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CHOICE OF CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGIES REGION WISE

RECOMMENDED TECHNOLOGIES FOR HOUSING IN DIFFERENT GEO-CLIMATIC ZONES IN URBAN AREAS

NORTH EASTERN ZONE NORTH ZONE HILLY REGIONS OF WEST ZONE EAST ZONE SOUTH ZONE COASTAL
NORTH ZONE AREA
1. STATES ASSAM, MANIPUR, Punjab, haryana, union Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Gujarat and West Bengal, bihar, orissa Andra predesh,
meghalaya, nagaland, tripura territory of chandigarh, himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and eastern uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, tamil nadu,
and liAion territories of national capital territory of uttara khand. maharashtra. chattisgarh, jharkhand. kerala, goa and union
arunachal Pradesh, mizoram delhi and western uttar territories of dam an
and sikkim Pradesh and diu, dadra and
nagar haveli, Andaman
and nicobar islands,
lakshwadeep and
pondicherry.

2. EXISTING The zone is basically hilly The zone covers hilly The zone covers hilly The zone contains sand The zone comprises of This zone covers areas
CONDITIONS region with heavy rainfall and region as well as region as well as dunes, marshy land, black alluvial soil in the Indo- of poor quality soil for
AND falls under seismic zone V. substantial part of Indo- substantial part of Indo- cotton soil and hilly region. gangetic plane and some brick, red soil, lateritic
CONSTRUCTION There is abundance of stones gangetic plane and falls gangetic plane and falls The bricks produced are portions contain lateritic soils, coastal marine
PRACTICES but at number of pockets, soil under seismic zone IV. In under seismic zone IV. In having low compressive soils and also hilly portion. soil and some hilly
for making bricks is also the hilly areas there is the hilly areas there is strength of 25-40 kgfcm2 The alluvial soil is very areas. Some aras are
available. Forests are thick abundance of stone and abundance of stone and and high water absorption. good for production of clay having very thick
having bamboo and other the planes are full of the planes are full of Stones in most parts are bricks while in other parts forestation and have
timber trees in plenty. The alluvial soil. The houses alluvial soil. The houses used for walling. The laterite blocks are used. In two seasons of
houses are built with soil are built with soil blocks, are built with soil blocks, rainfall is low and soil the hilly region, stone monsoon os. The
blocks and 'Ekra' walling. The bricks, stone walls and bricks, stone walls and blocks bricks are used in walling is made. The houses are made with
roofs are generally sloping, roofs are CGI sheets, roofs are CGI sheets, construction of houses. houses are built with soil soil blocks, lateritic
either of thatch or CGI sheets burnt clay tiles, reinforced burnt clay tiles, reinforced blocks, bricks, laterite blocks, bricks, stone
having rafters and purlins brick concrete and R.C.C. brick concrete and R.C.C. blocks and stone. The walls, and the roofs are
make of timber f bamboo. roofs are made up of RCC with RCC Mangalore
/GI sheet roofing laid in tiles and RBC.
slope. The area is rich in
mines and coal mining is a
major industry.

3. INNOVATION OF . Instead of mud blocks for . Instead of mud blocks . Instead of mud blocks for . Instead of mud blocks for . Instead of mud blocks for . Instead of mud blocks
MATERIALS, walling, stabilized clay for walling, stabilized walling, stabilized clay walling, stabilized clay walling, stabilized clay for walling, stabilized
COMPONENTS blocks with cement flime f clay bl,ocks with blocks with cement f blocks with cement f blocks with cement clay interlocking
AND bitumen can be used. cement f lime f bitumen lime f bitumen shall be lime f bitumen shall be flime bitumen shall be blocks with cement I
TECHNOLOGIES Ferrocement walls using shall be produced mud produced mud used. produced and used. produced. lime I bitumen shall
split bamboo reinforcement used. Stone block Stone block masonry. Concrete blocks or be produced. Stone
and stabilized soil f cement masonry. stone blocks for or concrete blocks
for
NORTH EASTERN ZONE NORTH ZONE HILLY REGIONS OF WEST ZONE EAST ZONE SOUTH ZONE COASTAL
NORTH ZONE AREA
mortars. masonry. walling.

. In areas where flyash is . In areas where flyash is . In areas where flyash is . Production of good
available, units available, units available, units quality bricks from
production for production for production for interior soils by
producing building producing building producing building adding opening
components utilizing components utilizing components utilizing materials
flyash for clay-flyash flyash for clay-flyash flyash for clay-flyash comprising of cinder
bricks or and flyash- bricks or and flyash- bricks or and flyash- I grog I flyash.
sand-lime bricks. sand-lime bricks. sand-lime bricks.
. In place of RR masonry solid
concrete blocks of
30x20x15 cm and
30x15x15 cm with lean
concrete mixes of 1 :4:4:8
(cement: coarse sand:
12mm graded aggregate:
40mm aggregate) shall be
produced with individual or
battery mould having
vibration by a plate vibrator
or using block making
machine. The blocks for the
partition walls shall be
30x10x10cm. The hollow
concretes blocks shall be
40x20x20 cm and
40x20x10 cm.

. In place of RR masonary, . Precast concrete


solid concrete blocks of blocks using laterite as
30x20x15 cm and an aggregate can be
30x15x15 cm with produced and used.
designed concrete
mixes using 50 mm
aggregates I stone
spalls ' or hollow
concrete blocks of
40x20x20 cm shall be
used. The partition wall
blocks shall be
NORTH EASTERN ZONE NORTH ZONE HILLY REGIONS OF WEST ZONE EAST ZONE SOUTH ZONE COASTAL
NORTH ZONE AREA
30x10x10 cm hollow.

. In Hilly area solid/hollow . In Hilly area solid/hollow . In place of R.R. masonry, . In hilly areas where . In place of RR
concrete block walls concrete block walls solid concrete blocks of stone is readily masonry, solid
with RCC bands, as with RCC bands, as per 30x20x15 cm and available, solid concrete blocks of
per 1.5. code, shall be 1.5. code, shall be 30x15x15 cm with concrete blocks of 30x20x15 cm and
used which will avoid used which will avoid designed concrete 30x20x15 cm and 30x15x15 cm with
the use of timber and the use of timber and mixes using 50 mm 30x15x15 cm with designed concrete
provide easier / faster provide easier / faster aggregates / stone designed concrete mixes using 50 mm
and better construction. and better construction. spalls or hollow mixes using 50 mm aggregate I stone
concrete blocks of aggregates I stone spa spalls or hollow
40x20x20 cm shall be lis or hollow concrete concrete blocks of
used. The partition wall blocks of 40x20x20 cm 40x20x20 cm shall
blocks shall be shall be produced. The be used. The
30x10x10 cm solid or partition wall blocks partition wall block
40x20x10 cm hollow. shall be 30x1 Ox1 0 shall be 30x1 Ox1 0
cm solid or 40x20x10 cm solid or
cm hollow. 40x20x10 cm
hollow.

. Precast cement
concrete blocks with
laterite aggregates
can be produced in
30x20x15 cm and
30x1 Ox1 0 cm

. In areas affected by
cyclones, the houses
may be constructed on
RCC stilts.

3.1 Foundation . For the stilts, precast RCC . For the stilts, precast . In black cotton soil . The foundation in
posts shall be used RCC posts instead of areas the foundation floods I cyclones
instead of timber posts. timber posts shall be can be on pedestal affected areas can be
The joists shall also be of used. The joists shall piles/under-reamed on RCC columns,
RCC either in-situ or also be of RCC either piles. footings.
precast. in-situ or precast.
. Burnt clay bricks in cm1:6 . Burnt clay bricks in . Burnt clay bricks in . Burnt clay bricks in . Burnt clay bricks in
cm1:6 cm1:6 cm1:6 cm1:6

3.2 Wailing . RCC bands and vertical . Rat-trap bond walling . Solid concrete . Rat-trap bond walling . Rat-trap bond
NORTH EASTERN ZONE NORTH ZONE HILLY REGIONS OF WEST ZONE EAST ZONE SOUTH ZONE COASTAL
NORTH ZONE AREA
reinforcement as per IS with burnt bricks which blocks/hollow with burnt bricks which walling with burnt
code, shall be provided to saves 25% bricks and concrete blocks saves 25% bricks and bricks which saves
protect against the seismic mortar in plastering can instead of RR mortar in plastering can 25% bricks and
forces. be used as filler walls masonry saves in cubic be used as filler walls in mortar in plastering
in RC framed structure. content of masonry, RC framed structure. can be used as filler
thereby reducing walls for RC. framed
weight on foundations structure.
and achieving saving in
foundation as well as
masonry walling. It also
provides faster
construction and
makes greater floor
area for the same plinth
area.

. Burnt brick walls laid in . 19 em thick burnt brick . 19 cm thick burnt brick . 19 cm thick burnt brick
cement mortar 1:6 with wall for buildings upto 2 wall for buildings upto 2 wall for buildings
RCC bands shall be storeys provide around storeys provide around upto 2 storeys
provided where bricks are 20% saving in bricks 20% saving in bricks provide around 20%
available and mortar and greater and mortar and greater saving in bricks and
floor area for the same floor area for the same mortar and greater
plinth area can be used plinth area can be used floor area for the
or as filler wall in case or as filler walls in R.C. same plinth area can
of RC. framed framed structure. be used or as filler
structure. wall in RC. framed
structure.

. Solid concrete blocks of . Single brick thick walls . Single brick thick walls . Single brick thick walls
30x20x15cm or laid in cement laid in cement mortar 1 laid in cement
30x15x15cm or hollow mortar 1 :6 as load :6 as load bearing mortar 1 :6 as load
concrete blocks of bearing structure. structure. bearing structure.
40x20x20 em laid in
cement sand 1:6 mortar
with RCC bands can be
provided for load bearing
walls. Partition walls can be
with blocks of 30x10x10
em.

. Hollow, concrete blocks . Hollow concrete . Hollow concrete


or solid concrete blocks blocks or solid concrete blocks or solid
for walling instead of blocks for walling concrete blocks for
RR instead of RR walling instead of
.

NORTH EASTERN ZONE NORTH ZONE HILLY REGIONS OF WEST ZONE EAST ZONE SOUTH ZONE COASTAL
NORTH ZONE AREA
masonry saves in cubic masonry saves in cubic RR masonry or
content of masonry content of masonry coarsed rubble
thereby reducing thereby reducing weight masonry of granite
weight on foundations on foundations and stone can be used.
and achieving sailings achieving savings in This will reduce
in foundation as well as foundation as well as weight on
masonry walling. It will masonry walling. It will foundations,
provide speedier provide speedier provide greater floor
construction and construction and area for the same
greater floor area for greater floor area for plinth area, speedier
the same plinth area. the same plinth area construction and
saving in cost of
masonry and
foundation.

. Prefabricated concrete
blocks with lateritic
aggregate can be used
for walling.

3.3 Lintels . 75 mm thick precast RCC . 75 mm thick precast . 75 mm thick precast . 75 mm thick precast . 75 mm thick precast . 75 mm thick precast
lintels, with or without RCC lintels, with or RCC lintels, with or RCC lintels, with or RCC lintels, with or RCC lintels, with or
sunshades, can be without sunshades, can without sunshades, can without sunshades, can without sunshades, can without sunshades,
provided in brick or block be provided in brick or be provided in brick or be provided in brick or be provided in brick or can be provided in
masonry walls. block masonry walls. block masonry walls. block masonry walls. block masonry walls. brick or block
masonry walls.

. RC plinth bands, lintel bands . RC plinth bands, lintel . RC plinth bands, lintel . RC plinth bands, lintel . RC plinth bands, lintel . RC plinth bands, lintel
and roof band using bands and roof band bands and roof band bands and roof band bands and roof band bands and roof band
cement concrete M20 using cement concrete using cement concrete using cement concrete using cement concrete using cement
concrete. M-20 concrete. M-20 concrete. M-20 concrete. M-20 concrete. concrete M-20
concrete.

3.4 Doors and . Braced and battened doors . Braced and battened . Braced and battened . Braced and battened . Braced and battened . Braced and
Windows of secondary species doors of secondary doors of secondary doors of secondary doors of secondary battened doors of
timber with pivots at top species timber with species timber with species timber with species timber with secondary species
and bottom can be pivots at top and pivots at top and pivots at top and pivots at top and timber with pivots at
provided with or without bottom can be bottom can be provided bottom can be provided bottom can be provided top and bottom can
any frame. provided' with or with or without any with or without any with or without any be provided with or
without any frame frame frame frame without any frame

. RCC frames and shutter . RCC frames for doors .. RCC frames for doors . RCC frames for doors . RCC frames for doors . RCC frames for
NORTH EASTERN ZONE NORTH ZONE HILLY REGIONS OF WEST ZONE EAST ZONE SOUTH ZONE COASTAL
NORTH ZONE AREA
for doors and windows can and windows. and windows. and windows. and windows. doors and windows.
be provided.

. Bamboo mat shutters for . Ferrocement shutters . Ferrocement shutters . Ferrocement shutters . Ferrocement shutters . Ferrocement
doors and windows can be for doors. for doors. for doors. for doors. shutters for doors.
provided.

. Cement bonded . Cement bonded


particle boards, with or particle boards, with
without frame can be or without frames can. be
provided. provided.

3.5 Roofing . Precast RCC joist with prefab . Precast RCC joist with . Precast RCC joist with . Precast RCC joists with . Precast RCC joist with . Precast RCC joist with
brick panels/RC plank / prefab brick panels / prefab brick panels / RC plank / funicular prefab brick panels / prefab brick panels /
funicular shell / Precast RC plank / funicular RC plank / funicular shells. RC plank / funicular RC plank / funicular
Jack-arch Panel can be shell / Precast Jackarch shell / Precast Jack- shell / Precast Jackarch shell / Precast Jack-
provided. panel and concrete arch panel and panel and concrete arch panel and
panels in roofs concrete panels in panels in roofs concrete panels in
alongwith prefab brick roofs alongwith prefab alongwith prefab brick roofs alongwith
panel system can be brick panel system can panel system can be prefab brick panel
provided. be provided. provided. system can be
provided.

. Micro concrete tiles over . RBC/RCC in-situ may . RBC/RCC in-situ may . Slab roofing / RCC . RBC/RCC in-situ may . Cast in-situ RC solid
treated bamboo/timber also be provided. also be provided. L-panel roofing. also be provided. or filler slabs with
purlins of ferrocment RCC grid beams
purlins. and hollow tiles or
Mangalore tiles.

. Precast channel units of . Precast channel units . Precast channel units of . Precast channel units
RCC or ferrocement of R.C.C. RCC or ferrocement of RCC or
especially for especially for ferrocement for
'panchaya~ghar / 'panchayat-ghar' / 'panchayat-ghar /
school building/health school building/health school
centres/post office / centres/post office / building/health
bank can be provided. bank can be provided. centres/post office /
bank can be
provided.

. CGI sheets with false . AC/CGI sheets with . AC/CGI sheets with . AC/CGI sheets with . AC/CGI sheets with
ceiling purlins of steel/ RCC / purlins of steel/ RCC / purlins of steel/ RCC / purlins of steel/ RCC
ferrocement instead of ferrocement instead of ferrocement. / ferrocement.
timber can be used. timber can be used.
NORTH EASTERN ZONE NORTH ZONE HILLY REGIONS OF WEST ZONE EAST ZONE SOUTH ZONE COASTAL
NORTH ZONE AREA
. BMC roofing sheets on . Precast RC I panel for . Precast RC I panel for . Precast RCC L-panel
Bamboo or steel trusses sloping roof can be sloping roof can be for sloping roof can be
used. used. provided.

3.6 Flooring . PCC 1 :2:4 flooring 25 mm . PCC 1 :2:4 flooring 25 . PCC 1 :2:4 flooring 25 . PCC 1 :2:4 flooring 25 . PCC 1 :2:4 flooring 25 . PCC 1 :2:4 flooring
thick over a base course mm thick over a base mm thick over a base mm thick over a base mm thick over a base 25 mm thick over a
of lean concrete (1 :5:1 0) course of lean course of lean course of lean course of lean base course of lean
75 mm thick concrete (1:5:10) 75 concrete (1 :5:10) 75 concrete (1 :5: 1 0) 75 concrete (1:5:10) 75 concrete (1:5:10)
75 mm
mm thick mm thick mm thick mm thick
thick
3.7 Sanitation . Single stack system of . Single stack system of . Single stack system of . Single stack system of . Single stack system of . Single stack system
of
plumbing. plumbing. plumbing. plumbing. plumbing.
plumbing.
. G.!. I PVC pipes for water . G.!. I PVC pipes for . G.!. I PVC pipes for . G.!. I PVC pipes for . G.!. I PVC pipes for . G.I. I PVC pipes for
supply. water supply. water supply. water supply. water supply. water supply.
. CII PVC soil I waste pipes . CI I PVC soil I waste . CI I PVC soil I waste . CI I PVC soil I waste . CI I PVC soil I waste . CI I PVC soil I
waste
pipes pipes pipes pipes
pipes