The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. This theory has been known to impact students learning in the context of education. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. The word ³social´ was given by considering the fact that people learn from one another, including such concepts as observational learning, imitation, and modelling (Ormrod, 1999).

His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviours by watching other people. Known as observational learning (or modelling), this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviours. It is believed that people learn through observing others¶ behaviour, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviours. According to Bandura (1977): ³Most human behaviour is learned observationally through modelling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviours are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.´ This statement indicates that social learning theory explains the importance of modelling through observation and how this observation leads to action or behaviours.

Bandura's theory improves upon the strictly behavioural interpretation of modelling provided by Miller & Dollard (1941). Bandura¶s work is related to Vygotsky¶s Social


Development Theory and Lave¶s Situated Learning which also emphasize the central role of social learning ( In addition, social learning theory also explains human aggression (Bandura, 1973) and psychological disorders, particularly in the context of behaviour modification (Bandura, 1969). It is also the theoretical foundation for the technique of behaviour modelling which is widely used in training programs. In recent years, Bandura has focused his work on the concept of self-efficacy in a variety of contexts (TIP: Theories, n.d.).


Biography of Albert Bandura

Albert Bandura was born on December 4, 1925, in the small town of Mundare in northern Alberta, Canada. He received his primary and secondary education in one, with minimal resources, yet a remarkable success rate. He worked for one summer filling holes on the Alaska Highway in the Yukon after finishing his secondary education (Boeree, 2006).

He later further his study in University of British Columbia and received his bachelor degree in Psychology in 1949. He received his doctoral degree from University of Iowa in 1952. It was there that he came under the influence of the behaviourist tradition and learning theory (Atherton, 2010). He later met his soul mate, Virginia Varns, an instructor in the nursing school in Iowa. They married and later had two daughters. After graduating, he took a postdoctoral position at the Wichita Guidance Center in Wichita, Kansas (Boeree, 2006). In 1953, Albert Bandura joined University of Stanford as a psychology professor and made numbers of contribution in psychological field until this recent days.


Albert Bandura has achieved many honours and awards from fellow psychologists (Isom, 1998). In 1972, he received a distinguished achievement award from the American Psychological Association and a Scientist Award from the California State Psychological Association. In 1974, Bandura was elected the president of the American Psychological Association. In 1977, he was known as the Father of the Cognitive Theory. In 1980, he was also elected the president of the Western Psychological Association. In 1989, he was also employed to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences (Isom, 1998).

During his lifetime, he has written several books and articles that have been widely used in psychological research. In 1959, Bandura wrote his first book in collaboration with his first graduate student, Richard Walters entitled "Adolescent Aggression". In this book, they addressed themselves to the hypothesis that anti-social, aggressive boys would present weak internal controls stemming from a lack of internalization of parental standards. In 1973, he wrote Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis. Four years later, he published one his most prominent books called the "Social Learning Theory." These books and articles are the most relevant psychological research in determining aggression and deviance (Isom, 1998).


Background of Social Cognitive Learning Theory

Albert Bandura is well regarded for his Social Cognitive Theory. With the publication of Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory, Bandura (1986) advanced a view of human functioning that accords a central role to cognitive, vicarious, selfregulatory, and self-reflective processes in human adaptation and change. People are viewed as self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting and self-regulating rather than as reactive organisms shaped and shepherded by environmental forces or driven by concealed inner


behavioural. behavioural. This concept suggested that all of these elements influenced by each other. 2002). From this theoretical perspective. and (c) environmental influences create interactions that result in a triadic reciprocality (Pajares. This is the foundation of Bandura's (1986) conception of reciprocal determinism. human functioning is viewed as the product of a dynamic interplay of personal. 2002). memory and motivation and sometimes been called a bridge between 4 . Bandura altered the label of his theory from social learning to social "cognitive" both to distance it from prevalent social learning theories of the day and to emphasize that cognition plays a cri ical role in t people's capability to construct reality.impulses. and environmental influences (Pajares. This theory comprises both cognitive and behavioural frameworks where it encompasses attention. (b) behavior. Bandura extended his theory explanation in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive. affect. an environmental influences. and perform behaviours (Pajares. and biological events. 2002). Figure 1 shows reciprocal determinism which comprises of 3 elements that influence each other in the context of Social Cognitive Learning Theory. the view that (a) personal factors in the form of cognition. encode information. self-regulate.

Social cognitive theory revolves around the notion that learning correlates to the observation of role models. At the point where he introduces imagery. Pajares (2002) also stated that teachers have the challenge of improving the academic learning and confidence of the students in their charge. improve their academic skills and self-regulatory practices (behaviour). cognitive. Referring to the triadic reciprocality. in particular. behaviour. He began to look at personality as an interaction among three ³things:´ the environment. and the person¶s psychological processes. teachers play the role of a model in a child¶s learning acquisition. Teacher can improve their students' emotional states and to correct their faulty self-beliefs and habits of thinking (personal factors). These psychological processes consist of our ability to entertain images in our minds. strategies for increasing well-being can be aimed at improving emotional. It is believed that human behaviour is not directly affected by economic conditions.behaviourist and cognitive learning theories. educational and familial structures. and begins to join the ranks of the cognitivists (Boeree. In education. or motivational processes. 2002). and alter the school and classroom structures that may work to undermine student success (environmental factors) by using social cognitive theory as a framework (Pajares. they affect it to 5 . Instead. 2006). or altering the social conditions under which people live and work. According to Frank Pajares (2002). increasing behavioural competencies. socioeconomic status. and language. 2002). for example. he ceases to be a strict behaviourist. we can say that environments and social systems influence human behaviour through psychological mechanisms of the self system (Pajares.

behaviours and self ± influences and details for each element are clearly stated. people can learn by observing the behaviour of others and the outcomes of those behaviours.d. 2. The observer will react to the way the model is treated and mimic the model¶s behaviour.). self-efficacy beliefs. an example of vicarious punishment. For example. the observer is more likely to reproduce the rewarded behaviour. When the model¶s behaviour is rewarded. When the model is punished. and other self-regulatory influences (Pajares. the observer is less likely to reproduce the same behaviour (Funderstanding. n. emotional states. the student learnt the behaviour (active class participation) and the outcome of the behaviour (praised by teacher) through 6 . a student who saw his or her friend getting reward such as verbal praise from the teacher after actively participate in class discussion will also do the same in order to receive the reward. 2002).1 General Principles of Social Cognitive Learning Theory According to Ormrod (1999).the degree that they influence people's aspirations. In this example. personal standards. Figure 2 shows the reciprocal interactions between environmental variable.

This is due to the fact that children especially at young age are easily attracted to model that has the characteristics of interest without considering the pros and cons of the action. power. Over the last 30 years social learning theory has become increasingly cognitive in its interpretation of human learning. A distinction exists between an observer¶s ³acquiring´ behaviour and ³performing´ behaviour. According to Bandura (1962). in contrast to social learning theorists where they believed people can learn through observation alone. Adding to the principles discussed above. Awareness and 7 . intelligence. 1999). learning can occur without a change in behaviour.observational learning. Through observation. It is crucial for the teachers and parents to clearly identify this issue and take necessary actions to ensu that the children re model a correct person. good looks. the observer can acquire the behaviour without performing it. display the behaviour (Funderstanding. Behaviourists stated that learning has to be represented by a permanent change in behaviour.d. Bandura also highlighted the importance of cognition in learning (Ormrod. 1999). in situations where there is an incentive to do so. the observer will imitate the model¶s behaviour if the model has certain characteristics such as talent. The student will later modelled the observed behaviour in order to receive the same reward as his or her model. The observer may then later. In addition. their learning may not necessarily be shown in their performance. or popularity that the observer finds attractive or desirable. Learning may or may not result in a behaviour change (Ormrod.). n. Parents and teachers have to ensure that children modelled the correct person that will encourage them towards positive attitudes.

personality. 2002). 1999). 8 . It is by looking into their own conscious mind that people make sense of their own psychological processes. 1999). This process depends on the observer¶s ability to code or structure the information in an easily remembered form or to mentally or physically rehearse the model¶s actions (Ormrod. 1986). it is critical to understand how the individual cognitively processes and interprets those outcomes (Pajares. This is because the observers not only recognize the observed behaviour but also remember it some later time. This is supported by Bandura¶s statement which stated that "a theory that denies that thoughts can regulate actions does not lend itself readily to the explanation of complex human behaviour" (Bandura. physical characteristics. beliefs. 1999). 2002). This interaction is reciprocal because one element will affect one another. a psychology without introspection cannot aspire to explain the complexities of human functioning. This is due to the fact that human development reflects the complex interaction of the person. and so on influence both his and her behaviour and environment. Bandura's social cognitive theory is in contrast to theories of human functioning that overemphasize the role that environmental factors play in the development of human behaviour and learning (Pajares. To predict how human behaviour is influenced by environmental outcomes. For Bandura. Social learning theory is also been considered a bridge or a transition between behaviourist learning theories and cognitive learning theories (Ormrod. A person¶s cognitive abilities. attitudes.expectations of future reinforcements or punishments can have a major effect on the behaviours that people exhibit (Ormrod. the person¶s behaviour. and the environment as what was explained in the previous discussion.

These children changed their behaviour without first being rewarded for approximations to that behaviour. people learn a new behaviour by observing others. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll. Bandura demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviours they have observed in other people. they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed. These children (in Bandura¶s studies) observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. imitation. it didn¶t fit so well with standard behaviouristic learning theory.3. 2006).0 Social Learning Concepts According to Ormrod (1999). and his theory is usually called social learning theory (Boeree. All of these concepts will be further discussed and explained as follows: 3. In this process. And while that may not seem extraordinary to the average parent.1 Observational Learning As previously described. learning occurs when individuals observes and imitate others¶ behaviour. or casual observer of children. In his famous "Bobo doll" studies. including such concepts as observational learning. The Bobo doll experiment was the name of two experiments conducted by Albert Bandura in 1961 and 1963 studying patterns of behaviour associated with aggression. He called the phenomenon observational learning or modelling. 9 . and modelling. the word ³social´ was given by considering the fact that people learn from one another. teacher.

which involves descriptions and explanations of behaviour. 2006). which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behaviour. Bandura identified three basic models which can influence imitative behaviour. the kids were rewarded for their imitations. 10 . In order to further explain the concept of observational learning. and so on. the model was changed to be less attractive or less prestigious. Responding to criticism that Bobo dolls were supposed to be hit. he even did a film of the young woman beating up a live clown (Boeree. such as: i.Bandura did a large number of variations on the study: The model was rewarded or punished in a variety of ways. A verbal instructional model. Figure 3 shows the adults model exhibiting aggressive behaviour on the Bobo doll and the imitation by the boy and the girl participants. A live model. ii.

As most cases in the real world. television programs. Bandura presented a paper entitled Changing Behaviour through TV Heroes where he highlighted how serial dramas grounded in his social learning theory can lead people to make lifestyle changes and alter detrimental social practices. A symbolic model. incorporating Bandura's theory. iii. which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviours in books. we are most influenced by symbolic models especially through television programmes (Boeree. the television programs spark such behavioural and social changes using four guiding principles: i. involve a global 11 . Attentional and emotional involvement within the programs to sustain viewers' attention iv. Vicarious motivators that serve as incentives to change by showing the benefits of the positive lifestyles and the costs of the detrimental ones.iii. These dramas. Environmental supports with each program that contain an epilogue providing contact information for relevant community services and support groups proving influential During APA's 2004 Annual Convention in Honolulu. 2006). films. or online media. Dittmann (2004) stated that according to Bandura. Contrasting role models with positive and negative models exhibiting beneficial or detrimental lifestyles and transitional models changing from detrimental to beneficial styles of behaviour. ii.

such as how much one likes or identifies with the model. for whom role-models might be parents. This process is influenced by characteristics of the model. Certain requirements and steps must also be followed. modelling oneself on someone (a "role-model") is a more generalised and sophisticated variation on imitation. and by characteristics of the observer. partnering television producers. demographers and communication researchers in creating programs that change personal lifestyles and society (Dittmann.2. such as the observer¶s expectations or level of emotional arousal (Isom. 3. "What would so-and-so do in this situation?" It is an important issue in the socialisation of young people.effort. The following steps are involved in the observational learning and modelling process: 3. or media figures. According to Atherthon (2010). Factors involving both the model and the learner can play a role in whether social learning is successful. Not all observed behaviours are effectively learned. Observers need to pay attention to what¶s happening around them in order to learn. 12 . 1998). writers. or prominent peers.1 Attention Bandura believes that observers will only learn if the characteristics of the model can attract their attention. 2004). based on the tacit question. and has a venerable history.2 Modelling Modelling and imitation have two different concepts.

encode information.2. This process depends on the observer¶s ability to code or structure the information in an easily remembered form or to mentally or physically rehearse the model¶s actions. This includes the teaching approach use by teachers. Frank Pajares (2002) stated that Bandura altered the label of his theory from social learning to social "cognitive" both to distance it from prevalent social learning theories of the day and to emphasize that cognition plays a critical role in people's capability to construct reality.2. Retention According to Isom (1998). communication skills use to convey message. self-regulate. But sometimes. 3. 1998). reproducing the 13 . In many cases the observer possesses the necessary responses once the once a behaviour is learned through attention and retention (Isom. 3. All of these factors will give positive impact on students¶ perception to the teacher and thus making the teacher favourable and become the centre of class attention. observers must not only recognize the observed behaviour but also remember it at some later time. body language and etc. Production Observers must be physically and/ intellectually capable of producing the act. This retention process explains the role of cognition in producing new observed behaviours.2.In teaching and learning.3. personal outlook of the teachers including the way the teacher dress up. teachers have to make sure that they are able to attract students¶ attention by considering all the factors that contribute to maximize learning in students. and perform behaviours.

model¶s actions may involve skills the observer has not yet acquired. Motivation In general. 14 . For example. observers will perform the act only if they have some motivation or reason to do so. (Bandura. 2006). 3. children watching WWF wrestling championship on television might also repeat the same action to their siblings. a student was given token when he/she helped his/her teacher cleaning the whiteboard. becomes most important in this process. promised reinforcements (incentives) that we can imagine and vicarious reinforcement which involved seeing and recalling the model being reinforced (Boeree. The presence of reinforcement or punishment.4. Bandura mentioned a number of motives that encourage observers from imitating the observe behaviours such as past reinforcement. This behaviour (cleaning the whiteboard) is produced because the student have ³motive´. Past reinforcement is explained when the observer tries to model or imitate a behaviour which was rewarded every time he/she did it. They acquire the skills just by observing the wrestlers¶ action on television without receiving any formal training and coaching.2. either to the model or directly to the observer. This student seen the token as reward for his /her helping hand and will repeat the same action in the future in order to receive the same reward again. friends and relatives without knowing the consequences of the action. For example. This selective modelling can be done by considering the pros and cons of each observed behaviours with the aims that only positive behaviours will be modelled. 1977). Observers need to practice selective modelling to ensure that they produce the proper action or behaviours as what were observed. in this case receiving more tokens from the teacher.

According to Bandura. Without being reinforced. there are also negative motivations as well which will prevent someone from doing the observed behaviour. thus one should consider this factor before promising it to other people. in this case a trip to Disneyland. the group of children began to also hit the doll (Ormrod. This will encourage and motivate him to practice harder in order to receive the reinforced behaviour. 2006). the trip to Disneyland itself is considered as reinforcement. According to Ormrod (1999). The child excelled in his/her studies because he/she have a motive. If the criterion was met by the child and the parents make up their promise. He admired the skills that Dato¶ Lee Chong Wei has and keep telling himself that someday he could also be skilful like him. For example. 2006). Another example would be an amateur badminton player watched Dato¶ Lee Chong Wei played badminton on television and won series of international championship. parents might promise a trip to Disneyland as an incentive if their child did well in the final examination. Bandura illustrated this by having students watch a film of a model hitting a inflated clown doll. promised punishment (threats) and vicarious punishment (Boeree.Promised reinforcement referring to incentive which can be imagined (Boeree. 1999). incentives are often expensive. Past punishment referring to bad experienced someone has where he / she was punished when imitating the observed 15 . According to Ormrod (1999). This is known as vicarious reinforcement. This is where in the model is reinforced for a response and then the observer shows an increase in that same response. consequences of the model¶s behaviour affect the observer¶s behaviour vicariously. This includes past punishment. One group of children saw the model being praised for such action.

and thus the observed behaviour was imitated. 16 . But unluckily. For example. Promised punishments (threats) referring to a threat which was promised by an individual or organization whether verbally. he/she was punished because the teacher seen this behaviour as irritating and interrupting the class lesson. The last one is vicarious punishment which refers to observed punishment received by the model when performing any undesirable behaviour. students were promised a punishment by the school principal if they were caught smoking in the school area. one have to be motivated to imitate the behaviour that has been modelled (Boeree. physically or mentally in order to refrain the observer from doing the observed behaviour. it is not denying that reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. For example. His motive was clear. For example. This observed punishment will encourage him/her to come on time in order to avoid the same punishment by the discipline teacher. This promised punishment is seen as a threat and students will try to avoid this behaviour because they don¶t want to be punished by the principal.behaviour. In order for observational learning to be successful. he wanted to get the same reward which was received by the observed model. From the above examples. a student saw his/her friend was praised by teacher when he/she actively involved in the class discussion. This punishment will cease any future modelling and imitation of the same observed behaviour. a student saw his / her friend was punished for coming late to school. 2006).

Greenberg & Cohen. and the learner imitates. Imitation is rather straight to the point (Atherthon. Atherton (2010) claimed that imitation is more about process than content.3. T. there is a tendency to think of imitation as the "lowest" form of learning. 1999. but also the sophistication required in order to be able to imitate. Students will imitate teachers¶ behaviours through demonstrations or hand on activities but sometimes they may also imitate without teacher¶s intentions. The potency of imitation as a component of learning in social situations has been developed by the social learning theorists. According to Atherthon (2010). 2010).3 Imitation Normally. Adding to his point. human beings have some ability to imitate others almost from birth (Collie & Hayne. There are no "wrong" answers or dead ends where the quality of the learning is purely in the faithfulness of the reproduction of the action which has been demonstrated. 1982). associated particularly with the work of Albert Bandura. The learners or observers 17 . For example. and it is undoubtedly a potent factor in developing the social infrastructure of the class group in educational settings (Atherton. Teachers should clearly explain the learning outcomes and objectives before asking students to simply imitate their behaviour or action. "mere" imitation and as having little place in the exalted reaches of adult and higher education. Woodson. The teacher demonstrates or models (whether or not she is aware of so doing). pupils might imitate teachers¶ movements and facial expressions during story telling class.F. Field. Demonstrating not only how effective a form of learning imitation is. This imitation is merely explains process rather than the content of the story. 2010). Imitation without understanding its purpose will not lead to effective learning.

These processes are planned and adapted to support the pursuit of personal goals in changing learning environments. in being selective about which actions they tend to imitate. or pursue goals is thus a (very useful) form of self-regulation (Bandura. personal rights and so on. copying even irrelevant actions in a way that other species do not. Shea (2009) stated that humans engage in µblind¶ imitation.regulation Self-regulation refers to the capacity of organisms (here. human beings) to override and alter their responses (Baumeister and Vohs. 18 . match ideals. 2007). To change a response does not necessarily mean to override it. 2008). Shea (2009) also claimed that the extent to which children imitate at all depends upon being in an appropriate social or µnatural pedagogical¶ context. Furthermore. Thus. It is about establishing minimum principles on ethics. Changing one¶s behaviour so as to follow rules. although self-restraint is a common form of self .need to select what it is appropriate to imitate in order to avoid ³blind imitation´. teachers and parents must clearly explain about which behaviour is right and which is wrong as well as consequences of the imitated behaviour. 2009).0 Self . accuracy. children appear to show an appreciation of the intentional nature of a model's action and the causal structure of the problem to which it is applied (Shea. 2007). Self ± regulation is the process by which people attempt to constrain unwanted urges in order to gain control of the incipient response (Baumeister and Vohs. 4. 1991).regulation but so is the amplification or prolonging of a response (Polivy. 1998). while fully preserving editorial freedom on what to report and what opinions to express (Haraszti.

Garcia. self-regulation of motivation and affect and self-regulation of cognition. 1991). and students must learn that there are different ways to attain goals. In addition. According to Barry Zimmerman (1989). their study environment for example the place in which they study. In social cognitive theory. such as their time. self-regulated learning involves the regulation of three general aspects of academic learning such as self-regulation of behaviour. so that students can adapt to the demands of a course. 1991). and how to select the best way to complete a specific task. students can learn how to control their emotions and 19 . Self-regulation of motivation and affect involves controlling and changing motivational beliefs such as self-efficacy and goal orientation. affect. & McKeachie. and from being reactive to being proactive learners.1993).Self-regulation is an integrated learning process. motivation and action. He added that the major of self ± regulative mechanisms operates through three principal subfunctions. consisting of the development of a set of constructive behaviours that affect one's learning. human behaviour is extensively motivated and regulated by the ongoing exercise of self ± influence (Bandura. These includes self ± monitoring of one¶s behaviour. In order to selfregulate. Self-regulation also encompasses self-efficacy mechanism. Smith. judgement of one¶s behaviour in relation to personal standards and environmental circumstances. Goals direct activities. which plays a central role i the exercise of n personal agency by its strong impact on thought. and affective self-regulation (Bandura. According to Zimmerman (1989). self-regulation of behaviour involves the active control of the various resources students have available to them. students must shift their focus from comparing their performance to peers to selfcomparisons. its determinant and its effect. and their use of others such as peers and faculty members to help them (Pintrich.

5. Many researchers have agreed with the importance of self-regulated learning for students at all academic levels. an expert in this area. Bandura (1997) 20 . Berry (n. This statement was also agreed by Perry D. Smith. learned and controlled. In fact. and remember. People are more likely to engage in certain behaviours when there believe they will be able to execute those behaviours successfully in condition when they have high self efficacy (Bandura. He found out that a responsive teacher provides the stimulation that helps the child's brain develop the capacity for creating and maintaining healthy emotional relationships.0 Self ± efficacy According to Bandura (1986). successful students report that the use of self-regulated learning strategies accounted for most of their success in school. In his study. He studied this context to see how self-regulation contributes to preventing aggression and anti-social behaviours in children.1993). 1997). perceived self-efficacy is the belief in one¶s competence to tackle difficult or novel tasks and to cope with adversity in specific demanding situations. such as the use of deep processing strategies that result in better learning and performance than students showed previously (Pintrich. 1990). Third and finally.d) by stating that self-regulation is an essential part of healthy emotional development.affect (such as anxiety) in ways that improve their learning. has found evidence of many different types of self-regulation that are explained later in this module. In Zimmerman's studies. self-regulation can be taught. Zimmerman (1989. & McKeachie. Therefore. Garcia. self-regulation of cognition involves the control of various cognitive strategies for learning. self-efficacy is the belief in ones capabilities to organize and execute the sources of action required to manage prospective situation.

Besides increasing and sustaining their efforts when difficulties arise. Self-efficacy levels can enhance or impedes motivation (Resnick. 2010). high and low self efficacies demonstrate certain responses to failure (Heslin & Klehe. Actions are preshaped in thought. or skills. If one's self efficacy is low. Ability to exert control over threatening situations allows them to accomplish personal goals. they will be less likely to take on certain tasks or attempt to reach certain goals. they recover more quickly and remain committed to their goals (Resnick. whether it is high or low. and once an action has been taken. reduce stress. and avoid depression (Yong. 2004). A certain thought pattern goes into self efficacy. Also. highly self-efficacious people invest more effort and persist longer than those low in self-efficacy. 2004). 2006). Assured of their capacities. they consider difficult tasks as challenges rather than threats. they also relate failure to insufficient effort. Low may lead people to believe that certain actions or tasks are harder to accomplish. Self-efficacy allows people to select challenging settings and explore their environment or create new ones. In the other hand. Self efficacy is postulated by Bandura (1997) to be a major mediator of behavior and behavior change. knowledge. Resnick (2004) elaborates the characteristics of people with high and low self-efficacy by saying that people with high self efficacy choose to perform more challenging tasks while people with low self-efficacy have low self-esteem and harbor pessimistic thought about their accomplishments and personal development. they have control over their thoughts. setting meaningful goals and striving to achieve them. while people with high self efficacy will view obstacles as a chance to show more effort. 21 . and actions. and acts. highly efficacious people tend to set themselves higher goals and stick to them. thinks. When setbacks occur. feelings. Believing that they can effect change.relates self-efficacy with how people feel.

verbal persuasion and psychological state . such as a more difficult task. vicarious experiences. 2000). ii. Students who observe a model successfully perform in a threatening situation are more likely to develop the expectation that they can acquire the same skill (Alderman. They result in an authentic sense of accomplishment and ego (Yong.People with high self efficacy will take on larger tasks and will want to accomplish more. 1999). to interact with self-regulated learning processes. Self-efficacy beliefs have been found to be sensitive to subtle changes in students¶ performance context. 2010). or copy the strategies 22 . as what was proposed by Bandura. while high self efficacy will attribute failure to external factors. and to mediate students¶ academic achievement (Zimmerman. 5. there are four phenomena that affect self-efficacy such as mastery experiences. People in the low may believe that their ability is not as high as it should be. On a larger scale. self efficacy may play a part in the destiny or fate idea. the positive experience on the job performance appraisal will influence the perception of one's ability and capability. Vicarious experiences: Self-efficacy can be affected by observing the experiences of others.1 Sources of Self Efficacy According to Bandura (1997). For example. Teachers can use strategies to build self-efficacy in various ways. Mastery experiences: Mastery experience is one's personal experience with success or failure. and encouragement. The learners can imitate their models' skills. praise. i. Mastery experiences allow students to earn real success.

2003). in itself. these in turn affect their performance. and the similarity between the observed and new situations and tasks (Schunk 1986). nervousness. However. iv.that the models use. Physiological state: According to Gibbs (2003). Verbal persuasion may strengthen student teachers¶ self-efficacy. verbal persuasion. and thereby influences subsequent performance. The impact of vicarious experience depends on the observer¶s perception of similarity with the model. 5. they are likely to mobilise greater effort and to persist longer (Gibbs. Physiological state is all about what we feel. anxiety. If student teachers are persuaded that they possess the capabilities to overcome specific difficulties. Verbal persuasion is commonly used by the teachers and parents as a form of motivation for the children. 1997). sweating. rapid heart rate. Teacher self-efficacy is the belief that one is capable of exercising personal control over 23 . in judging self-efficacy. these symptoms often occur when learners face challenges that require competence to overcome. Peoples¶ emotions and moods are persuasive as a source of information that influences self-efficacy judgements. may be limited in its power to promote enduring change. iii. Such physical or mental states reflect learner perceptions of their self-efficacy. Verbal persuasion: Learners can be motivated by using verbal feedback to convince or encourage them to accomplish their tasks (Bandura. Emotional and physiological arousal impairs or enhances self-efficacy beliefs.2 Teachers Self-efficacy Self-efficacy as a teacher is a powerful predictor of how and whether a teacher will act. the perceived influential power of the model. people evaluate their emotional and physiological arousal in given situations.

1997). The literature widely documents the pervasive influence of self-efficacy beliefs and corroborates social cognitive theory that places these beliefs at the roots of human agency (Bandura. teachers have high self efficacy about their effectiveness in themselves or during teaching in the classroom. feel a sense of helplessness when it comes to dealing with difficult and unmotivated students (Gibson & Dembo. Furthermore. known as teacher's behaviour. Teachers' sense of efficacy can potentially influence both the kind of environment that they create as well as the various instructional practices introduced in the classroom (Bandura. and emotions. and they teach in ways that demonstrate this belief. they influence students achievements in many ways such as (Bandura. 1984). teachers with a high sense of self-efficacy are confident that even the most difficult students can be reached if they exert extra effort. 2001). Tschannen-Moan et al. Effective teachers believe that they can make a difference in children's lives.. 1998): i. iii. They are willing to experiement with new ideas and teaching strategies that can be better help students learns ii. on the other hand. What teachers' believe about their capability is a strong predictor of teacher effectiveness (Gibbs. 1997). Teachers' beliefs about their own effectiveness. They have higher expectations and set higher golas for students performance They put more efort into their teaching and are more persistent in helping students learns 24 . 1997. Thus. teachers with lower self-efficacy. thinking. underlie many important instructional decisions which ultimately shape students' educational experiences (Soodak & Podell. 2003). Teacher efficacy is believed to be strongly linked to teaching practices and student learning outcomes.

Below are the techniques to ensure the self efficacy on the top level. This thought control encompasses their behaviours. Use moderately. 2003). Gibbs (2003) research on effective teaching: self-efficacy and thought control of action suggested that self-efficacy is meditational in explaining how and whether teachers are willing to be motivated to act on what they know and can do. a too-difficult task will re-enforce low self-efficacy. self-motivate and self-regulate. 25 . then. is to recognise that teachers have the cognitive capacities to self-reflect. 5. There are several ways to improve self-efficacy for students as what was proposed by Margolis and McCabe (2006). thinking. behaviour and emotions (Gibbs. and emotions (Gibb. such as: i.Effective teachers demonstrate competence in exercising self-efficacy and thought control of action.difficult tasks: If the task is too easy will be boring or embarrassing and may communicate the feeling that the teacher doubts their abilities. Having the theoretical knowledge necessary to inform effective teaching. 2003). and to harness selfefficacy so that teachers develop competence in exercising control of their thinking. knowing how to teach effectively. The task of teacher education. The target for difficulty is slightly above the students' current ability level. and even being able to demonstrate effective teaching do not ensure that teachers will act in these ways. we need to enhance students¶ self efficacy. This is crucial and important in order the goal state in learning is achievable.3 Students Self Efficacy As educators.

assignment options or self-determined due dates. such as. Use peer models: Students can learn by watching a peer succeed at a task. focused feedback: Giving praise and encouragement is very important. Peers may be drawn from groups as defined by gender. achievement level. We've set up an outline for how to write a lab report and a schedule for what to do each week . v. vi. such as with flexible grading. social circles. "You can do this. follow the plan and you will be successful. or age. Use praise when earned and avoid 26 . Encourage students to try: Give them consistent." vii. credible and specific encouragement. or to a specific assignment or project. rather than simply turning them loose. Teach specific learning strategies: Give students a concrete plan of attack for working on an assignment. interests. pop culture. This may apply to overall study skills. clothing.ii. iii. such as preparing for an exam. however it must be credible. Give frequent. ethnicity. Capitalize on students' interests: Tie the course material or concepts to student interests such as sports. movies or technology. Allow students to make their own choices: Set up some areas of the course that allow students to make their own decisions.

information processing) and situational influences (rewards. or they didn't follow through on the learning strategy. persist at them and perform them successfully. the influence of self-efficacy on these motivational indexes is complex. favourable peer modelling. they fail because they didn't follow instructions. and shape their own destinies (Yong. Muhd Fauzi.. exert better control over their own lives. Self efficacy was enhanced when students perceived they performed well (Rahil. It is important for pre-university students to demonstrate a strong sense of self-efficacy to cope with a challenging learning environment enmeshed with language requirements.g. Self-efficacy relates to its outcomes as a consequence of development. choices. viii. Habibah. independent learning. and peer comparison. As Bandura (1986) had stated the stronger the self efficacy. the more likely the students select challenging tasks. interpersonal relationships. 2010). 2006). Besides. Schunk (1995) stated that students when engaged in activities are affected by personal (e. feedbacks) provide them an idea on how well they learn. Nooreen and Maria. When giving feedback on student performance. and positive social persuasion ± all of which encourage students to assume responsibility of their own actions. they didn't spend enough time on the task. compare to past performances by the same student.hyperbole. self-efficacy can be raised via mastery experiences. Fortunately. and overall wellbeing. goal setting. intensive courses. 27 . Encourage accurate attributions: Help students understand that they don't fail because they're dumb. don't make comparisons between students. In academic settings. Loh. self-efficacy also affects students¶ academic performance.

Simply asking the students to imitate without explanation will not aid in learning because there is no transfer of learning. It is believed that by observing others. Coding modelled behaviour into words. Social learni g n theory has been extensively used in education and numerous studies have been carried out by the psychologists to gain deeper understanding in human behaviour and the outcome of the behaviours especially in the learning context. According to Ormrod (1999) social learning theory has numerous implications for classroom use. Teacher-students interaction can be enhance when teacher explains the objectives and learning outcomes as well as a brief description about the observed activity. Social learning theory can effectively increase the appropriate behaviors and decrease inappropriate ones. demonstration and etc. provide a best source of learning via observation where students able to imitate their teacher directly. social cognitive learning theory involved learning via observation. Hands on activity. students imitate without knowing why they were asked to do so and how it relates to their learning. modeling and imitation which also involve cognitive function of the brain in order to retain the observed behavior as well as producing the behavior. labels or images results in better retention than simply observing (Atherthon.6.0 Application and Implication of Social Learning Theory in Education As previously described. 2010). students able to learn the behavior or action being observed. This can only be achieved if the teacher clearly describes the 28 . The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modelled behaviour symbolically and then enacting it overtly.

29 . she should clearly explain her goal to the students. Habibah. and motivation (Ormrod. 1999). Instead of using shaping. modeling can provide a faster. Nooreen and Maria.consequences of the behavior which involve discussing with learners about the rewards and consequences of various behaviors (Ormrod. which is operant conditioning. Students must believe that they are capable of accomplishing school tasks (Rahil. attention. watch others be successful. 1999). This will ensure higher rate of performing the desired behaviours by the students because they feel honoured when the teacher involve them in decision making. if a teacher wants to promote active class participation. To promote effective modelling a teacher must make sure that the four essential conditions exist. Thus it is very important to develop a sense of self-efficacy for students. the consequences of the desired behaviours as well as discussing types rewards with them. 1999). and experience success on their own (Ormrod. Teachers should expose students to a variety of other models. Modeling provides an alternative to shaping for teaching new behaviors. Precautions should always be the main concern when dealing with this matter because children especially at young age are easily influenced by the adults. 2006). They have to make sure that only appropriate behaviour is modelled by the learners. There are three 3 types of models such as live model. For example. Teachers can promote such self-efficacy by having students receive confidence-building messages. Muhd Fauzi. retention. This technique is especially important to break down traditional stereotypes. verbal instructional model and symbolic models that can be used by teachers. Loh. In order to promote positive and appropriate behavior among the learners. motor reproduction. teachers and parents must first model the intended behaviors. more efficient means for teaching new behavior.

Too high expectations will demotivate the students because they feel that they don¶t have the capability and ability to meet the expectations while too low expectations will not create a meaningful learning in students because they are able to meet the expectations easily without any struggles. 1999). self-regulation skills can be taught. learned. 7. 1998). and controlled.Teachers should help students set realistic expectations for their academic accomplishments (Ormrod. Many critics believed the experiment conducted was unethical and morally wrong because the children were trained to be aggressive (Isom. As previously discussed. In the Bobo doll experiment. critics have argued that the children were manipulated into responded to the aggressive movie. The children were teased and became frustrated because they could not touch the toys. 30 . This means that the expectations are within set within their capabilities. the environment. especially children. Students can be taught to become more self-regulated learners by acquiring specific strategies that are both successful for them and that enable them to increase their control over their own behaviour and environment. and the mass media. Ormrod (1999) also highlighted the implication of self-regulation in learning which serves as an effective method for improving student behavior. Most researchers agree that the best learning occurs when someone carefully observes and considers his own behaviours and acts upon what he has learned.0 Strength and Criticisms on the Social Cognitive Learning Theory The social learning theory advocates that individuals. imitate or copy modelled behaviour from personally observing others. thus teachers should encourage more self-regulated learning in the classroom to maximize learning.

which is expected to nearly double its 36-million populations in 25 years and has a fertility rate of 5. For instances. Bandura¶s social cognitive theory also has been extensively used in public service announcements. Instead of believing that negative influences are not caused by the television. a series of dramas targeted the high fertility rate in Tanzania. After the dramas aired. 1976). researchers found that the greater exposure marital partners had to the dramas. psychologists have found that some cartoons are very violent and cause children to illustrate aggressive behaviour (Isom. Despite these criticisms. Besides.There have been many debates over whether or not violence on television causes aggressive behaviour in children. Albert Bandura¶ s Social Learning Theory has maintained an important place in the study of aggression and criminal behaviour (Isom. 31 .6 children per woman. improve women's status and protect against AIDS infection (Dittmann. 1998). seek literacy programs. Many studies have indicated that television does not lead to aggressive behaviour (Isom. the more they discussed the need to control family size and adopted family planning methods. Parents and teachers should play their role in selectively choose the television programmes that do not contain violent elements. 1998). In order to control aggression. Using these principles. research found that the dramas' gripping storylines and realistic characters are proving influential by encouraging people to adopt family planning methods. 1998). Cooke (1993) believed that individuals tend to support the theory that television violence causes aggression because the public needs to justify the aggression they see in others. 2004). he believed family members and the mass media should provide positive role models for their children and the general public (Bandura.

These processes are planned and adapted to support the pursuit of personal goals in changing learning environments. and the learner¶s cognitive processes. based on a cognitive formulation which he named the Social Cognitive Theory. As what was explained in reciprocal determinism. 32 . learning is interactive in three ways: Interaction between the subject and the environment. Modelling of behaviour is dependent on the influence of the model and the learner¶s cognitive processes. In the 1970s. In the other hand. Albert Bandura published a comprehensive framework for understanding human behaviour. the outcome of those behaviours. consisting of the development of a set of constructive behaviours that affect one's learning. The goal must be realistic and can be achieved within a person¶s ability. Self-efficacy and self-regulation are two important elements that are also been found to impact social cognitive learning. This theory is known to serve as a bridge between behaviourism and cognitive learning theory which comprises the modelled behaviours. and the learner¶s cognitive processes. 1997). A basic premise of Social Learning Theory is that people learn not only through their own experiences. but also by observing the actions of others and the results of those actions.8. personal factors influencing the individual.0 Conclusion Bandura has made important contribution towards understanding human behaviour by introducing the social cognitive learning theory. self-regulation is an integrated learning process. Selfefficacy is defined as the belief of an individual for successfully fulfilling the expected behaviours for reaching a goal (Bandura. Learning via observation will lead to modelling and imitation of the behaviour being observed.

environment and etc. educators as well as the educational administrators also gained valuable findings related to their teaching professionalism. Various researches has been carried out by the psychologist. is insufficient. and being able to demonstrate how to teach. Knowing about teaching. Outcomes of the studies have always been an important contribution to help the public to gain better understanding in their own behaviours. and even being able to demonstrate effective teaching do not ensure that teachers will act in these ways (Gibbs. 33 . Having the theoretical knowledge necessary to inform effective teaching. modelling. Teachers. 2003). knowing how to teach effectively. educators and etc. health. sports and etc. This shows that through extensive studies in social cognitive learning. observational learning and self-regulated learning in their own context of study. to gain an in-depth understanding on this theory by focusing on the concept of self-efficacy. thus seeking explanation and solution to the issues via research conducted. we are able to identify the issues related to our workplace..Social cognitive learning theory has been widely applied to various fields such as education.

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