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of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or lighting fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time, otherwise unintended operation will result. Early PLCs were designed to replace relay logic systems. These PLCs were programmed in "ladder logic", which strongly resembles a schematic diagram of relay logic. This program notation was chosen to reduce training demands for the existing technicians. Other early PLCs used a form of instruction list programming, based on a stack-based logic solver.
PLC compared with other control systems
PLCs are well-adapted to a range of automation tasks. These are typically industrial processes in manufacturing where the cost of developing and maintaining the automation system is high relative to the total cost of the automation, and where changes to the system would be expected during its operational life. PLCs contain input and output devices compatible with industrial pilot devices and controls; little electrical design is required, and the design problem centers on expressing the desired sequence of operations. PLC applications are typically highly customized systems so the cost of a packaged PLC is low compared to the cost of a specific custom-built controller design. On the other hand, in the case of mass-produced goods, customized control systems are economic due to the lower cost of the components, which can be optimally chosen instead of a "generic" solution, and where the non-recurring engineering charges are spread over thousands or millions of units. For high volume or very simple fixed automation tasks, different techniques are used. For example, a consumer dishwasher would be controlled by an electromechanical cam timer costing only a few dollars in production quantities. A microcontroller-based design would be appropriate where hundreds or thousands of units will be produced and so the development cost (design of power supplies, input/output hardware and necessary testing and certification) can be spread over many sales, and where the end-user would not need to alter the control. Automotive applications are an example; millions of units are built each year, and very few end-users alter the programming of these controllers. However, some specialty vehicles such as transit busses economically use PLCs instead of custom-designed controls, because the volumes are low and the development cost would be uneconomic.
or the PLC may have external I/O modules attached to a computer network that plugs into the PLC. and the positions of complex positioning systems. A PID loop could be used to control the temperature of a manufacturing process. RTUs. An RTU. analog process variables (such as temperature and pressure). moisture. and many vendors sell RTUs with PLC-like features and vice versa. positioning control and torque control. The industry has standardized on the IEC 61131-3 functional block language for creating programs to run on RTUs and PLCs. cold) and have the facility for extensive input/output (I/O) arrangements. for example. magnetic relays. although nearly all vendors also offer proprietary alternatives and associated development environments. where processes required hundreds or thousands of loops. Some use machine vision. solenoids. the boundary between DCS and PLC applications has become less distinct. On the actuator side. The input/output arrangements may be built into a simple PLC. derivative" or "PID controller". Historically PLCs were usually configured with only a few analog control loops. Very high-speed or precision controls may also require customized solutions. PLCs read limit switches. These connect the PLC to sensors and actuators. Features The main difference from other computers is that PLCs are armored for severe conditions (such as dust. a distributed control system (DCS) would instead be used. . may require algorithms and performance beyond the capability of even high-performance PLCs. however. aircraft flight controls. integral. PLCs and DCSs are increasingly beginning to overlap in responsibilities. such as used in the chemical industry. or analog outputs. for example. As PLCs have become more powerful. usually does not support control algorithms or control loops. PLCs have similar functionality as Remote Terminal Units. PLCs operate electric motors. Some manufacturers produce motion control units to be integrated with PLC so that Gcode (involving a CNC machine) can be used to instruct machine movements.Very complex process control. Programmable controllers are widely used in motion control. pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders. a "proportional. As hardware rapidly becomes more powerful and cheaper. PLCs may include logic for single-variable feedback analog control loop. heat.
Unlike electromechanical relays. Ladder logic can be thought of as a rule-based language rather than a procedural language. A "rung" in the ladder represents a rule. So-called "contacts" may refer to physical ("hard") inputs to the programmable controller from physical devices such as pushbuttons and limit switches via an integrated or external input . By executing the loop fast enough. with two vertical rails and a series of horizontal rungs between them. equivalent to a relay with an indefinitely large number of contacts. (The IEC 61131-3 standard has helped to reduce unnecessary differences.) Even different models of programmable controllers within the same family may have different ladder notation such that programs cannot be seamlessly interchanged between models. Often the ladder logic program is used in conjunction with an HMI program operating on a computer workstation. the various rules "execute" simultaneously and immediately. Ladder logic is useful for simple but critical control systems or for reworking old hardwired relay circuits. in a continuous loop (scan). Ladder logic has contacts that make or break circuits to control coils. Typically the ladder logic languages from two manufacturers will not be completely compatible. It is primarily used to develop software for Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) used in industrial control applications. As programmable logic controllers became more sophisticated it has also been used in very complex automation systems. It is somewhat similar to other rule-based languages. the rules are typically executed sequentially by software. Each coil or contact corresponds to the status of a single bit in the programmable controller's memory. Ladder logic is widely used to program PLCs. The name is based on the observation that programs in this language resemble ladders. like spreadsheets or SQL. When implemented in a programmable logic controller. ladder logic is better thought of as a set of closely related programming languages rather than one language. a ladder program can refer any number of times to the status of a single bit. Manufacturers of programmable logic controllers generally also provide associated ladder logic programming systems. where sequential control of a process or manufacturing operation is required. but translating programs between systems still requires significant work. However.Ladder logic Ladder logic is a programming language that represents a program by a graphical diagram based on the circuit diagrams of relay-based logic hardware. typically many times per second. the effect of simultaneous and immediate execution is relatively achieved to within the tolerance of the time required to execute every rung in the "loop" (the "scan time"). When implemented with relays and other electromechanical devices. proper use of programmable controllers requires understanding the limitations of the execution order of rungs.
Some manufacturers may allow more than one output coil on a rung. energized whenever its rung is open A regular contact. e. The large library of special blocks along with high speed execution has allowed use of PLCs to implement very complex automation systems Ladder notation is best suited to control problems where only binary variables are required and where interlocking and sequencing of binary is the primary control problem. More powerful PLCs can operate on a group of internal memory locations and execute an operation on a range of addresses. text processing. energized whenever its rung is closed a "not" coil. or may represent the status of internal storage bits which may be generated elsewhere in the program. There is usually limited support for arrays and loops. often resulting in duplication of code to express cases which in other languages would call for use of indexed variables. closed whenever its corresponding coil or an input which controls it is energized. some logic race conditions are possible which may produce unexpected results. Omron. and filtering functions. complex rungs are best broken into several simpler steps to avoid this problem. In some cases. for example. . --( )---(\)---[ ]-- a regular coil. which effectively are subroutines or macros. PLCs have many types of special blocks. or may represent an internal storage bit for use elsewhere in the program.module. table lookups. Analog quantities and arithmetical operations are clumsy to express in ladder logic and each manufacturer has different ways of extending the notation for these problems. Each rung of ladder language typically has one coil at the far right.to simulate a physical sequential drum controller or a finite state machine. A "not" contact. users can define their own special blocks. avoid this problem by explicitly and completely defining the execution order of a rung. They include timers. Since execution of rungs is sequential within a program and may be undefined or obscure within a rung. PID control. open whenever its corresponding coil or an input which controls it is energized. Some manufacturers. --[\]-- The "coil" (output of a rung) may represent a physical output which operates some device connected to the programmable controller. arithmetic operators and comparisons. however programmers may still have problems fully grasping the resulting complex semantics.g.
113kohm Contact Configuration:SPCO Coil Type:DC. 24VDC Relay Type:General Purpose Coil Voltage VDC Nom:24V Contact Current Max:10A Contact Voltage AC Nom:250V Contact Voltage DC Nom:30V Coil Resistance:1. SPCO. 10A. Monostable Coil Current:21.8mA Nom Operating Power:530mW Relay Mounting:Plug In External Height:29mm External Width:13mm External Depth:28mm SVHC:No SVHC (15-Dec-2010) Contact Configuration:SPCO Contact Current AC Max:10A Contact Current DC Max:10A Contact Voltage AC Max:250V .Description • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • RELAY.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Contact Voltage DC Max:30V External Length / Height:29mm Mounting Type:Plug-In No. CSA. VDE Coil Operating Lower Percent Limit:80% Coil Operating Upper Percent Limit:120% Contact Material:Silver Cadmium Oxide DC Coil Power:530mW Operating Time:15ms Release Time:5ms Switch Current Max:10A Sensor Shape / Structure service life Operating mechanism Actuator Frequency Switching mechanism Contact configuration Contact form Load Ratings (AC): Non- Enclosed Limit switches General type Snap action Short hinge roller lever 50/60 Hz Self-reset mechanism Single-Pole. Double-Throw type SPDT General load Rated voltage: 125 VAC. Lamp . Resistive load: 10 A (NC) 10 A (NO). of Poles:1 Operating Temperature Max:70°C Operating Temperature Min:-40°C Series:G2RS Approval Bodies:UL.
Inductive load: 5 A (NC) 5 A (NO).5 A (NO) Rated voltage: 8 VDC.5 m/s speed .05 A (NC) 0.25 A (NO) Rated voltage: 125 VAC. Resistive load: 10 A (NC) 10 A (NO). Lamp load: 0.4 A (NC) 0.2 A (NC) 0. Lamp load: 0.2 A (NO) Rated voltage: 8 VDC.03 A (NO).25 A (NC) 0. Motor load: 0. Inductive load: 6 A (NC) 6 A (NO).Rated voltage: 30 VDC. Motor load: 3 A (NC) 1. Inductive load: 0.5 A (NO) Rated voltage: 14 VDC. Inductive load: 6 A (NC) 6 A (NO). Resistive load: 0. Motor load: 0.05 A (NO). Resistive load: 6 A (NC) 6 A (NO).5 A (NO) Rated voltage: 14 VDC. Lamp load has an inrush current of 10 times the steady-state current.5 A (NO) load Rated voltage: 250 VAC. Lamp load: 2.5 A (NO) Inductive load Rated voltage: 250 VAC.5 A (NO) Rated voltage: 125 VDC. Motor load has an inrush current of 6 times the steady-state current. Inductive load: 10 A (NC) 10 A (NO).4 Min. Lamp load: 3 A (NC) 1. Resistive load: 10 A (NC) 10 A (NO). Motor load load: 5 A (NC) 2.03 A (NO) The above values indicate the steady-state current.5 A (NC) 1.5 A (NO). Resistive load: 10 A (NC) 10 A (NO). NC: 30 A Inrush current NO: 15 A Classification of protection against electric shock: Class II Protective circuit Short-circuit protective device: 10 A fuse type gG (IEC269) Switch category: D (IEC335) Operating: -10 to 80 CEL Ambient temperature (with no icing or condensation) Operating: 35 to 95%RH Ambient humidity (with no icing or condensation) Characteristics Permissible operating 1 mm/s to 0. (AC) and a time constant of 7 ms Max.5 A (NO) Ratings (DC): Inductive Rated voltage: 30 VDC.25 A (NO). Inductive load: 0.05 A (NC) 0.4 A (NO) Rated voltage: 250 VDC. Lamp load: 3 A (NC) 1. Motor load: 5 A (NC) 2.5 A (NO) Rated voltage: 125 VDC.03 A (NC) 0.load: 3 A (NC) 1.5 A (NC) 0. Inductive load: 10 A (NC) 10 A (NO).05 A (NO) Rated voltage: 250 VDC.03 A (NC) 0. Motor load: 5 A (NC) 2. (DC). Lamp Inductive load load: 3 A (NC) 1.5 A (NO) Ratings (DC): Non. Motor Ratings (AC): Inductive load: 5 A (NC) 2. Resistive load: 0. Inductive load has a Explanation power factor of 0.
000. Double amplitude: 1.000 operations Min.Permissible operating frequency 120 operations / 1 minute Max.: GB14048. 40 %RH to 70 %RH) 500.5 mm. (Initial value) Contact resistance (Measuring method is contact resistance meter. Degree of protection IEC60529 (JEM): IP67 Applicable standard Standard No. (at 500 VDC Megger) Between each terminal of the same polarities: 1.2 NO.000 VAC (50/60 Hz for 1 min) 10. * When operate the actuator with the specified value of the Over Travel. at the free position and the total travel (Malfunction) position at 200 m/s2.000 VAC Between live-metallic part and ground: 2. Humidityconditions: 5 CEL to 35 CEL. (Mechanically) Permissible operating 20 operations / 1 minute Max.: C22. Insulation resistance Between each terminal and non-live-metallic part: 100 MOhm Min. (Resistive load 10 A at 125 VAC) Durability (Electrically) (Temperature. (No load) * When operate the actuator with Durability the specified value of the Over Travel.: UL508 (UL) File number: E76675 Applicable standard Standard No. (Mechanically) (Temperature. Vibration resistance Contact opening: 1 ms Max. Shock resistance 1. at the free position and the total travel (Malfunction) position.: EN60947-5-1 (TUV) File number: J50041904 Applicable standard Standard No.000 m/s2 (Destruction) Shock resistance Contact opening is 1 ms Max. Between live-metallic part and ground: 100 MOhm Min.000 operations Min.5 (CCC(CQC)) File number: 2003010303077620 Applicable standard 2006/95/EC . frequency (Electrically) 15 mOhm Max.000 VAC Dielectric strength Between each terminal and non-live-metallic part: 2. 40 %RH to 70 %RH) Pollution degree 3 (EN60947-5-1) Vibration frequency range: 10 to 55 Hz. Humidityconditions: 5 CEL to 35 CEL.) Between each terminal of the same polarities: 100 MOhm Min.14 (CSA) File number: LR45746 Applicable standard Standard No.
92 N Max. Release Force (RF) Standard value 0. Over-Travel (OT) Standard value 6 mm Min.2 mm Free Position (PF) Standard value 49. Nut and threads on shaft to easily connect and internal threaded shaft for easily connecting it to wheel. Operating Position (OP) Standard value 43 +/.(EC Directive (Low Voltage Directive) ) Mounting specification Side mounting Operating characteristics Operating Force (OF) Standard value 3.5 RPM 12V DC motors with Gearbox 6mm shaft diameter with internal hole 125gm weight Same size motor available in various rpm 2kgcm torque No-load current = 60 mA(Max). motors 3.5 RPM 12V DC geared motors for robotics applications.1. Movement Differential (MD) Standard value 1 mm Max. ] Features • • • • • • 3.78 N Min. Very easy to use and available in standard size. Load current = 300 mA(Max) .2 mm Max.
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