Assuming the Role of the Systems Analyst

Major Topics
• Information systems • Phases of analysis and design • System maintenance • CASE tools • Alternate methodologies

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Information
• Information is an organizational
resource, which must be managed as carefully as other resources. • Costs are associated with information processing. • Information processing must be managed to take full advantage of its potential.
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Categories
Information systems fall into one of the following eight categories:
• Transaction processing systems (TPS). • Office automation systems (OAS). • Knowledge work systems (KWS). • Management information systems (MIS). • Decision support systems (DSS). • Expert systems (ES) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). • Group decision support systems (GDSS) and Computer-


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Supported Collaborative Work Systems. Executive support systems (EES).

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New Technologies
New technologies are being integrated into traditional systems:

• Ecommerce uses the Web to perform business
activities. • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has the goal of integrating many different information systems within the corporation. • Wireless and handheld devices, including mobile commerce (mcommerce). • Open source software.

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industry. • Creating a global system. • 24-hour access for users.Advantages of Using the Web • The benefits of using the Web are: • Increasing awareness of the availability of the service. product. • Standard interface design. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-7 . person. or group.

and objectives. • Analyzing the information flows in organizations. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-8 . opportunities.Nature of Analysis and Design Systems analysis and design is a systematic approach to: • Identifying problems. • Designing computerized information systems to solve a problem.

Systems Analyst • Systems analysts act as: • Outside consultants to businesses. • Supporting experts within a business. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-9 . • Analysts must be ethical with users and customers. • As change agents. • Analysts are problem solvers. and require communication skills.

• It is divided into seven phases. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-10 . • Each phase has unique activities.Systems Development Life Cycle • The systems development life cycle is a systematic approach to solving business problems.

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• User management.Phase 1 • Identifying: • Problems. 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 1-12 . • Objectives. • Opportunities. • Systems management. • Personnel involved: • Analyst.

• Gather systems/operating documents. and how. when.Phase 2 • Determining information requirements: • • Interview management. and the why for each of these. • Observe the system and personnel involved. where. operations personnel. • Use questionnaires. Learn the who. what. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-13 .

• User operations workers. • User management.Phase 2 (Continued) • Personnel involved: • Analyst. • Systems management. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-14 .

• Document procedural logic for data flow diagram • • • • processes. Recommend the optimal solution to management. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-15 . Make semistructured decisions.Phase 3 • Analyzing system needs: • Create data flow diagrams. Complete the data dictionary. Prepare and present the system proposal.

Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-16 . • Systems management.Phase 3 (Continued) • Personnel involved: • Analyst. • User management.

• Design files and/or database. • Design input. • Produce program specifications. • Produce decision trees or tables. • Design system controls.Phase 4 • Designing the recommended system: • Design the user interface. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-17 . • Design output.

Phase 4 (Continued) • Personnel involved: • Analyst. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-18 . • User management. • User operations workers. • System designer. • Systems management.

and pseudocode. • Write computer programs. • Walkthrough program design. procedure manuals. • Document software with help files. and Web sites with Frequently Asked Questions.Phase 5 • Developing and documenting software: charts. Nassi-Schneiderman charts. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall • Design computer programs using structure 1-19 .

• System designer. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-20 . • Systems management.Phase 5 (Continued) • Personnel involved: • Analyst. • Programmers.

Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-21 . • Test the computer system. • Enhance system.Phase 6 • Testing and maintaining the system: • Test and debug computer programs.

• Systems management.Phase 6 (Continued) • Personnel involved: • Analyst. • Programmers. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-22 . • System designer.

• Review and evaluate system. • Purchase and install new equipment. • Convert files.Phase 7 • Implementing and evaluating the system: • Plan conversion. • Install system. • Train users. 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 1-23 .

• User management. • User operations workers. 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 1-24 . • Systems management. • Programmers.Phase 7 (Continued) • Personnel involved: • Analyst. • System designer.

Rapid Application Development Rapid Application development (RAD) is an object-oriented approach to systems development. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-25 .

Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-26 .System Maintenance • System maintenance is: • Removing undetected errors. • Time spent on maintenance typically ranges from 48-60 percent of total time. and • Enhancing existing software.

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• Business and governmental requirements change over time. hardware. • Technology. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-28 .System Enhancements Systems are enhanced for the following reasons: • Adding additional features to the system. and software are rapidly changing.

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microcomputerbased software packages for systems analysis and design. • Facilitate communication among analysts and users. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-30 . • Four reasons for using CASE tools are: • To increase analyst productivity. • Providing continuity between life cycle phases.CASE Tools • CASE tools are automated. • To assess the impact of maintenance.

CASE Tool Categories CASE tools may be divided into several categories • Upper CASE (also called front-end CASE) tools. used to perform analysis and design. These tools generate computer language source code from CASE design. performing both upper and lower CASE functions. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-31 . • Lower CASE (also called back-end CASE). • Integrated CASE.

• The repository is a collection of records. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-32 . • These CASE tools model organizational requirements and define system boundaries. diagrams. screens. • Store data in a project repository. reports.Upper CASE • Create and modify the system design. Upper CASE tools: elements. and other project information.

• Source code may usually be generated in several languages. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-33 .Lower CASE • Lower CASE tools generate computer source code from the CASE design.

Generated code is free from program coding errors. • The time to maintain generated code is less than • • • to maintain traditional systems. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-34 . Computer programs may be generated in more than one language. CASE design may be purchased from third-party vendors and tailored to organizational needs.Advantages of Generating Code • Time to develop new systems decreases.

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Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-36 . • Source code is examined. and converted into repository entities. analyzed.Reverse Engineering • Reverse engineering is generating the CASE design from computer program code.

if the program is online. • Screen designs. • Report layouts for batch programs. records. describing the files. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-37 . • Database design and relationships.Reverse Engineering (Continued) • Reverse engineering produces (depending on the tool set used): • Data structures and elements. • A structure chart showing the hierarchy of the modules in the program. and field.

Future system maintenance is easier to implement.Advantages of Reverse Engineering Reverse Engineering has the following advantages: • Reduced system maintenance time. • Program documentation is produced for loosely • • • documented programs. Structured programs may be generated from unstructured. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-38 . Unused portions of programs may be eliminated. older programs.

• Objects are grouped into classes for optimal reuse and maintainability.Object-Oriented Analysis and Design • Object-oriented (O-O) analysis and design is used to build object-oriented programs. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-39 . • O-O programming examines the objects of a system.

The Unified Modeling Language • The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is an industry standard for modeling object-oriented systems. • It breaks down a system into a use case model. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-40 .

Extreme Programming (XP) • Extreme programming takes good software development practices and pushes them to the limit. • Core practices. • Principles. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-41 . • It is based on: • Values.

Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 1-42 .Extreme Programming (XP) (Continued) • Extreme programming values are: • Communication. • Feedback. • Simplicity. • Courage.

• These include: • Prototyping. • Project Champions. 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 1-43 . • Soft Systems Methodology.Alternate Methodologies • Alternate methodologies are available for analyzing systems. • ETHICS. • Multi-view.

Understanding Organizational Style and Its Impact on Information Systems .

• System and subsystem boundaries and environments impact on information system analysis and design. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-45 .Organizations • Organizations are composed of interrelated and interdependent subsystems.

Organizational Environment • Community environment • Economic environment • Political environment • State and local government 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall • Geographical • Demographics (education. income) • Market factors • Competition Kendall & Kendall 2-46 .

• Closed with restricted access to information • Limited by numerous rules.Open and Closed Systems Systems are described as either • Open • Free-flowing information. 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 2-47 . • Output from one system becomes input to another. • Information on a need to know basis.

Virtual Organizations • A virtual organization has parts of the organization in different physical locations. • Computer networks and communications technology are used to work on projects. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-48 .

Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-49 .Virtual Organization Advantages Advantages of a virtual organization are: • Reduced costs of physical facilities. • More rapid response to customer needs. • Flexibility for employees to care for children or aging parents.

• The software helps the flow of information between the functional areas within the organization. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-50 .Enterprise Resource Planning • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) describes an integrated organizational information system.

Kendall & Kendall 2-51 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall .Context-Level Data Flow Diagram (DFD) • A context-level data flow diagram is an important tool for showing data used and information produced by a system. • It provides an overview of the setting or environment the system exists within: which entities supply and receive data/information.

Customer Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-52 . department. • It is labeled with a noun. group. or system that supplies or receives information. a person.Context-Level DFD Symbols • Entity.

representing the entire system. • It is given the number 0. 0 Customer System Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-53 .Context-Level DFD Symbols (Continued) • Process.

• Data flow is labeled with a noun. • It shows information that passes to or from the process. Travel Request Passenger Reservation Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-54 . represented by an arrow.Context-Level DFD Symbols (Continued) • Data flow.

Data Flow Example Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-55 .

• Symbols are used to represent entities and relationships.Entity-Relationship Diagrams (E-R Diagrams) • Entity-relationship diagrams help the analyst understand the organizational system and the data stored by the organization. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-56 .

• Attributive entity. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-57 . to describe attributes and repeating groups. • Associative entity. describing a person. or thing.Entities There are three types of entities: • Fundamental entity. place. linking entities.

place. or thing. • Symbol is a rectangle.Fundamental Entity • Describes a person. Patron Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-58 .

• Also called a: • Gerund. • Can only exist between two entities. • Intersection.Associative Entity • Joins two entities. • Concatenated entity. • Symbol is a diamond inside a rectangle. • Junction. Reservation Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-59 .

• Symbol is an oval in a rectangle. Performance Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-60 .Attributive Entity • Describes attributes and repeating groups.

Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall • One to one. 2-61 . • Many to many. • One to many. • There are three types of relationships: • Relationship lines are labeled.Relationships • Relationships show how the entities are connected.

Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-62 . • Many is indicated by a crows foot.Relationship Notation • One is indicated by a short vertical line.

Entity Relationship Example Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-63 .

Attributes Data attributes may be added to the diagram. Patron Name Patron address Patron phone Patron credit card Patron Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-64 .

Creating Entity-Relationship Diagrams • List the entities in the organization. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-65 . • Confirm the results of the above through data gathering. • Identify what the primary entity should be. • Choose key entities to narrow the scope of Steps used to create E-R diagrams: the problem.

Levels of Management Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-66 .

• Strategic management.Managerial Control • The three levels of managerial control are: • Operations management. • Middle management. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-67 .

• dependent on internal information.Operations Management • Make decisions using predetermined rules that have predictable outcomes make decisions. • Oversee the operating details of the organization. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-68 .

• Decisions may be partly operational and partly strategic.Middle Management • Make short-term planning and control decisions about resources and organizational objectives. • Decisions are dependent on internal information. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-69 . both historical and prediction oriented.

Strategic Management • Look outward from the organization to the future. • Work in highly uncertain decisionmaking environment. • Often make one-time decisions. • Define the organization as a whole. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-70 . • Make decisions that will guide middle and operations managers.

2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 2-71 . • Technological considerations. • Organization culture. • Human interaction. • Leadership style.Managerial Levels Each of the three levels of management have: • Different organization structure. • All carry implications for the analysis and design of information systems.

• Learn from verbal and nonverbal symbolism.Organizational Culture • Organizations have cultures and subcultures. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-72 .

• Visions.Verbal Symbolism Using language to convey: • Myths. • Metaphors. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2-73 . • Humor.

Nonverbal Symbolism • Shared artifacts • Rites and rituals • Clothing worn • Office placement and decorations Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall • Trophies. etc. 2-74 . etc. • Promotions • Birthdays.

Determining Feasibility and Managing Analysis and Design Activities .

Project Initiation Projects are initiated for two broad reasons: • Problems that lend themselves to systems solutions. • Altering systems. • Opportunities for improvement through • Upgrading systems. • Installing new systems. 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 3-76 .

• Work done incompletely.Organizational Problems Identify problems by looking for the following signs: Check output against performance criteria • • Too many errors. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-77 . • Work not done at all. • Work done incorrectly. • Work completed slowly.

• High job turnover. • High job dissatisfaction. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-78 .Organizational Problems (Continued) • Observe behavior of employees • High absenteeism.

• Loss of sales. and suppliers • Complaints. • Lower sales. customers. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-79 . • Suggestions for improvement.Organizational Problems (Continued) • Listen to feedback from vendors.

Important enough to be considered over other projects. Practicable. • It moves the business toward attainment of its • • goals. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-80 . • Timed appropriately for commitment of resources.Project Selection Five specific criteria for project selection: • Backed by management.

Possibilities for Improvement Many possible objectives exist including: • Speeding up a process. • Improving system and subsystem integration. • Reducing redundant storage. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-81 . • Reducing redundant output. • Streamlining a process. • Reducing errors in input. • Combining processes.

Feasibility Impact Grid (FIG) • A feasibility impact grid (FIG) is used to assess the impact of any improvements to the existing system. • It can increase awareness of the impacts made on the achievement of corporate objectives Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-82 .

Feasibility Impact Grid (FIG) (Continued) • Current or proposed systems are listed on the left. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-83 . • Red arrows indicate a positive impact. • Objectives are listed on the top. • Green arrows indicate implementation.

• There are three types of feasibility: • Technical feasibility. technical. and economic merits of the proposed project. • Operational feasibility.Feasibility • A feasibility study assesses the operational. 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 3-84 . • Economic feasibility.

Technical Feasibility • Technical feasibility assesses whether the current technical resources are sufficient for the new system. can they be upgraded to provide the level of technology necessary for the new system. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-85 . • If they are not available.

• Hardware. • Includes the purchase of: • New equipment. • Software.Economic Feasibility • Economic feasibility determines whether the time and money are available to develop the system. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-86 .

Operational Feasibility • Operational feasibility determines if the human resources are available to operate the system once it has been installed. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-87 . • Users that do not want a new system may prevent it from becoming operationally feasible.

Activity Planning • Activity planning includes: task. 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 3-88 . • Estimating time required to complete each • Two tools for project planning and control are Gantt charts and PERT diagrams. • Selecting a systems analysis team. • Scheduling the project.

2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 3-89 .Estimating Time • • • • • Project is broken down into phases. Finally project is broken down into steps or even smaller units. Further project is broken down into tasks or activities. Time is estimated for each task or activity. Most likely. and optimistic estimates for time may be used. pessimistic.

• Shows activities over a period of time.Gantt Charts • Easy to construct and use. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-90 .

Gantt Chart Example Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-91 .

Monitoring critical path will identify shortest time to complete the project. activities that • • Kendall & Kendall must be completed before the next activities may be started.PERT Diagram PERT-Program Evaluation and Review Technique • PERT diagrams show precedence. Once a diagram is drawn it is possible to identify the critical path. 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-92 . the longest path through the activities.

PERT Diagram Example Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-93 .

PERT Diagram Advantages • Easy identification of the order of precedence • Easy identification of the critical path and thus critical activities • Easy determination of slack time. the leeway to fall behind on noncritical paths Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-94 .

• Other features are added later.Timeboxing • Timeboxing sets an absolute due date for project delivery. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-95 . • The most critical features are developed first and implemented by the due date.

• Online calendars. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-96 . • To-do lists.Personal Information Manager Software Personal information manager (PIN) software is useful for scheduling activities and includes features such as: • Telephone and fax number lists.

• Their activities. • Their time and resources. • One concerned with social relationships.Team Management • Teams often have two leaders: • One who leads members to accomplish • The systems analyst must manage: • Team members. Kendall & Kendall 3-97 . 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall tasks.

Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-98 . • Goal setting helps to motivate team members.Goal Setting • Successful projects require that reasonable productivity goals for tangible outputs and process activities be set.

• Ecommerce systems need a staff with a wide variety of skills.Ecommerce Project Management Ecommerce and traditional software project management differences: • The data used by ecommerce systems is scattered across the organization. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-99 . • Partnerships must be built externally and internally well ahead of implementation. • Security is of utmost importance.

Project Failures Project failures may be prevented by: • Training. • Experience. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-100 . • Learning why other projects have failed.

Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-101 .Extreme Programming Extreme programming (XP) takes good systems development practices to the extreme.

• Cost. 3-102 . Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall • Time.Extreme Programming Variables Extreme programming has four variables that the developer can control: • These are balanced for a project. • Cost. • Quality.

Extreme Programming Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-103 .

• • • • Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-104 . Testing. Designing.Extreme Programming Activities The activities of extreme programming are: Coding. Listening.

Working a 40-hour week.Extreme Programming Core Practices There are four core practices in extreme programming: A short release time. Having an onsite customer. Pair programming. • • • • Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-105 .

Roles in Extreme Programming Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-106 .

• Coach.Roles in Extreme Programming There are a 7roles played in XP: • Programmer. • Big Boss. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-107 . • Customer. • Tester. • Consultant. • Tracker.

• Customers decide what to tackle first. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-108 . • Limits uncertainty.The Planning Game • The planning game defines rules to help formulate the development team and customer relationship. • Two players: the development team and the business customer.

• Productionizing. • Maintenance. 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall incremental.XP Development Process • XP projects are interactive and • Exploration. • Planning. • Iterations to the first release. • The five Stages of XP development are: Kendall & Kendall 3-109 .

XP Development Process Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 3-110 .

Information Gathering: Interactive Methods .

• Interviewee feelings.Interviewing • Interviewing is an important method for collecting data on information system requirements. 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 4-112 . • Informal procedures. • About the current state of the system. • Interviews reveal information about: • Interviewee opinions. • Organizational and personal goals.

• Deciding whom to interview. • Establishing interview objectives.Planning the Interview Five steps in planning the interview are: • Reading background material. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-113 . • Deciding on question types and structure. • Preparing the interviewee.

• Closed.Question Types There are two basic types of interview questions: • Open-ended. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-114 .

Open-Ended Questions • Open-ended interview questions allow interviewees to respond how they wish. • Open-ended questions are appropriate when the analyst is interested in breadth and depth of reply. and to what length they wish. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-115 .

attitudes.Advantages of Open-Ended Questions Eight benefits of open-ended questions are: • Puts the interviewee at ease. • Allows the interviewer to pick up on the • • interviewee's vocabulary. and beliefs. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-116 . • Reflect education. Provides richness of detail. values. Reveals avenues of further questioning that may have gone untapped.

Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-117 . • Allows more spontaneity.Advantages of Open-Ended Questions Eight Benefits of open-ended questions are: (continued) • Provides more interest for the interviewee. • Makes phrasing easier for the interviewer. • Useful if the interviewer is unprepared.

Disadvantages of Open-Ended Questions
The five drawbacks include:

• May result in too much irrelevant detail. • Possibly losing control of the interview. • May take too much time for the amount of
useful information gained. • Potentially seeming that the interviewer is unprepared. • Possibly giving the impression that the interviewer is on a "fishing expedition”

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Closed Interview Questions
• Closed interview questions limit the
number of possible responses. • Closed interview questions are appropriate for generating precise, reliable data that is easy to analyze. • The methodology is efficient, and it requires little skill for interviewers to administer.
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Benefits of Closed Interview Questions
Six benefits are:

• Saving interview time. • Easily comparing interviews. • Getting to the point. • Keeping control of the interview. • Covering a large area quickly. • Getting to relevant data.
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Disadvantages of Closed Interview Questions
Four drawbacks of closed interview questions include:

• Boring for the interviewee. • Failure to obtain rich detailing. • Missing main ideas. • Failing to build rapport between
interviewer and interviewee.

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Attributes of Open-ended and Closed Questions

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Bipolar Questions and Probes • Bipolar questions are those that may be answered with a „yes‟ or „no‟ or „agree‟ or „disagree‟. • Bipolar questions should be used sparingly. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-123 .

• To clarify. • The purpose of probing questions is: Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-124 . about previous questions.Probing Questions • Probing questions elicit more detail • To get more meaning. • To draw out and expand on the interviewee's point.

starting with open-ended questions and working toward closed questions. • Funnel. and ending with closed questions. moving toward open-ended.Question Sequencing The three basic ways of structuring interviews are : • Pyramid. starting with closed questions and working toward open-ended questions. • Diamond. starting with closed. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-125 .

Pyramid Structure • Begins with very detailed. often closed questions • Expands by allowing open-ended questions and more generalized responses • Is useful if interviewees need to be warmed up to the topic or seem reluctant to address the topic Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-126 .

open-ended questions • Concludes by narrowing the possible responses using closed questions • Provides an easy.Funnel Structure • Begins with generalized. nonthreatening way to begin an interview • Is useful when the interviewee feels emotionally about the topic Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-127 .

Diamond Structure
• A diamond-shaped structure begins in a
very specific way • Then more general issues are examined • Concludes with specific questions • Combines the strength of both the pyramid and funnel structures • Takes longer than the other structures
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Closing the Interview
• Always ask “Is there anything else that
you would like to add?” • Summarize and provide feedback on your impressions. • Ask whom you should talk with next. • Set up any future appointments. • Thank them for their time and shake hands.
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Interview Report
• Write as soon as possible after the
interview. • Provide an initial summary, then more detail. • Review the report with the respondent.

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Joint Application Design (JAD)
• Joint Application Design (JAD) can
replace a series of interviews with the user community. • JAD is a technique that allows the analyst to accomplish requirements analysis and design the user interface with the users in a group setting.
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When to Use JAD
JAD may be used when:

• Users are restless and want something

new. • The organizational culture supports joint problem-solving behaviors. • Analysts forecast an increase in the number of ideas using JAD. • Personnel may be absent from their jobs for the length of time required.
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JAD Personnel JAD involves: • Analysts • Users • Executives • Observers • Scribe • Session leader 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 4-133 .

• Rapid development of systems. • Creative idea production is improved.Benefits of JAD The potential benefits of using JAD are: • Time is saved. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-134 . compared with traditional interviewing. • Improved user ownership of the system.

the session may not go very well. the session may not be successful. • If the follow-up report is incomplete.Drawbacks of Using JAD Potential drawbacks of using JAD are: • JAD requires a large block of time to be available for all session participants. • If preparation is incomplete. • The organizational skills and culture may not be conducive to a JAD session. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-135 .

Questionnaires Questionnaires are useful in gathering information from key organization members about: • Attitudes. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-136 . • Beliefs. • Behaviors. • Characteristics.

When to Use Questionnaires Questionnaires are valuable if: • Organization members are widely dispersed. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-137 . • Many members are involved with the project. • Exploratory work is needed. • Problem solving prior to interviews is necessary.

• Well suited for getting opinions. • Use when all the options may be listed. • When the options are mutually exclusive. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-138 .Question Types Questions are designed as either: • Open-ended • Closed • Try to anticipate the response you will get.

Open-Ended and Closed Questions Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-139 .

• Not patronizing.Questionnaire Language Questionnaire language should be: • Simple. • Appropriate for the reading level of the respondent. • Addressed to those who are knowledgeable. • Free of bias. • Specific. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-140 . • Technically accurate.

• Interval. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-141 .Measurement Scales • The two different forms of measurement scales are : • Nominal.

Nominal Scales • Nominal scales are used to classify things into categories. What type of software do you use the most? 1 = Word Processor 2 = Spreadsheet 3 = Database 4 = An Email Program Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-142 . • Data may be totaled. • It is the weakest form of measurement.

• Examples of interval scales include the Fahrenheit or centigrade scale. • There is no absolute zero. How useful is the support given by the Technical Support Group? NOT USEFUL EXTREMELY AT ALL USEFUL 1 2 3 4 5 Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-143 .Interval Scales • An interval scale is used when the intervals are equal.

• Validity is the degree to which the question measures what the analyst intends to measure. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-144 .Validity and Reliability Questionnaires must be valid and reliable. • Reliability of scales refers to consistency in response--getting the same results if the same questionnaire was administered again under the same conditions.

Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-145 . • Central tendency. • Halo effect.Problems with Scales There are three problems associated with poorly constructed scales: • Leniency.

Leniency • Caused by easy raters. • Solution is to move the “average” category to the left or right of center. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-146 .

• Improve by making the differences smaller at the two ends.Central Tendency Central tendency occurs when respondents rate everything as average. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-147 . • Create a scale with more points. • Adjust the strength of the descriptors.

Halo Effect • When the impression formed in one question carries into the next question • Solution is to place one trait and several items on each page. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-148 .

Designing the Questionnaire Good response rates can be achieved with consistent control of questionnaire. • Allow ample space to write or type in responses. • Be consistent in style. • Make it easy for respondents to clearly mark their answers. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-149 . • Allow ample white space.

• Introduce less controversial questions first. • Cluster items of similar content together.Order of Questions • Place most important questions first. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 4-150 .

Web Form Questionnaires
Controls (fields) used on Web forms:

• Single line text box. • Scrolling text box, used for one or more • •
• •

paragraphs of text. Check box for yes-no or true-false answers. Radio button for mutually exclusive yes-no or true-false answers. Drop-down menu for selection from a list. Submit or Clear buttons.
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Methods of Administering the Questionnaire
Methods of administering the questionnaire include:

• Convening all concerned respondents

together at one time. • Personally administering the questionnaire. • Allowing respondents to self-administer the questionnaire. • Mailing questionnaires. • Administering over the Web or via email.
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Electronically Submitting Questionnaires
Administering a questionnaire electronically has the following benefits:

• Reduced costs. • Collecting and storing the results
electronically.

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Prototyping, RAD, and Extreme Programming

Prototyping
• Prototyping is an information-gathering
technique. • Prototypes are useful in seeking user reactions, suggestions, innovations, and revision plans. • Prototyping may be used as an alternative to the systems development life cycle.
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Four Kinds of Prototypes The four conceptions of prototypes are : • Patched-up prototype. • Nonoperational scale model. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-156 . • First-of-a-series. • Prototype that contains only some of the essential system features.

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-157 . • Users can interact with the system.Patched-up Prototype • This is a working model with all the features but is inefficient. • May contain only basic features. • Storage and retrieval of data may be inefficient.

Nonoperational Scale Models • A nonoperational scale mode is one that is not operational. except for certain features to be tested • Prototype input and output Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-158 .

• An example is a system to be installed in one location. tested and modified as necessary. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-159 . • Prototype is an operation model.First-of-a-Series Prototype • Pilot system is created. • Useful when many installations of the same information system are planned. and later implemented in other locations.

but not all. • These are part of the actual system. of the final system features. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-160 . • With the acceptance of these features. later essential features are added. • Some menu items are available.Selected Features Prototype • An operational model includes some. • System is built in modules.

Prototyping As an Alternative to the Systems Life Cycle • Two main problems with the SDLC: • Extended time required to go through the development life cycle. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-161 . • Prototyping may be used as an alternative. • User requirements change over time.

Prototype Development Guidelines Guidelines for developing a prototype are: • Work in manageable modules. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-162 . • Stress the user interface. • Modify the prototype in successive iterations. • Build the prototype rapidly.

Prototype Disadvantages • Managing the prototyping process is difficult because of its rapid. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-163 . • Incomplete prototypes may be regarded as complete systems. iterative nature.

Prototype Advantages • Potential for changing the system early in its development • Opportunity to stop development on an unworkable system • Possibility of developing a system that closely addresses users needs and expectations Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-164 .

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-165 . • Giving open reactions to the prototype. • Three ways the user is involved: • Experimenting with the prototype.Prototype Evaluation – The User‟s Role • The user‟s role is honest involvement. • Suggesting additions to and/or deletions from the prototype.

is an object-oriented approach to systems development that includes a method of development as well as software tools. or rapid application development.Rapid Application Development (RAD) RAD. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-166 .

• Implementation. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-167 .RAD Phases • The three broad phases to RAD are : • Requirements planning. • RAD design workshop.

7 here NOTE: Confirm with author which figure should be inserted! Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-168 .RAD Phases Insert Figure 8.

Requirements Planning Phase • Users and analysts meet to identify objectives of the application or system • Oriented toward solving business problems Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-169 .

Programmers and analysts can build and show visual representations of the designs and workflow to users. Analysts refine designed modules based on user responses. Users respond to actual working prototypes. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-170 . • Use group decision support systems to help users • • • agree on designs.RAD Design Workshop • Design and refine phase.

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-171 .Implementation Phase • As the systems are built and refined. • When creating new systems. there is no need to run old systems in parallel. the new systems or partial systems are tested and introduced to the organization.

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-172 .Martin Approach to RAD The Martin approach to RAD includes four phases: • Requirements planning. • Cutover. • User design. • Construction.

Martin Approach to RAD Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-173 .

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-174 . • Implementation is less stressful because users helped to design the business aspects of the system. • Users approve the design and sign off on the visual model.RAD and the SDLC • RAD tools are used to generate screens and exhibit the overall flow of the application.

When to Use RAD RAD is used when: • The team includes programmers and analysts who are experienced with it. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-175 . • Users are sophisticated and highly engaged with the goals of the company. • The project involves a novel ecommerce application and needs quick results. • There are pressing reasons for speeding up application development.

Disadvantages of RAD • May try and hurry the project too much • Loosely documented Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-176 .

Extreme Programming (XP) Extreme programming (XP) takes good systems development practices to the extreme. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-177 .

• Feedback.Four Values of Extreme Programming The four values of extreme programming are: • Communication. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-178 . • Courage. • Simplicity.

Five XP Principles The five XP principles are: • Providing rapid feedback. • Encouraging quality work. • Changing incrementally. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-179 . • Assuming simplicity. • Embracing change.

Five XP Principles Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-180 .

• Testing.Four Basic Activities of XP The four basic activities of XP are: • Coding. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-181 . • Designing. to the programming partner and customer. • Listening.

Four XP Resource Control Variables The four resource control variables in XP are: • Time. • Scope. • Quality. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-182 . • Cost.

Four XP Core Practices The four XP core practices are: important features first. • Having a 40-hour work week. • Pair programming with another programmer. • Having an onsite customer. • Short releases. work with the most Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-183 .

XP Relationships Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-184 .

© 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 6-185 .XP Development Process The phases of the XP development process are: • Exploration. • Maintenance. • Iterations to the first release. • Productionizing. • Planning.

XP Stories • XP stories are a spoken interaction between developers and users. • It is not written communication. • The goal is prevention of misunderstanding or misinterpretations of user requirements. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-186 .

XP Lessons The six lessons that can be drawn from the XP development approach are: • Short releases allow the system to evolve. • Onsite customers are mutually beneficial to the business and the XP team. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-187 . • Pair programming enhances overall quality.

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-188 .XP Lessons The six lessons that can be drawn from the XP development approach (continued) • The 40-hour work week improves worker effectiveness. • Balanced resources and activities support project goals. • XP values are crucial to success.

XP Lessons Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-189 .

• In addition to the values of communication. has a fifth value of humility. simplicity feedback and courage.Agile Modeling • Agile modeling is similar to XP. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-190 .

• Use feedback from the prototypes and logical workflow to create physical model. • Develop some prototypes.Agile Modeling (Continued) • Agile modeling process is: • Listen to user stories. • Draw a logical workflow model. • Create new user stories based on the workflow. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-191 .

• Individual success is secondary. • The team works within a strict time frame. • The project leader has some but not much influence on detail. • Team success is of primary importance. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 6-192 .Scrum • Scrum is an Agile approach that has an emphasis on teamwork.

Using Data Flow Diagrams .

• DFDs emphasize the logic underlying the system. • The systems analysts can put together a graphical representation of data movement through the organization. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-194 .Data Flow Diagrams • DFDs are one of the main methods available for analyzing data-oriented systems.

• Understanding of the interrelationships of systems and subsystems.Advantages of the Data Flow Diagram Approach Four advantages over narrative explanations of data movement: • Freedom from committing to the technical implementation too early. • Communicating current system knowledge to users. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-195 . • Analysis of the proposed system.

• An arrow for movement of data from one point to another. • A rectangle with rounded corners for the occurrence of transforming process. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-196 . • An open-ended rectangle for a data store.Basic Symbols • A double square for an external entity--a Four basic symbols are: source or destination of data.

Basic Symbols Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-197 .

describing that entity Customer Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-198 .External Entities • Represent people or organizations outside of the system being studied • Shows the initial source and final recipient of data and information • Should be named with a noun.

• Another department within the company. • A company or organization. such as the INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM. such as BANK or SUPPLIER. such as CUSTOMER or STUDENT. such as ORDER FULFILLMENT. • Another system or subsystem.External Entities (Continued) • External entities may be: • A person. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-199 .

an activity 1 Add New Customer 2 Customer Inquiry Subsystem • Names should be in the form verbadjective-noun • The exception is a process that represents an entire system or subsystem.Processes • Represent either: • A whole system • A subsystem • Work being done. © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 7-200 .

D2. D3. describing the data • Data stores are usually given a unique • A computer file or database. • A transaction file . D1 • A manual file of records. such as D1. • Include any data stored. • A set of tables . © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall reference number. such as: Customer Master Kendall & Kendall 7-201 .Data Stores • Name with a noun.

place. or thing that moves through the system. Use double headed-arrows only when a process is reading data and updating the data on the same table or file. Names should be a noun that describes the data moving through the system. © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 7-202 .New Customer Data Flow • • • • Customer Record Data flow shows the data about a person. Arrowhead indicates the flow direction.

• Include the external entities and major data stores.Developing Data Flow Diagrams Use the following guidelines: • Create the context level diagram. including all • • external entities and the major data flow to or from them. Create a child diagram for each complex process on Diagram 0. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-203 . Create Diagram 0 by analyzing the major activities within the context process.

• Analyzing what is necessary to create an output data flow to an external entity. • Analyzing what happens to an input data flow from an external entity.Creating Data Flow Diagrams Detailed data flow diagrams may be developed by: • Making a list of business activities. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-204 .

Creating Data Flow Diagrams Detailed data flow diagrams may be developed by (continue): • Examining the data flow to or from a data store. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-205 . • Noting and investigating unclear areas. • Analyzing a well-defined process for data requirements and the nature of the information produced.

• The top level is the Context level. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-206 . • The lower level diagram number is the same as the parent process number. • Each process may explode to a lower level.Data Flow Diagram Levels • Data flow diagrams are built in layers. • Processes that do not create a child diagram are called primitive.

• The diagram does not contain any data stores.Context-Level Data Flow Diagram • It contains only one process. • All external entities are shown on the context diagram as well as major data flow to and from them. representing the entire system. • The process is given the number zero. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-207 .

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-208 .DFD Levels • Insert Figure 4.3 here NOTE: confirm correct figure with author.

Diagram 0 • Diagram 0 is the explosion of the context level diagram. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-209 . integer. • It should include up to 7 or 9 processes. • The major data stores and all external entities are included on Diagram 0. • Processes are numbered with an • Any more will result in a cluttered diagram.

Child Diagrams • • Each process on diagram zero may be exploded to create a child diagram. Each process on a lower-level diagram may be exploded to create another child diagram. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-210 . These diagrams found below Diagram 0 are given the same number as the parent process. • • Process 3 would explode to Diagram 3.

child of process 5. • Examples are: • 3. and a unique child diagram number. the child of process 3.2 on Diagram 3.2. © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 7-211 .7 Child Diagrams (Continued) Calculate Customer Discount • Each process is numbered with the parent diagram number. • On Diagram 3.2 Edit Customer 5. the processes would be numbered 3.1. • 5.3 and so on.2.2. a period.3.7 on Diagram 5. 3.2. 3.2.

Child Diagrams (Continued) • External entities are usually not shown on the child diagrams below Diagram 0. • If the parent process has data flow connecting to a data store. the child diagram may include the data store as well. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-212 .

© 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall (such as a tax table). such as: • A file containing a table of information • Minor data flow. Kendall & Kendall 7-213 . such as an error line.Child Diagrams (Continued) • A lower-level diagram may contain data stores not shown on the parent process. may be included on a child diagram. • A file linking two processes on the child diagram.

• Logic is written for these processes. • Processes that do not create a child diagram are called primitive processes. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-214 .Child Diagrams (Continued) • An interface data flow is data that are input or output from a child diagram that matches the parent diagram data flow.

1 Add New Customer Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 2 Add New Customer 7-215 .Data Flow Diagram Errors • The following conditions are errors that occur when drawing a data flow diagram: • A process with only input data flow or only output data flow from it.

in any combination.Data Flow Diagram Errors (Continued) • Data stores or external entities are connected directly to each other. Customer D1 Customer Vendor D2 Vendor Master Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-216 .

• Too many processes on a data flow diagram. • Data flow labeled with a verb. • Processes labeled with a noun. • Nine is the suggested maximum.Data Flow Diagram Errors (Continued) • Incorrectly labeling data flow or objects • Examples are: • Labels omitted from data flow or objects. © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 7-217 .

Data Flow Diagram Errors (Continued) • Omitting data flow from the diagram • Unbalanced decomposition between a parent process and a child diagram • The data flow in and out of a parent process must be present on the child diagram. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-218 .

• They have processes that would exist regardless of the type of system implemented.Logical Data Flow Diagrams • Logical data flow diagrams show how the business operates. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-219 .

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-220 . • Finally derive the physical data flow diagram for the new system. • Next add all the data and processes not in the current system that must be present in the new system.Data Flow Diagram Progression The progression of creating data flow diagrams is: • Create a logical DFD of the current system.

Data Flow Diagram Progression Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-221 .

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-222 . • More stable systems. • Elimination of redundancy. • Increased understanding of the business by analysts. since the design is based on a business framework.Logical Data Flow Diagrams Advantages Advantages of logical DFDs are: • Better communication with users. • The system will have increased flexibility and be easier to maintain.

Physical data flow diagrams include: • • Clarifying which processes are manual and which • • are automated.Physical Data Flow Diagrams Physical data flow diagrams show how the system operates or how the new system will be implemented. Sequencing processes in the order they must be executed. Describing processes in greater detail. © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 7-223 .

• Controls to ensure accuracy and completeness. • Specifying actual document and file names.Physical Data Flow Diagrams Physical data flow diagrams include (continued): • Temporary data stores and transaction files. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-224 .

Delete. and deleting records. Update.CRUD • Physical data flow diagrams include processes for adding. • CRUD is an acronym for Create. read. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-225 . update. Read. or delete master file records. changing. reading. • A CRUD matrix shows which programs or processes add.

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-226 . • They are required to store the data from the process that creates the data to the process that uses the data.Transaction Files • Master or transaction database tables or files are used to link all processes that operate at different times.

which are summarized in an event table. • An approach used to create a data flow fragment is to analyze events.Triggers and Events • An input flow from an external entity is sometimes called a trigger. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-227 . since it starts activities. • Events cause the system to do something.

Event Tables • An event table is used to create a data flow diagram by analyzing each event and the data used and produced by the event. Kendall & Kendall 7-228 © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall . • Every row in an event table represents a unique activity and is used to create one process on the data flow diagram.

and data stores required for user activities. • A use case shows the steps performed to accomplish a task. • A use case is used to create a data flow diagram by providing a framework for obtaining processes. output. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-229 .Use Case and Data Flow Diagrams • A use case is another approach used to develop a data flow diagram. input.

• Steps performed.Use Case The major sections of a use case are: • Use case name. • Information required for each step. © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 7-230 . • Input name and source. • Trigger type. • Output name and destination. • Trigger. • Description.

• A dashed line is drawn around a group of processes that are included in each computer program or manual procedure.Partitioning • Partitioning is the process of analyzing a data flow diagram and deriving a series of manual procedures and computer programs. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-231 .

• Processes may be separated into different programs for security. • Processes that execute at different times must be in separate programs. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-232 .Reasons for Partitioning • The reasons for partitioning a data flow diagram into separate computer programs are: • Different user groups should have different programs.

Reasons for Partitioning (Continued) • Similar tasks may be included in the same program. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-233 . • Several processes may be included in the same program or job stream for consistency of data. • Several batch processes may be included in the same program for efficiency.

• Improves speed of processing • Easier Web page maintenance • Different pages when reading different data • Partitioned for security.Partitioning Web Sites Web sites are partitioned into pages. separating pages using a secure connection from those that do not Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-234 .

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 7-235 . • Meaningful labels should be used for good communication.Communicating Using Data Flow Diagrams Data flow diagrams can be used for several different purposes: • Unexploded data flow diagrams are useful to identify information requirements.

Analyzing Systems Using Data Dictionaries .

• The data dictionary is a reference work of data about data (metadata). and confirms what a specific data term means to different people in the organization. coordinates.Data Dictionary • Data dictionary is a main method for analyzing the data flows and data stores of data-oriented systems. • It collects. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-237 .

• Validate the data flow diagram.Reasons for Using a Data Dictionary The data dictionary may be used for the following reasons: • Provide documentation. • To develop the logic for DFD processes. • Eliminate redundancy. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-238 . • Provide a starting point for developing screens and reports.

It includes: • Information about system data. © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 8-239 . • Project management information. • Procedural logic. • Relationships between entries. • Project requirements and deliverables.The Repository • • A data repository is a large collection of project information. • Screen and report design.

Data Dictionary and Data Flow Diagram Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-240 .

• Data structures.Data Dictionary Contents Data dictionaries contain: • Data flow. • Elements. • Data stores. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-241 .

• Label. • Include the following information: • ID .Defining Data Flow • Each data flow should be defined with descriptive information and its composite structure or elements.identification number. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-242 . • A general description of the data flow. the text that should appear on the diagram.

• The destination of the data flow • Type of data flow. or screen.used between processes. 8-243 Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall . • Containing a report. form. a process. either: • A record entering or leaving a file. or a data flow coming from a data store.Defining Data Flow (Continued) • The source of the data flow • This could be an external entity. • Internal .

Defining Data Flow (Continued) • The name of the data structure or elements • The volume per unit time of time. • This could be records per day or any other unit • An area for further comments and notations about the data flow Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-244 .

Data Flow Example Name Description Customer Order Contains customer order information and is used to update the customer master and item files and to produce an order record. Add Customer Order Type Screen Data Structure Order Information Volume/Time 10/hour Comments An order record contains information for one customer order. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-245 . The order may be received by mail. fax. or by telephone. Source Customer External Entity Destination Process 1.

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-246 .Defining Data Structures • Data structures are a group of smaller structures and elements. • An algebraic notation is used to represent the data structure.

• The elements listed inside are mutually exclusive. • Brackets [] for an either/or situation. • Parentheses () for an optional element. • Plus sign.Algebraic Notation The symbols used are: • Equal sign. meaning "and”. • Braces {} meaning repetitive elements. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-247 . meaning “consists of”. a repeating element or group of elements.

Repeating Groups • A repeating group may be: • A sub-form. • A screen or form table. matrix. • There may be one repeating element or several within the group. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-248 . • A program table. or array.

• Upper and lower limits for the number of repetitions. • A fixed number of repetitions. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-249 .Repeating Groups (Continued) • The repeating group may have: • Conditions.

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-250 .Physical and Logical Data Structures • Data structures may be either logical or physical. • Logical data structures indicate the composition of the data familiar to the user.

• A count of repeating group entries. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-251 .Physical Data Structures • Include elements and information necessary to implement the system • Additional physical elements include: • Key fields used to locate records. • Codes to identify records when multiple record types exist on a single file. • Codes to indicate record status.

Data Structure Example Customer Order = Customer Number + Customer Name + Address + Telephone + Catalog Number + Order Date + {Order Items} + Merchandise Total + (Tax) + Shipping and Handling + Order Total + Method of Payment + (Credit Card Type) + (Credit Card Number) + (Expiration Date) Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-252 .

Structural Records • A structure may consist of elements or smaller structural records. • Telephone. © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall • Customer Name. Kendall & Kendall 8-253 . • Address. such as: • Each of these must be further defined until only elements remain. • These are a group of fields.

The names do not reflect a functional area.General Structural Records • Structural records and elements that are used within many different systems should be given a non-system-specific name. and zip. • • Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-254 . city. such as street. This allows the analyst to define them once and use in many different applications.

Structural Record Example Customer Name = First Name + (Middle Initial) + Last Name Address = Street + (Apartment) + City + State + Zip + (Zip Expansion) + (Country) Area code + Local number © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Telephone = Kendall & Kendall 8-255 .

validation criteria. length and type of data information. • Each element should be defined once in the data dictionary. and default values.Defining Elements • Data elements should be defined with descriptive information. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-256 .

Defining Elements (Continued) • Attributes of each element are: • Element ID. descriptive and unique • It should be what the element is commonly called in most programs or by the major user of the element. • The name of the element. This is an optional entry that allows the analyst to build automated data dictionary entries. © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 8-257 .

which are synonyms or other names for the element • These are names used by different users within different systems • Example.Defining Elements (Continued) • Aliases. © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 8-258 . • Client Number. a Customer Number may be called a: • Receivable Account Number.

usually as the result of a calculation or some logic. 8-259 . • A derived element is one that is created by a process.Defining Elements (Continued) • A short description of the element • Whether the element is base or derived • A base element is one that has been initially • The length of an element Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall keyed into the system.

• For other elements. or telephone number. such as a state abbreviation. zip code. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-260 .Determining Element Length What should the element length be? • Some elements have standard lengths. the length may vary and the analyst and user community must decide the final length.

Determining Element Length (Continued) • Numeric amount lengths should be determined by figuring the largest number the amount will contain and then allowing room for expansion. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-261 . • It is often useful to sample historical data to determine a suitable length. • Totals should be large enough to accommodate the numbers accumulated into them.

Determining Element Length Percent of data that will Length fit within the length Element Last Name First Name Company Name Street City 11 18 20 18 17 98% 95% 95% 90% 99% Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-262 .

the data will be truncated. mail would usually still be delivered. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-263 . • If a last name is truncated. • The analyst must decide how this will affect the system outputs. • A truncated email address or Web address is not usable.Data Truncation • If the element is too small.

display. • Microcomputer (PC) formats. • PC formats depend on how the data will be used. date. either numeric. alphabetic or alphanumeric or other microcomputer formats Storage type for numeric data • Mainframe: packed. binary. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-264 . Number. such as Currency. or Scientific.Data Format • • The type of data.

smallmoney .Binary strings (sound. video) Cursor. varchar.Personal Computer Formats Bit . timestamp.Monetary numbers accurate to four decimal places Binary. smallint. text . uniqueidentifier . several formats Decimal.A value of 1 or 0.Alphanumeric data. a true/false value Char.Only integer (whole digit) data Money.Floating point values that contain an approximate decimal value Int.Any alphanumeric character Datetime.A value that is always unique within a database Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-265 . real . smalldatetime .Numeric data that is accurate to the least significant digit Can contain a whole and decimal portion Float. image . picture. varbinary. numeric . tinyint .

These may translate into masks used to define database fields. using coding symbols: • • Z . decimal point.Zero suppress.Defining Elements . . • . © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 8-266 .Comma. hyphen. • X(8) . .8 characters. • 9 – Number.Format • Input and output formats should be included. • X – Character.

• Continuous elements are checked that the data is within limits or ranges. • They may search a table of codes. • Elements are either: values within a program. with a smooth range of values.Validation • Validation criteria must be defined. • Discrete. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-267 . meaning they have fixed values.Defining Elements . • Discrete elements are verified by checking the • Continuous.

Defining Elements • Include any default value the element may have • The default value is displayed on entry screens • Reduces the amount of keying • Default values on GUI screens used • Initially display in drop-down lists • Are selected when a group of radio buttons are © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Kendall & Kendall 8-268 .

the check-digit method used. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-269 . special validation that is required. and so on.Defining Elements (Continued) • An additional comment or remarks area. • This might be used to indicate the format of the date.

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-270 . 6 9(6) 9(6) Length Input Format Output Format Default Value Continuous/Discrete Continuous Type Numeric Base or Derived Derived Upper Limit <999999 Lower Limit >18 Discrete Value/Meaning Comments The customer number must pass a modulus-11 check-digit test.Data Element Example Name Alias Alias Description Customer Number Client Number Receivable Account Number Uniquely identifies a customer that has made any business transaction within the last five years.

Kendall & Kendall 8-271 © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall .Defining Data Stores • Data stores contain a minimal of all base elements as well as many derived elements. each different person. • Data stores are created for each different data entity. that is. or thing being stored. place.

called the user view. • Since a data flow may only show part of the collective data. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-272 .Defining Data Stores (Continued) • Data flow base elements are grouped together and a data store is created for each unique group. you may have to examine many different data flow structures to arrive at a complete data store description.

Data Store Definition • The Data Store ID • The Data Store Name. descriptive and unique • An Alias for the file • A short description of the data store • The file type. either manual or computerized Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-273 .

Data Store Definition (Continued) • • • If the file is computerized. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-274 . The maximum and average number of records on the file The growth per year • This helps the analyst to predict the amount of disk space required. the file format designates whether the file is a database file or the format of a traditional flat file.

if known. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-275 .Data Store Definition (Continued) • The data set name specifies the table or file name. • In the initial design stages. this may be left • The data structure should use a name found in the data dictionary. blank.

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-276 . and Zip Code are secondary keys.Key Fields • Primary and secondary keys must be elements (or a combination of elements) found within the data structure. which should be unique.Data Store Definition . Telephone. • Example: Customer Master File • Customer Number is the primary key. • The Customer Name.

Data Store Example .Part 1 ID Name Alias Description File Type File Format Record Size Maximum Records Average Records Percent Growth/Year Kendall & Kendall D1 Customer Master Client Master Contains a record for each customer Computer Database 200 45.000 6% 8-277 © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall .000 42.

Part 2 Data Set/Table Name Customer Copy Member Custmast Data Structure Customer Record Primary Key Customer Number Secondary Keys Customer Name. Kendall & Kendall 8-278 © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall .Data Store Example . Telephone. Zip Code Comments The Customer Master file records are copied to a history file and purged if the customer has not purchased an item within the past five years. A customer may be retained even if he or she has not made a purchase by requesting a catalog.

• Data dictionaries are created in a topdown manner. • Data dictionary entries may be used to validate parent and child data flow diagram level balancing.Data Dictionary and Data Flow Diagram Levels • Data dictionary entries vary according to the level of the corresponding data flow diagram. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-279 .

• Elements are used on lower-level data flow diagrams. • Data structures are used on • Either the context level or diagram zero intermediate-level data flow diagram. such as the whole report or screen. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-280 .Data Dictionary and Data Flow Diagram Levels (Continued) • Whole structures. are used on the top level of the data flow diagram.

Data Dictionary and Data Flow Diagram Levels Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-281 .

Information from interviews and JAD sessions is summarized on Input and Output Analysis Forms. 2. Each structure or group of elements is analyzed. • This provides a means of summarizing system data and how it is used.Creating Data Dictionaries 1. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-282 .

Creating Data Dictionaries (Continued)
• 3. Each element should be analyzed by
asking the following questions:

• Are there many of the field?

• If the answer is yes, indicate that the field is a
repeating field using the { } symbols.

• Is the element mutually exclusive of
another element?

• If the answer is yes, surround the two fields
with the [ | ] symbols.

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Creating Data Dictionaries (Continued)
• Is the field an optional entry or optionally
printed or displayed?

• 4. All data entered into the system must
be stored.

• If so, surround the field with parenthesis (

).

• Create one database table or file for each

different type of data that must be stored. • Add a key field that is unique to each table.
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Determining Data Store Contents
• Data stores may be determined by
analyzing data flows. • Each data store should consist of elements on the data flows that are logically related, meaning they describe the same entity.

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Maintaining the Data Dictionary
• To have maximum power, the data
dictionary should be tied into other programs in the system. • When an item is updated or deleted from the data dictionary it is automatically updated or deleted from the database.
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Using the Data Dictionary
Data dictionaries may be used to:

• Create reports, screens, and forms. • Generate computer program source code. • Analyze the system design for completion
and to detect design flaws.

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• Structural records are grouped together on the screen. • Arrange the fields in an aesthetically pleasing screen.Creating Reports. using design guidelines and common sense. and forms: • Use the element definitions to create fields. or form. or report. report. Forms To create screens. reports. form. • Repeating groups become columns. Screens. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-288 .

Data Dictionary Analysis • The data dictionary may be used in conjunction with the data flow diagram to analyze the design. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-289 . detecting flaws and areas that need clarification.

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-290 .Data Dictionary Analysis (Continued) • Some considerations for analysis are: • All base elements on an output data flow must be present on an input data flow to the process producing the output. • Base elements are keyed and should never be created by a process.

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-291 . • The elements that are present on a data flow into or coming from a data store must be contained within the data store.Data Dictionary Analysis (Continued) • A derived element should be output from at least one process that it is not input into.

Extensible Markup Language (XML) • XML is used to exchange data between businesses. • An XML document may be transformed into different formats. • XML may be sorted. and translated. • The transformation may limit the data seen by a user. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-292 . filtered.

a less than and greater than symbol. • Data names are stored within tags.Using Data Dictionaries to Create XML • The data dictionary is an ideal starting point for developing XML. Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-293 . which are included in XML. • <customer> or <lastName> • The data dictionary is organized using structures.

Kendall & Kendall © 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 8-294 .XML Document Type Definition (DTD) • A DTD is used to ensure that the XML data conforms to the order and type of data specified in the DTD. • DTD‟s may be created using the data dictionary.

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