the result of the gas phase. The pressure losses in vtrans are partly a result of the liquid phase. Vertical bubble flow Vertical Slug Flow Vertical Transition Flow PIPESIM .
Smooth Wavy Slug Elongated bubble/Plug Annular/Mist Bubble PIPESIM .68 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling Vertical Annular/Mist Flow Flow Regimes Classification for Horizontal Two Phase Flow Prediction of liquid holdup is less critical for pressure loss calculations in horizontal flow than for inclined or vertical flow. The acceleration pressure drop is usually minor and is often ignored in design calculations. Intermittent Flow (plug and slug) and Distributive Flow (bubble and mist). As in the vertical flow. wavy). the twophase horizontal flow can be divided into the following flow regimes: smooth (smooth. although several correlations will require a holdup value for calculating the density terms used in the friction and acceleration pressure drop components.
3.5 = 4log10(Re/(0. In all cases Re is the Reynolds number (Re) is given by Re = ρ ν d/µ Where ρ = fluid density ν = fluid velocity d = pipe diameter µ = fluid viscosity 3.5 = 4log10(3. PIPESIM .2 AGA For gas only.3.5) .7d/ ε) For transition flow: (0.0.Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 69 3.6 The boundary between transition and turbulent flow is a function of the Reynolds number and friction factor.25 ƒ)0.5 = 1.25 ƒ)0.5)) where ε = pipe roughness 3.2.2.74 .1 Moody For liquid or gas For laminar flow (Re < 2000) ƒ = 64/Re For turbulent flow (Re > 2000) ƒ 0. For laminar flow (Re < 1000): ƒ = 64/Re For turbulent flow: (0.3.7/Re ƒ 0.2 Single Phase Flow Correlations There are a number of different methods available for calculating the friction factor (ƒ).2log((2ε /d) + (18.25 ƒ)0.
70 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3.1.49Re0.872Re0.3.3.5 HazenWilliams For liquid water only ƒ = (1/192)(150/ ν m)0. This model represents no major advance in theory. A comprehensive model was formulated to predict flow patterns and the flow characteristics of the predicted flow patterns for upward twophase flow. but rather a consolidation of various existing mechanistic models.5 = 16. 3.3 Panhandle 'A' For gas only (0.25 ƒ)0. The model uses the Taitel Dukler flow regime map and a modified set of the Taitel Dukler momentum balance to predict liquid holdup. The model was evaluated by using the TUFFP well databank that is composed of 1775 well cases. combined with a modest amount of theoretical development and field data testing.25 ƒ)0. The comprehensive mechanistic model is composed of a model for flow pattern prediction and a set of independent models for predicting holdup and pressure drop in bubble.2 Baker Jardine Revised Baker Jardine & Associates (now is part of Schlumberger) have developed a correlation for two phase flow in gascondensate pipelines with a noslip liquid volume fraction of lower than 0.07305 3.3.3.6 Weymouth For gas only (0.2.15d0.3.2.17 (in Engineering units) 3. with 371 of them from Prudhoe Bay data.3.4 Panhandle 'B' For gas only (0.3. The PIPESIM .1 Ansari The Ansari model was developed as part of the Tulsa University Fluid Flow Projects (TUFFP) research program.00272d1/3 (in SI units) 3.3.25 ƒ) = 0.01961 3.3.2.5 = 6.2. and annular flows.3 Vertical Multiphase Flow Correlations The following vertical multiphase flow correlations are available: 3. slug.
so as to model incline flow both upwards and downwards at angles of up to 90°. The BJA correlation has been developed by Baker Jardine & Associates specifically for applications involving low liquid/gas ratios.1 Users should note that while quite extensive testing of the correlation against operating data has been undertaken for horizontal and inclined flow. holdup limiters and corrective constants as proposed by Palmer and Payne. 3. but utilizing the Taitel Dukler flow map 3. Taitel Dukler map As Beggs & Brill original. A horizontal holdup is then calculated by correlations.3.3.Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 71 pressure loss calculation procedure is similar in approach to that proposed by Oliemans. The BJA correlation is used for pressure loss and holdup with flow regime determined by the Taitel Dukler correlation. The following enhancements to the original method are used.5 Beggs & Brill Revised As above except that the revised version of the Beggs & Brill correlation is used. The flow regime is determined by either the Beggs & Brill or Taitel Dukler correlation. the test data for vertical flow is not so comprehensive. e.3 Beggs & Brill Original The Original Beggs & Brill correlation is used for pressure loss and holdup. (1) an extra flow regime of froth flow is considered which assumes a noslip holdup. The BJA correlation is not recommended for systems having a nonslip liquid volume fraction greater than 0.g.3. winched to a variable elevation in the middle. but accounts for the increased interfacial shear resulting from the liquid surface roughness. The Beggs & Brill correlation was developed following a study of twophase flow in horizontal and inclined pipes.3. and this holdup is corrected for the angle of inclination. 3.3.4 Beggs & Brill Original. The test system included two 90 ft long acrylic pipes. The correlation is based upon a flow regime map that is first determined as if the flow was horizontal. gas/condensate pipelines. with rough pipe friction factors. PIPESIM . (2) the friction factor is changed from the standard smooth pipe model. to utilize a single phase friction factor based on the average fluid velocity.3.
and flow regime. These regions have low.3. but utilizing the Taitel Dukler flow map 3. It employs separate PIPESIM . and found generally to confirm them. For the test in which twophase conditions were predicted throughout the well bore.3. The Duns & Ros correlation was developed for vertical flow of gas and liquid mixtures in wells. (II) remainder of froth flow and slug flow regimes. Taitel Dukler map As Duns & Ros. Actual field pressure drop v. Equations were developed for each of three flow regions.3. Aziz & Fogarasi correlation was developed following a study of pressure drop in wells producing gas and condensate.10 Govier & Aziz The correlation of Aziz. plug and part of froth flow regimes. (I) bubble.3.3.3.9 Duns & Ros.8 Duns & Ros The Duns & Ros correlation is used for pressure loss and holdup with flow regime determination by either the Duns & Ros or the Taitel Dukler correlations. The equations were based on extensive experimental work using oil and air mixtures. with a previously proposed method.3. the field data were compared with several wholly empirical prediction methods. but utilizing the Taitel Dukler flow map 3.3. 3. Each flow region has a different holdup correlation.170. Govier. and with a new prediction method partly based on the mechanics of flow.72 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3. The new prediction method incorporates an empirical estimate of the distribution of the liquid phase between that flowing as a film on the wall and that entrained in the gas core. flowrate data from 102 wells with gasliquid ratios ranging from 3. holdup.3.000 scf/bbl were analyzed in detail.6 Beggs & Brill Revised. (III) mist flow regime. Taitel Dukler map As Beggs & Brill Revised. The Govier. The phase conditions in the well bore were determined by standard flash calculations. and Forgasi is used for pressure loss.7 Brill & Minami The Brill & Minami Holdup correlations can be used with any flow map correlations except Mukerjee & Brill and No Slip. intermediate and high gas throughputs respectively.900 to 1.3. 3. Pressuregradient data for flow under singlephase conditions were compared with conventional predictions.
This correlation was developed by H E Gray of Shell Oil Company for vertical flow in gas and condensate systems which are predominantly gas phase. Note: selection of alternative flow maps and/or holdups will PIPESIM .3.3. Holdup and flow map.3.13 Hagedorn & Brown. as it can grossly underestimate liquid holdup.3. Users are advised to use the Hagedorn & Brown Revised correlation. Tests were conducted for widely varying liquid flowrates. It is considered applicable for vertical flow cases where the velocity is below 50 ft/s. Flow is treated as single phase. the tube size is below 3½in. but utilizing the Duns & Ros flow map 3. 3.3.3.3. BJA consider the use of the original correlation unwise. and the water ratio is below 5 bbl/mmscf.15 Lockhart & Martinelli. 1¼in. and 1½in nominal size tubing. the condensate ratio is below 50 bbl/mmscf.3. but utilizing the Taitel Dukler flow map 3.3.3. The Hagedorn and Brown correlation was developed following an experimental study of pressure gradients occurring during continuous twophase flow in small diameter vertical conduits. A 1. There is a choice of either Beggs & Brill.Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 73 momentum equations for the gasliquid mixture in the core and for the total contents of the pipe.14 Lockhart & Martinelli 3. which is a condition usually sought for in similarity analysis but not always achieved. Duns & Ros map As Hagedorn & Bown. 3.3. All of the correlations involve only dimensionless groups.500 ft experimental well was used to study flow through 1in.16 Mukherjee & Brill: The Mukerjee & Brill correlation is used for Pressure loss. and dropped out water or condensate is assumed to adhere to the pipe wall. 3. gasliquid ratios and liquid viscosities.11 Gray The Gray Vertical Flow correlation is used for pressure loss and holdup.3. Taitel Dukler map As Lockhard & Martinelli. Duns & Ros or Taitel Dukler flow regime determination.12 Hagedorn & Brown The correlation of Hagedorn & Brown is used for pressure loss and holdup.
Over 10. Nitrogen was used as the gas. In order to simulate the range of viscosities and surface tensions experienced in field applications. calculated from the Moody diagram. The test loop was 800 m long and 8 inches in diameter. The test facilities were designed to operate at conditions that approximated field conditions. was found adequate for friction head loss calculations. Gas superficial velocities of up to 13 m/s.3. Results agreed well with the experimental data and correlations were further verified with Prudhoe Bay and North Sea data. For bubble and slug flow a noslip friction factor. 3. The facility was run in both steady state and transient modes. The Mukherjee & Brill correlation was developed following a study of pressure drop behavior in twophase inclined flow. and lube oil).17 NOSLIP Correlation The NOSLIP correlation assumes homogeneous flow with no slip between the phases. Norway. stratified. For annularmist flow.3. and liquid superficial velocities of up to 4 m/s were obtained.18 OLGAS 2000 Steady State OLGAS is based in larger part on data from the SINTEF twophase flow laboratory near Trondheim.000 experiments were run on this test loop during an eight year period. a friction factor correlation was presented that is a function of holdup ratio and noslip Moody friction factor. In downhill stratified flow. slug and dispersed bubble flow and uses a unique minimum slip criteria to predict flow regime transitions. OLGAS considers four flow regimes. Fluid properties are taken as the average of the gas and liquid phases and friction factors are calculated using the single phase MOODY correlation. Note: selection of alternative flow maps and/or holdups will cause unpredictable results. and to nonmembers on payment of the appropriate royalty fees. Operating pressures between 20 and 90 barg were studied. PIPESIM . This correlation is available to all members of the SINTEF syndicate. diesel. Pipeline inclination angles between 1° were studied in addition to flow up or down a hill section ahead of a 50m high vertical riser. 3. annular. the friction pressure gradient is calculated based on a momentum balance equation for either phase assuming a smooth gasliquid interface.3. different hydrocarbon liquids were used (naptha.3.74 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling cause unpredictable results.
the two phase pressure drops in naturally flowing and gas lifted production wells over a wide range of well conditions. and is adjusted for angle of deviation. and annular mist.3. Four flow regimes were considered.3. Correlations available. liquid holdup is derived from observed physical phenomena.3. The precision of the method was verified when its predicted values were compared against 148 measured pressure drops. The Orkiszewski correlation was developed for the prediction of two phase pressure drops in vertical pipe.3. 3. holdup. slug. PIPESIM . and flow regime. bubble.Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 75 A separate document is available that details OLGAS 2000.20 Shell SIEP Correlations These correlations are provided by Shell International Exploration & Production (SIEP) and are for Shell or Shell approved clients only. The method can accurately predict.3.3.3.21 Shell SRTCA Correlations These correlations are provided by Shell International Oil Products and are for Shell or Shell approved clients only. annularslug transition. • MMSM • GZM 3. 3. This can be downloaded from our web site. Unlike most other methods.3. to within 10%.22 GRE Mechanistic Model BP This correlation is provided by BP and is available for general use.19 Orkiszewski The Orkiszewski correlation is used for pressure loss. Correlations available. • SRTCA twophase • STRCA twophase slugging • STRCA twophase slugging & slug DP • STRCA threephase • STRCA threephase & wateroil dispersion 3.
76
Fluid & Multiphase Modeling
3.3.4 Horizontal Multiphase Flow Correlations The following horizontal multiphase flow correlations are available: 3.3.4.1 Baker Jardine Revised Baker Jardine (is now part of Schlumberger) have developed a correlation for two phase flow in gascondensate pipelines with a noslip liquid volume fraction of lower than 0.1. This model represents no major advance in theory, but rather a consolidation of various existing mechanistic models, combined with a modest amount of theoretical development and field data testing. The model uses the Taitel Dukler flow regime map and a modified set of the Taitel Dukler momentum balance to predict liquid holdup. The pressure loss calculation procedure is similar in approach to that proposed by Oliemans, but accounts for the increased interfacial shear resulting from the liquid surface roughness. The BJA correlation is used for pressure loss and holdup with flow regime determined by the Taitel Dukler correlation. The BJA correlation has been developed specifically for applications involving low liquid/gas ratios, e.g. gas/condensate pipelines. The BJA correlation is not recommended for systems having a nonslip liquid volume fraction greater than 0.1 3.3.4.2 Beggs & Brill Original The original Beggs & Brill correlation is used for pressure loss and either the BBO or the BJA correlation is used to calculate holdup. Flow regime is determined by either the Beggs & Brill or Taitel Dukler correlation. The Beggs & Brill correlation was developed following a study of twophase flow in horizontal and inclined pipes. The correlation is based upon a flow regime map which is first determined as if the flow was horizontal. A horizontal holdup is then calculated by correlations, and this holdup is corrected for the angle of inclination. The test system included two 90 ft long acrylic pipes, winched to a variable elevation in the middle, so as to model incline flow both upwards and downwards at angles of up to 90°. 3.3.4.3 Beggs & Brill Original, Taitel Dukler map As Beggs & Brill Original, but utilizing the Taitel Dukler flow map
PIPESIM
Fluid & Multiphase Modeling
77
3.3.4.4 Beggs & Brill Revised As above except that the revised version of the Beggs & Brill correlation is used, with rough pipe friction factors, holdup limits and corrective constants as proposed by Palmer and Payne. The following enhancements to the original method are used; (1) an extra flow regime of froth flow is considered which assumes a noslip holdup, (2) the friction factor is changed from the standard smooth pipe model, to utilize a single phase friction factor based on the average fluid velocity. 3.3.4.5 Beggs & Brill Revised, Taitel Dukler map As Beggs & Brill Revised, but utilizing the Taitel Dukler flow map 3.3.4.6 Brill & Minami: The Brill and Minami Holdup correlations can be used with any pressure loss and any flow map correlations except Mukherjee & Brill and No Slip. 3.3.4.7 Dukler, AGA + Flanigan The AGA & Flanigan correlation was developed for horizontal and inclined two phase flow of gascondensate gathering systems. The Taitel Dukler flow regime map is used which considers five flow regimes, stratified smooth, stratified wavy, intermittent, annular dispersed liquid, and dispersed bubble. The Dukler equation is used to calculate the frictional pressure loss and holdup, and the Flanigan equation is used to calculate the elevational pressure differential. 3.3.4.8 Dukler , AGA + Flanigan (Eaton holdup) As Duker, AGA + Flanigan but with liquid holdup calculated according to the Eaton correlation. 3.3.4.9 Duns & Ros, Taitel Dukler map The Duns & Ros correlation is used for pressure loss, with a choice of either Duns & Ros or BJA holdup. Flow regime determination is either the Duns & Ros or the Taitel Dukler correlations. The Duns & Ros correlation was developed for vertical flow of gas and liquid mixtures in wells. Equations were developed for each of three flow regions, (I) bubble, plug and part of froth flow regimes, (II) remainder of froth flow and slug flow regimes, (III) mist flow regime. These regions have low, intermediate and high gas throughputs
PIPESIM
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respectively. Each flow region has a different holdup correlation. The equations were based on extensive experimental work using oil and air mixtures. 3.3.4.10 Lockhart & Martinelli
3.3.4.11 Lockhart & Martinelli, Taitel Dukler map As Lockhard & Martinelli, but utilizing the Taitel Dukler flow map 3.3.4.12 Mukherjee & Brill The Mukherjee & Brill correlation is used for Pressure loss, Holdup and Flow Map. Note: selection of alternative flow maps and/or holdups will cause unpredictable results. The Mukherjee & Brill correlation was developed following a study of pressure drop behavior in twophase inclined flow. For bubble and slug flow, a noslip friction factor calculated from the Moody diagram was found adequate for friction head loss calculations. In downhill stratified flow, the friction pressure gradient is calculated based on a momentum balance equation for either phase assuming a smooth gasliquid interface. For annularmist flow, a friction factor correlation was presented that is a function of holdup ratio and noslip Moody friction factor. Results agreed well with the experimental data and correlations were further verified with Prudhoe Bay and North Sea data. 3.3.4.13 NOSLIP Correlation The NOSLIP correlation assumes homogeneous flow with no slip between the phases. Fluid properties are taken as the average of the gas and liquid phases and friction factors are calculated using the single phase MOODY correlation. Note: selection of alternative flow maps and/or holdups will cause unpredictable results. 3.3.4.14 OLGAS 2000 SteadyState: OLGAS is based in larger part on data from the SINTEF twophase flow laboratory near Trondheim, Norway. The test facilities were designed to operate at conditions that approximated field conditions. The test loop was 800 m long and 8 inches in diameter. Operating pressures between 20 and 90 barg were studied. Gas superficial velocities of up to 13 m/s, and liquid superficial velocities of up to 4 m/s were obtained. In order to simulate the range of viscosities and
PIPESIM
3. which obeyed the correct single phase flow limits was introduced to predict the pressure drop. annular. This correlation is available to all members of the SINTEF syndicate. diesel. and laboratory data published in literature. slug and dispersed bubble flow and uses a unique minimum slip criteria to predict flow regime transitions. OLGAS considers four flow regimes. 100km pipeline operating at pressures of 100 barg or higher. A separate document is available that details OLGAS 2000.3. and then to predict the flow characteristics. annular. The Oliemans pressure loss correlation can be used with the Eaton. The flow regime is predicted using the Taitel Dukler flow regime map. for the stratified. BJA. It was developed for gasliquid twophase flow in horizontal and near horizontal pipelines.000 experiments were run on this test loop during an eight year period. Data included both black oil and compositional fluid systems. PIPESIM . intermittent. Nitrogen was used as the gas.4.16 Xiao The Xiao comprehensive mechanistic model was developed as part of the TUFFP research program.15 Oliemans The Oliemans correlation was developed following the study of large diameter condensate pipelines. and a simple model. This can be downloaded from our web site.Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 79 surface tensions experienced in field applications. A new correlation was proposed which predicts the internal friction factor under stratified flow. The model is able first to detect the existing flow pattern. and lube oil). The model was tested against a pipeline data bank. The model was based on a limited amount of data from a 30in. Pipeline inclination angles between 1° were studied in addition to flow up or down a hill section ahead of a 50m high vertical riser. BRIMIN1 or BRIMIN2 holdup correlations. Over 10. and to nonmembers on payment of the appropriate royalty fees. or dispersed bubble flow patterns.4. The data bank included large diameter field data culled from the AGA multiphase pipeline data bank. stratified.3. different hydrocarbon liquids were used (naptha. primarily liquid holdup and pressure drop. The facility was run in both steady state and transient modes. 3.
Aziz. • GZM 3.4. Correlations available. PIPESIM . Cdn.4. Natural Gas.User Guide. AIME (1946) 94. Oil & Gas Journal (Mar.” Technology.3. and Gabb.80 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3.” Trans.: “The Viscosity of Air.: “Pressure Loss.4 References Multiflash for Windows . K. and Forgasi. Correlations available. C. A. 14.3. Pet.3. Baker. Govier. 3. Infochem. LiquidHoldup Calculations Developed. G. 1988).4. K. A. W.” J. 1972) 3848.18 Shell SRTCA Correlations These correlations are provided by Shell International Oil Products and are for Shell or Shell approved clients only. • SRTCA twophase • STRCA twophase slugging • STRCA twophase slugging & slug DP • STRCA threephase • STRCA threephase & wateroil dispersion 3.17 Shell SIEP Correlations These correlations are provided by Shell International Exploration & Production (SIEP) and are for Shell or Shell approved clients only. Water. Beal.. Nielsen.. Crude Oil and its Associated Gases at Oil Temperatures and Pressures.. (JulySept. M.: “Pressure Drop in Wells Producing Oil and Gas.19 GRE Mechanistic Model BP This correlation is provided by BP and is available for general use. Tech.
P. Flanigan.: The Technology of Artificial Methods. D. Expressed as a Skin. Liquid Holdup and Pressure Losses Occurring During Continuous TwoPhase Flow in Horizontal Pipelines. J.J. J. 1958) 56. A. AIME (1974) 23. Chew. H. World Pet. O.. December 1988.: “GasLiquid Flow in Pipelines. C. A.” SPEJ (June 1981). I. AIME (1967) 815.E.” Oil and Gas J. Tech. Jr.” Trans.” 6th.” AGAAPI Project NX28 (May 1969).” J.: “Estimating the Viscosity of Crude Oil Systems. and Conally. et al. K.: “Prediction of Flow Patterns. (May 1973) 607617. P. Dukler. (Sept. P. J. C. Oklahoma.. D. Tulsa. 132.: “Analysis of TwoPhase Tests in Large Diameter Flow Lines in Prudhoe Bay Field.: “A Viscosity Correlation for Gas Saturated Crude Oils. Pet..: “Effect of Uphill Flow on Pressure Drop in Design of TwoPhase Gathering Systems. H. H. and Vienot. M. Duns. University of Tulsa. M. Research Results. A. N. and Robinson. and Beggs. Penwell Publishing Company. Eaton. B. sca. 6th Edition. Fetkovich. Beggs. et al.: “Shape Factors. Tech. Brown. D.. Oklahoma.E. Congress (1963) 452. Tulsa. CA. J. PIPESIM .Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 81 Beggs. J.: TwoPhase Flow in Pipes. Brill. 1984.” Trans.” J.: “A Study of Two Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes. (March 10. R.” JPT (February 1985) 321322. Pet. H. 1975) 11401. and Brill.. E. J.: “Vertical Flow of Gas and Liquid Mixtures in Wells. Brill. and Ros.
PIPESIM . C. 39. E. Eng. M. Minami. et al.” Trans. K. Inc. Manhane. K. “Generalized Pressure Volume Temperature Correlation.: “Experimental Study of Pressure Gradients Occurring During Continuous TwoPhase Flow in SmallDiameter Vertical Conduits. Golan.: Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering. TwoComponent Flow in Pipes. Tech. Gregory. J.: “The Viscosity of Natural Gases. W.: Well Performance. of Multiphase Flow.” SPE J.. Prog. 1983).: “Liquid Holdup in Wet Gas Pipelines.” J. K. L. G. Pet. (January 1949) 45. MA (1986). R. Katz. D.H. M. A. and Brown. and Whitson. Pet. H. (April 1965) 475484. R. O. AIME (1958) 379. J. J. Lasater.: "A Flow Pattern Map for GasLiquid Flow Pattern in Horizontal Pipes.” Chem. International Human Resources Corporation. L. J. C. O. AIME (1966) 997. A. McLeod. McGraw Hill Book Co.." Int. (May 1980) 785. and Martinelli. et al. Lockhart. Prod.: “Proposed Correlation of Data for Isothermal Twophase. and Aziz.” JPT (Jan. P. (May 1987).: “Bubble Point Pressure Correlation. Boston..” Trans.” J. A... and Brill. Lee. Hagedron.. Tech. R.: “The Effect of Perforating Conditions on Well Performance. A.82 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling Glaso. New York (1959). Eng.
Pet. Orkiszewski. A. I. ASME meeting Mexico City (Sept. presented at Pet.” M. V.C. J. H. October 1988. M. P. Div.: “Evaluation of Inclined Pipe TwoPhase Liquid Holdup Correlations Using Experimental Data. M. Renard. R. Palmer. J.. Payne. and Economides.” SPE paper 18303 presented at the Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition in Houston.R.” J.” ASME paper 76Pet25.S.H.: “Predicting TwoPhase Pressure Drops in Vertical Pipes.: “A Parametric Comparison of Horizontal and Vertical Well Performance. and Dupuy. Thesis. Mukherjee. Norris.: “Correlation of Prudhoe Bay Liquid Slug Lengths and Holdups Including 1981 Large Diameter Flowlines Tests. The University of Tulsa (1975). C. and Brill. A.” Internal Report Exxon (October 1982). Tech.: “Liquid Holdup Correlations for Inclined TwoPhase Flow.D. 1976). L.” SPE paper 19414 presented PIPESIM .: “TwoPhase Flow in GasTransmission Pipeline. J.: The Flow of Homogeneous Fluids Through Porous Media.: “Influence of Formation Damage on the Flow Efficiency of Horizontal Wells.Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 83 Mukherjee. Muskat. H. The University of Tulsa (1975).” JPT (May 1983) 10031008. M.S. G. (June 1967) 829838. M. Boston (1937). Thesis. J. I.” M. Oliemans. G.: “Experimantal Evaluation of TwoPhase Pressure Loss Correlations for Inclined Pipe.
. Standing. 22. and Beggs.. O. Standing. (1977) 121. Prac. B. 1976) 4755. PIPESIM . (vol. H. J. Taitel.. Shoham. Society of Petroleum Engineers.: “Volumetric and Density of Natural Gases. and Dukler. API (1942) 148.: “Prediction of Slug Length in Horizontal LargeDiameter Pipes. P. AIME (1942) 140. M. Lafayette (February 1990). Y.” AICHE J..” Drill. D. no.: Volumetric and Phase Behavior of Oil Field Hydrocarbon Systems. A. M. and Katz. W. and Brill. Woelflin.: “A General Pressure VolumeTemperature Correlation for Mixtures Of California Oils and Greases. Colorado (1977). Denver. API (1947) 275.. Prac. presented at the 52nd Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. 1) (Jan. M.: “Correlations for Fluid Physical Property Prediction. D.” SPE paper 15103 (April 1986).: “The Viscosity of CrudeOil Emulsions. and Prod. Scott.84 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling at the Formation Damage Control Symposium. M.” Trans.” Drill.” SPE paper 6719. B. Vasquez. B. Standing..: “A Model for Predicting Flow Regime Transitions in Horizontal GasLiquid Flow. E. S. L. and Prod. L.
Fluid & Multiphase Modeling THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY 85 PIPESIM .
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1. the liquid flowrate when the bottom hole pressure is zero.Reservoir. Well & Completion Modeling 87 4 Reservoir. The equation is follows: Q = Qmax(1 . 4. and Q (flowrate).(Pwf/Pws)2)n.e.1 Liquid Reservoirs 4.1. The coefficients must satisfy A => 0 and B=> 0. Well & Completion Modeling The well modeling components of PIPESIM are.1. Where A is the turbulent coefficient and B is the laminar coefficient. PIPESIM . where Qmax is the open flow potential.1 Fetkovich / Normalized back pressure Is a development of the Vogel equation to take account of high velocity effects. and n is the PI coefficient 4.2 Jones The Jones equation is Pws .1. i.Pwf = AQ2 + BQ. They are expressed in terms of Pws (static reservoir pressure).1. Pwf (flowing bottom hole pressure).1 Vertical Completions Inflow performance relationships (IPRs) have been developed to model the flow of fluids from the reservoir. • Completion • Vertical • Horizontal • Tubing • Deviation survey • Gas lift injection point or points • ESP lift point • chokes 4. through the formation. and into the well.
and C is the PI coefficient.1.1. The equation is as follows: Q = Qmax(1 .C(Pwf/Pws)2). PIPESIM . 4.1.1.1. 4. 4.1. i. The value of C is usually around 0. the skin (and related turbulence coefficient) values can be calculated by describing the completion.1.75 + s))) where s = skin k = formation permeability h = formation thickness µ = liquid viscosity B = formation volume factor Re = Drainage radius Rw = wellbore radius Alternatively.6 Vogel Was developed to model saturated oil wells.1.4 (Straight line) Well productivity Index The productivity index relationship is Q = J(Pws .(1 .88 Field Equipment 4.0. where Qmax is the absolute open flow potential.Pwf) where J = productivity index. 4.5 (Straight line) Well productivity Index (with Vogel correction below bubble point) Below the bubble point pressure.3 PseudoSteady state / Darcy The Pseudo Steadystate equation is given as Q = kh(Pws .Pwf)/(141. the liquid flowrate when the bottom hole pressure is zero.e.2µoBo(ln(Re/Rw) .7Hydraulic Fracture See Help system for details.1.8. The correction is to apply the Vogel relationship below the bubble point.C)(Pwf/Pws) . the relationship can be modified to take account of evolved gas.1.
Static pressure is taken as a constant throughout the test period. Hence a different static reservoir pressure is recorded.This type of test is normally performed in reservoirs with low permeability where the time taken to reach stabilized flow conditions is unacceptably long (e.2.1. Due to the long stabilization time normally associated with the isochronal test.1.g.1.8Multirate tests In addition multirate test data can be utilized so that the modeled inflow matches the actual measured inflow in the well. The wellbore flowing pressure is recorded during each flow period at a specific time (e.3 Jones The Jones equation is : PIPESIM . • multipoint .1. • Multirate Fetkovich • Multirate Jones 4. The equation is Q = C(Pws2 .1.2 Gas and Gas Condensate Reservoirs 4. The coefficients must satisfy F => 0 and A=> 0. • Isochronal .2. if the time is 4 hours. 4. Where F is the turbulence coefficient and A is the laminar coefficient.1 Back pressure / C and n Developed by Rawlins and Schellhardt in 1935 after testing 582 wells. Pws2 .Pwf2 = FQ2 + AQ.1.g.Pwf2)n. 4.2 Forchheimer The Forchheimer equation is. reservoir conditions need not return to the original static pressure. Isochronal testing is performed by periods of flowing followed by shuttingin of a well (normally with increasing rate).2. low permeability sands).A 'flowafterflow' test sequence.Field Equipment 89 4. then the test is referred to as a 4hour isochronal test). Two types of multirate test are available. Multirate test data can be applied to the following.
7Multirate tests Multirate test data (as descried above) can be applied to the following.90 Field Equipment Pws2 .75 + s))) where s = skin k = formation permeability h = formation thickness µ = gas viscosity T = temperature Z = z factor Re = Drainage radius Rw = wellbore radius Alternatively.Pwf2) where J = productivity index.1.1. • Multirate Back pressure / C and n • Multirate Forchheimer • Multirate Jones • Multirate (Straight line) Well Productivity Index PIPESIM .4 PseudoSteady state / Darcy The Pseudo Steadystate equation is given as Q = kh(Pws2 .2. Where A is the turbulent coefficient and B is the laminar coefficient.Pwf2 = AQ2 + BQ.2.6 Hydraulic Fracture 4. The coefficients must satisfy A > 0 and B=> 0. the skin (and related turbulence coefficient) values can be calculated.0.2. 4. 4.5 (Straight line) Well productivity Index The productivity index relationship is Q = J(Pws2 . 4.1.1.2.Pwf2)/(1422µTz(ln(Re/Rw) .
2 Horizontal Completions This section focuses on the reservoir engineering aspects of horizontal well technology. • 4.If the ratio of vertical permeability to horizontal permeability is a high. Typically.Field Equipment 91 4. there is a pressure drop from the toe (tipend) of the horizontal wellbore to the heel (producingend) so as to maintain fluid flow within the wellbore (see Figure 4. the horizontal well can effectively intersect isolated productive zones which might otherwise be missed. the horizontal wellbore is treated as an infinite conductivity fracture. The main purpose of drilling horizontal wells is to enhance production. Folefac (1991) and Joshi (1991) have recently addressed the effect of wellbore pressure gradient on horizontal well production performance. • Reduce water/gas coning . Dikken (1989).A horizontal well provides minimum pressure drawdown which delays the onset of water/gas breakthrough. Even though the production per unit well length is small. • Vertical permeability . a horizontal well may produce more economically than a vertical well. in practice. the PI for a horizontal well may be increased by a factor of 4 when compared to a vertical well penetrating the same reservoir. the pressure drop along the well length is negligible.The increased area of contact of the horizontal well with the reservoir is reflected by the productivity index (PI). However. The steady state and pseudosteady state analytical solutions on the productivity of horizontal wells will also be reviewed for both oil and gas wells.When irregular reservoirs exist. PIPESIM . i.2. A horizontal well can also intersect vertical natural fractures in a reservoir. 1988): • Thin reservoirs . There are also many circumstances that lead to drilling horizontal wells (Cooper.1 Effect of Pressure Drop on Productivity In reservoir engineering calculations.e.1). The pressure drop in horizontal wells and its effect on well performance will be discussed. Heterogeneous reservoirs . the long well length provides high production rates.
PIPESIM . Folefac (1991) showed that a typical well with the following properties: ρo = 800 kg/m3. Thus.0 cp. and consequently. 1991) Dikken (1990) and Folefac (1991) contend that the assumption of constant pressure wellbore is reasonable for single phase laminar flow but is no longer valid when turbulent or multiphase flow occurs.92 Field Equipment Figure 4. asked the question: What is the magnitude of the wellbore pressure drop as compared to pressure drop from the reservoir to the wellbore? If the wellbore pressure drop is significant as compared to the reservoir drawdown.1968 m.1 Alonghole pressure gradient of a horizontal well (Joshi. then the reservoir drawdown. d = 0.2. thus. Dikken (1990) asserts that horizontal wells will exhibit nonlaminar flow. there is a strong interaction between the wellbore and the reservoir. In addition. The reservoir flow and wellbore equations must be solved simultaneously as shown in Figure 4. the production rate along the well length will change. and Q = 5000 RB/d gives a NRe of ≥ 4000 which is well above the turbulence transition limit of 2000. µ = 1. In most practical situations. the pressure drop will be even greater when multiphase flow exists. Joshi (1991).
Folefac (1991) concluded that the well length. • • High viscous crude’s (heavy oils and tar sands). Joshi (1991). • Varying the shot density of a cemented hole or the slot size of a slotted liner would control production rates and minimise pressure drop along the wellbore PIPESIM .Field Equipment 93 Figure 4. the pressure drop can be reduced at least thirtytwo fold". Folefac (1991) used a Black Oil type model that involved a finite volume technique. the friction force. Long well lengths. This is mainly due to the turbulent flow being converted to laminar flow by drilling a larger size hole. no inflow from the toeend. This is because the mixture momentum equation has a nonlinear term in velocity. The need to accurately calculate well flowrates and wellbore pressures is therefore. Furthermore.5"). The reason being that for single phase flow .∆ P α 1/d5. states " for a given production rate.3 mm (4. essential.2 Schematic of reservoir and flow relationship (Joshi. 1991) The coupled equations were solved by Dikken (1990) analytically by simplified boundary conditions. For example. The wellbore pressure drop effects well deliverability and in turn influences well completion and well profile design. This in turn will result in an uneven drawdown in the reservoir that is otherwise considered homogenous. Joshi (1991) mentions other situations where wellbore pressure drop is considerable: • High flowrates of light oil (10. Folefac (1991) showed that as the wellbore radius increased from 64. wellbore diameter and perforated interval had the most profound effect on the level of pressure drop in the wellbore.5 mm (2.5") to 114. Folefac (1991) pointed out that the wellbore pressure profile is nonlinear with respect to the well length.000 RB/d). the rate at which pressure dropped along the wellbore became nearly constant.000 to 30. notably. by increasing the well diameter twofold. Joshi (1991) lists a few remedies to minimize high wellbore pressure drops: • Drilling a larger diameter hole would dramatically reduce the pressure drop.
inches For gas flow. gm/cm3 = flowrate. the single phase flow pressure drop calculation for oil flow can be written as follows: ∆p = (114644 x10 −5 ) fm ρ q 2 L / d 5 . ft = internal diameter of pipe. psia = pipe outlet pressure. (4. The Weymouth equation for dry gas is the simplest equation to estimate pressure drop in a horizontal pipe qg = 15320 ( p12 − p2 2 ) d 16 / 3 γ g TZL (4. hole size and length. density and viscosity are strong functions of gas pressure and temperature. This is due to friction.2 Single Phase Pressure Drop Assuming that the horizontal wellbore can be treated as a horizontal pipe. psia = pipe length. however. miles . scfd = pipe inlet pressure. 4. wellbore pressure drops can be minimized. RB/d = horizontal length.94 • Field Equipment Gravel packs are used in high permeability reservoirs. If the well is completed with a slotted liner. dimensionless = fluid density. This would result in a changing pressure drop per foot length of a well along the entire well length.2. the slots should be placed as far apart as possible. Joshi (1991) states that "this will let the gravel pack act as a choke and facilitate maintaining minimum pressure drop across the well length". ∆p fm ρ q L d = pressure drop. psia = Moody's friction factor. which could change the temperature of the gas as it travels through the wellbore.1) where. Moreover. by selecting the appropriate well geometry. the pressure drop calculations are more complex.2) where qg p1 p2 L PIPESIM = gas flowrate. Therefore.
Field Equipment 95 T = average temperature.3 shows some horizontal well fluid inflow profiles. In general. The pressure drop along the horizontal wellbore was similar to that for single phase flow. Slip velocities between phases make these equations more complex than single phase flow equations. 4. Brill (1988) has discussed numerous multiphase flow correlations. in γg = oil volume formation factor. several profiles are possible. measuring the pressure at both ends of a horizontal well and calibrating the data is very difficult. RB/STB Also. The various correlations should be compared with actual pressure drop data. Joshi concluded that the total pressure drop varied from 6 psi to 14.3 Multiphase Pressure Drop There is very little discussion on multiphase pressure drop in horizontal wells.2. 1988) are applicable for a singlephase flow of either oil or gas. There is a definite need for further study on multiphase flow in horizontal wells.4 Inflow Production Profiles Horizontal wellbore pressure drops also depend upon the type of fluid inflow profiles. PIPESIM .5 psi but it was not large enough to effect the wellhead pressure.2. 4. "different multiphase correlations may give different values of the pressure drop". For a horizontal pipe. Folefac (1991) studied the effect of two phase flow (hydrocarbon liquid and water are treated as one phase with identical velocity but averaged properties). several multiphase correlations (Brill. However. Figure 4. oR Z = average gas compressibility factor d = pipe diameter. On the basis of well boundary condition and reservoir heterogeneity. the pressure drop was higher than for single phase flow for the same volume of fluid intake. Depending on the type of profile. However. Joshi (1991) states that. Joshi (1991) examined the effect of different fluid entry profiles on the wellbore pressure drop.
even though very few reservoirs operate under steadystate conditions. Economides (1989). Most are similar in form to the equation given by Joshi (1988) who simplified the 3D Laplace equation (∇2p=0) by coupling two 2D problems.5 SteadyState Productivity The simplest forms of horizontal well productivity calculations are the steadystate analytical solutions. This was based on the assumption that a horizontal well drains an ellipsoidal volume around the wellbore of length L as shown in Figure 4. which assume that the pressure at any point in the reservoir is constant over time. According to Joshi (1991). steady state solutions are widely used because: • • Analytical derivation is easy.2.4.3 Horizontal Well Inflow Profiles (Joshi. results can be verified • Giger (1984). 1991) 4. The concepts of expanding drainage boundary over time. PIPESIM . effective wellbore radius and shape factors allows the conversion to either transient or pseudosteady state results to be quite straightforward. Steadystate mathematical experimentally. Mukherjee (1988) and numerous others have developed solutions to predict steadystate productivity.96 Field Equipment Figure 4.
007078k h h∆p /( µ o Bo ) r ln[ eh ] (L / 4 ) (4. is defined as k eff = k v k h (4.4 Horizontal Well Drainage Pattern For isotropic reservoirs (kh=kv).25 + (2reh / L) 4 ]0.5 (4. ft = reservoir height. ft = wellbore radius.3) and a = (L / 2 )[0. cp = oil volume formation factor.e. RB/STB = horizontal permeability. STB/day = pressure drop. the reservoir thickness can be modified as follows PIPESIM . keff. ft = oil viscosity. L >> h.3) is negligible and the solution simplifies to qh = 0. An effective permeability. i. then the second term in the denominator of equation (4.4) where qh ∆p L h rw reh µo Bo kh = flowrate. ft = drainage radius of horizontal well.5) Muskat (1937) suggested a simple transformation to account for permeability anisotropy. md If the length of the horizontal well is significantly longer than the reservoir height.007078k h h∆p /( µ o Bo ) a + a 2 − ( L / 2 )2 h ln[ ] + ( h / L)ln[ ] L/2 2rw (4.Field Equipment 97 Figure 4.5 + 0. qh = 0.6) To account for vertical anisotropy. psi = horizontal well length.
an effective wellbore radius can be calculated.eff = reh (L / 2 ) a[1+ 1− ( L / 2 a )2 ] + [(βh / rw )](βh / L) (4. equation (4.8). Jh=Jv to give the following for an anisotropic reservoir rw.98 h=h kh kv Field Equipment (4.11) In this way. which will match the production rate.10) The effective wellbore radius is defined as the theoretical well radius.7) In addition. rw. permeability and formation thickness can be used to screen potential candidates for further simulation studies.9) and δ is the horizontal well eccentricity (offset of the well from the center of the pay zone) in feet. Productivity comparisons of a horizontal well to that of a vertical well can easily be made by using equation (4. reh=rev.007078k h h∆p /( µ o Bo ) qh = (4. the influence of well eccentricity (distance from the center of the reservoir in the vertical plane) was also implemented. controlling parameters like well length. Thus. the effect of skin damage is not as PIPESIM .3) was transformed as follows 0.8) 2 2 2 2 2 ln[ a + a − ( L / 2) (βh / 2 ) + β δ ] ] + (βh / L)ln[ 2rw L /2 where β= kh kv (4.eff = rw exp(s) (4. and equal productivity indices. In converting the productivity of a horizontal well into that of an equivalent vertical well. Renard (1990) studied the effect of formation damage around the wellbore and modified the steadystate equation to include skin. Renard (1990) concluded that due to the lower productivity index per unit length in horizontal wells. Joshi (1991) assumed equal drainage volumes.eff rw.
such as a gas cap or bottom water drive.Field Equipment 99 pronounced as it is in vertical wells. Celier (1989) came to the same conclusion with respect to the effect of nonDarcy flow.2. 4. This skin was expressed by choosing a reference shape factor of a well at the center of circular drainage area s CA = ln[ C A. Pseudosteady state or depletion state begins when the pressure disturbance created by the well is felt at the boundary of the well drainage area. In these instances pseudosteady state equations are employed.13) Equation (4. Rearranging the equation gives the familiar vertical well productivity qv = kh∆p / 141.ref / C A ] (4. qv = kh∆p / 141. 75] rw (4. well location. etc. Fetkovich (1985) wrote the shape factor in terms of an equivalent skin. partial penetration and stimulation.14) The horizontal well shape factor depends on the following PIPESIM .13) is for a vertical well which is located in the center of a circular drainage area.6 PseudoSteady State Productivity It is often desirable to calculate productivity from a reservoir with unique boundary conditions.2458 A / (CA Rw 2 )] + s + sm + Dqv (4.0.11) where sm = mechanical skin factor due to drilling and completion related well damage. sm=0 and Dqv=0). Dake (1978) and Golan (1985) describe the pseudosteady state flow of an ideal fluid (liquid) in a closed circular drainage area. s = total skin due to perforations.2 µ o Bo ln [2. CA = shape factor Dqv = near wellbore turbulence factor The above equation can be reduced to the following singlephase pseudosteady state equation for oil flow (assuming s=0. finite drainage area.2 µ o Bo r ln[( e ) .
Shape factors were used to arbitrarily locate the well within a rectangular bounded drainage area and the reservoir was bounded in all directions. ft = skin factor due to partial penetration. md PIPESIM . The derived pseudosteady productivity equation is qh = 0.100 • • • Field Equipment drainage area shape. 75 + s R rw (4.007078b k x k z ∆p /( µ o Bo ) A1 ln[ ]+ lnC H . Babu's model assumed uniformflux boundary condition. Goode's model used an approximate infinite conductivity solution where the constant wellbore pressure is estimated by averaging the pressure values of the uniformflux solution along the well length. Babu (1989) looked upon the problem as a partially penetrating vertical well. Their model allowed for cased completion. well penetration.15) where b sR CH kx = extension of the drainage volume in the direction along the well axis. dimensionless well length. Goode (1989) and Mutalik (1988) have developed methods to calculate pseudosteady state productivity for single phase flow in horizontal wells. = geometric shape factor defined by Babu (1989) = permeability in the horizontal plane perpendicular to the well axis. which is turned sideways. Babu (1989). the wellbore pressure drop is negligible). Goode (1989) also considered the effects of completion type on productivity. selectively perforated completion.0. LD = (L/h)(kv/kh)0. external casing packers to selectively isolate the wellbore and slotted liner completion with selectively isolating zones. Joshi (1991) explains that the well performance approaches a fully penetrating infiniteconductivity fracture when the horizontal well length is LD > 10.e. Mutalik's model assumed the horizontal well as an infinite conductivity well (i.5.
The gas flowrate is directly proportional to the pseudopressures which is defined as PIPESIM . However. Joshi (1991) and Bendakhlia (1989) have studied the inflow performance relationship (IPR) for solution gasdrive reservoirs. AlHussainy (1966) defined a pseudopressure m(p). ft 101 The equation is derived from a very complex general solution.2. 4. For example. 4.max = [1.2. in highpermeability gas reservoirs wellbore turbulence limits the deliverability of a vertical well. The most effective way. Babu (1989) reported an error of less than 3% when compared to the more rigorous solution.Field Equipment kz A1 rw = permeability in the vertical plane. ft2 = wellbore radius. It requires the calculation of the CH and SR. well location and relative dimensions of the drainage volume. horizontal wells are also appropriate for gas reservoirs.V)( wf ) 2 ]n pR pR (4. The skin accounts for the restricted entry associated with the well length. Joshi (1991) describes two methods for the relationship between pressure and flowrate. Bendakhlia followed the same approach used by Vogel for vertical wells and developed the following equation qo q o.(1. md = drainage area in the vertical plane.V( p wf p ) .16) Equation (4. to reduce gas velocity around the wellbore is to reduce the amount of gas production per unit well length which can be accomplished by horizontal wells.7 Solution GasDrive IPR Cheng (1990). The geometric shape factor accounts effect of permeability anisotropy.16) can be used under the assumptions of Vogel's original IPR correlation. according to Joshi (1991). • • The gas flowrate is proportional to the pressure square terms.8 Horizontal Gas Wells The preceding sections have dealt with oil flow. The parameter V and n were correlated as a function of recovery factor.
eff 2 2 (4. either method can be employed.007027kh(p r .20) (4. above 2500 psia.21) (4.eff = effective wellbore radius. psia kh = horizontal permeability.19) D= µ pwf rw h 2 p (4. Below reservoir pressures of 2500 psia.1045 a or β = 2.17) Joshi (1991) did a comparison of the two methods.p wf ) r [ln[ e ]. ft µ = average viscosity.102 Field Equipment m( p ) = 2 ∫ p 0 p dp µz (4. ft rw. cp Z = average compressibility factor T = reservoir temperature. However.007027k h h(p e .0.33x1010 k 1. md h = reservoir height.75 + s + s m + s ca .222x10 15 ( γ g k a hβ ) 2 2 (4.18) where qh = gas flowrate.22) β = 2. The steadystate equation for gas flow is 0.c + Dq h ]µZT rw 2.73x1010 k 1. psia pwf = wellbore flowing pressure. mmscf/day pe = pressure at external radius.p wf ) qh = r ln[ e ]µZT rw. the pseudopressure should be used.201 a PIPESIM . ft re = drainage radius. oR The pseudosteady state gas flow equation can be written as follows (Joshi. 1991) qh = 0.
• Static Pressure • Temperature • Depth • IPR specification • Fluid description PIPESIM . cp = high velocity flow coefficient. respectively. different. md = reservoir height. accounts for the extra pressure drop in the near wellbore region due to the high gas velocity. ft = wellbore radius.3 Multiple Layers / Completions Multiple layers can be modeled with PIPESIM. psia = negative skin due to horizontal well = mechanical skin damage = shape related skin factor = shape fact conversion constant = permeability. The turbulence term. In addition.Field Equipment where qh pr pwf s sm sca c k h re rw µ Z T µpwf β γg hp ka 103 = gas flowrate. ft = permeability in the near wellbore region. the term makes the solution of equation (19) iterative. ft = average viscosity. oR = viscosity at well flowing conditions. cp = average compressibility factor = reservoir temperature. 1/ft = gas gravity = perforated interval. The above equations are based upon circular drainage area. Dq. properties. md Equation (21) and (22) are from Golan (1986) and Brown (1984). ft = drainage radius. mmscf/day = average reservoir pressure. This term was neglected when dealing with oil flow. 4. psia = wellbore flowing pressure. Each layer can have the following.
the fluid description for each individual layer can be specified using the standard black oil or compositional fluid descriptions. the user explicitly specifies the injection gas flowrate (and no details of the gas lift valves or ports are required). Alternatively.104 Field Equipment The IRR for each individual layer can be specified using any of the standard completion options (described above).4 Artificial Lift Artificial lift is the process of assisting the production of fluids from the reservoir by reducing the static head in the well bore. • Gas Lift • Electrical Submersible pumps (ESP) • Rod Pump Given their wider operating range and wider established application in the oil and gas industry. 4. Similarly.1 Gas Lift Gas lift can be described as a simple single injection point or by defining the gas lift valves as equipment in the tubing description. PIPESIM performs the fluid mixing in the wellbore and also calculates inter layer pressure drops. PIPESIM . tubing and dome pressures and valve temperature) PIPESIM contains a database of gas lift valve details for most of the commonly used gas lift valves from various manufactures. There are a number of methods available for doing this. then PIPESIM will calculate the injection gas throughput for each valve (dependent on the casing. the modeling of artificial lift in PIPESIM has been limited to gas lift and ESP.4. In this mode of operation it is assumed that the casing pressure is sufficient to inject all the lift gas at the specified depth. With the single injection point description. if gas lift valves are described as part of the tubing description. 4.
The user can vary the following for each ESP. The tubing allows the modeling of. Annular or Tubing and Annular flow • Gas lift injection (single and multipoint) • ESP lift point • Down hole equipment (SSSV. • Speed • Number of stages • Head factor to match the exact ESP insitu. The manufacturers covered are: • Reda • ODI • Centrilift • Ramco Alnas • Trico For each manufacturer a number of models are available. This data is supplied at a set pump speed and number of stages. • Straight tubing • Deviated tubing • Changes in pipe diameter • Tuning. The most common ESPs used in the oil & gas industry have been made available within PIPESIM via a database. choke. separator. 105 In addition the user can extend the database by adding new ESP's curve data in the form of flowrate.4.5 Tubing The production of the fluids from the reservoir to the surface is via a series of tubing strings. head and efficiency. 4.2 ESP Lift ESP's are modeled via an ESP performance curve that shows the relationship between flowrate. head and efficiency. etc) PIPESIM .Field Equipment 4.
4. If the actual throat velocity is greater than the sonic velocity then the flow is critical. • Fluid properties computed from upstream pressure • Heat capacities of the two phases computed from the upstream conditions The sonic velocity if the fluid is then computed from the heat capacity ratio.) .106 Field Equipment 4. Cp/Cv.6 + p1 [ ] 1 2 [ ] where qo C de PIPESIM . If it is less then it is subcritical.6.000217γ g R + Fwoγ w 198.6 Chokes The pressure drop through a restriction is based on the following.choke diameter (64th in.oil flow rate at standard conditions (bbl/d) . Note: The downstream pressure can not be determined in the case of critical flow.1 AshfordPierce The correlation of Ashford and Pierce [1975] is valid for critical and subcritical flows. α = ( Bo + Fwo ) −1 2 n −1 n T1 z1 ( R − Rs ) 1 − e n + 198. qo = 351Cd e2αβ . If critical flow is determined in the case where the outlet pressure has been specified then the choke downstream pressure is computed from the flowrate and the outlet pressure. The correlations used in each regime can be selected.6 p1 (1 − e) × γ 0 + 0.choke discharge coefficient .000217γ g Rs + Fwoγ w n − 1 β= −1 T1 z1 ( R − Rs )e n γ 0 + 0.
19 Qd 0.water specific gravity at T1 and p1 107 Assumptions: • polytropic expansion of gasliquid mixture • equal gas and liquid velocities at the throat • incompressible liquid phase • liquid dispersed in a continuous gas phase • negligible friction losses Recommended values for discharge coefficient (C) are: Choke size (64th in.2 1.49 N Pl 3. The original equation is: N qL = 0.oil specific gravity at T1 and p1 .oil formation factor volume factor (bbl/STB) .upstream choke temperature (oR) .gas compressibility factor at T1 and p1 .263 N ρ −3.choke downstream to upstream pressure ratio.gas specific gravity at T1 and p1 .Field Equipment Fwo Bo n p1 p2 R Rs T1 z1 e γg γo γw .95 0.2 4.95 0.solution GOR at p1 and T1 (scf/STB) .upstream choke pressure (lb/ft2) .8 where PIPESIM .downstream choke pressure (lb/ft2) .657 N D1.producing GOR (scf/STB) .6.Water to oil ratio (WOR) . p2/p1 .2 Omana The correlation of Omana [1969] is valid for critical flow.976 1.) 32 24 20 12 8 C 0.specific heat ratio .
Archong and Pilehvari [Ghassan. Baxendall.657 ( Dc )1.density at upstream conditions(lb/ft3) .In situ GOR (ft3/ft3) .upstream pressure (psia) subscripts G . σ L o L 1.upstream pressure number .545 (1 + R1 ) −0.Omana dimensionless production number .49 ( P1 ) 3.Omana diameter number .surface tension at upstream conditions (dynes/cm) . Maha.6. Achong and Pilehvari The correlation proposed by Gilbert.3 Gilbert. 1991] are valid for critical flow.gas L .108 N qL Field Equipment ρ = 184q L . ρ Lσ L Qd = 1 1 + R1 N D = 120. Ros.8 ( ρ G ) −3. PIPESIM .25 Nρ = ρG ρL 1 N pl = 174 × 10 −2 P1 . Baxendall.872 Dc ρL σL Final rearranged equation: o q L = 1953 × 10 −3 (σ L ) .choke diameter (ft) .Omana liquid volume rate number .245 ( ρ L )1. Ros. −1.19 NqL ND Npl Qd ρ σ R1 Dc P1 .liquid 4.
6.6 P1 0.) a.10460 0.00504T1 z1 ( GOR ) − ( Rs )1 0 ( ) P1 Bo PIPESIM .5m1 ) R11 + 0.546 0. The parameters are proprietary.producing GOR (scf/STB) d .choke diameter (64ths in.4 PoettmannBeck The correlation of Poettmann & Beck [1963] is valid for critical flow.00 1. 4.89 2. was made to equation (1) to incorporate another parameter "e" to better match their field data. 1 9273.b.546 0.1 PDVSA modification Recently a modification.766) .313 c 1.0765γ G (GOR ) L 88992 Ac 0 .5663 where R = 1 1 0.3.650 0.Field Equipment The equations proposed are all of the form o qL = aP (GOR) −b d c (1) 1 where P1 .26178 0. V1 (1 + 0.61ρ o + 0. by PDVSA.88 2.c .5 0.93 1. o qo = 5.liquid flow rate at standard conditions (STB/D) GOR .upstream pressure (psia) o q L . For the all above correlation's e=1.6.11 4. o qL = (aP (GOR) −b d c ) − e 1 This modification has been implemented in PIPESIM via the engine keyword tool.empirical coefficient given below 109 Correlation Gilbert Ros Baxendall Achong Pilehvari A 0.05747 0.1 0.4513( R1 + 0.021427 B 0.
pressure (psia) γ .formation volume factor ρ .6.gas .compressibility factor subscripts L G 1 o . is valid for critical and subcritical flows.110 m1 = 1 1 + R11 Field Equipment ρ 1G ρ1L V1 = ρL m1 q .oil flow rate (STB/D) Ac .specific gravity at P1 & T1 GOR .gas to oil ratio (scf/STB) Rs .temperature (oR) z .liquid . The mechanistic correlation.oil Superscripts o .5 Mechanistic Correlation.at standard conditions 4. ∆pTP = ∆p L λ L + ∆pG λ G qL ∆p L = 2 g c 144 C L Ac ρL 2 qG ∆p G = 2 g c 144 YCG Ac ρL 2 PIPESIM .Solution gas (scf/STB) B .at upstream conditions .density (lb/ft3) T . Brill & Beggs.choke crosssectional area (ft2) P .
ratio of specific heats (cp/cv) Subscripts L .gas flow rate (ft3/sec) Ac .flow coefficient Cd .gas PIPESIM .pressure upstream of choke (psi) p2 .35 (1 / K ) 2 .Field Equipment 2 p − p1 d2 Y = 10 − 0.compressibility factor d1 .noslip fraction of liquid in the stream approaching the λL choke qL .orifice diameter (same units as d1) K .pressure downstream of choke (psi) ρ .choke crosssectional area (ft2) p1 .liquid flow rate (ft3/sec) qG .density (lbm/ft3) C .liquid G .41 + 0.upstream tubing diameter (same units as d2) d2 . p1 d1 111 C= Cd d 1− 1 d2 4 Total pressure drop for the twophase system is given by: ∆pTP 1 + λ CdL = ∆p L G YC dG 2 − 1 where d 4 qm ∆p L = ρ L 1 − 1 2 d 2 8083d1 CdL λG .noslip fraction of free gas in the stream approaching the choke .discharge coefficient Y .
qm. 3) Subcritical twophase compressible flow is described by weighting the liquid and gas orifice flow equations with the noslip fraction of free gas λG in the stream approaching the choke. ρNL .at downstream conditions 4.55d1 4 PIPESIM .6. 4) The density and flow rates of each phase can be replaced by a noslip mixture density. with the addition of the following assumptions and is valid for critical flow. Brill & Beggs. The discharge coefficient is constant with a value of 0. The discharge coefficient is constant with a value of 0. 1121 ∆p tp = ∆p L 1 + λ G 2 − 1 Y where ∆p L = ρ N d qm 1− 1 2 d 2 6870. 1) Liquid flow through the choke is incompressible. ∆pTP 1 + λ CdL = ∆p L G YC dG 2 − 1 where d 4 qm ∆p L = ρ N 1 − 1 2 d 2 8083d1 CdL CG = 0. is similar to the mechanistic formulation.6 API 14B Formulation The API 14B formulation.85.85 Using the above equations we get: .twophase .9 CL = 0.at upstream conditions . 2) Subcritical gas flow through the choke is adiabatic and compressible.9. and a total mixture flowrate.112 TP 1 2 Field Equipment .
expressed at standard conditions for a given volume of production Gp and consequent drop in the average reservoir pressure ∆p = p i − p is given by [Dake . The heat transfer coefficient is relative to the outside pipe diameter.Field Equipment 113 . 4.liquid phase pressure change (psi) ∆PG .discharge coefficient for the gas phase CdL .total mixture flow rate (ft3/sec) ∆PL .8 Reservoir Depletion The field planning module of PIPESIM can take into account the depletion of the reservoir over time.1978] PIPESIM .noslip fraction of free gas in the stream approaching the λG choke qm .twophase 1 .upstream tubing diameter (same units as d2) d2 .liquid G .7 Heat transfer The effects of heat transfer in the well bore can be modeled by the use of an overall heat transfer coefficient.compressibility factor d1 .gas TP .gaseous phase pressure change (psi) ρN .orifice diameter (same units as d1) Subscripts L .discharge coefficient for the liquid phase Y . The surrounding ambient temperature can also be entered.8. 4.at downstream conditions 4. The material balance equation.noslip mixture density (lbm/ft3) CdG .1 Volume Depletion Reservoirs There is assumed to be no change in the reservoir volume occupied by hydrocarbons during depletion of the reservoir.at upstream conditions 2 .
and the flowing time (timestep) specified.37 p ZT and by using the equation of state for a real gas pV = ZnRT we can rewrite the material balance equation as p pi G p = 1 − Z Zi G The initial conditions pi. In the case of multiple wells in the tank Gp is simply the sum of the flow rates from wells in that reservoir over flowing time. Gp. can be computed from the flow rate that the network module calculates. The p/Z term can now be evaluated and correlations at reservoir pressure for the specified fluid composition can now be used to PIPESIM . Zi and G are input from the user The cumulative production.114 Production = (sc) or Gp = G − G E Ei Field Equipment Gas Initially in Place (sc) Unproduced Gas (sc) where: Gp is the cumulative production expressed at standard conditions G is the gas initially in place at standard conditions E is the gas expansion factor after cumulative production Gp Ei is the gas expansion factor at initially undepleted reservoir conditions For fields units at standard conditions of p=14. T=520ºR and Z=1 E = 35.17psia.
Field Equipment evaluate pressure for the (constant) reservoir temperature and volume. Paper No. J. : “Determining Multiphase Pressure Drops and Flow capacities in DownHole Safety Valves”. H.: “The Flow of Real Gases Through Porous Media. 1975 . Since FPT is a fully compositional simulator the new 2phase zfactor for the reservoir will be automatically calculated. and Odeh. The journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology. TwoPhase Flow in Pipes (Dr. James P. pp 68 through 612 TwoPhase Flow in Pipes (Dr. B. R. and Pierce. Dr. A. P. Volume 30. and Maha.8. 115 The model assumes that the well flows at a constant rate between each timestep. H. September. PIPESIM . L. Journal of Petroleum Technology. Dale Beggs). D. S. 95101. Beck. F. pp 636 through 639 AlHussainy.: “Productivity of a Horizontal Well. 6. liquid hydrocarbons are deposited in the reservoir. SPE5161.. Dr. James P...” SPE Reservoir Engineering (November 1989) 417421.2 Gas Condensate Reservoirs The dry gas material balance as described above may be used to model gas condensate reservoirs. P.. Brill. R. World Oil. A. course notes. When the pressure falls below dew point. K.” JPT (1966) 624636. Ramey Jr. N0.9 References Ghassan. H.E. Ashford. 1991 F. Brill. H. A. course notes. 4. H.E. Poettman and R. 4. March 1963. and Crawford. Babu. “Correlations developed to predict twophase flow through wellhead chokes”. Dale Beggs). “New Charts Developed to Predict GasLiquid Flow through Chokes”.
: “Effect of Pressure Drop Along Horizontal Wellbores on Well Performance.M. San Antonio. October 1989. November 1988. R. A. New Orleans. New York. Folefac.: “Zuidwal: A Gas Field Development With Horizontal Wells. Dikken. and de Montigny... J. H.” SPE paper 20720 presented at the Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. China. C.: Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering. Cheng. G. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co.J.C.116 Field Equipment Bendakhlia.. Jouault..” SPE paper 19826 presented at the Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition in San Antonio.E. and Roegiers.. Brown. E.” SPE paper 23094 PIPESIM .: “Pressure Drop in Horizontal Wells and its Effect on Production Performance. M. (July 1989) 6976. September 1990. P. Dake.P. Archer. J. K. and Issa. L. C..” SPE paper 19823 presented at the Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. 1978. B. N.D. and Troncoso.: “Inflow Performance Relationships for SolutionGas Drive Horizontal Wells. J. A. A. Tianjin. M. R. M.” SPE paper 17582 presented at the International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering. R. Economides.C. and Aziz.: “Inflow Performance Relationships for SolutionGasDrive Slanted/Horizontal Wells. S. J..J. October 1989. McLennan. Cooper. Celier.” World Oil. O.: “Performance and Stimulation of Horizontal Wells.” JPT (November 1990) 14261433. I.: “An Overview of Horizontal Well Completion Technology.
and Wilkinson.: “The Estimation of Productivity Loss Caused by Perforation . The Journal of Canadian Petroleum technology. No 6.” Chem. Copeland. Pet. C.. Prog. M.. A. (Oct. and Martinelli. TwoComponent Flow in Pipes. Goode. R. A. R. S.” SPE paper 4798 (1974). Eng. and Maha. M. W. G. Lockhart. R. 1977). D. Tulsa. F. 1991 Giger. Gurley. P. G. S.: “Design Plan and Execution of GravelPack Completion. T. L.” SPE paper 16868 presented at the Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting in Casper. L. Morgantown. D.: “Inflow Performance of Partially Open Horizontal Wells. WV. October. Penwell Publishing Company. A. Jones. and Slusser.Including Partial Completion and Formation Damage. (January 1949) 45. WY (May 1988). September 1984. Tech. H.: “A Review of Horizontal and Drainhole Technology. L. Joshi. and Jourdan. Reiss. C. 1989.: “Proposed Correlation of Data for Isothermal Twophase. Oklahoma (1991). J. D...” J. P. A.. and Hendrick. J.Field Equipment presented at the Offshore Europe Conference held in Aberdeen (September 1991). 117 Ghassan. Volume 30.: “The Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Horizontal Drilling. L.” SPE paper 19341 presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting.: Horizontal Well Technology. 39. “Correlations developed to predict twophase flow through wellhead chokes “. Joshi. H.” SPE paper 13024 presented at the Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition in Houston. PIPESIM . D.
: “Influence of Formation Damage on the Flow Efficiency of Horizontal Wells. B. W. and Dupuy. F. P. Omana.: “Effect of Drainage Area Shapes on Horizontal Well Productivity. et al.. F. and Beck. (March 1985).: “The Effect of Perforating Conditions on Well Performance.. I. J. 95101 Pots. M. 1983). and Konijn. Renard.118 Field Equipment McLeod. H.” SPE paper 18301 presented at the Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Bromilow. I. PIPESIM . “New Charts Developed to Predict GasLiquid Flow Through Chokes”. Godbole. G.H. G. M. N. Lafayette (February 1990). R.D. Muskat. and Joshi.. March 1963. SPE 2682. Boston (1937). World Oil. O.” SPE paper 19414 presented at the Formation Damage Control Symposium. J. M.C.” SPE paper 13723. Houston (October 1988).R. “Multiphase Flow Through Chokes”.. I.: “Severe Slug Flow on Offshore Flowline/Riser Systems. L. R. M. H. S. S.: The Flow of Homogeneous Fluids Through Porous Media. Mutalik. D.” JPT (Jan. P. 1969 Poettman.
1) where n = 1/(1 . It is also possible to use built in. If more than one value is supplied. and efficiency for a range of compressor speeds.Hin) PIPESIM . This could be: • outlet pressure • differential pressure • pressure ratio (Pout/Pin) • power (shaft power) • speed and number of stages (if using curves) The remaining quantities will then be calculated using compressor equations. and all other supplied parameters will be discarded.1)/k) . flowrate. the compressor speed and number of stages become a additional factors. or user developed compressor curves to describe the relationship between differential pressure.1) where k = Cp/Cv Polytropic Route Head = (ZavgRTin/(M(n1)/n))((Pout/Pin)((n .1)/(eCp/Cv))) Mollier Route (compositional cases only) Head (Hout .((Cp/Cv . At least one parameter must be supplied. and efficiency. power.1)/n) . flowrate. The main centrifugal compressor equations used are as follows: Adiabatic Route Head = (ZavgRTin/(M(k1)/k))((Pout/Pin)((k .1 Compressor The basic compressor model uses centrifugal and reciprocating compressor equations to determine the relationship between inlet pressure and temperature. If compressor curves are used. therefore.Field Equipment 119 5 Field Equipment 5. then the parameter which leads to the smallest compressor differential pressure will be used. outlet pressure and temperature.
1) where n = 1/(1 .1)/k) . and efficiency for a range of expander speeds.1) where k = Cp/Cv Polytropic Route Head = (ZavgRTin/(M(n1)/n))((Pout/Pin)((n . then the parameter which leads to the smallest expander differential pressure will be used.Hin) PIPESIM .1)/(eCp/Cv))) Mollier Route (compositional cases only) Head (Hout . This could be: • outlet pressure • differential pressure • pressure ratio (Pin/Pout) • power (shaft power) • speed and number of stages (if using curves) The remaining quantities will then be calculated using centrifugal expander equations. and efficiency. At least one parameter must be supplied. therefore. If expander curves are used.((Cp/Cv .120 Field Equipment where the values of Hout and Hin are obtained from isentropic compression from Pin to Pout 5. and all other supplied parameters will be discarded. The main expander equations used are as follows: Adiabatic Route Head = (ZavgRTin/(M(k1)/k))((Pout/Pin)((k . It is also possible to use built in. shaft power. flowrate. flowrate.2 Expander The basic expander model uses centrifugal expander equations to determine the relationship between inlet pressure and temperature.1)/n) . the expander speed and number of stages become a additional factors. or user developed expander curves to describe the relationship between differential pressure. If more than one value is supplied. outlet pressure and temperature.
the pump speed and number of stages become a additional factors. flowrate. outlet pressure and temperature. shaft power. then the parameter which leads to the smallest pump differential pressure will be used. multiphase PIPESIM . or user developed pump curves to describe the relationship between differential pressure. flowrate. The main pump equations used are as follows: Hydraulic Power Flowrate x Differential Pressure Hydraulic Power = Shaft Power x Efficiency 5. This could be: • outlet pressure • differential pressure • pressure ratio (Pout/Pin) • power (shaft power) • speed and number of stages (if using curves) The remaining quantities will then be calculated using centrifugal pump equations. therefore. hydraulic power and efficiency. It is also possible to use built in. and all other supplied parameters will be discarded. Particularly for the development of satellite fields.4 Multiphase Boosting Multiphase boosting technology (also referred to as multiphase pumping technology) for the oil and gas industry has been in development since the early 1980s.3 Single Phase Pump The basic pump model uses centrifugal pump equations to determine the relationship between inlet pressure and temperature. and efficiency for a range of pump speeds.Field Equipment where the values of Hout and Hin are obtained from isentropic compression from Pin to Pout 121 5. and is now rapidly gaining acceptance as a tool to optimize multiphase production systems [1]. At least one parameter must be supplied. If pump curves are used. If more than one value is supplied.
multiphase boosting enables the full (nonseparated) well stream to be boosted in a single machine. with the vast majority of the installations based onshore or offshore topsides. the potential cost reductions could make development of marginal fields economic. Besides the thus realized simplification of the production system. Over the years. gas compression.122 Field Equipment boosting has been recognized as a promising technology: rather than separation. well over one hundred multiphase boosters have been installed worldwide. the development of multiphase boosting has led to three types of boosters being commercially available: . PIPESIM .twin screw type multiphase boosters .helicoaxial type multiphase boosters The first two types mentioned belong to the category of positive displacement type pumps and the third type to the category of dynamic type pumps. Since 1990.progressing cavity type multiphase boosters . liquid pumping and use of dual flow lines back to the host facility.
the terminology used in this document is ‘multiphase booster’ to recognize the fact that also 100% gas can be handled by this equipment (albeit with some restrictions. Figure 3. Separated gas is compressed up to the required pressure and exported via the gas export line. The rationale for employing multiphase boosters stems from two basic factors: (1) Production Enhancement – accelerated and/or incremental hydrocarbon production as a result of lowering the backpressure on the well(s). Traditional approaches Multiphase boosters are pumps/compressors that can accommodate fluids composed of 100% liquid to 100% gas.1 depicts the difference between multiphase boosting technology and the more traditional technology of separation. and anywhere in between. and exported via a multiphase export line. 123 Figure 51 Multiphase boosting vs. before the two phases are recombined and exported via a multiphase export line. Multiphase Boosting The incoming fluid is directly boosted up to the required pressure without separation of the gas and liquid phases.Field Equipment Traditional Approach The incoming fluid is separated in its constituent gas and liquid phases. pumping and compression. Alternative Approach The incoming fluid is separated in its constituent gas and liquid phases. The separated liquids are pumped up to the required pressure and separated gas is compressed up to the required pressure. Although commonly referred to as multiphase pumps. PIPESIM . The separated liquids are pumped up to the required pressure and exported via the liquid export line. as outlined in later chapters of this document).
and given the production characteristics of the formation and the IPR of the well. Similarly. take the example of a well which is connected via a flowline and riser to the inlet separator on the host facility. See Figure 52. the curve of required flowline inlet pressure against rate can be obtained. there will be a combined effect of the two factors. the curve of tubinghead pressure pth against rate for an individual well can be obtained. PIPESIM . based on estimates of the pressure drop across flowline and riser. and given the pressure at the inlet separator of the host facility. To demonstrate the principle of multiphase boosting.124 Field Equipment (2) Pressure Boosting – increasing fluid pressure for transportation over long distances or to move fluid from low pressure systems to higher pressure systems. this curve is known as the outflow curve.g. this curve is known as the tubinghead pressure (THP) curve. lowering the backpressure on a well by use of a multiphase booster provides at same time a higher pressure available at the inlet to the flowline. In many cases. e. Figure 52 Simplified production system Based on estimates of the pressure drop across the tubing string.
0 1 5 .Field Equipment 125 Figure 53 demonstrates the principle of tubinghead pressure curve and outflow curve.0 T H P c u r ve 2 0 .0 3 0 . i.0 0 0 5 . pressure and production rate at the wellhead. Assuming we could install a booster that allows us to provide a ‘boost’ of 20 [bar] to the well fluids directly downstream of the wellhead.0 4 0 . i. the outflow curve shown in Figure 53 will change to that shown in Figure 54. it can be seen that the system operating point involves a tubing head pressure of 39 [bara] and production rate of 5 [kg/s].0 2 0 .0 P ro d u c tio n ra te (kg /s) Figure 53 Production system analysis: THP curve and outflow curve From Figure 3. the point of intersection of the two curves is the system operating point. through the boosting of the well stream production has increased by 100%. We can however also see from the THP curve that the flowing potential of the well is far greater than the production rate of 5 [kg/s].3.0 2 5 .0 1 0 . The new system operating point involves a tubing head pressure of 24 [bara] and production rate of 10 [kg/s]. should the back pressure on the well be lower than the 39 [bara].0 O u tflo w c u r ve Pressure at wellhead (bara) 5 0 .e.0 1 0 . P ro d u c tio n S y s te m A n a ly s is 7 0 . PIPESIM .0 6 0 .e.
Boosting 20 bar 20. are given in Chapter 3. the effect of multiphase boosting on production system operating point (tubing head pressure.0 THP curve 0 5.0 10.0 10. Further details of this analysis. Within the Shell EP Group of Operating PIPESIM .0 40. the commercial development of positive displacement has concentrated on two types only: (1) twin screw type multiphase booster (2) progressing cavity type multiphase booster The majority of positive displacement type multiphase boosters on the market are of the twin screw type. which results in these pumps being less sensitive to fluid density than dynamic type pumps. As a result of this.126 Field Equipment Production System Analysis 70.0 60.0 0 Figure 54 Production system analysis: the effect of multiphase boosting visualized Through the type of analysis outlined in Figure 53 and Figure 54. because with surface applications fluids tend to show higher gas fractions and a greater tendency for density change than in subsea applications [2].0 15.No boosting Pressure at wellhead (bara) 50. Although initially piston type pumps were also considered for use as multiphase boosters. production rate) can readily be established.4.1 Multiphase Boosters – Positive Displacement Type Positive displacement type pumps work on the basis of pressure being added hydrostatically rather than dynamically.0 30. with the remainder being of the progressing cavity type. positive displacement type pumps appear to figure higher in surface applications than dynamic type pumps. in particular with respect to the system analysis tool PIPESIM. 5.0 Production rate (kg/s) 20.0 25.0 Outflow curve .0 Outflow curve . as can be the multiphase booster operating point and power requirement.
unlike screw type compressors. the pressure developed at pump discharge is thus solely the result of resistance to flow in the outlet system. an internal leakage in the pumping elements PIPESIM .2 Twin Screw Type Multiphase Boosters The twin screw type booster. the intermeshing screws form chambers [3].Field Equipment 127 Companies.e.transported to the discharge side of the pump. . . also referred to as twospindle screw pump. In principle. This chapter will therefore predominantly address the working principle of twin screw type multiphase boosters. which are: . i. Figure 55 shows an example of a twin screw type pump. but mention will be made of the progressing cavity type also. there is no inbuilt compression in the twin screw type multiphase boosters.closed to capture the amount of fluid that has entered the chamber at pump suction. 5. However. works on the basis of liquid carried between the screw threads of two intermeshing feed screws and displaced axially as the screws rotate and mesh.4.opened to the outlet system once the chamber has reached the pump discharge port. the volume of the chambers is not reduced on its way from pump suction side to pump discharge side. Figure 55 Twin screw type pump It should be noted that. . Pressure buildup by the twin screw type multiphase booster is entirely caused by the fact that a definite amount of fluid is delivered into the outlet system with every revolution of the feed screws. due to the pressure differential between pump discharge and pump suction. no progressing cavity type multiphase boosters have been installed thus far.filled with fluid at the pump suction side.
the higher the internal leakage. p1=1 bara) Shaft power [kW] 600 Flow rate [m3/h] 400 200 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Pump differential pressure [bar] 1500 1000 500 0 Flow rate Shaft power Twin Screw Multiphase Pump . p1=1 bara) Shaft power [kW] 600 Flow rate [m3/h] 400 200 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Pump differential pressure [bar] 1500 1000 500 0 Flow rate Shaft power Figure 56 Pump performance curves (typical) As can be seen from Figure 56. As an example. PIPESIM . GVF=0%.e. The theoretical capacity of the pump. also called ‘pump slip’. Twin Screw Multiphase Pump . especially for higher GVF. is the flow rate found for zero pump differential pressure – for the pump represented in Figure 6. the twin screw multiphase booster is sometimes referred to as a ‘constant flow rate’ pump.128 Field Equipment results and causes a pressure gradient across the moving chambers. the flow rate if no internal leakage is present. pump flow rate is dependent on pump differential pressure: the higher the pump differential pressure. the difference between theoretical flow rate and actual flow rate is the internal leakage.Performance Curve (valid for GVF=0%.Performance Curve (valid for GVF=85%. the actual flow rate for pump differential pressure 40 bar is 400 m3/h. and thus the lower pump flow rate. i. as demonstrated in pump performance curves (see Figure 56). the theoretical flow rate is 500 m3/h. for the pump represented in Figure 6.e. i. Given the relative insensitivity of flow rate to differential pressure. pump slip is (500 – 400) = 100 m3/h. This internal leakage causes the pump net flow to be less than its theoretical capacity.
Whereas Figure 3.6 may suggest that an unlimited variety of twin screw multiphase pumps is available to cover an unlimited amount of (differential pressure / flow rate)combinations. the most simple configuration is the one whereby there is one lead on the rotor and two leads on the stator.3 Progressing Cavity Type Multiphase Boosters The progressing cavity type pump (also known as singlerotor screw pump) operates on the basis of an externally threaded screw. pump flow rate (total volumetric flow rate at pump suction) at present limited to approximately 2000 m3/h per single pump. also called rotor. pump flow rate is dependent on GVF also.4. 5. pump inlet pressure and outlet pressures restricted by casing design pressure and seal design pressure. gas volume fraction at pump suction typically limited to 95% maximum (for GVF>95%. some form of liquid recirculation is typically required to maintain GVFsuction at 95% maximum). in practice however a number of physical limitations applies: pump differential pressure is typically limited to 70 bar to avoid excessive deflection of feed screws and possible contact between rotating screws and stator housing. provided that the stator has one more lead than the rotor [4]. turning inside an internally threaded stator (see Figure 7).Field Equipment 129 As can also be seen from Figure 56. whereas the effect of GVF on pump shaft power is less pronounced. Other configurations are also feasible. Figure 57 Moyno® progressing cavity pump PIPESIM . commonly referred to as a 1:2 ratio element profile.
higher flow rates and higher differential pressures are achievable.130 Field Equipment As with the screw type pump. 5. dynamic type pumps are more sensitive to fluid density than positive displacement type pumps. i. The actual increase in pressure is directly proportional to the density of the pumped fluid. the higher the fluid density.4 Multiphase Boosters – Dynamic Type Dynamic type pumps work on the principle of pressure being raised by adding kinetic energy to the fluid. the modeling of positive displacement type multiphase boosters in PIPESIM has been limited to the twin screw type multiphase booster only. there is also PIPESIM . the higher the pressure increase. in subsea applications.g. Because of this. which is then converted to pressure. e. The continuous seal line between the rotor and the stator helix keeps the fluid moving steadily at a fixed flow rate proportional to the pump rotational speed.e. For very high gas volume fractions (GVF>95%). The commercial development of dynamic type multiphase boosters has concentrated on the helicoaxial type. Claimed to be the largest progressing cavity type pump for multiphase applications is Moyno’s R&M TriPhaze® System.4. capable of transferring multiphase flows up to 29.000 bbl/day (192 m3/h) at differential pressures up to 300 psi (20. chambers are formed and filled with fluid and progress from the suction side of the pump to the discharge side of the pump conveying the process fluid. based on helicoaxial hydraulics developed and licensed by Institute François du Petrole (IFP). Application of the progressing cavity type pump for multiphase boosting has been less widespread than the twin screw type multiphase booster. however at the expense of complexity [4].7 bar). as the rotor rotates within the stator. and flow rates and differential pressures are typically lower than those achievable with the twin screw type. and tend therefore to be used in applications with lower maximum gas volume fractions than positive displacement type pumps. Given their wider operating range and wider established application in the oil and gas industry. Through the installations of various pumps in series/parallel arrangement.
Field Equipment the contrarotating axial (CRA) machine, originally developed by Framo Engineering AS and Shell.
131
The design of the helicoaxial type pump has further concentrated on the driver mechanism for subsea use, and led to the availability of electric motor driven units as well as hydraulic turbine driven units. For onshore or offshore topsides applications, other driver types can also be used. 5.4.5 HelicoAxial Type Multiphase Boosters The helicoaxial type multiphase booster features a number of individual booster stages, each consisting of an impeller mounted on a single rotating shaft, followed by a fixed diffuser. In essence, the impeller imparts kinetic energy to the fluid, which is converted to pressure in the diffuser. The impeller blades have a typical helical shape, and profile of the open type impeller and diffuser blade arrangement are specifically designed to prevent the separation of the multiphase mixture inside the pump [5]. Figure 58 shows an example of a helicoaxial pump stage.
Figure 58 Helicoaxial pump stage The boosting capabilities of the helicoaxial type booster are a function of GVFsuction and suction pressure, as well as speed, number of impeller stages and impeller size. See Figure 59. The quoted flow rates and speed limitation represent present technology status.
PIPESIM
132
Field Equipment
Figure 59 Helicoaxial type multiphase booster – Pressure boosting potential As can be seen from Figure 3.9, the pressure boosting capability drastically reduces for higher GVF. Also, for reduced speed or reduced number of stages, the pressure boosting capability will be less than the maximum shown in Figure 3.9. For a given pump with given number of stages, speed and impeller diameter, pump performance curves can be provided as shown in Figure 3.10. These curves are valid for given GVFsuction, psuction and fluid density only; for differing GVFsuction, psuction and fluid density, new performance curves will apply.
PIPESIM
Field Equipment
133
Booster differential pressure
Helicoaxial type multiphase booster  Performance curve (valid for given GVF, p suction and fluid density)
Best efficiency line
Maximum booster differential pressure
ax
.D
P
lin
e
90%
80%
Ma
M
xim
spee
spee
Figure 510 Pump performance curve (typical) Practical operating limits of the helicoaxial type multiphase booster are [6]: pump differential pressure typically limited to 70 bar pump flow rate (total volumetric flow rate at pump suction) at present limited to approximately 1500 m3/h per single pump; gas volume fraction at pump suction typically limited to 95% maximum; pump inlet pressure 3.4 bara minimum; pump outlet pressure restricted by casing design pressure and seal design pressure. 5.4.6 ContraRotating Axial Type Multiphase Booster The CRA operates on the basis of axial compressor theory, but rather than having one rotor and a set of stator vanes, the CRA employs two contrarotating rotors. The inner rotor consists of several stages mounted on the outside of an inner cylinder. The outer rotor consists of several stages on the inside of a concentric, larger diameter cylinder. See Figure 511.
im u M in ms d pee
um
d
Total volumetric flow rate at suction
d
s pee d
PIPESIM
Flow rates that can be handled by the CRA are of same order of magnitude as for helicoaxial type multiphase booster.7 Alternative approach The alternative approach described in Figure 51 has also been implemented in PIPESIM. nor are sufficiently mature design rules available for the scaleup of CRA performance to larger flow rates. the modeling of dynamic type multiphase boosters in PIPESIM has been limited to the helicoaxial type multiphase booster only. This generic booster splits the fluid into liquid and gas and pumps the liquid and compresses the gas. 5. Efficiency values for the compressor efficiency have been obtained from field data and are available in the help system.134 Field Equipment Figure 511 Contrarotating axial (CRA) compressor The exact mechanism underlying pressure buildup inside the CRA compressor have not yet been fully understood. Given their wider operating range and wider established application in the oil and gas industry. PIPESIM .4. however achievable differential pressures (maximum 20 bar) and realized efficiencies (approximately 25%) are significantly less than what’s achievable with conventional boosting systems.
For example. J. Mirza Paper presented at BHR Conference Multiphase ’99 [3] [4] PIPESIM .M. 5.C. a 90% efficient water separator removes 90% of the water. New Orleans 1999 [2] Success grows in pumping highgasfraction multiphase fluids B. outgoing and separated branches. Ward. 1986 Progressing cavity multiphase pumping systems: expanding the possibilities K. July 1999 Pump Handbook. water or liquid (oil plus water) phase. • The incoming. 5.Field Equipment 135 5. flow of the remaining fluids will be modeled. Butler Petroleum Engineer International. Derks Paper presented at Facilities 2000 Conference. 2nd edition J. The following must be defined. McGrawHill Inc. The % efficiency (or efficiency fraction) refers to the amount of that material removed.Oxley.5 Separator Placing a separator in the model removes up to 100% (by volume) of the gas. From that point onward.6 Reinjection point Works in conjunction with a separator in a network model only. Karassik et al.7 Heat Transfer 5.8 References [1] How multiphase pumping can make you money K. W. All the fluid removed from the separated will be reinjected. • Separated stream inlet temperature if different from the separator temperature • An estimate of the flowrate for the separated stream.Z..G.
J. ABB Lummus Global Shell report SIEP 985463 [6] PIPESIM .136 [5] Field Equipment Innovations in multiphase hydrocarbon operations C.pumpzone. de Marolles. 1999 Satellite multiphase boosting – Multiphase boosting study SiepRTS. de Salis Article from www.com.
Operations THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY 137 .
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139 6. PIPESIM 2000 .Operations 6 Operations The operations of PIPESIM available for each module are • Pipeline & facilities module • Check model • No operation • Run model • System analysis • Pressure Temperature profile • Flow correlation matching • Wax prediction • Well Performance module • Check model • No operation • Run model • System analysis • Pressure Temperature profile • Flow correlation matching • Nodal analysis • Reservoir tables • Artificial lift analysis • Well Performance Curves • Network module • Check model • Run model • Restart model • Abort run 6. This is mainly for use with Schlumberger’s Production data management software ProdMan.1 Check model Allows the model to be check for missing input data input before a simulation is performed.2 No operation Allows a model to be built and saved with no associated operation.
The ability to perform analysis by combining sensitivity variables in different ways makes the system analysis operation a very flexible tool for plotting data on a casebycase basis.3 Run model Run the selected operation.f. PIPESIM 2000 .g. watercut) or through permutations of a group of sensitivity values. outlet pressure) versus an independent variable (e.1 Typical Systems Analysis Plot 6.g. Operations 6.4 System Analysis The systems analysis operation enables the user to determine the performance of a given system for varying operating conditions on a casebycase basis (4. Results of the system analysis operation are provided in the form of plots of a dependent variable (e. hence allowing the most suitable correlation to be determined for each system model. Both temperature and pressure profiles are generated on a nodebynode basis for the system 6.6 Flow correlation matching This option allows the user to match well test data against each correlation for a particular system. flow rate). Families of XY curves can be generated for the system by varying either a single sensitivity variable (e. Outlet Pressure Watercut=30% Watercut=60% Watercut=90% Flow Rate Figure 6. A typical systems analysis type plot is shown below.g.140 6. Pressure/Temperature Profiles where performance is evaluated on a pointbypoint basis).5 Pressure Temperature profile Pressure and temperature profiles of the system can be generated as a function of distance and along the system.
This can be represented graphically by the intersection point of the inflow and outflow performance curves as shown in Figure 3. This comprehensive nodal analysis capability has been achieved without compromising the rigorous finite element solution techniques necessary in generating accurate pressure and temperature profiles throughout the system. the model allows the user to perform sensitivity studies and generate system performance curves. PIPESIM 2000 .1. rather than just provide single point solutions to individual flow problems. The point at which there is no pressure differential at the nodal analysis point for the subsystems is known as the operating point for the given system. Such graphical system analysis techniques are essential in well performance modeling and in optimizing the design of complex pipeline systems.8 Nodal Analysis PIPESIM has been designed as a nodal analysis tool so. In essence. the objective of nodal analysis is to combine the various components of a given oil or gas production or transportation system in order to optimize the various components in the system. Optimization of the system is conducted by investigating the effect on the operating point of varying key system parameters. 6.Operations 141 6. This is done by splitting the system at the point of interest known as the nodal analysis point and performing a solution for pressure at the nodal analysis point on the upstream (Inflow) and downstream (Outflow) subsystems. only available to Shell (and Shell approved companies) and to BP (and BP approved companies).7 Wax Prediction The wax prediction operation in PIPESIM was is at present.
8804.0051 Tw 13.43535170.363184.0051 Tw 13.)Tj6 54.98 0 0 1184.000.982796.982796.363184.0051 Tw 13.2 Nodal Analysis Inflow/r7 T5rvesPoint CBT/TT4 1 Tf0.98 0 0 1256.98 0 0 1239.98 0 0 13.0051 Tw 13.846833318gu9601.839(thenaddiOper2 Nwithnflow )Tj1.7596 Tm(Insensi/ReityPcan flow )Tj0.0007 Tc 08.0007 Tc 1.06j1 465m414.982796.839<08Tj0>m(CBT/TT4 1 Tf8. tubing <</and fl142 <</3CID 0 >>BDCC2_1/TT4 .oTOpmized.759<08Tj0>m(CBT/TT4 1 Tf9.000nNA Pcan be at anymp(NA P(betTm(1 Tf6.98 0 0 13.0007 Tc 0.98 0 0 13.56 3318gu9601.)Tj6 54.0017 Tw 13.0000 Tc 0 Tw 13.363184.982796.98 0 0 1116.759(er anymoTm(Outvari142 )Tj13.032954.84052 54.98 0 0 12696 5MCI4.759<08Tj0>m(CBT/TT4 1 Tf1.98 n 0 0 f 139 l c6822.7599 Tm(Outsensi/R142 )Tj13.759(ll o w performance c5rvesPto Oper bencreatednflow )Tj4.)Tj6 54.98 0 0 14.142 Operations Inflow Pressure Outflow NA Point Flowrate Figure 6.982796.28985596.98 0 0 138 l17394.98 0 0 1108 Tf254.0004 Tw 13.0007 Tc t 5.98 0 0 13. Tm( )T cSEMC/P <</14CID 0 >>BDCBT/TT4 1PIPESI142 (Ou(Oe from thenstandardnflow )Tj0.0007 Tc 3.7596e Tm( )T cSEMC/P <</5CID 0 >>BDCC2_1/TT4 1 Tf0.0051 h Tw e 13.0007 TcTm( 0.620(ween components) in thensystem Tm( )T cSEMC/P <</4CID 0 >>BDCC2_1/TT4 1 Tf0.98 0 0 1108 Tf254.7599v142 )Tj13.0051 Tw 13.0000 Tc 0 Tw 13.5002artifi142 )Tj13.98 0 0 13.0051 Tw 13.839(system model data withnflow7 Tc 00.52 694.)Tj275170.7596be er anymiTm(Invariabl142 )Tj13.759(ityPcan benflow )Tj0.322591.982796.759(able Tm( )T cSEMC/P <</6CID 0 >>BDCC2_1/TT4 1 Tf0.98 0 0 13.8804.0000 Tc 0 Tw 13. )T cSEMC/P watercut. such asnwellheadPflow Fssure.98 0 0 1386.0051 Tw Thnalalso F s al(Ous thennecessary o weflow f )Tj9.000n)Tj3.52 694.5002c142 s parameters.363184.0012 Tc 22.
The lift quantity should be set so that it spans the working range of values.1 Well head chokes The choking back of gas lifted wells is rare in the oil industry. The network solver will then utilize this curve instead of modeling the well directly.Operations 143 6. but see below on well head chokes.9. 6.2. These pressures should span the normal working system outlet pressure (normally well head or manifold pressure). In order to utilize the performance curves in GOAL the system performance needs to be ascertained at different system outlet pressures. PIPESIM 2000 .9. A curve is created that represents the performance of the well under certain conditions. can the well flow naturally? The liquid flowrate will be computed at all the lift quantity rates for a set system outlet pressure.2 Optimization module performance curves As part of the artificial lift operation performance curves for the optimization module. but in reallife operations. The curves are of the general form xaxis : lift quantity yaxis: liquid flowrate sensitivity variable: system outlet pressure. GOAL offers several ways to modeling gas lifted wells that are choked back. normally the well head. 6. i. For gas lift this should include the case of zero injection gas. can be created. GOAL.e. Typically 4/5 values are required. Therefore.1 Well Performance Curves These can be created for us in the Network solver to produce faster solution times. some gas lifted wells have to be choked back due to instabilities of the wells.9.
i.e. if any of the following situations are to be studied in GOAL then the well must be modeled to the choke. • A maximum liquid constraints into individual wells • Choke optimization • Pressure calibration Method 1: GOAL model with wells modeled to the manifold PIPESIM 2000 . It is normally recommended that the well performance curves are modeled to the manifold. the manifold that the well is connected to (including a wellhead choke and associated flowline between the well and the manifold). the wellhead. the choke is included in the well model. upstream of a well head choke or 2.144 Operations Wellhead Choke Manifold Flowline Wellhead Well As GOAL uses gas lift performance curves the individual well models can be developed to model a well to either: 1. However.
PIPESIM contains a database of gas lift valve details for most of the commonly used gas lift valves from various manufactures. This operation will also take into account the throttling behavior of the valves. The user has considerable flexibility over the design method and design parameters to use. 6. tubing and casing head pressures). For any selected operational conditions (e.1 Check for Gas Lift instability Unstable operational conditions may occur in a continuous gas lift well because the characteristics of the system are such that small perturbations can degenerate into huge oscillations in the flow parameters. the status and gas throughput for each valve will be computed. a clearly defined mechanism is required to PIPESIM 2000 . Linking to the production database via the ProdMan module can further enhance the functionality of this module.10 Gas Lift Design & Diagnostics PIPESIM is capable of performing gas lift designs for both new mandrel spacing and also for existing mandrel spacing. For a new spacing the mandrel depths are computed and for a new design the port size and test rack pressures. Therefore.Operations 145 Model 2: GOAL model with wells modeled to the well head 6. The gas lift diagnostic operation can be used to analyze the performance of an existing gas lifted installation (or a proposed new design).g.10.
g ) ) Fc = CD ApY ( Pto Pco r ( 2 − rv ) . q fo f − ρg .Va . . • adiabatic flow through the choke In the unified criteria.146 Operations show the relative importance of the different factors involved. and help to assure stable flow conditions at the design phase or to decide what actions to take in order to stabilize an unstable gas lift well. However. J D ApY ) 2 v . The unified criteria can be used for all possible flow regimes for the gaslift valve and surface gas injection choke. namely C1 & C2. Assumptions of the model: • constant pressure at the gas injection manifold which is upstream of the surface injection choke. ch v µ ch ) 2 + CD ApY ( ) 2 ) rv = µv = ( zT ) t ( zT ) c rch = Pco Pm µ ch = ( zT ) c ( zT ) m Nomenclature PIPESIM 2000 . and therefore they should not be considered as highly accurate or that they can be applied to every type of instability experienced in a gas lift installation. and both must be greater than zero for stable gas lift operation. Unified instability criteria were developed by Alhanati et al. ρg. The unified criteria were developed using a number of simplifying assumptions. two sets of criterion were defined. q 2 go . (1993) for continuous gas lift wells to overcome the drawbacks in previous developments. q fo F3 = (q (ρ fo + q go . At Pto . Fc µv µv rv rv C 2 = F 1. − 1 + F 3. the criteria cover a number of common cases encountered in the industry and certainly indicate what can be done to improve operating instability. − 1 + µ v Fc where F1 = (C ( B f . rv 2 − rv C1 = F 1. ch ch v µ ch 2 r ( 2 − rv ) C D A p Y .
8 Productivity index (stb/d/psi) Volume of tubingcasing annulus (ft3) Acceleration of gravity (ft/s2) Steady state casing pressure (psia) Steady state tubing pressure (psia) Steady state reservoir fluids flow rate (stbd) Steady state injected gas flow rate (mmscf) Gas injection manifold pressure (psia) Gas expansion factor Temperature (F) ratio of pressures gas compressibility factor reservoir fluids density (lb/in3) injected gas density (lb/in3) ratio of the products zT 147 SUBSCRIPTS v gas lift vale ch gas injection choke t tubing c casing m manifold In order to utilize this feature from the well model must be developed with the following included. • Surface injection pressure From this additional data the well model will automatically calculate the steady state casing and tubing pressures. Default = 0. • Well IPR is modeled by the PI method • Casing inside diameter is set • Port diameter. The inside diameter of the Gas Lift injection valve that is currently being used.Operations At Bf CD J Va g Pco Pto qfo qgo Pm Y T r z ρt ρg µ Cross sectional area of tubing (in2) Volume factor for reservoir fluids at injection point Gas Valves Discharge coefficient. PIPESIM 2000 . The (GOAL) Gas Lift performance curves should then be developed as normal and the Alhanati factors will be automatically be generated.
11 Horizontal well analysis The Horizontal well operation is an integral part of PIPESIM's reservoirtosurface analysis. 0. To use this operation a horizontal well completion must be included in the system model. results in overpredicting deliverability. 3. T o ta l In je c tio n G a s P I P E S I M fo r W in d o w s © B a k e r J a r d in e & A s s o c ia te s Figure 63 Alhanati Criterion 6. if neglected.AL ilc h s a n: aJ At in h o u s e ( K e n e d to B i 0001) 1. The reduced drawdown at the Toe results in the production leveling off as a function of well length and it can be shown that drilling beyond an optimum length would yield no significant additional production.148 Operations The factors can be viewed graphically for any well by select the Alhanati Criterion for the y axis from the series option within the plotting utility PSPLOT. 1. 6. Al ha na ti Cr 0. Several inflow performance relationships are available.12 Reservoir tables It is often necessary. if required. The multiple source concept used leads to a pressure gradient from the blindend (Toe) to the producingend (Heel) which. The PIPESIM 2000 . P IP E S IM P lo t A u g 0 9 1996 W e l l P A 1 3 . to generate VFP curves for input to a reservoir simulation program. for the purposes of reservoir simulation. 0. 4. This option allows the user to predict hydraulic well bore performance in the completion. 0. 2. by adding a second series. 1. These are solved with the wellbore pressure drop equations to yield the changing production rate along the well length. Both factors can be displayed on then same plot. 0. 5.
including all wells and flowlines.14 Production Optimization The basic stages involved in developing an optimization model of a field are: • Build a model of the field. flowline or riser.Operations 149 VFP curves supply the simulator with the necessary data to define bottom hole flowing pressures and tubing head pressures as a function of various parameters such as flow rate. This will not result in an accurate model of the surface network as temperatures at network connections will not be modeled correctly. Note: Users may wish to model flow networks in their reservoir simulator. by generating VFP curves items of well tubing. Currently. 6. Schlumberger also has a dynamic link to reservoir simulators via the Field Planning module (FPT). watercut. The reservoir simulator interface allows you to write tabular performance data to a file for input into a reservoir simulation model. Tabular data is then created in a format specific to the reservoir simulator selected. PIPESIM 2000 .13 Network analysis The basic stages involved in developing a model of a field are: • Build a model of the field. the following reservoir simulators are supported: • ECLIPSE • PORES • VIP • COMP4 • MoReS (Shell’s inhouse reservoir simulator) The effects of variations of up to five parameters can be investigated and reported and all combinations of the variables entered by the user are used to generate the tables. GOR. including all wells and flowlines. • Specify the boundary conditions • Run the model 6. surface pressure and the artificial lift quantity.
Once the wells and surface network have been calibrated an optimisation can be performed.1 Dynamic Eclipse link The network module models the surface Network from the bottom hole conditions to the supply/distribution point while Geoquest’s Eclipse reservoir simulator is used to model the reservoir. or series of. FPT passes flowrate targets to Eclipse and the network in order to try to converge on bottomhole conditions. These performance curves can be created by any approved Nodal Analysis software package. The Perform Prediction mode should be used for this. The recommended program is the well performance module of PIPESIM. This involves obtaining field data so that the individual performance curves can be calibrated and checked.15.150 Operations • Develop individual artificial lift performance curves for the wells in the model. • Calibrate the models developed. 6.15 Field Planning The reservoir can be modeled by either. 1: the GeoQuest Eclipse™ reservoir simulation program (via the Open Eclipse link) or 2: a single. Even if the wells are not on artificial lift a performance curve is required. See the GOAL User Guide for full details. • Optimise the system. 6. The network models are constructed using the network module and solved using its calculation engine. lookup tables or 3: compositional tank models. PIPESIM 2000 .
• Phase flowrates are dependent on current flowrates from all wells and reservoir history. • Need to purchase OpenEclipse from Geoquest and install it properly. • Can model blackoil Eclipse reservoir models in both Engineering and SI units. • Can flowrate constrain all source wells. • It is much harder to converge on a solution between the network and Eclipse. PIPESIM 2000 . Limitations: • Cannot model surface networks which have flowrate specified sinks. • Full account can be taken of the reservoir geometry and aquifer behavior etc.Operations 151 PROS: • An industry standard simulator simulates the reservoir. Capabilities: • Can model deliverability systems that have pressure specified sinks. CONS: • Simulation time is significantly longer. • Need to setup the communication link from the Eclipse simulator based on a UNIX workstation to FPT based on a PC. • Cannot model compositional Eclipse models.
15. Sample decline curve 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 PROS: Cumulative liquid production [mmstb] • Very fast reservoir modeling Pressure [psia] GOR [scf/stb] Watercut [%] as no iteration is required unless conditional logic in the field planning demands that a timestep be run again.2 Lookup tables Reservoir properties are taken from a table defined in an ASCII text file. • Tables can be generated in other packages such as Excel. It also contains the flowrate and pressure limits that are to be imposed upon the wells. A number of network models can be linked to the Eclipse model. 6. CONS: • Phasic flowrate behavior is NOT dependent on total flowrate. These can be ignored in deliverability mode where the maximum capability of the surface network is used to calculate the flow from each well. • Everything is included in the FPT package. so injection and production networks can be modeled separately. or gas. by Eclipse. • This is the easiest form of reservoir modeling to setup and use. PIPESIM 2000 . by MBAL etc. The surface injection network can be ignored which significantly reduces simulation time. or obeyed in the usual running mode. This model contains the time stepping information that will be used to control the surface network and also decides when wells will be turned on or off. and then read into FPT. no third party software is required. which provide pressure (and optionally pressure and watercut) as a function of cumulative production of oil. liquid. This field planning data can be overridden by events defined in the field events editor.152 Operations Construction of the overall Eclipse linked model involves first providing the name of the Eclipse model and on which server/workstation it is located on the Network.
Operations 153 User supplied composition. Given a user supplied composition. initial volumetric Here the reservoirs are modelled by defining the geometry of a simple cylinder containing a usersupplied volume of fluid (either in terms of liquid or gas). this tank is then depleted via wells mapped to .
6.g. A tank is merely a cylinder that does not account for any pore volume reduction as fluid is taken from the reservoir.154 Operations decline and possible composition changes. Capabilities: • Simple aquifer (influx rate or volume replacement) and fluid injection options are available. liquid. PROS: • Relatively straightforward to setup with no third party software. e. • Flowrate constraints can be imposed on individual wells in the network models. if the watercut in branch XXX goes above 95%. • Gas lift rates.4 Event handling • FPT allows events to be specified either at certain timesteps. and compressor horsepower settings can be set and/or changed from the Events Editor. • Product streams can be gas. or the tank mixture. • Full compositional modeling is performed upon the fluid in the reservoir to obtain the correct pressure. CONS: • The watercut in the tank model cannot be changed without injecting a fluid stream containing water. • Simple tank geometry is assumed. PIPESIM 2000 . shut well Y off. • Group flowrate constraints imposed in an Eclipse input file can be honored by the FPT. These wells will be automatically choked back (if necessary) to meet production requirements. or exceeded etc. • The lookup table editor now enables the user to specify a case study mode for FPT enabling different scenarios to be run in batch mode and the results analyzed in the postprocessor. or conditionally upon targets being reached. well PI values.15. Simple aquifer models and fluid injection options are also available. Limitations: • Aquifer influx does not cause a gradual watering out of the well but a sharp cut off when the aquifer is deemed to have raised the water level in the reservoir to the well perforation point.
e. etc. 6. etc. • Phase envelop • Calculated Inflow performance relationship • PVT data • Simulation results • System data . Input data may be viewed graphically to show. system outlet pressure as a function of well PI.1 Graphical plots Graphical plots are the most common method used to view data (input and results) from PIPESIM. temperature.Operations 155 See FPT User Guide for full details.e. PIPESIM 2000 . i. • Tubing profile • Flowline profile • Inflow performance relationship Calculated data may be viewed graphically to show.data that changes as a result of some input. 6.16 Multilateral well analysis See the HoSim User Guide for full details.17 Post processor The post processing is conducted via one of the following methods. • Profile data . • Graphical plots • PIPESIM graphical utility • Microsoft Excel • Tabular data • Standard text editor • Microsoft Excel • Onscreen data • PIPESIM GUI 6. i.17. pressure.data that changes along the system profile.
6. (1993) B Wilkens. These can be viewed from with PIPESIM or via a standard text editor.3 Onscreen data The input and output data from any object can be obtained via the screen schematic.156 Operations 6. In addition results from the network module can be obtained via the output report tool. 6. G Broze (1999) User's Guide for the wax Deposition Option in PIPESIM.000. They can also be printed.17. Project R130511. M Apte. PIPESIM 2000 .17.2 Tabular data Tabular data is in the form of text (ASCII) output files.18 References Alhanati et al.
Operations THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY 157 PIPESIM 2000 .
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Case Studies 7 Case Studies 159 The PIPESIM software comes preloaded with a number of case studies that demonstrates some of its capabilities. some of which are fully documented here. Pipeline & facilities Case Study – Condensate Pipeline • Compositional • Phase envelope creation • Hydrate envelope • Pipeline sizing • Pipeline insulation • Slugging • Slug catcher sizing Well Performance Case Study – Oil Well Design • Black Oil fluid calibration • Well IPR • Tubing sizing Network Analysis Case Study – Looped Gas Gathering Network • Compositional • Network model • Boundary conditions • Establish field deliverability Optimization Field Planning Multilateral PIPESIM . The full list of case studies is.
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.Screen the pipeline for severe riser slugging.Size a slug catcher. The engineering data available is given at the end of this case study. Use the <setup/compositional. When the number of moles of the pure components have been added. Compositional analysis of the condensate has been obtained.. Select the pure hydrocarbon components from the component database.g.1 Task 1. The following steps are to be carried out:. After starting PIPESIM use the <File/New/pipeline and facilities model> menu to open a new model and save this in the training directory (e. .Develop a compositional model of the hydrocarbon phases.Select a pipeline size. . 7.> menu to enter the pure components given at the end of the case study. .Add the aqueous phase to the compositional model and identify the hydrate envelope. Multiple selection is possible by holding down the control key. Hydrates are to be avoided by operating the pipeline above the hydrate formation temperature. and petroleum fractions.. The engineer is asked to perform the following tasks:. press the "Add>>" button.Generate the hydrocarbon phase envelope. . Petroleum fractions are used to estimate the behavior of groups of heavier pure components.1. and SG in row 1. Severe riser slugging is to be avoided.Characterize and add a petroleum fraction. .Add the pure hydrocarbon components. MW.bps).1 Pipeline & facilities Case Study – Condensate Pipeline A subsea pipeline is to be designed to transport condensate from a satellite platform to a processing platform. The hydrocarbon phase envelope can be plotted on pressure and temperature axes. select the "Petroleum Fractions" tab and characterize the petroleum fraction "C7+" by entering the BP. Then press the "Add to composition>>" PIPESIM . Develop a Compositional Model of the Hydrocarbon Phases A compositional fluid model allows the fluid physical properties to be estimated over the range of pressures and temperatures encountered by the fluid. The fluid model is made up of individual pure library components such as methane.Determine the pipeline insulation requirement. . as file c:\training\ps02.Case Studies 161 7. When all pure hydrocarbon components have been selected.
Generate the aqueous phase envelope and the hydrate formation line by pressing the "Phase Envelope" button. Generate the hydrocarbon phase envelope by pressing the "Phase Envelope" button.Add the aqueous component. First it is necessary to add the aqueous component. In this study... Identify the Hydrate Envelope Certain fluid compositions show a tendency to form hydrate compounds in the presence of water. The tendency to form hydrates is dependent also on pressure and temperature. Enter the water concentration of 10% volume ratio (bbl/bbl).2 Task 2. The following plot should be obtained: 7. The following plot should be obtained: PIPESIM .1. The following steps are to be carried out: . These compounds can cause line blockages.162 Case Studies button and enter the number of moles for C7+ under the "Component Selection" tab.> menu to select "water" and press the "Add>>" button.Generate the hydrate envelope. Use the <setup/compositional. hydrate formation is to be avoided by operating above the hydrate formation temperature at all times. pure water. .
or 12" I.3 Task 3. In this study.500 psia and the inlet temperature of 176 °F. Alternatively the wizard feature can be used. A source appears as shown below.Use the pressure temperature profiles operation to calculate the pressure drop for each of the three pipeline size options. This is done by pointing and clicking on the source button at the top of the screen and then pointing and clicking in the work area. that will allow the design flowrate of 10.D.Case Studies 163 Note that hydrates tend to form in the region on or to the left of the hydrate line. Enter the inlet pressure of 1.D. as described in the data section at the end of the case study. First it is necessary to add a source to the model.1. 10". This can be determined as follows: . Select a Pipeline Size Find the smallest pipeline I. The pipeline sizes available are 8". PIPESIM .000 STB/d of condensate to be transported from the satellite platform whilst maintaining an arrival pressure of not lower than 1. hydrate formation will be avoided by operating the pipeline at temperatures above 75 °F at all times. 7.000 psia at the processing platform. source button source To enter data relevant to the source double click on the object.
000 STB/d.D. the variable as "ID" and enter the sizes. Repeat this for "Flowl_1" and "Riser_2". 10". roughness. boundary node button boundary node Then add nodes to represent each end of the pipeline: node button node Connect the model together by pointing. Press the Run Model button when all the data has been added. The following plot should be obtained (the axis may have to be changed to show Total Distance v's Pressure): PIPESIM .e.500 psia and the Liquid Rate to 10. horizontal distance and elevation difference (length is automatically computed). this select the component as "Flowline_1" . clicking and dragging using the riser and flowline buttons: riser button flowline button Completed Model Note that the red outline indicates that essential data is missing for that component. Select the <operations/pressuretemperature profiles…> menu and set up the operation so that the calculated variable is outlet pressure. The sensitivity variable is Pipeline ID with values of 8".. overall heat transfer coefficient and ambient temperature. and 12".164 Case Studies Now add a boundary node to represent the arrival point at the processing platform. Set the Inlet pressure 1. Double click on "Riser_1" to enter the riser details i. I.
Note: Don't forget to now set the flowline ID to 10" for all subsequent simulations.75".000 psia.1.75" or 1".Use the pressure temperature profiles operation to calculate the temperature profile for the design and turndown flowrate cases with 0. Determine the Pipeline Insulation Requirement Find the smallest thickness of thermal insulation that can be used to insulate the pipeline and maintain an arrival temperature of not less than 75 °F.15 Btu/hr/ft/°F and a thickness of 0. and then select the "Calculate U" subtab.Case Studies 165 It can be seen that a 10" is the smallest pipeline size that will satisfy the arrival pressure condition of at least 1.4 Task 4. Select the <operations/pressuretemperature profiles> menu and set up the operation so that the calculated variable is outlet pressure. and add a layer of insulation with a thermal conductivity of 0. 7. and the PIPESIM . This can be determined as follows: . Double click on "Flowl_1". Select the "Heat Transfer" tab.Rerun the model with 1.0" thermal insulation thickness and compare the temperature profiles.15 Btu/hr/ft/°F and a thickness of 0. This minimum arrival temperature is required to prevent the formation of hydrates.75" thermal insulation thickness. Enter the heat transfer data given at the end of the case study. Press the "OK" button. . The insulation has a thermal conductivity of 0.
000 and 10. Run the model and configure the output to obtain the following plot: Rerun the model using a thermal insulation thickness of 1". Configure the output to obtain the following plot: It can be seen that 1" insulation is required to maintain an arrival temperature of 75 °F.000 STB/d. PIPESIM .166 Case Studies sensitivity variable is System data/liquid rate with values of 5.
Configure the model output such that slug information. and the mouse pointer changes to an "up arrow" shape (↑). You will see that highlight boxes appear at either end of the flowline. Move the mouse over the right hand highlight box. and flow regime maps are printed for the fluid at the riser base. Screen the Pipeline for Severe Riser Slugging Severe riser slugging is likely in a pipeline system followed by a riser under certain conditions. The PISS number can also be used to estimate the severe riser slug length from the equation: slug length = riser height/PISS number. The necessary information can be extracted from the model as follows:. Set "number of cases to print" to 2. 7.. PIPESIM . Severe riser slugging is to be avoided in this case.1.. The elements leading to severe riser slugging are: 1.0. The presence a long slightly downward inclined pipeline prior to the riser. report tool button report tool Then reconnect "Flowl_1" to the report tool by first clicking on the middle of "Flowl_1".Case Studies 167 Note: Don't forget to now set the insulation thickness to 1" for all subsequent simulations. 2.5 Task 5. Add a report tool to the model in place of node "N2". The line can then be dragged from "N2" and dropped onto the report tool as shown below.> menu and check the "slug output pages" box. Select the <setup/define output. This can be done by first selecting a report tool and placing it in the work area. Fluid flowing in the "stratified" or "segregated" flow regime (as opposed to the usual "slug" or "intermittent" flow regime). A slug number (PISS) of lower than 1. 3.
and reposition the report tool as shown below.0 at the riser base in both cases. Select the <operations/pressuretemperature profiles> menu and rerun the model.168 Case Studies Reconnecting the flowline to the report tool Similarly reconnect "Riser_2" to the report tool.18 as shown below: PIPESIM . Delete "N2". Select the <reports/view output> menu and check the PISS number at the riser base for both flowrate cases. l Modified model Double click on the report tool and check the option "flow map". It can be seen that the PISS number is higher than 1. In the turndown flowrate case the PISS number is 1.
It can be seen that flow is in the intermittent (normal slugging) flow regime. The turndown case flow map is shown below: PIPESIM .Case Studies 169 Check the riser base flow regime maps in the output file to see if the flow is in the "stratified" or segregated region.
the requirement to handle the liquid slug generated when the production flow is ramped up from 5. i. Note: Don't forget to save the final model! 7. Transient effects.000 to 10. 2.1. Size a Slug Catcher Having established that normal slug flow is expected. Review the output file and it can be seen that the turndown case generates larger slugs. PIPESIM .e. 3.000 STB/d.Review the simulation output to establish the slug catcher volume required for each of the three design criteria and select the largest volume. The requirement to handle the largest slugs envisaged (chosen to be statistically the 1/1000 population slug size).170 Case Studies It can be seen that the segregated region has been avoided and the likelihood of severe riser slugging is reduced. it is now necessary to size a slug catcher. The requirement to handle liquid swept in front of a pig.6 Task 6. This can be achieved as follows: . The size will be determined by the largest of three design criteria: 1.
Now select the <reports/view summary> menu and check the liquid swept in front of a pig ("liquid by sphere").Case Studies 171 . PIPESIM .2 ft. which gives a slug volume of 971. the 1/1000 slug length is 1.5 ft3. As shown above.781.
1 bbl or 1.500 psia 176 °F 10. and up a 400 ft x 10" ID riser to the processing platform.000 STB/d to 10. This is the difference in total holdup between the two cases.623 = 69 bbl or 522 ft3. Now calculate the liquid generated when the flow is ramped up from 5. Therefore the pigging volume of 1.000 STB/d 5.567 ft3. 7.000 STB/d 1. along a 5 mile pipeline.000 STB/d.567 ft3 is the determining design case.683 Moles 12 PIPESIM .5 Specific Gravity 0.000 psia 75 °F.1.5 0. i. Boundary Conditions: Fluid inlet pressure at satellite platform Fluid inlet temperature at satellite platform Design liquid flowrate Maximum turndown Minimum arrival pressure at processing platform Minimum arrival temperature at processing platform Pure Hydrocarbon Components: Component Methane Ethane Propane Isobutane Butane Isopentane Pentane Hexane Petroleum Fraction: Name Boiling Point (°F) C7+ 214 Molecular Weight 115 1.172 Case Studies It can be seen that the turndown case gives the larger volume of 279. Moles 75 6 3 1 1 1 0.e. 692 .7 Data Available Layout: Condensate flows down a 400 ft x 10" ID riser from the satellite platform to the seabed.
5 Pipeline Data: Height of undulations Horizontal distance Elevation difference Wall thickness Roughness Ambient temperature Overall heat transfer coefficient Pipeline Insulation Study Data: Pipe thermal conductivity Insulation thermal conductivity Insulation thickness available Ambient fluid Ambient fluid velocity Burial depth Ground conductivity Data for Risers 1 and 2:Horizontal distance Elevation difference (Riser_1) Elevation difference (Riser_2) Inner diameter Wall thickness Roughness Ambient temperature Overall heat transfer coefficient PIPESIM .001 10/1000 5 miles 0 0.5" 0.75" or 1.Case Studies Aqueous Component: Component Water 173 Volume ratio (%bbl/bbl) 10 Roughness (") 0.2 Btu/hr/ft2/°F 50 Btu/hr/ft/°F 0.2 Btu/hr/ft2/°F Pipeline Sizes Available: I.64 ft/sec 0 (half buried) 1.D.001 0.5 10 0.(") Wall thickness (") 8 0.15 Btu/hr/ft/°F 0.001 0.001" 50 °F 0.5 12 0.5 Btu/hr/ft/°F 0 400 ft +400 ft 10" 0.0" water 1.001" 50 °F 0.5" 0.
174 Case Studies THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY PIPESIM .
. . The reservoir pressure will be maintained by water injection and the preference is to avoid the use of artificial lift methods. .Apply calibration to the gas viscosity and the gas compressibility. The engineering data available is given at the end of this case study.Develop a well inflow performance model applicable throughout field life. .Develop a blackoil model to match the laboratory data.Case Studies 175 7. The following steps are to be carried out:. It is necessary to develop a method of predicting the fluid physical properties so that the pressure losses and heat transfer characteristics can be calculated. the flowing bottom hole pressure and flowrate through the formation. Reservoir simulations have been performed to predict the change in watercut over the field life. Develop a Calibrated Blackoil Model No analysis work can be carried out until a blackoil fluid model has been developed. PIPESIM . This provides a relationship between the reservoir pressure.2.1 Task 1. This allows all of the fluid physical properties to be estimated over the range of pressures and temperatures encountered by the fluid. The engineer is asked to perform the following tasks: .Select a suitable tubing size for the production string. the pressure losses in single and multiphase flow regions.2 Well Performance Case Study – Oil Well Design An oil reservoir has been discovered in the North Sea. a test string inserted and flow characteristics measured.Apply calibration to the OFVF below the bubble point pressure and observe how the property curves are corrected.Obtain a partially calibrated blackoil model using the stock tank and bubble point properties.Apply calibration to the OFVF above the bubble point pressure and observe how the property curves are corrected. the flow regime. 7. Fluid properties at stock tank and laboratory conditions have been obtained. . Any discrepancies will lead to fluid flow modeling errors.Apply calibration to the oil viscosity using first the measured dead oil data and then further tuning with live oil data. These physical properties are subsequently used to determine the phases present. . . and the heat transferred to or from the surroundings.Plot the partially calibrated oil formation volume factor (OFVF) over a range of pressures and temperatures to identify any differences between the measured and the predicted properties. A vertical well has been drilled.
The following plot should be obtained: The partially calibrated curve for a temperature of 210 °F shows that the predicted OFVF is higher than the measured value both above and below the bubble point pressure.269 psia the predicted value is 1.41 compared to the measured value of 1. Press the "OK” button and save the model..269 psia and 210 °F. Use the <setup/blackoil.g.). Use the <series> menu to plot the oil formation volume factor on the y axis.52 compared to the measured value of 1. At 4.49 @ 4. Therefore further calibration is required.49 and at 2.. The following plot should be obtained: PIPESIM .. c:\training\..000 psia the predicted value is 1.38. Help on the definitions and valid ranges of these stock tank properties can be obtained by selecting the button from the dialog header bar and clicking on the relevant data entry field.176 Case Studies After starting PIPESIM use the <File/new/well> menu to open a new well performance model and save this in your training directory (e. Use the <setup/blackoil/advanced calibration data> menu and press the "plot PVT data…” button (note: do not enter the advanced calibration data at this stage).> menu to enter the stock tank oil properties and the bubble point properties given at the end of the case study. Apply OFVF calibration above the bubble point pressure. The measured value is 1.
561 cP @ 200 °F and 23. The uncalibrated default approach is to use the Beggs and Robinson correlation which gives values of 1.27 cP @ 70 °F. The Beggs and Robinson correlation uses the oil API gravity to PIPESIM .Case Studies 177 Apply OFVF calibration below the bubble point pressure.38 @ 2.000 psia and 210 °F. The following plot should be obtained: Calibration of the oil viscosity requires two dead oil data points. The measured value is 1.
8 cP @ 70 °F. This is significantly different from the measured dead oil data and would lead to errors in the prediction of pressure loss. The following plot should be obtained: PIPESIM . Open the <setup/blackoil/viscosity data> menu and select the correlation option "user data”. The following plot should be obtained: In this case it can be seen that the predicted oil viscosity value at a temperature of 70 °F and 14.178 Case Studies predict two dead oil data points based upon data obtained from around 2.27 cP as specified by the Beggs & Robinson correlation. Enter the two measured values of 0.000 data points from 600 oil systems.31 cP @ 200 °F and 0. Plot the uncalibrated oil viscosity.7 psia is 23.
29 cP consistent with the laboratory live oil data.7 psia is 0. The following plot should be obtained: It can be seen that the predicted oil viscosity value at a temperature of 210 °F and 2000 psia is 0. Open the <setup/blackoil/advanced calibration data> menu and enter the live oil calibration data of 0. PIPESIM .29 cP @ 2.Case Studies 179 It can be seen that the predicted oil viscosity value at a temperature of 70 °F and 14.8 cP consistent with the laboratory dead oil data.000 psia and 210 °F.
Use the systems analysis operation to generate a plot of oil flowrate against watercut for each of the three tubing sizes.2.Use the drill string test data to obtain a representative productivity index.180 Case Studies Proceed to calibrate the gas viscosity and the gas compressibility using the calibration data given earlier.D. The tubing sizes available are 3½”.2. First it is necessary to add a vertical completion to the model. 3. The PI will not be affected by changes to the watercut through field life because the oil and water have similar mobilities in this reservoir structure. Enter the static reservoir pressure of 4. The following step is to be carried out: .958" and 4. The PI will not be affected by changes to the reservoir pressure because the reservoir pressure is to be maintained by water injection.3 Task 3.992". Press the "plot IPR” button and this will calculate a productivity index to be used throughout the analysis work.892". 4½” or 5½” for which the I. Develop a Well Inflow Performance Model A straight line productivity index (PI) method is considered adequate in this case because the fluid flows into the completion at a pressure considerably above the bubble point and no gas comes out of solution at this stage. A vertical completion appears as shown below. This is done by pointing and clicking on the vertical completion button at the top of the screen and then pointing and clicking in the work area. 7.269 psia and the reservoir temperature of 210 °F. vertical completion button vertical completion Double click on the vertical completion in the work area to enter data relevant to that item. Select a Tubing Size for the Production String Find the smallest tubing size that will allow this production plan to be met on the basis that the production string will not be replaced during field life. This can be determined as follows: . 7.2 Task 2.'s are 2. Press the "calculate/graph…” button and enter the drill string test data given below. PIPESIM . This applies throughout field life and the productivity index is not expected to change.
Add a boundary node to the model by pointing and clicking on the boundary node button at the top of the screen and then pointing and clicking in the work area: boundary node button boundary node Then use the tubing button to connect the well to the boundary node: tubing button Completed Model Note that the red outline indicates that essential data is missing for that component.D.Case Studies 181 . 3. with values of 2.892". First it is necessary to extend the model to include a tubing string. 40. Select the <operations/systems analysis> menu and set up the operation so that the calculated variable is liquid rate. 47. 20.958" and 4.Overlay the production plan data and identify the smallest size that allows this plan to be met. The sensitivity variable is tubing I. representing the various stages of field life.992". roughness. overall heat transfer coefficient and ambient thermal gradient. 35. 54 and 60%. Double click on the tubing to enter the well depth and the tubing thickness. Configure the output to give the water cut against the stocktank oil rate at the outlet (this is achieved via the series option of PSPLOT): PIPESIM . 12. The x axis variable is watercut with values of 0.
49 @ 4.182 Case Studies It can be seen that 4½” tubing is the smallest size that will satisfy all of the production plan conditions.85@ 2.29 cP @ 2.83. API 36.38 @ 2.269 psia.958 to reflect the 4½” tubing for all subsequent simulations.000 psia and 210 °F 0.83 Bubble Point Properties: Pressure 2. Reservoir temperature 210 °F Stock Tank Oil Properties: Watercut 0%.4 Data Available Reservoir Conditions: Reservoir pressure 4.2. Solution Gas 892 scf/STB Blackoil Calibration Data: OFVF (above bubble point pressure) OFVF (below bubble point pressure) Dead oil viscosities Live oil viscosity Gas viscosity Gas compressibility (Z) 1.31 cP @ 200 °F and 0. 7.02. Water SG 1.8 cP @ 70 °F 0.019 cP @ 2.647 psia. Temperature 210 °F.000 psia and 210 °F PIPESIM .000 psia and 210 °F 0. GOR 892 scf/STB.269 psia and 210 °F 1. Gas SG 0. Note: Don't forget to now set the tubing ID to 3.000 psia and 210 °F 0.
000 10 60 4.5 Drill String Test: Oil Flowrate (Q). psia 4.152 4. sbbl/d 0 0 12.186 4.500 ft from the well head.992 0.400 6 35 7. sbbl/d 2. (") Wall thickness (") 2.500 7 40 7.001 0.001 0.000 Roughness (") 0. Minimum Pressure Allowed at the Wellhead: 300 psia Multiphase flow correlation Beggs & Brill revised Production Strings Available: I. Mid perforations are at a depth of 9.958 0.892 0.300 PIPESIM .500 5 20 9.106 4.5 3. The generally accepted overall heat transfer coefficient of 2 BTU/hr/ft2/°F for wellbores can be used throughout. The ambient temperature varies linearly between 210 °F at mid perforations and 60 °F at the wellhead.001 Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure (Pwf).000 4.000 3.000 4 12 10. The minimum casing inner diameter is 10”.072 Production plan obtained from reservoir simulation: Year Watercut (%) Oil Flowrate.D.000 5.000 9 54 5.Case Studies 183 Deviation Survey: The well is vertical from the well head on the sea bed.000 8 47 6.5 4.
The engineer is asked to perform the following tasks:. After starting PIPESIM use the <file/new/network> menu to open a new network model and save this in your training directory (e. The network connects three producing gas wells in a looped gathering system and delivers commingled product to a single delivery point. . . . production well button production well Double click on Well 1 to reveal the components as shown below: PIPESIM .3.Build a model of the network.Connect the network together. Build a Model of the Network The following steps are to be carried out:.Specify the composition at each production well.3 Network Analysis Case Study – Looped Gas Gathering Network The deliverability of a production network is to be established. 7.7184 Case Studies 7. The engineering data available is given at the end of this case study. as file c:\training\pn01.1 Task 1. . Use the production well button to place Well 1 in the work area as shown below.Solve the network and establish the deliverability.Define the engineering data for each branch.Enter the engineering data for the first well. . . .Specify the network boundary conditions.Copy the data to wells 2 and 3.g.bpn).Modify the data for well 3.
Index 7185 Double click on the vertical completion to enter the inflow performance data. Enter a gas PI of 0. Select "Well 1" and using the commands <edit/copy> <edit/paste> copy "Well 1" to "Well 2" and "Well 3". of 2. Double click on the tubing. Double click on the tubing.4". The reservoir temperature and pressure are defined below. Close the view of Well 1 to return to the network view.0004 mmscf/d/psi2. then data entry in these fields is optional). Note that the essential data fields are shown in red outline (if the fields are not outlined.D. Double click on the vertical completion to enter the inflow performance data. and define a vertical tubing with a wellhead TVD of 0 and mid perforations TVD and MD of 4500 ft. The tubing has an I. Double click on Well 3 and modify the completion and tubing data.0005 mmscf/d/psi2. Enter a gas PI of 0. The ambient temperatures are 130 °F at mid perforations and 60 °F at the wellhead. and define a vertical tubing with a wellhead TVD PIPESIM . Position the new wells as shown below: You will see that Wells 2 and 3 have adopted the data of Well 1.
Wells 1 & 2 are producing from the same reservoir and have the same composition.bps).> menu and the export button to export the composition to a file called "comp1. The composition of Wells 1 and 2 is the same as that for the pipeline and facilities case study 2 and can be imported.7186 Case Studies of 0 and mid perforations TVD and MD of 4900 ft. Well 3 has a different composition as shown in the data section at the end of the case study. Now close the pipeline and facilities case study. The ambient temperatures are 140 °F at mid perforations and 60 °F at the wellhead. The network should now look like this: PIPESIM . In the network model. The next step is to define the compositions at the production wells.4".> menu and the import button to import comp1. c:\training\ps02..D.. Use the <setup/compositional. The most efficient way define the compositions is to set the more prevalent composition (i. The tubing has an I.g.. that for Wells 1 and 2) as the global composition and then to specify the composition of Well 3 as a local variant. of 2. use the <setup/compositional. Note that holding down the "Shift" key whilst placing junction nodes allows multiple placement. select fluid model and modify the composition to be locally defined as given at the end of this case study. Click the right mouse button over Well 3. Close the view of Well 3 to return to the network view.e.. First save the current network model. you should release the "Shift" key before the final placement..pvt as the global composition.pvt". Open the pipeline and facilities case study (e. Now position the sink and some junction nodes.
Select "B1" by clicking on the arrow in the middle of the branch and using the commands <edit/copy> and then <edit/paste> copy "B1" to "B2". Close the "B1" window to return to the network view. then hold down the left mouse button over J1 and drag the mouse pointer to J2 before releasing the left mouse button. To do this. click on the branch button. Position the new branches as shown below: PIPESIM . the data for branch "B1" can be propagated to the other looped gathering lines. As the looped gathering lines are all identical. and "B4".Index 7187 Using the branch button connect J1 to J2. Now double click on the flowline to enter data. branch button branch connected Double click on the arrow in the center of "B1" to enter data for that branch. "B3".
This end of the branch can then be dragged and dropped onto a junction node. and you will see that the mouse pointer changes to an "up arrow" shape (↑). and flowline sections. The equipment is located at "B5" as shown below: PIPESIM . Branch "B5" comprises a liquid separator with an efficiency of 100%. a compressor with a pressure differential of +400 psi and an efficiency of 70%. Move the mouse pointer over the right hand highlight box. an aftercooler with an outlet temperature of 120 °F and a delta P of 15 psi. You will see that highlight boxes appear at either end of the branch.7188 Case Studies In order to reconnect a pasted branch. first pick the arrow in the middle of the new branch. Now connect the wells to the adjacent junction node and connect "J4" to the sink as shown below: Now enter the components and data for branch "B5".
2 Task 2. a source or a sink. The following definitions are used: Lone Node: A lone node is a node with only one branch connected. Rules for Pressures and Flowrates: There are two rules for specification of pressure and flowrate boundary conditions: Rule 1 . Rule 2 . temperatures. . and flowrates around a network for a userspecified set of boundary conditions. temperature. The following rules apply: Rule for Temperatures: The fluid temperature at all sources and the static reservoir temperature at all production wells must be specified by the user.e. i. and flowrate at each lone node in the network.At Least one Pressure.Degrees of Freedom. In this case study.Specify all the fluid inlet temperatures PIPESIM . the above rules are satisfied by the following. Boundary conditions: The fluid pressure. a production well. an injection well. The total number of flowrates. A least one pressure must be specified at one of the lone nodes. The network solver solves the fluid pressures.3. Specify the Network Boundary Conditions First it is necessary to summarize the rules for specification of network boundary conditions. pressures and PQ curves specified must equal the total number of lone nodes. The fluid temperature at all sinks and injection wells are always calculated. to join the equipment 7189 7.Index Note: You should use the connector together. All unspecified pressures and flowrates are calculated by PIPESIMNet.
x 100%I If all Ptol values are within the specified network tolerance then that node has passed the pressure convergence test. The total mass flowrate into and the total mass flowrate out of a node are averaged. the network has converged.Specify all the fluid inlet pressures and the delivery pressure.900 psia 3.)/Pave. 7. x 100%I If the Ftol value is within the specified network tolerance then that node has passed the mass convergence test.Pave. This is repeated for each node. mass flowrate ave. The calculated pressure at each branch entering and leaving a node is averaged.900 psia 2.)/Tot. PIPESIM . Use the <Setup/boundary conditions> menu to specify the boundary conditions below: Node Well_1 Well_2 Well_3 Sink_1 Pressure 2. A network has converged when the pressure balance and mass balance at each node is within the specified tolerance. The tolerance of each pressure is calculated from the equation: Ptol = I(P .100 psia 800 psia Temperature 130 °F 130 °F 140 °F (calculated) Note that all of the flowrates will be calculated.3.Tot.3 Task 3. When all of the above conditions are satisfied.7190 Case Studies . mass flowrate in . The tolerance is calculated from the equation: Ftol = I(Tot. This is repeated for each node. mass flowrate ave. Solve the Network and Establish the deliverability First it is necessary to explain the network tolerance.
Save the model and then press the run button .View the graphical reports.View the tabular reports.Index In this case study. . Press the "OK" button. . Press the report tool button simulation. the following steps are required: . branch "B3" and branch "B5". The effect of the compressor at "J4" on the system pressure can be seen: PIPESIM . Then press the system plot button . Select the branch from well "W3".Run the model.Set the network tolerance. . When the network has solved you should get the message "pn01 Finished OK". and you will see the results from the More comprehensive tabular reporting is available using the summary file button . 7191 Use the <setup/options/network iterations> menu to set the network tolerance to 1%. Hold the "Shift" key down in order to effect a multiple selection. The following pressure profile for these three branches should be obtained.
2 Btu/hr/ft2/F Pure Hydrocarbon Components (Wells 1 & 2): Component Moles Methane 75 Ethane 6 Propane 3 PIPESIM .0005 mmscf/d/psi2 0 4900 ft 4900 ft 2.4" 60 °F 140 °F 0.4" 60 °F 130 °F 0.0004 mmscf/d/psi2 0 4500 ft 4500 ft 2. Wellhead Ambient Temperature Mid Perforations Ambient Temperature Heat Transfer coefficient Wells 1 & 2 0.4 Data Available Layout: The network is laid out as shown below: Completion and Tubing Data: Gas PI Wellhead TVD Mid Perforations TVD Mid Perforations MD Tubing I.D.2 Btu/hr/ft2/F Well 3 0.7192 Case Studies 7.3.
5 Specific Gravity 0.5 Moles 10.683 Moles 12 7193 Aqueous Component (Wells 1 & 2): Component Volume ratio (%bbl/bbl) Water 10 Pure Hydrocarbon Components (Well 3): Component Methane Ethane Propane Isobutane Butane Isopentane Pentane Hexane Petroleum Fraction (Wells 3): Name Boiling Molecular Point (°F) Weight C7+ 214 115 Aqueous Component (Well 3): Component Water Moles 73 7 4 1. and B4): Rate of undulations 10/1000 Horizontal distance 30.5 0.5 0.5 0.683 Volume ratio (%bbl/bbl) 5 Data for Looped Gathering Lines (B1.5 1. B2.5 1.5 Specific Gravity 0.Index Isobutane Butane Isopentane Pentane Hexane Petroleum Fraction (Wells 1 & 2): Name Boiling Molecular Point (°F) Weight C7+ 214 115 1 1 1 0.000 ft Elevation difference 0 ft PIPESIM . B3.
7.2 Btu/hr/ft2/°F Liquid 100% 400 psi 70% 120 °F 15 psi 10/1000 10.2 Btu/hr/ft2/°F Inner diameter Wall thickness Roughness Ambient temperature Overall heat transfer coefficient Data for Deliver Line (B5): Separator type Separator efficiency Compressor differential pressure Compressor efficiency Aftercooler outlet temperature Aftercooler delta P Flowline Rate of undulations Flowline Horizontal distance Flowline Elevation difference Flowline Inner diameter Flowline Wall thickness Flowline Roughness Flowline Ambient temperature Flowline Overall heat transfer coefficient Boundary Conditions: Node Well_1 Well_2 Well_3 Sink_1 Pressure 2.5" 0.100 psia 800 psia Temperature 130 °F 130 °F 140 °F (calculated) 7.6 Multilateral See the HoSim User Guide for Multilateral case studies.900 psia 2.900 psia 3.4 Optimization See the GOAL User Guide for optimization case studies. 8 Index PIPESIM .000 ft 0 ft 8" 0.001" 60 °F 0. 7.8194 Case Studies 6" 0.5" 0.001" 60 °F 0.5 Field Planning See the FPT User Guide for Field Planning case studies.
......... 76 Multiphase ....................................................... IPR . 42 Find the optimal completion length .....vertical ............................ 51 Perform a field wide optimization ..... 89 Bit lock...... 105 Gas Lift ................ 87 Limitations of Model & Component ....................... 142 Back pressure IPR.... 145 Diagnostics ......................................... 70 Single Phase..................................................... 41 Compositional .................................................. 127 Multiple Layers / Completions ........... 146 Artificial Lift ESP Lift ................................. 133 Dynamic Type .............. 145 instability ..... 87 Flow correlation Multiphase ................... 32 Forchheimer gas.................................. IPR ... 104 Performance ... 90 Dongle ......... 106 Compositional EOS ... 126 Progressing Cavity......................... 42 Model a multilateral well ...................................... 47 Create reservoir tables................. 43 Set boundary conditions ........ IPR........... 42 Fluid data..... 41 Create GOAL curves............. 89 Gas Lift Design. 130 HelicoAxial ...........horizontal......... 90 PIPESIM . 119 Coning .. See Security Device Expander ............................... 131 Positive Displacement Type .................. 87 Jones gas..... 44 Develop a pipeline & facilities model .. 39 Model components overview 35 Multiphase Boosting ............................. 55 Darcy IPR .......... 41 Black Oil...liquid IPR......... 45 Calibrate a fluid ............. 52 fluid type ...................................... 91 How to ...................... Analyis a field over time ..............Index Alhanati instability criteria ....... 66 Fluid calibration ........................... 34 Compressor ............................................. 129 Twin Screw ................. 121 ContraRotating Axial. 50 Perform a Nodal Analysis ............................... 31 C and n IPR ...... 43 Inflow Performance ..................... 120 Fetkovich. 145 Horizontal Completions .................... 45 produce a pressure / temperarture plot ................................... 48 Match data to a flow correlation .............. 103 Multirate tests gas IPR .... 89 Jones liquid................ 49 Size equipment ......... 69 Flow regimes . 47 Analysis a production well......................... See Security Device Black Oil correlations ...... 60 fluid type ......................... 50 8195 Analyse artificial lift requirements ...... 32 Building a model ........................ 48 Design a Multiphase Booster ................. 89 Chokes ...............................................
............................... 28 Units System ............................................... 56 Live Oil............... 88 Stream Reinjection .............. fluid type............ 88 Security Device ............... 141 Future IPR ...................... 35 Straight line PI liquid..... 59 Optimization module performance curves ............. 65 PseudoSteady state IPR ............................. 121 PIPESIM .. 135 Support Services . 88 liquid IPR ................................................. 90 PseudoSteady state.......... IPR ....... 60 Liquid ..... IPR ........ 142 Liquid Loading line ... 57 Viscosity Dead Oil.... IPR ..... 88 Well PI...8196 Case Studies Steam.. 26 Separator........ 142 Oil/Water Mixture Viscosity................. 56 Vogel. 31 Viscosity Gas .................... 143 Pressure Drop Calculation...... IPR.................... 89 Nodal Analysis.......... 135 Single Phase Pump .........................................
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