Bethlehem Steel Sheet Piling

Steel Sheet Piling Table of Contents
Dimensions and Properties of Sections Wall Lengths Bethlehem Z-Piling
o o o o Rolled Corners Maximum Spans Under Water Loads Dimensions for Detailing Standard Fabricated Connections
Used with PZ22 and/or PZ27 Used with PZ35 and/or PZ40

High Section Modulus Requirements Bethlehem PSA23, PS27.5 and PS31
o Dimensions for Detailing o Standard Fabricated Connections
Used with PSA23 Used with PS27.5 or PS31 (Interlock Strength- 16 kips/in.) Used with PS27.5 or PS31 (Interlock Strength- 20 kips/in. or 24 kips/in.)

Diameters and Areas of Circular Cells
Using PSA23, PS27.5 and PS31

o Cellular Layouts
Using PSA23 with 90° T Connections Using PS27.5 and/or PS31 with 30° Y Connections Using PS27.5 and/or PS31 with 90° T Connections Using PSA23, PS27.5 or PS31 with 120° Y Connections

General Specifications Bethlehem H-Piles

Foreword
Sheet piling products produced by Bethlehem are defined as hot-rolled structural sections with interlocks on the flange tips. Interlocks permit the joining of individual sections to form a continuous steel wail which is earth-tight and reasonably water resistant. Bethlehem has been designing and supplying hot-rolled sheet piling sections to the construction industry for more than 75 years. This extensive experience in the production and application of sheet piling has given us the opportunity to become intimately involved in the evolution, engineering and field use of our current line of sheet piling sections. By specifying these sections, the designer has selected sheet piling with excellent engineering properties. The Z-shaped sections provide efficient strength to weight ratios, and the shallow-arch and straight-web sections provide reliable and, when specified, high interlock strengths. Also, hot-rolled sheet piling is rugged and durable under difficult driving conditions and long-term exposure because of its interlocks and minimum 3/8-in, thickness. The following pages will provide both the designer and the user with information to select, lay out and apply Bethlehem steel sheet piling sections. If you need additional product data, or information more specific to your particular project, please call our Piling Product Sales Office in Bethlehem direct: (800) 521-0432.
This publication contains information on the properties of Bethlehem hot-rolled sheet piling and H-piles based on accepted engineering practices. The use of the data contained herein must be supplemented with qualified professional judgment.

Dimensions and Properties of Sections
Sections designed for bending strength (See page 6 for Z-piling data)

Interlocking Because ball and socket dimensions are the same for all Bethlehem Z-piling sections, all Z-piling sections can interlock with one another. Also, because of the shape of the interlock, they can be joined in either of two arrangements.

develop a minimum ultimate interlock strength of 16 kips per in.5 and PS31. it is necessary to anticipate a reduction in obtainable swing of 1. Swing: PSA23. . Excessive interlock tension results in web extensions for section P5A23. but will not interlock with any other section. Sections designed for interlock strength (See page 22 for data on cellular design) Interlock strength: PSA23. Therefore. The ability to obtain a full 10 degree swing decreases because of the difficulty in handling the longer pieces. If a greater interlock strength is required. when properly interlocked.Sections Which Interlock With Each Other PZ22 PZ27 PSA23* PS27.5 and PS31 will interlock with each other. see page 23. With longer pieces. Sections PS27. when properly interlocked. are designed for a minimum swing of up to 10 degrees (in either direction) for lengths up to 70 ft.5 PS31 PZ35 PZ40 *See page 8 for information on interlocking PSA23 with Bethlehem Z-piling. the interlock tension for this section should be limited to a maximum working load of 3 kips per in. when properly interlocked.5 degrees for each 10 ft increase in length over 70 ft. PS27. develops a minimum ultimate interlock strength of 12 kips per in.5 and PS31. PS27.

5 805.96 *Excludes socket interior and ball of interlock Dimensions: The dimensions shown on these pages are nominal.65 PZ22 PZ27 PZ35 PZ 40 PSA23 PS27.7 45.7 2.0 40.5 60.9 22.0 2.1 30.0 27.76 4. low-alloy grades ASTM A572 .48 4. (See pages 10 and 25 for dimensions for detailing. Per sq ft in.30 8.5 31.94 5.48 4.5 PS31 11.91 19.3 of Inertia.3 5.69 40. Per lin.37 5. Weight in Pounds Nominal Width.86 11.4 2.) . Impact Resisting Steel: Bethlehem steel sheet piling can be supplied to meet Charpy (CVN) requirements.6 3.69 16 19. Single Per lin.44 Nominal Coating Area* 4.5 5.83 5.65 3.4 154.0 23. ft of bar of wall 22 18 22.2 48.) Steel Grades: Bethlehem steel sheet piling can be supplied in standard ASTM A328 and in high-strength.Grades 50 and 60 and ASTM A690.7 276.37 3.0 65. Section ft of wall in.3 33.0 35.1 50.27 14.64 19.3 40.41 19.69 19. (See page 35 for further information.4 99.2 3.0 27. ft of bar Total Area 4.08 3.94 4.0 Surface Area sq ft per lin.6 30.Properties and Weights Section Designation Area sq in.5 66.0 Moment Section Modulus in.4 5.3 18.83 3.3 91.3 3.99 13.1 45.3 681.48 5.

feet 1.92 6.00 29.00 21.50 6. feet 1.98 18.54 31.17 33.50 21.67 28.64" = 1.00 34.17 22.00 31.64 24.43 11.50 18. feet 1. feet 1.00 16.33 22.33 18.33 2.87 20.50 9.33 9.50 3. feet 1.41 18.67 24.17 11.33 10.67 12.83 36.33 31.00 10.05 19.46 36.6408' L (length).25 27.50 18.00 25.67 8.8867' L (length).00 17.Wall Lengths Formed with Bethlehem Sheet Piling Number of Pieces 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 PSA23 16" = 1.00 5.73 39.00 22.69 21.21 15.50 27.96 35.50' L (length).77 16.00 19.50 7.00 PZ35 22.51 PZ40.75 22.33 26.67 27.33 14.55 9.50 29.67 4.13 14.33 6.50 40.33 20.53 26.83 14.97 24.49 13.50 15.50 30.85 11.33 22.64 3.50 12.28 4.67 20.85 37.00 25.00 7.62 41. PS27.67 16.07 33.83 3.50 24.30 30.00 4.3333' L (length).20 9.00 12.8333' L (length).19 32.89 3.69" = 1.77 5.67 16.66 7.00 28.5 & PS31 19.61 26.50 33.83 25.00 13.67 5.18 32.00 23.33 PZ27 18" = 1.56 8.09 16.00 9.10 .41 28.89 29.33 PZ22 22" = 1.67 38.32 13.00 13.82 34.

00 73.99 101.67 60.8333' L (length).50 57.48 77.83 47.00 77.25 91.67 56.58 75.45 100.3333' L (length).50 93.33 38.35 79.00 73.67 76.15 66.12 78.33 78.50' L (length).92 70.79 57.54 109.33 86.33 58.37 62.22 98.50 78.28 47.17 110.50 75.31 113. feet 36.49 60.60 58.68 85.94 52.89 93.50 60.33 96.00 78.07 60.33 34.5 & PS31 19.50 84.8867' L (length).23 50.35 63.20 115.00 89.50 48.67 60.17 77.00 40.33 54.90 86.81 98.50 63.50 106.00 49.33 82.13 83.27 68.56 72.50 73.33 74.56 92.67 52.00 56.17 88.38 41.67 64.6408' L (length).83 113.50 54.00 70.69" = 1.67 90.33 53.50 81.00 57.00 53.51 54.43 111.67 82.83 58.58 49.50 84.64" = 1.67 40.00 37. feet 44.50 90.50 51.50 95.63 67.05 50.33 64.67 49.15 55.00 61.00 37.79 88.67 80.50 66.00 55.01 84.17 66.61 90.00 81.00 58.00 43.83 54.09 101.00 85. feet 32.71 56.17 99.33 70.17 96.96 88.33 62.43 59.00 111.00 61.00 52.50 45.04 83.67 72.88 103.50 39.67 PZ22 22" = 1.83 80.00 65.24 81.67 68.67 36. feet 45.45 94.33 46.11 99.00 82.50 87.66 44.73 .92 69.33 108.00 45.40 82.30 45.33 50.20 73.65 107.02 42.97 PZ40.09 116.33 42. PS27.50 72.77 105.17 55.47 77.00 41.00 79.32 86.67 44.00 91.33 66.50 62.69 73.83 69.99 65.00 67.00 64.00 33.67 104.50 42.00 49.71 62.50 51.67 48.00 67.17 49.83 102.00 88. feet 39.83 91.67 93.84 75.00 100.76 80.53 95.00 45.00 76.33 75.67 71.26 64.81 71.50 69.03 67.94 47.00 46.33 97.Number of Pieces 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 PSA23 16" = 1.87 52.00 PZ35 22.00 69.67 PZ27 18" = 1.

48 160.05 150.03 167.00 121.50 143.99 129.17 132.67 116.24 155.3333' L (length).33 141.67 104.00 133.33 366.07 133.00 118.33 122.33 266.33 152.41 128.6408' L (length).33 118.50 117.50 120.52 159.80 162.17 143. PS27.67 124.58 113.00 103.67 377.00 177.50 118.50 183.00 117.67 120.60 154.00 113.33 102.50 111.00 142.33 126. feet 105.50 132.33 98.35 179. feet 85.50 150.33 110.70 126.91 169.00 122.67 159.67 148.83 135.83 168.95 135.00 129.83 139.67 128.91 134.78 188.33 86.83 157.50 128.5 & PS31 19.33 90.00 145.75 144.86 116.33 130.33 566.11 142.55 136.50 126.33 94.00 133.44 164.18 132.50 141.50 138.37 162.83 124.67 88.00 97.67 170.00 139.33 163.84 137.01 106.00 93.33 130.46 177.12 183.67 108.33 114.50 108.50 99. feet 96.59 158.17 492.50 139.34 127.67 126.93 152.30 109.75 122.32 150.67 400.00 127.00 124.50 161.00 155.50 129.50 147.22 114.00 PZ22 22" = 1.00 166.67 100.25 164.73 139.00 125.03 147.33 174. feet 117. feet 120.00 109.00 100.39 146.16 160.80 171.17 165.61 141.78 121.50 144.00 PZ40.33 106.89 186.17 121.14 166.82 154.00 112.69" = 1.00 121.00 PZ27 18" = 1.50 150.63 131.67 96.25 .57 175.Number of Pieces 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 200 300 PSA23 16" = 1.69 173.52 126.63 124.00 105.17 154.27 147.65 108.50' L (length).01 184.00 130.83 146.50 102.00 106.00 115.00 109.06 124.8867' L (length).00 133.50 123.39 145.33 119.00 89.42 123.71 156.08 328.00 148.67 181.67 112.67 92.50 172.23 181.27 132.68 149.00 136.16 149.50 135.83 179.50 105.94 111.50 114.8333' L (length).67 137.00 300.00 450.96 152.00 PZ35 22.19 137.14 119.00 97.47 141.00 101.67 550.88 157.17 176.67 132.00 144.29 130.64" = 1.

00 1333.83 3281. feet 943.00 1500.50 1148.33 1066.67 800.33 PZ40.67 3773.67 PZ22 22" = 1.67 1200.00 1886.00 3000.8333' L (length).33 3666. PS27.75 1640.00 1350.00 1200.67 Note: The length of walls tabulated are based on catalog widths of the piling sections.00 1050.64" = 1.8867' L (length).50' L (length).Number of Pieces 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 PSA23 16" = 1.66 1650.33 1132.00 PZ35 22.58 1312. feet 820.33 2666.67 PZ27 18" = 1. The usual mill variations in rolling the sections and particularly the methods used in setting and driving may cause deviation from the lengths shown.3333' L (length).69" = 1.6408' L (length).00 1283.00 1320.5 & PS31 19. feet 916. .33 1698. feet 667.00 933.42 984.00 900.00 1833. feet 750.33 1466.66 1476.67 1100.67 1509.

When splicing is necessary. Refer to “Maximum Spans Under Water Loads” on page 9 for discussion of this important. If full section modulus is required at the splice. Setting and Driving Tips Although setting and driving techniques vary with conditions. yet it is extremely rugged and durable under driving conditions where other types of interlocks might be suspect.7 Allowable Bending Moment ft-kips/ft of wall A328 38 64 102 128 A572 Gr 50 or A690 49 82 131 164 A572 Gr 60 59 98 158 197 Section PZ22 PZ27 PZ 35 PZ40 Importance of Bethlehem's Interlock System Bethlehem's Z-piling is produced with a ball-and-socket type interlock. Tied-Back and Braced Walls Reasons for Specifying Z-Piling Z-piles. This interlock system permits flexibility while setting the wall. several basic principles can generally be applied. They should be cut and match-marked at the jobsite.65 F in longitudinal bending.a problem inherent in the splicing of randomly selected Z-pile sections. Bethlehem Z-piling is designed to provide bending strength with an efficient strength to weight ratio. the designer has the complete freedom to change sections required in a wall without resorting to compromise piles. This popular interlock system facilitates the setting. subject. The following table gives the allowable bending moment capacity for Bethlehem Z-piling sections based on the accepted engineering practice of designing sheet piling to 0. sections should be ordered full length from the mill. and reuse of Bethlehem hot-rolled Z-piling. o Splicing should be avoided if possible. Splices on adjacent sheets must be staggered by several feet. 3/ft of wall 18. Furthermore. as is the case with arch-shaped piling. This procedure will eliminate mismatching of cross sections . but often neglected. rather than at the center line. Section Modulus in. with their optimum distribution of material. the designer is assured of the published section modulus of Bethlehem sheet piling. driving. The lack of good setting and driving practices can result in problems which are far more expensive than the cost of applying proper techniques. are the most efficient sheet piling sections available for bending strength.2 48.Bethlehem Z-Piling For Cantilevered. it will be necessary to use splice plates on the flanges to overcome the deficiency created by not welding the interlocks. the sections are engineered to insure section stability under all normal loading conditions. Since all our Z-piles have similar interlocks. With the interlocks located on the outer fibers of the wall. These match-marked pieces must be spliced to reconstruct the original section as it was shipped from the mill. This enables the designer to avoid the extra cost of such compromise piles and to utilize the most efficient section required. .5 60. A combination of butt welding and cover plates or a complete plate splice can be used.1 30.

) o Set a panel of piling and drive piles in stages. place a bolt or similar object in the open space at the bottom end to minimize clogging. Once threaded and plumbed. The distance a pile. Once sheet piles are threaded and set.) o Z-piling should be driven with the ball-end leading. Using an adequate driving template will facilitate setting and driving and result in a superior end product. This eases driving of the pile because the socket end does not become clogged with soil. it's more economical to drive two at a time. . Sheet piling. o Drive piles in pairs. Mechanical threading devices are available and their use precludes the need for cutting back the finger.o Have an adequate driving template. o Set piles one at a time or in loose (not fixed) pairs. When the socket end must lead. If allowed. This allows for adjustments during threading to increase or decrease the length of a wall. the removal of several inches of finger may increase liquidation charges. This procedure is particularly helpful when the piles are long or when they are being threaded in windy conditions. This procedure is particularly important for structures such as cofferdams which must be closed or for tied bulkheads where tie rod location is important. this permits overlapping of steel piles before interlocks are engaged. furnished in fixed pairs. or pair of piles should be driven at any one time will depend upon the driving conditions. (Caution: On leased material. The drawings below show how such changes can be made. This allows the piles to be guided by those previously driven. does not offer this advantage. (Some experts suggest that the energy needed to drive a pair may be only 50% more than that required to drive a single pile. It also lessens the chance of driving a pile out of interlock. o Remove several inches of finger before threading. a pile should be allowed to drop under its own weight. This will indicate whether the line of piling being set is gaining or losing wall length. o Mark the driving template for each pair of Z-piles.

Bent-web piles must be produced to order with potentially extended deliveries. The acceptability of this interlock configuration depends upon several factors including the type of structure and the soil (driving) conditions.Rolled Corners Interlocking with PSA23 Although PSA23 has a thumb-and-finger type of interlock. is the interlock shown in Fig. 3. Figures 1 and 2 show the details for rolled corners and bent-web piles made from PSA23. Rolled corners. 4. the interlock shown in Fig. Figure 1 – ROLLED CORNERS Figure 2 – BENT WEB PILES The most desirable interlock combinations are shown in Fig. into a Z-piling wall. in ASTM A328 or A572-Grade 50. 5 is not acceptable because a slight rotation may cause it to disengage. This feature allows the designer the option of incorporating PSA23 sections. However. it does interlock with the ball and socket on Bethlehem Z-piling. are generally available from stock. such as rolled corners. Figure 3 – BEST . Also acceptable. Fabricated connections should be specified if leg dimensions are critical or if ASTM A690 steel is required.

Figure 4 – OK Figure 5 .NO .

1 19. plus section stability.4 h1 14. shear forces and wale reactions. as well as stresses due to wale reactions and shears. Designers Note: The ability of a sheet pile section to withstand pressures is not solely a function of section modulus. combined stresses and overall section stability become the governing criteria.8 18. For the spans shown on this page.1 20.65 F in bending. Accepted engineering practice is to design sheet piling to 0. The spans shown in the table below are governed by section modulus.5 *Refer to the text for limitations on the use of this table. The table below is included only to provide design guidance and is not intended to be a substitute for competent and sound engineering practice.5 18. A detailed analysis discloses that it is a function of combined stresses resulting from longitudinal and transverse bending.7 21.9 27. or between a rigid brace and a concrete seal poured under water. the sheet piling will be over-stressed in bending if an attempt is made to install one set of bracing at a time as the water is pumped down.5 ksi for ASTM A572 Grade 50 steel. make sure that all bracing between the water level and the concrete seal or firm soil is in position before dewatering is started.9 24. but are based on the geometry of the sections produced by Bethlehem Steel and should not be applied to sections from other producers without proper engineering analysis. The spacing shown applies only for spans between rigid braces (wales). ft h 20.2 16. web and flange thickness. In such cases.9 14.2 h1 15. maximum span. maximum span.6 h2 13. Designers should not expand the table to include greater water depths without detailed consideration of combined stresses. ft h 22.0 15. Maximum Spans Under Water Loads* Section Number PZ22 PZ27 PZ35 PZ40 A328. but at greater depths. and web and flange length. . Longitudinal bending stresses.9 A572 Grade 50. special consideration must be given to the properties of the soil that provides the bottom support. At relatively shallow depths.1 21.9 23.1 31.5 17. It does not apply for a span between a brace and the earth at the bottom of a cofferdam.7 h2 11.1 31. The spans shown in the table are based on allowable longitudinal bending stresses of 25 ksi for ASTM A328 steel and 32.6 17. Transverse bending stresses and section stability are a function of design pressures. section modulus is the controlling factor. The spans in the table on this page represent maximum water depths at which section modulus is the governing criterion.8 29.Maximum Spans under Water Loads When constructing cofferdams in open water. are functions of the wale spacing and overall section properties.7 34. Designers are also cautioned not to use this table for sections from other producers which may not be structurally equal to Bethlehem Sections.

Dimensions for Detailing .

Right: Z-piling provides a cost-efficient method of constructing bridge abutments while protecting them from scour.Left: Environmental disturbance is minimized during dam construction through the use of Z-piling. . hot-rolled Z-piling provides the most efficient method of constructing major bridge piers in deep water. Below: Heavy. Above: Paired sheet piling sections simplify handling and setting.

Standard Fabricated Connections Used with PZ22 and/or PZ27 .

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i. When ordering bent corners. specify the angle well as the type interlock arrangement desired d the A and B dimensions*.e. See General Specifications (page 34) for additional details on fabricated connections.. Bethlehem Steel may elect to ship the section in two pieces prepared for field splicing in place.Notes: o Weights shown per linear foot are based on standard A and B leg dimensions. o Standard angle size for PZ22 and PZ27 is 3-1/2 X 3-1/2 X 3/8 in. Specifiers should avoid leg dimensions in excess of 12 in. if interlock arrangement ZC273 is required with a 25 degree angle and standard legs. ø = 25 degrees. o Corner connections ZC270 through ZC279 represent all possible interlock arrangements. high-strength bolts spaced on 6-in. except for 2 ft at each end where they are located on 3-in. order: ZB273. In the case of excessive leg lengths. . centers. o Connections other than the standards shown can be fabricated to meet special requirements. angles or 3/8-in. low section modulus. centers throughout the length of the section. Extra care must be exercised when transporting and handling such sections. A' and B' dimensions for PZ22 and PZ27 equal 6 in. Larger 3/8-in. o Standard A. Such strapping should be removed by the contractor before driving the member. B = 6 in.-thick bent plates will be supplied as required to accommodate leg dimensions greater than standard. o Fasteners are 7/8-in. Changes in leg dimensions may result in weight changes. Bent corners can be furnished with any interlock arrangement ZC270 through ZC279. o Fabricated sections not utilizing full sections are inherently weak in bending strength. Connections can be fabricated to dimensions other than standard when so specified. For example. A = 6 in.. Excessive leg dimensions and/or long section lengths compound the shipping and handling problems of these sections. Bethlehem Steel may elect to weld straps between the interlocks to stabilize the cross section. B. Specifiers should consider thicker angles or plates when designing long leg dimensions and/or long section lengths. When fabricated lengths are in excess of 70 ft.

Standard Fabricated Connections Used with PZ35 and/or PZ40 .

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centers. o Standard angle size for PZ35 and PZ4O is 4 X 4 X 1/2 in. B = 7 in. specify the angle as well as the type interlock arrangement desired and the A and B dimensions*.Notes: o Weights shown per linear foot are based on standard A and B leg dimensions. A' and B' dimensions for PZ35 and PZ4O equal 7 in.-thick bent plates will be supplied as required to accommodate leg dimensions greater than standard. Excessive leg dimensions and/or long section lengths compound the shipping and handling problems of these sections. See General Specifications (page 34) for additional details on fabricated connections. except for 2 ft at each end where they are located on 3-in. high-strength bolts spaced on 6-in. Such strapping should be removed by the contractor before driving the member. centers throughout the length of the section. i.. Bethlehem Steel may elect to weld straps between the interlocks to stabilize the cross section.. angles or 1/2-in. Specifier should avoid leg dimensions in excess of 12 in. Connections can be fabricated to dimensions other than standard when so specified. ø = 35. When ordering bent corners.e. o Corner connections ZC350 through ZC359 represent all possible interlock arrangements. Larger 1/2-in. order: ZB352. Specifiers should consider thicker angles or plates when designing long leg dimensions and/or long section lengths. o Fabricated sections not utilizing full sections are inherently weak in bending strength. Bent corners can be furnished with any interlock arrangement ZC350 through ZC359. low section modulus. When fabricated lengths are in excess of 70 ft. A = 7 in. In the case of excessive leg lengths. o Fasteners are 7/8-in. B. Extra care must be exercised when transporting and handling such sections. o Standard A. For example. Changes in leg dimensions may result in weight changes. o Connections other than the standards shown can be fabricated to meet special requirements. . if interlock arrangement ZC352 is required with a 35 degree angle and standard legs. Bethlehem Steel may elect to ship the section in two pieces prepared for field splicing in-place.

2 55.5 103.7 98.5 63.0 63.25 Note: o o o PZ35 Section Modulus in.3/ft of wall 60.4 82.125 4-1/2 x 1.2 67.875 4-1/2 x 1. Cover plate length depends upon moment curve.1 47.3 86. Plate Size (in) None 4-1/2 x .0 93.3 Filet weld should be sized to adequately resist design loads and should be continuous and all around.0 44.2 Weight lb/ft2 of wall 35.625 4-1/2 x .2 53. .3/ft of wall 48.0 56.0 49. When this is the case.4 108.7 54. The feasibility of a cellular design is somewhat dependent on site and soil conditions.8 74.00 4-1/2 x 1.50 4-1/2 x . the designer has several available options to consider: Cellular Design This design can be very efficient and an option that should be explored for facilities such as deep draft bulkheads and large graving docks. The average weight in lb/ft2 of wall will be lower.5 84.6 78. Cover Plated Z-Piling This approach extends the range of Z-piling by increasing the moment carrying capacity in the area where the design moment exceeds the capacity of the plain Z-pile.3 Section Modulus in.2 74.2 89.0 70.3 PZ40 Weight lb/ft2 of wall 40.3 58.0 43. Cellular construction provides a solid-faced wharf in deep water without the need for elaborate anchorage systems.7 47. Refer to page 22 for additional information on cellular design.3 51.75 4-1/2 x . Weight shown in lb/ft2 of wall is for the section in the cover-plated location.25 4-1/2 x .6 61.High Section Modulus Requirements There may be occasions when even PZ4O in high-strength grades of steel is not sufficiently strong to satisfy the calculated design moments.1 45.375 4-1/2 x .8 79.2 49.2 51.7 70.

section moduli in excess of 200 in. . The PSA or PS sheet piling sections transmit the soil pressures on the arcs by interlock tension to the moment-resisting master piles. Depending on the number of intermediate sheets. In such cases.Master Pile System This system combines moment resisting and cellular design.3/ft of wall can be obtained utilizing this design concept. A master pile design is ideally suited to sites where very hard driving is anticipated or rock is at a high elevation and sufficient penetration is not available for adequate toe resistance. the master pile can be installed in a predrilled hole and grouted in place.

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5 (114.7 9' .5 (87.7 9' .7) 83.4) W14 x 257 W14 x 342 W24 x 162 W27 x 178 W33 x 152 W36 x 135 W36 x 170 W36 x 210 W36 x 260 W36 x 300 69. x 1 ¼ in.5) 92.5) 51.3" 6' .9" 5' .4 Spacing L 9' .3) 183. Actual master pile size and system geometry (master pile spacing.0) *PS pile is attached in 2 pieces.8 9' .9 (104. o The plate (measuring 9 in.9) 54.5 layout) is welded continuously all around. etc.2) 56.3/ft of wall 23.3" 6' .0 (88. Intermediate Piles Master Pile 3 Sections PSA 23 Spacing L 6' .6 (51.2) 107.3) 111.4 44.8 (35.7 (99.9" 5' .7 (130.9) 96.0'' 6' .4 9' . arc radius.6 49.0 (126.0) 46.5 (or PS31) Section Modulus in.4 50.7 9' .3) 158.7 46.2 10' .9) 88.5 54.6 (174.6 (138.4 (54. using selected wide-flange sections (unreinforced and reinforced).7 W14 x 132 .The following table. x 1 in.8" 74. for a PSA23 layout and 10 ½ in.1) 66.6"* 57.) must be determined by the engineer based on site conditions.8" 44.8 (150.3/ft of wall 36. Note: o Numbers in parentheses represent section moduli with cover plates on back of the master piles.8 (68.9) 46. Connection details are extremely important and must be designed with care.6 10' -6"* 61.8" 50.8" 50.2) 81.8) 62.2 (219.1 (118.1) 72.8" Weight lb/ft2 of wall 42.5 (81.0" 5' .8) 56.8" 60.3" 6' . The weld must be sized to resist the design loads. This table should be used by the designer as a guide.8 (125. o All welds are continuous and all around.7 45.2 (81.0 9' . shows design properties obtainable using this approach.5 9' .8 63.6 Weight lb/ft2 of wall 41.4) 90.8" 5 Sections PS27.7 (195.8 9' .6 42.9" 5' .8" 47.9" 6' .1 (68.0" 6 . for a PS27.5 (101. 67.0 43.3" Section Modulus in.8" 47.6) 132.

King Pile System This system combines Z-piling and structural sections. . Large section moduli can be developed using this approach. The flexibility of the ball-and-socket interlock design allows this heavy wall system to be more readily installed than similar systems.

5 70.9" 50.3 64.5) 73.3/ft of wall 63.1 4' .6" 5' .7 (177. The weld must be sized to resist the design loads.9" 60.3 4' . shows design properties obtainable using this approach.9) 245.1 Weight lb/ft2 of wall 49.3 (88.2 (208.2) 213.8 (153.9 (129.8) 142.5 (194.0 W24 x 117 Note: o Numbers in parentheses represent section moduli with cover plates on the back of the king piles.9 (193.6" Section Modulus in.3 4' .0 76.0 (242.0 68.9 4' .9" 66.2) 132.9" 55.5 (185.3) 92.The following table. x 5/8 in.9" Weight lb/ft2 of wall 41.6" PZ27 Section Modulus in.2 (227.2 (159. Intermediate Piles King Pile PZ Spacing L 5' .3'' 5' .3/ft of wall 77.1 58.5 4' .8 (135.7) 160.3 4' .2 60.3" 5' .3) 85.6" 5' .6" 5' .5) 145.5 (164. measuring 11 in.3) W30 x 173 W33 x 201 W33 x 221 W36 x 135 W36 x 170 W36 x 230 W36 x 260 W36 x 300 105.1) 182.5 (283.5) 125.6" 5' .0) 110.0 4' .6" 58.3 (107.1) 171. is welded continuously all around.8 53. o All welds are continuous and all around.6) 120. .6" 5' .5) 188.3 (215.9" 52. o The plate.9 Spacing L 4' .4) 210.5) 155.3" 5' .6" 45.0 4' .0 (156.4 (251. using selected wide-flange sections (unreinforced or reinforced).

involving many large cells joined together with connecting arcs to form a continuous cellular wall. a cellular structure can be very complex. Cellular Construction Offers Numerous Advantages Provides a massive. has superior swing properties. It is. it may be stated that increased interlock loads are developed with increasing cell diameters and design heights. Swing of up to 10 degrees is provided by PSA23. self-sustaining structure that is safe and durable.5 and PS31 For Cellular Structures Cellular Structure Requirements Cellular design and construction require sheet piling sections which are designed for interlock strength rather than beam strength. PS27. Speeds construction because steel sheet piling can be driven quickly even under adverse weather conditions. PS27.5 degrees for every 10 feet increase in ordered length. be handled with the greatest of care to avoid damage which ultimately will lead to installation problems. A Cellular Structure Defined A cellular structure may be as simple as a single independent cell. Can be installed by the average-size marine contractor without the need for unusually large equipment. and at the same time. o Offers long service life in marine environments through the use of advanced corrosion protection methods. although quite strong in interlock tension. therefore. particularly in long lengths. the 10 degree swing should be reduced by 1. Bethlehem's thumb-and-finger interlock system provides high interlock strengths.and that the cells be filled with clean. 1ypical examples of this type of construction include deep draft bulkheads and graving docks for the construction of large ships. Complex cell structures are also used in the construction of locks and dams within the inland waterway system.5 and PS31 for lengths up to 70 feet. Examples include mooring dolphins for securing barges or cells used to protect bridge piers. extremely important that these sections. The amount of interlock strength required for a project is a function of many factors including the cell fill. Eliminates the need for construction and maintenance of slope protection and other disadvantages of open pile supported platforms because cells provide a solid-faced wharf. When properly interlocked. . In general. The state-of-the-art of cellular design requires that the cells be founded on or in firm foundation material . o o o o o Thumb-and-Finger Interlock System The type of interlock method best suited for cellular design and construction is referred to either as the "Lackawanna Lock" or the "thumb-and-finger" interlock. For greater lengths. Simplifies construction since a circular cell provides a stable working platform once it is backfilled. The resulting sections. On the other hand. have very small section moduli. this three-point contact interlock system can withstand severe setting and driving conditions and still function as intended.Bethlehem PSA23. cell diameter and design depths. free-draining granular material. This is not necessarily true of other types of interlock systems.

such as those shown in Figure 2. Figure 1 – PROPER Interlock Strength* Section PSA23 Figure 2 . the designer should consult with Bethlehem steel for possible availability. when correctly interlocked. are incorrect and will result in interlock capacities of a low and unknown magnitude. Any other interlock configurations. develops a minimum ultimate interlock strength of 12 kips per inch.IMPROPER PSA23. Normal engineering practice is to limit the interlock load of these sections to one-half the minimum ultimate interlock strength. Therefore. their geometry is not altered significantly by the interlock load.5 and PS31. Incorrect Interlocks For the interlock system to perform as specified. Sections PS27. Steel Grade Section PS27. * Any published interlock strengths in this publication are valid only for properly interlocked Bethlehem Steel sections. the interlock tension for this section should be limited to a maximum working load of 3 kips per inch.Correct vs.5 and PS3J PS27. therefore. Improper interlocks result from negligent setting practices or from attempting to construct a circular cell with an odd number of sheets. provide the minimum ultimate interlock strengths in kips per inch as shown in the following table.5 PS31 A328 16 16 A572-Grade 50 or A690 20 20 A572-Grade 60 N/A 24 If other strengths are required. PS27. it is absolutely necessary to interlock the sections properly as shown in Figure 1. when correctly interlocked. . Excessive interlock tension results in web extension for section PSA23.5 and PS31 sections have straight webs and. The interlock strength of improperly interlocked sections or of Bethlehem Steel sections interlocked with sections from another producer is unknown.

thereby. and thereby minimize the chance of driving a sheet out of interlock. o Drive piles in pairs. For the purposes of template sizing and sheet setting. Once sheet piles are threaded and set. This will insure that the sheets are free sliding. several basic principles can generally be applied. (Some experts suggest that the energy needed to drive a pair may be only 50% more than that required to drive a single pile. o The diameter of the template is predicated on the contractor's method of setting circular cells. insuring that the sheets are located properly for cell closure. however. it may be advisable to stiffen the starter sheet by reinforcing it full length with a structural shape. might be considered when constructing cells with sheet piling lengths in excess of 80 ft. o Accurately locate and set a fabricated connection. o Shake out several sheets at any closure point.Setting and Driving Tips Although setting and driving techniques vary with the individual contractor and site conditions. and lessens the chance of driving a sheet out of interlock. o Insure that the sheets are properly interlocked when set. provide a solid starting point. o Set all sheets in the cell before driving any of the sheets. This will facilitate setting and driving and result in a superior end product. If a single cell with long sheets is being constructed. that the PSA or PS sheet piling section width may vary somewhat from the published nominal width. or pair of piles. other than nominal pinning of the starter sheet(s). . it should be assumed that the sheet width may vary by ±2% from the published width. This allows the piles to be guided by those previously driven. o Mark the driving template for each pile or pair of piles. o Splicing. Splices on adjacent sheets should be staggered several feet. Upon filling. The following suggestions are offered to help avoid problems at the site: o Have an adequate driving template. The distance a pile. The connection will have greater stiffness than a plain sheet and will. should be driven at any one time will be governed by the driving conditions. It should be realized that the lack of good setting and driving practices can result in job delays and an unsatisfactory structure. This allows for wall adjustments to be made during the setting phase. site conditions permitting. It must be realized.) o Drive piles in stages and work around the entire cell by alternating sheets (pairs). Improper interlocks become the "weak links" and result in job delays and/or failures. the finished cell will expand to meet or exceed published values. it is more economical to drive two at a time.

. long-length sheet piling enables very deep cofferdams to be built for lock and dam construction on major rivers.Dimensions for Detailing PS-type.

high-strength bolts spaced on 6-in. .½ x 3. o Fasteners are ⅞ -in. o A different arrangement of the interlocks is obtained by reversing the connections end for end.Standard Fabricated Connections Used with PSA23 Notes: o Standard angle: 3. o Standard bent plate size for 120° Y: ⅜ x 10 in. See General Specifications (page 34) for additional information.½ x ⅜ in. centers throughout the length of the section. centers. except for 2 ft at each end where they are located on 3-in.

. Notes: o It is suggested that the designer consider using section PS31 for all fabricated connections. o Angles.Standard Fabricated Connections Used with PS27. See General Specifications (page 34) for additional information. centers throughout the length of the section. centers. 10 1/2 x 1/2 Bolt Diameter in. Fasteners are high-strength ASTM A325 bolts. plates and bolts are as follows: Connection 30 Y 90 T 120 Y Angle in. except for the last 2 ft at each end where they are located on 3-in. with washers.5 or PS31 With specified interlock strength of 16 kips/in. 5 x 5 x 1/2 - Bent Plate in. The connections shown on this page are based on using PS31. A different arrangement of the interlock is obtained by reversing the connection end for end. 7/8 7/8 1 o o o Angles and plates will be furnished in ASTM A36 steel. spaced on 4 ½ -in.

5 or PS31 With specified interlock strength of 20 kips/in. A different arrangement of the interlock is obtained by reversing the connection end for end. See General Specifications (page 34) for additional information. with washers.5. . 10 1/2 x 3/8 10 1/2 x 3/8 5 x 3/8 Bolt Diameter in. plates and bolts are as follows: Angle in. Fasteners are high-strength ASTM A325 bolts. or 24* kips/in. centers. *Not available in PS27. Angles. See page 23 for information on interlock strength. centers throughout the length of the section. spaced on 4 ½ -in. 5 x 5 x 1/2 Bent Plate in.Standard Fabricated Connections Used with PS27. The connections shown on this page are based on using PS31. 10 1/2 x 1/2 Reinforcing Plate in. 1 1 1 1/8 Connection 30 Y 90 T 120 Y o o o Angles and plates will be furnished in ASTM A36 steel. except for the last 2 ft at each end where they are located on 3-in. Notes: o o It is suggested that the designer consider using section PS31 for all fabricated connections.

4 5.22 22.0 13.0 25.0 6.8 12.49 12.0 25.98 17.0 10.31 8.0 10.0 15.0 10.79 7.58 14.2 6.16 28.2 6.09 5.29 31.01 28.0 .7 6.94 22.0 8.86 Area ft2 21 28 36 46 57 69 82 96 111 127 145 164 183 204 226 250 274 299 326 354 383 413 444 476 509 544 580 616 654 PS27.0 10.07 26.9 2.13 16.98 24.88 12.5 7.25 30.0 10.16 28.31 27.0 5.94 6.0 18.5 10.0 9.8 5.03 11.6 5.0 20.58 14.76 18.0 3.19 11.46 26.52 20.34 10.0 1.40 10.73 13.45 11.77 24.11 27.0 8.49 9.9 12.4 15.20 29.47 35.62 25.0 11.6 8.0 15.5 9.0 15.43 34.34 32.53 13.8 7.85 20.3 Theoretical Bend deg 20.3 10.43 15.89 21.36 9.07 22.62 15.4 6.6 Furnished Bend ø deg 30.38 33.67 16.6 2.5 and PS31 Number of Pieces 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 PSA23 D ft 5.52 Area ft2 31 42 55 69 86 104 123 145 168 193 219 248 278 309 343 378 415 453 494 536 579 625 672 721 771 824 878 933 999 Required* Swing deg 30.5 20.67 19.83 18.5 5.3 .92 23.2 7.0 15.64 8.0 20.28 16.9 6.7 12.71 17.27 7.6 10.80 19.5 & PS31 D ft 6. PS27.0 16.03 25.37 21.Diameters and Areas of Circular Cells Using PSA23.7 22.

74 41.83 43.0 3.96 47. PS27.44 Area ft2 693 733 775 817 861 905 951 998 1046 1096 1146 1198 1250 1304 1359 1415 PS27.05 39.74 41.78 42.35 38. The ability to obtain a lu1110 degree swing decreases with length because of the difficulty in handling the longer pieces.2 4.87 44.95 34. half the piles would be BW230 and the remainder would be BW231.6 PSA23.18 52.69 40.1 5. See page 24 for “Setting and Driving Tips” including guidance for template sizing.14 51.65 39.1 4.26 33.7 4.Number of Pieces 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 PSA23 D ft 29.8 3.9 4.5 4.10 33. Refer to pages 26 and 27 for section data on bent web piles. when properly interlocked.7 3. are designed to provide a swing up to 10 degrees (in either direction) for lengths up to 70 ft.59 42.5 and PS31.01 48.41 32.5 degrees for each 10 ft increase in length.5 & PS31 D ft 36.92 45.71 30. with Section PSA 23.61 36.89 40.3 4.80 35.65 36.8 3. .20 39. it is necessary to anticipate a reduction in obtainable swing of 1.56 37.6 4. Small cells constructed with bent web piles must have half of the piles bent with fingers inside and half with fingers outside.56 31.23 Area ft2 1050 1111 1173 1238 1304 1371 1441 1512 1585 1659 1736 1813 1893 1975 2057 2143 Required* Swing deg 5.4 4.0 4.10 50. For lengths over 70 ft.05 49.9 3. For example.50 37.

07 57.1 47.3 35.09 4.9 37.69 11.27 61.54 1.16 5.29 10.63 6.84 5.89 12.0 28.37 56.37 6.32 30.6 24.29 15.23 6.48 7.09 4.79 6.79 5.07 5.09 12.89 11.77 60.86 51.4 29.16 33.3 41.53 5.49 9.53 36.9 34.62 27.06 55.2 22.29 11.65 48.29 12.82 31.50 14.15 46.77 6.09 10.63 5.89 13.7 46.7 40.11 26.Cellular Layout Using PSA23 Circular Type With 90° T Connections SECTION PSA23 *Number of Piles in Cell 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 100 104 108 112 116 120 124 128 132 D ft z ft y ft r ft x ft Number of Piles m 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 n 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 p 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Area.89 10.16 22.46 5.63 7.1 20.29 14.39 1.54 1.44 44.9 31.94 43.14 5.48 8.17 49.96 28.94 4.76 23.5 27.17 50.76 37.03 34.3 38.70 13.56 32.79 5.4 32.57 56.96 30.97 .33 32.70 14.44 5.74 6.7 49.6 21.36 42.24 4.56 5.02 5.94 5.56 47.09 15.86 6.33 8.24 40.2 19.74 39.2 44.39 2.32 5.39 2.36 27.0 25.56 45.26 5.49 11.33 8.95 5.36 52.15 49.05 5.65 5.69 8.48 7.24 3.16 35.93 5.96 44.77 52.03 37.28 9.48 8.09 9.76 39.36 40.35 5.24 2.37 54.7 43.76 25. sq ft Within circle 326 383 444 509 579 654 733 817 905 998 1096 1197 1304 1415 1530 1650 1775 1904 2037 2175 2318 2465 Between circles 156 161 193 197 200 236 239 242 282 284 328 330 377 379 380 431 432 487 487 487 546 545 Average Width ft 18.

69 68.03 10.12 4. See page 24 for “Setting and Driving Tips.17 62.90 16.10 16.98 66. Average width shown = [area within circle + area between circles] / y.42 5.50 17.1 53. .17 *Including four T piles The dimensions shown above require one FT 230 and one FT231 in each connecting arc.57 61.5 55.81 5.” including guidance for template sizing. sq ft Within circle 2773 2934 3099 Between circle 607 605 672 Average Width ft 52.18 10.SECTION PSA23 *Number of Piles in Cell 140 144 148 D ft z ft y ft r ft x ft Number of Piles m 34 35 36 n 18 18 19 p 34 35 36 Area.1 59.18 9.48 64.

16 17.89 15.81 73.31 11.68 65.54 13.5 66.81 68.40 13. .36 96.37 Number of Piles m 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 n 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 p 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 Area.97 15.03 19.94 72.67 16.59 92.45 14. sq ft Within circle 1512 1735 1975 2229 2499 2784 3085 3401 3733 4080 4443 4821 5214 Average Between Width ft circles 694 773 855 942 1033 1127 1226 1329 1436 1547 1663 1782 1905 37.84 88.11 99.15 y ft 58.7 *Including four Y Piles Average width shown = [area within circle + area between circles] / y See page 24 for “Setting and Driving Tips.53 22.” including guidance for template sizing.97 11.91 16.41 19.01 16.59 20.78 18.48 z ft 14.53 62.66 15.1 68.14 53.0 50.54 17.27 10.5 and/or PS31 Circular Type With 30° Y Connections SECTION PS27.24 18.10 14.87 47.45 17.02 18.6 53.87 103.7 40.34 81.9 45.08 75.Cellular Layout Using PS27.32 14.63 r ft 10.5 and PS31 *Number of Piles in Cell 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 150 156 D ft 43.8 58.49 16.54 62.41 59.28 20.92 14.65 20.4 48.05 69.83 12.57 77.4 60.29 66.09 84.88 13.32 81.27 56.53 x ft 10.79 11.80 19.75 12.9 63.21 78.3 42.28 15.36 12.2 55.90 21.01 50.

88 6.71 65.9 27.6 40.50 60.32 56.41 58.96 48.66 3.40 5.57 5.16 5.95 11.04 10.5 and PS31 *Number of Piles in Cell 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 100 104 108 112 116 D ft 22.49 39.4 42.59 z ft 8.11 15.06 5.78 43.56 10.42 5.53 45.68 14.5 31.35 8.7 22.0 45.49 35.30 6.14 5.54 16.14 52.3 33.09 8.31 5.18 2.3 53.71 1.4 24.07 27.87 45.57 Number of Piles m 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 n 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 p 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Average Within Between Width ft circle circles 415 493 579 672 771 877 990 1110 1237 1370 1511 1658 1812 1974 2141 2316 2498 2686 2881 228 236 242 247 251 302 305 308 365 367 429 430 498 499 499 573 573 652 651 20.14 5.43 11.83 9.49 6.25 31.98 25.62 54.52 37.43 35.7 49.92 3.75 66.5 51.7 38.Cellular Layout Using PS27.00 10.10 7.69 41.52 5.62 7.45 6.71 62.53 42.6 29.75 .66 57.5 and/or PS31 Circular Type With 90° T Connections SECTION PS27.16 29.8 47.70 6.45 2.20 14.63 15.88 6.80 6.55 6.62 51.61 39.66 56.1 Area.27 5.67 6.95 y ft r ft x ft .76 13.34 33.58 47.05 50.66 60.91 5.2 44.58 50. sq ft 31.83 8.29 13.1 25.53 41.52 10.85 12.07 16.1 34.72 14.88 5.33 12.62 6.08 10.9 36.49 37.09 8.91 11.66 4.66 6.49 32.49 34.23 54.

. sq ft 69.SECTION PS27.68 64.0 56.76 66.80 70.59 y ft r ft x ft 9.8 58.” including guidance for template sizing.21 5.85 z ft 6.80 *Including four T piles Average width shown = [area within circle + area between circles] / y.97 17.44 17.50 17.80 72.6 Area. See page 24 for “Setting and Driving Tips.31 11.57 10.05 Number of Piles m 29 30 31 n 16 16 16 p 29 30 31 Average Within Between Width ft circle circles 3084 3293 3508 736 735 733 55.5 and PS31 *Number of Piles in Cell 120 124 128 D ft 62.82 6.

55 13.40 32.47 11.26 5.81 20.37 3.99 30.97 34.73 r&c ft 9.65 33 21.42 12.84 5.75 4.18 21.32 27.12 19.72 24.96 29.47 Area* ft2 8 11 14 18 22 27 32 38 44 50 57 65 72 81 89 98 108 118 129 139 151 No.91 3.42 28.17 37.53 36.89 34.23 2.54 36.73 17.48 18. of Piles-n 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 a ft 9.53 2.70 28.5 or PS31 Diaphragm Type With 120° Y Connections SECTION PSA23 Arrangement A Arrangement B even number of piles odd number of piles SECTION PS27. PS27.39 2.55 1.54 14.27 26.27 29.31 78 31.08 14.42 20.90 25.10 37.98 53 26.11 2.26 17.08 b ft 1.98 25 18.57 2.60 14.80 b ft 1.63 19.79 4.87 20.98 92 34.25 3.09 42.65 .65 65 29.17 15.05 5.54 33.21 4.75 33.36 1.60 31.19 14.58 3.30 18.13 26.63 4.73 3.09 16.41 3.04 24.95 3.76 21.28 Area* ft2 7 a ft 7.57 1.07 3.42 4.75 17.36 31.40 23.04 2.00 4.93 4.16 3.71 15.70 2.17 12. of Piles-n 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 12 13.43 Area* ft2 5 9 15 21 29 38 48 59 71 84 99 a ft 9.68 26.42 r&c ft 8.75 25.91 11.89 2.59 3.57 25.69 1.20 1.74 2.65 r&c ft 7.31 18 15.24 32.02 1.48 1.00 23.84 31.43 22.08 22.44 27.08 30.84 16.5 or PS31 Either even or odd number of piles No.09 4.62 10.32 2.82 29.45 41.81 39.31 43 23.90 2.99 11.35 22.98 10.Cellular Layout Using PSA23.03 12.67 39.24 40.91 b ft 1.

31 6.30 Area* ft2 108 a ft 37.00 39.62 4. of Piles-n 26 27 28 29 30 124 39.96 5.75 41.77 5.31 r&c ft 35.52 Area* ft2 163 175 188 201 214 No.89 6.07 43.55 b ft 4.18 b ft 4.42 r&c ft 34. .98 142 *Area between chord and subtended arc.50 47.” including guidance for template sizing.46 37.No.29 50.93 r&c ft 42.63 38.01 47.08 38.37 43.10 6. See page 24 for “Setting and Driving Tips.68 5.65 48.37 46.64 b ft 5.11 Area* ft2 115 132 a ft 44.94 45. of Piles-n 26 27 28 29 30 a ft 36.

ASTM A572Grades 50 and 60 and ASTM A690. Interlocks should be continuous and reasonably free-sliding when threaded. low-alloy grades . . it is necessary to make allowances for deviations from theoretical exactness. all plain piling sections shipped directly from the mill are provided with standard handling holes in the centerline of the web. but requires sufficient lead time to properly schedule such material. PS27. ASTM A690 connections will be furnished with angles or plates made from ASTM A588 steel and with ASTM A325 Type 3 bolts. ASTM Designation A328. Lengths Sheet piling sections are rolled and cut to the ordered length. Fabricated Connections Unless otherwise specified. it is best to check availability by calling the Bethlehem product office.General Specifications Material Bethlehem Steel Sheet Piling is furnished to the requirements of the Standard Specification for Steel Sheet Piling of the American Society for Testing and Materials. Splicing If possible. All steel sheet piling and fabricated connections have an allowable weight variation of ±2-1/2% and are invoiced on theoretical weight. See page 6 for additional information. The standard handling hole is a 2-9/16-in. Before ordering lengths exceeding 70 ft. the designer should specify the actual length as calculated in the design process. Handling Holes Unless otherwise specified.-diameter hole approximately 6 in. Bethlehem can supply sheet piling in high-strength. sometimes in excess of 100 ft. +5 in. Bethlehem can also supply sheet piling to meet Charpy (CVN) requirements. two interlock tests shall be made from each heat for sections P5A23. splicing of Z-piling should be avoided.5 and PS31. all connections will be fabricated with angles or bent plates. In addition. Length tolerance is -0 in. An exception would be when many different lengths are required. Number of Tests Two tension tests shall be made from each heat. For best economy. In addition. Economy is best achieved in such cases by ordering in one-ft increments. Care must be taken during installation to assure that each pair of sheets is being set at the desired driving dimension. The degree of precision obtainable in the production of steel sheet piling is limited by the basic character of the rolling processes and normal limitations of mill equipment.. All sections are readily available in lengths up to 70 ft from regular rollings. from the end. and with high-strength bolts. with appropriate grades as necessary. All grades of steel are readily available from regular mill rollings. Bethlehem can supply longer lengths. such as in a sloped wall. Tolerances When using steel sheet piling.

26 . in diameter.01/.05% columbium may be used. Driving Assembly of panels of steel sheet piling before driving is suggested. 0. Chemical Composition Percent (Heat Analysis) Grade A328 A572 Gr 50 .) . Technical Information Bethlehem is prepared to furnish additional technical information on sheet piling and its uses and will consult with engineers who are preparing designs that involve Bethlehem Steel Sheet Piling.35 max 1. Call your nearest Bethlehem representative or get in touch with Piling Products.one hole in one end only. Orders should specify if no holes are required.05 .one hole in each end.01/. Bethlehem. care should be taken . Ksi 39 50 60 50 Min Tensile Strength. The pairs will be shipped without welding or crimping which will insure maximum flexibility when setting a wall.40 .15* ** ** ** .05 .08/. In addition. min% 17 18 16 18 .40/. etc. Pairing Z-Piling in lengths up to 60 ft can be supplied in pairs. For normal interlocking.GR 50 .to provide for the proper sequence of driving. PSA and PS Piling . This facilitates driving. For setting and driving tips see page 6 for Z-piling and page 24 for PSA and PS piling. the minimum copper is 0.22 1.Z-Piling .Gr 60 A690 Carbon Sulfur Silicon Copper Manganese Phosporus Vanadium Nickel Max Max Max Min . from the top of each leg.60/. They are located about 6 in. **When copper-bearing steel is specified.04 max .40 .15* .04 max .75 *In lieu of vanadium. All fabricated connections have handling holes that are 1-3/8 in. Z-piles should be driven with the ball edge leading.40 .20 percent.. Mechanical Properties Grade A328 A572 .23 .15 .005/0. PA 18016. alternate Z-piles must be reversed end for end. Bethlehem Steel Corporation.GR 60 A690 Min Yield Point.05 .05 .35 max .04 max . and makes it possible I o obtain the nominal width of piling sections. maintains piling verticality.50 . Ksi 70 65 75 70 Elongation in 8 in.in the selection of connections and in planning for closed structures (cofferdams.90 .

5. PZ40 15 ft-lb @ -50F 15 ft-lb @ 0F *Meets all the requirements of ASTM A572 Grade 50 ** Inquire about availability of other toughness requirements . PS31 PZ35. PZ27 PSA23 PS27.V-STAR 50* Impact Resisting Steel Section Charpy (CVN) Energy** PZ22.

45 14.99 9.88 5.92 25.6 21.445 Web Thickness tw in.8 rx in. the piles are pulled and reused in the same manner.705 0.505 0. H-piles used in this manner have the important advantage that they can be driven well in advance of the excavation. o High column strength.8 3.8 18.56 44.1 21.415 .435 0.435 0. 14. 0.84 5. o Long life.70 8.705 0.13 3.125 12.7 40. Surface Area ft2/ft 7.86 5. o Small soil displacement.94 30.075 8. and other structures.06 5.4 2.2 2.610 0.18 4.4 3. 5.14 5.91 4. These holes can be filled after the piles are driven so that traffic may proceed until the excavation approaches. piers.615 0. buildings.88 21.96 5.6 2.735 14.605 0.96 5.11 5.4 15.53 35.445 lx in. and similar structures. o Great ability to stand up under hard driving. 14.515 0.88 1.to 8-ft centers. horizontal timber lagging is set in place between the pile flanges.4 10.4 443 380 326 261 213 186 153 127 101 71.1 2.215 12. o Capacity to develop high bearing value when driven to rock.28 12.7 2. permitting close spacing where necessary.83 13. the piles can be driven through small holes cut in the pavement.92 5.2 34.03 4.045 10.21 14.565 .06 7.97 5.0 26. Since then. one of these shapes-steel H-piles-has achieved wide application as foundation supports for bridges.92 59.155 Thickness tf in. They are driven in advance of the excavation. After the trench is completed.5 3.36 Axis Y-Y ly in.805 0. subways.565 0.91 5.4 29.8 58.02 Flange Width bf in. Design Properties Section Weight Per Number Foot lb HP14X 117 102 89 73 HP12X 84 74 63 53 HP10X HP8X 57* 42* 36* Area of Section A in.8 43. 0.8 12. H-piles possess the following advantages.885 14.695 14. H-Piles in Soldier Beam Construction Steel H-piles are used extensively and advantageously in the construction of sheeted trenches for sewers.86 19.3 ry in.685 .4 1220 1050 904 729 650 569 472 393 294 210 119 Axis X-X Sx in.5 16.515 0.Bethlehem H-Piles Bethlehem Steel pioneered the rolling of wide-flange shapes in 1908.805 0.83 3.3 172 150 131 107 106 93. As excavation proceeds.615 0.59 51.3 3. o Low cost of driving.295 12.3 2. The trench is braced by means of cross-struts of steel framed against the inside flanges of the piles or into horizontal waling pieces. In city streets.49 34.11 7.6 Depth of Section d in.41 9.13 11.1 66.95 *Sections currently produced by Bethlehem Steel .685 0. usually on 6.585 12.4 30.8 79. industrial plants.420 0.505 0. o Full-strength splicing easily attained.01 13.78 9. and as friction piles in suitable soils.225 10.3 Sy in.4 24.61 12.02 6.82 4.94 11. In addition to providing a "backbone" of steel for the trench lagging.

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