This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
a. Human Resources Management A Theoretical framework
The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can't yet afford part- or full-time help. However, they should always ensure that employees have -- and are aware of -personnel policies which conform to current regulations. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals, which all employees have. Note that some people distinguish a difference between HRM (a major management activity) and HRD (Human Resource Development, a profession). Those people might include HRM in HRD, explaining that HRD includes the broader range of activities to develop personnel inside of organizations, including, e.g., career development, training, organization development, etc.
There is a long-standing argument about where HR-related functions should be organized into large organizations, e.g., "should HR be in the Organization Development department or the other way around?" The HRM function and HRD profession have undergone
tremendous change over the past 20-30 years. Many years ago, large organizations looked to the "Personnel Department," mostly to manage the paperwork around hiring and paying people. More recently, organizations consider the "HR Department" as playing a major role in staffing, training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner. After you have invested considerable time and money recruiting and training your employees, you must now determine how to make sure those valuable employees are productive and get them to remain loyal to your firm. Retention of employees is essential to maintain client relationships and keep recruiting and training costs in line. Losing an experienced employee almost always results in significant costs to your firm. The keys to employee satisfaction and retention are founded on strong leadership and sound management practices. If you can master these arts, you should have happy, loyal employees and clients, resulting in growth, profits and personal gratification. This article will discuss key factors in motivating and retaining good people.
The foundation of an efficient and effective workplace is the structure, discipline and consistency provided by well-conceived systematic operating methods. World-class companies like Disney, McDonalds and Ritz Carleton all have well defined operating methods.
A policies and procedures (P&P) manual is critical to ensure that employees understand what is expected of them and know how they should handle the myriad of duties and responsibilities in the day-today operation of the office. The P&P manual spells out how you would like things done in your office and your expectations for the behavior of your employees. As your operation grows larger, the system becomes more important because your ability to oversee and communicate directly and frequently with each employee becomes more difficult. Written operating systems are absolutely essential when you expand to more than one office location.
Pre-work training should include a review of your policies and procedures, with special emphasis on the most important subjects. (Each employee should receive a personal copy of your P&P Manual to read before coming to the training class.) In addition to training in your policies and procedures, customer service and marketing should be covered at length. Special emphasis should be placed on your corporate culture. New employees need more training than priors, but all employees should receive training each year. New employees should also have several days of on-the-job training with the office manager or experienced employees before beginning their position; and they should not be left on their own in the office until they are experienced enough to feel confident. Many of the frustrations employees feel on the job--as well as most errors and client problems-are due to inadequate training. Comprehensive training will make your life as a manager much easier, and your employees and clients will be happier.
Employee costs constitute the greatest expense in any service business. Not giving your employees adequate tools to do the job is penny wise and pound foolish. Computers need not be state-of-the-art, but they do need to be fast and reliable enough to minimize down time and reduce employee and client frustration. If your office is not operating with a Local Area Network (LAN), you should set one up without delay. A LAN manages printer sharing and centralizes client files for easy computer cross-checking, e-filing., and report writing. Copiers should be reliable and fast, with automatic feed, and ample supplies always on hand. A fax is no longer a costly luxury for most offices, but a necessity. Internet access is almost as important as the phone for effective communication and is becoming more essential for research. Don't forget to provide the little things, like reliable staplers, staple removers, scissors, pens, post-its, business card holders, etc. An appointment book, a Rolodex (or software address book), and reference books and resources should also be provided. Comfortable, functional office furniture and adequate shelving and storage are also essential. Don't forget aids for employees with special needs, such as under-desk computer drawers and keyboard & mouse cushions. At Peoples Income Tax, we use checklists of office furnishings, equipment and supplies used to take inventory and request missing or shortage items. Attention to detail and providing adequate tools to do the job
Keeping the office clean and uncluttered requires the cooperation of all employees. They need someone readily available to help when they have questions or encounter problems. We pay as much attention to decorating and appointing our rest rooms as we do our client reception areas. Your employees’ attitudes are affected by their physical work environment. We also provide a microwave and refrigerator for the back room of every office and. A stereo (with ceiling speakers) tuned to a soft neutral music enhances the office atmosphere and creates an illusion of privacy. but the office should be attractively decorated and a pleasant place to work. you should regularly hire contractors for heavy cleaning (e. Having adequate help to properly serve all clients in the office is also essential for employee morale. The important point 5 . Office atmosphere How your employees feel about their jobs is greatly influenced by your office atmosphere. make sure it is positive! Support Your employees will appreciate having adequate support. The impression you make on your employees is just as important as the image you project to your clients. and you should insist that every employee pitches in to help.. Support can be provided on-site by an office manager or veteran employee or by telephone or e-mail when on-site help is not available. Extravagance is not necessary.will eliminate a key source of employee frustration and increase employee productivity and satisfaction. Don’t neglect the back room and the rest room. carpet. Little things like a fresh coat of paint and a wallpaper border make a big difference.g. space permitting. However. a table and chairs where our associates can eat. windows and restroom).
Input should also be solicited from key employees. they might as well go into business on their own. you must set the standard for your people. it is essential to confirm their understanding of and agreement with your company philosophy. Businesses also have a responsibility to give back to the communities in which they operate. Compensation 6 . Profits are not the goal. Corporate Culture World-class companies always have in common World-class cultures. Most employees also have a need to make meaningful contributions to society through their work. If they feel this way. And they need to continue to learn and grow professionally.is that your people should not feel like they are out there on their own with no one to turn to when they need help. Your company’s culture starts with your company’s mission and values. but are a byproduct of meeting the needs of customers and employees. Leaders of such businesses recognize that their companies exist to satisfy a social need. Your values must not merely be lip service. When hiring new employees. As the owner or CEO. They also like to take pride in their work and deliver quality products and services. The mission statement and guiding principles of Peoples Income Tax is provided as an example (Exhibit 2). which should be well thought-out and articulated in writing. but should be internalized and practiced daily by all employees. A good corporate culture enables employees to combine their strengths to meet these mutual needs as part of a dynamic team. A mission statement and set of guiding principles is typically developed by the company’s owner or CEO to reflect his or her business philosophy.
The profit pool could be some percentage (e. salesmanship. To attract desirable employees. and attaining and maintaining professional. efficiency. it is difficult to make radical changes. Your compensation plan is an essential element of your ability to compete effectively. while also meeting your employees’ personal objectives. efficiency. profitability. frugality and long-term thinking.A performance-based compensation plan should be designed to encourage your employees to behave in ways that will result in attainment of the goals of your Company. professional pride. devised with these factors in mind. thoroughness. includes a competitive guaranteed wage as a draw against commissions for individual and office production. The pay plan must be objective and fair to all employees. accuracy. Benefits Providing whatever benefits you can put you in a better competitive position to attract and retain seasonal employees. and image and reputation. continuing professional education. selfdirection. Rewards should be commensurate with contributions. courtesy. Additional commissions are paid for experience. Once the plan is established.g. Company goals usually include growth. Establishing a sound compensation plan is one of the most important projects you will undertake. 10-20% as determined by management) of the increase in pretax profits over 7 . your base pay and earnings potential should be competitive within your industry (equal to or better than your main competitors for employees). helping to generate office revenue growth. effectiveness. A profit sharing plan could be adopted for all employees to share in the profit pool in proportion to their annual earnings relative to total earnings of all employees. The behaviors and attitude your pay plan should encourage include honesty. teamwork. quality service. concern for clients. Peoples’ compensation plan. loyalty.
making all of Peoples’ employees eligible for the benefits of credit union membership. Peoples Income Tax. group rates tend to be lower than individual coverage. if warranted. Praise must be sincere and should be distributed equitably. Be sure to give people 8 . Some of Peoples’ seasonal tax associates who work part-time during the off-season providing client service and teaching an income tax school work enough hours to qualify for the company’s group health insurance plan. Chamber of Commerce that permits all yearround and seasonal employees to participate.S. Recognize your people frequently for their good work and they will repeat the performance frequently.the prior year. Peoples also provides paid time off for its associates to volunteer for company approved charitable activities such as providing free tax service for welfare-to-work program participants and residents of homeless and battered women shelters. Group life and disability insurance and other benefits can be obtained through professional associations. When possible. Be creative! Recognition Numerous studies and surveys have documented the fact that money is not always the primary motivator for most employees. Group discounts for products and services are often extended to employees through professional associations and company membership in the local Chamber of Commerce. as a small employer. Be creative. praise people publicly in meetings or employee newsletters. Even if the employee pays the full premium. help to make your employees appreciate their jobs. Little perks. was able to become a member of the Virginia Credit Union. like buying pizza for the staff of the office on the busiest days of the work week. Peoples Income Tax has a Fidelity 401k plan through its membership with the U. and the company makes 3% contributions.
plaques and prizes and other than money. group and individual meetings and. especially if you have multiple offices. Keep communication simple. Avoid saying “Great but. Giving something tangible makes a more lasting impression. or gift certificates for merchandise or dinner. such as production. The larger your organization becomes. you must make the time to regularly talk with everyone. and neither can replace face-to-face meetings. Come up with contests to recognize your employees. such as the most referrals for another service you offer. Communication Lack of effective communication from management is usually the greatest cause for employee dissatisfaction and premature departure. Reinforce the right behaviors. Email is a good communication vehicle. as the manager. Give recognition certificates. or the most new clients brought in. etc. Publishing employee newsletters is a good way for larger organizations to enhance communication. The best managers listen to and communication frequently with all employees. client retention rate. such as tickets for movie rental or sports events. daily discussions between you and your employees.credit and rewards for good ideas they come up with that benefit the company. and they make it easy for employees to tell them about problems and concerns. An Intranet can also be an effective internal communication vehicle. Praising your best performers (the top 10-20%) will raise the bar for your weaker people. but the phone is more personal. most important. Communication should include training. Yet. the more difficult it is to keep in touch with all of your employees. provide adequate 9 .” Look for key measures to recognize employees. The goal is to encourage behaviors that build your business and recognize your people for practicing those behaviors as often as possible.
Show your trust in your people and make them feel included by sharing with them financial and other company inside information. Here are ten basic keys: (1) Integrity: always tell the truth and always keep your promise. your people will stop making decisions. If your people know that their voices are heard and they feel like they are part of the decision making process. Leadership Much has been written about leadership and you should take the time whenever the opportunity arises to read ideas on how to be a more effective leader. give them the authority to act in the best interests of the company. Management can make much better decisions by getting input from front-line employees. they will be much happier. because it is a normal part of the road to success. instead celebrate honest mistakes. (2) 10 . Don’t criticize employee’ mistakes. Recognize that making decisions naturally results in making mistakes because no one is perfect. Provide training in resolving client problems and then trust them to make the right decisions. even if it hurts to do so. Nothing is more gratifying than to see your people develop the skills and confidence to act independently and to make sound decisions that are in the best interests of the company and your clients. Failure is also OK. loyal and more likely to support new ideas and programs. If you criticize honest mistakes. Give your people some time to think and plan by building in some slack through adequate staffing and by providing clerical support. Empowerment Engage your employees in decision-making.information and provide examples for clarity.
Authority resides with the people who report to you and they have the power grant it to you or not. (7) Decisive: A leader must make decisions and stick with them as long as they make sense. (3) Respect: If you really don’t care about your people they will sense your lack of concern and will not have respect for you. (8) Example: You must practice what you preach or you will have little credibility. stored knowledge and information you may not even realize you have in your head. particularly in a crisis situation. be able to communicate it to your people. but you should also be realistic. (6) Optimism: You must always be positive and confident that the company will succeed. and get them to understand and share in your excitement for the vision. (9) Teamwork: Insist on mutual respect. courtesy and cooperation among your people. they can get burned out if the work environment is totally serious and strictly 11 . (5) Vision: To be a true leader. Remember. Consensus is not always better than an individual decision. (4) Fairness: Treat all employees fairly and equally (including family members) regardless of your personal feelings. Intuition draws upon your experience.Trust: You must first demonstrate your trust in people by making yourself vulnerable before you can expect them to place their trust in you. the buck stops with you! Trust your intuition. (10) Authority: Remember that authority is not vested in your position as the boss. Having Fun People like to work in an environment that is enjoyable. you must have an unfaltering vision. This fundamental attitude was crucial in shaping our nation and is also essential to build your company.
Your people need the proper tools and support to do the job. Employees should be trusted. Herb Kelleher. By Southwest chairman. Great companies like Southwest Airlines have come up with creative ways for employees to have fun. NUTS!. has adopted (and had printed on his business cards) his official job title as: Head Cheerleader. A good operating system and adequate training are essential. Motivating and keeping employees requires effective management practices and strong leadership skills. and provide as many extra benefits as possible. They also need to be part of a harmonious team working for the mutual benefit of the clients. who is a top executive with Owens and Minor of Richmond. Employment agreements are a must and should be reviewed by and explained to new hires. I think every manager should read the bestseller book. And they would enjoy being at a fun place to work! Ultimately. Screening new employment prospects to insure they fit in and buy into your culture will prevent future problems. Virginia. 12 . included and empowered to make decisions and act autonomously. A valuable project is to identify the 2-3 greatest frustrations of your employees and your clients and devise ways to eliminate these irritations. designate a key employee to assume this role. Hugh Goldthorpe. your management and leadership skills and efforts will determine your success in providing an atmosphere where your employees will be motivated to be effective and will remain loyal to your company. If you’re not naturally good at getting people to have fun.business. A performance-based compensation plan should be designed very carefully to ensure that your employees are encouraged to help build the business and are rewarded for their contributions. A friend. the company and themselves.
It refers to the process of developing and fostering new workers through on boarding.e. develop. attract. promote. Talent management decisions are often driven by a set of organizational core competencies as well as position-specific competencies. experience. 13 . select. Companies that are engaged in talent management (human capital management) are strategic and deliberate in how they source. This term also incorporates how companies drive performance at the individual level (performance management).b. and personal traits (demonstrated through defined behaviors). skills. To some it is about the management of high-worth individuals or “the talented” whilst to others it is about how talent is managed generally – i. developing and keeping current workers and attracting highly skilled workers at other companies to come work for your company. Talent management in this context does not refer to the management of entertainers. and move employees through the organization. Concepts Related to Performance Appraisal System TALENT MANAGEMENT Talent management is a professional term that gained popularity in the late 1990s. This term is usually associated with competency-based human resource management practices. The term talent management means different things to different people. on the assumption that all people have talent which should be identified and liberated. The competency set may include knowledge. train.
nurture.g. Objectives: • • • To identify. In the late 1990s. technology companies engaged in a ‘war for talent’. EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT 14 . Competitive advantage: • • • • • Embrace a talent mindset. Craft a winning employee value proposition.Older competency models might also contain attributes that rarely predict success (e. future requirements and ideal “organizational structure”. Rebuild your recruiting strategy. increased motivation and performance incentives. groom and motivate talented MCS (management carder staff). It was suggested to consider the leadership issues. Limitations: • Retention rates in marketing are a problem. education. Differentiate and affirm your people. Career and succession planning to build in-house pool of talent (grow your own timber) for our future needs of HOD’s and GM‘s. Weave development into your organization. careful selection. tenure. and diversity factors that are illegal to consider in many countries). identify gaps and take actions. Determine talent strength (numbers) and quality (competencies).
This involvement increases ownership and commitment.Definition: Employee involvement is creating an environment in which people have an impact on decisions and actions that affect their jobs. and periodic discussions with the supervisor. Rather. from working with people for 40+ years. the sharing of gains made through employee involvement efforts. communication. work teams. Kaizen (continuous improvement) events. and problem solving. 15 . corrective action processes. as practiced in many organizations. is to involve people as much as possible in all aspects of work decisions and planning. Employee involvement is not the goal nor is it a tool. and frequently. Intrinsic to most employee involvement processes is training in team effectiveness. retains your best employees. it is a management and leadership philosophy about how people are most enabled to contribute to continuous improvement and the ongoing success of their work organization. the development of reward and recognition systems. and fosters an environment in which people choose to be motivated and contributing. My bias. manufacturing cells. continuous improvement meetings. How to involve employees in decisionmaking and continuous improvement activities is the strategic aspect of involvement and can include such methods as suggestion systems.
• Tell: the supervisor makes the decision and announces it to staff. To round out the model. I add the following: Delegate: The supervisor turns the decision over to another party.Employee Involvement Model For people and organizations who desire a model to apply. • Join: the supervisor invites employees to make the decision with the supervisor. Involvement assumes recognition that employees have great untapped potential which can be used to the organizations advantage by securing commitment of the employees to the success of the organization. The supervisor provides complete direction. The supervisor considers her voice equal in the decision process. 16 . the best I have discovered was developed from work by Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) and Sadler (1970). Employee involvement consists of those practices which are initiated principally by management and are designed to increase the employee information about. • Consult: the supervisor invites input into a decision while retaining authority to make the final decision herself. and commitment to the organization fostering trust. • Sell: the supervisor makes the decision and then attempts to gain commitment from staff by “selling” the positive aspects of the decision.
systems. Companies gaining better competitive edge. most of us in India are even today partners in this process of exploitation. Employees gaining greater job satisfaction. joy and pride in work. at their working hours or their health care and so on. The concept is application to workers. To be sure. irrespective of whether a union exists in a particular unit or not. Objective: • • • • • Helping employees to contribute better on their jobs. The reference is to the institution of domestic servants. Employees displaying greater identification with changes in policies. 17 . It ought to include “employee relations”. since for ages an individual employee has tented to be exploited by the employer. structures and work methods.The action plan: Employee involvement focus in on correcting the balance towards an employee contributing also his brain powers in terms of ideas and initiative for improvement in the areas of his work/ his responsibilities and not only his brains. Faster and higher quality of problem resolution. staffs and managers alike. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS The term industrial relation in practice has come to mean primarily the relations between the management and the unions in an industrial enterprise. practices. We all know that unions came into being. whether we look at their wages.
traineeships Workers’ compensation and rehabilitation Workers’ compensation and rehabilitation legislation. improvement and prohibition notices Rights and obligations Your rights as a consumer. employer. WHSO. inspections. It never pays to delay or postpone a constructive confrontation to demand performance be it in the volume or quality of the output. tickets. inspectors’ role. claiming workers’ compensation and rehabilitation Publications and forms training providers. plant and seminars. rights and obligations. Law and penalties Legislation. educational tools. workers’ compensation Training. manufacturer.The same is by and large for labors employed on construction projects or on farms. licenses. meet your obligations Workplace incidents and inspections Notify of an incident. It must therefore be accepted that the trade unions does serve a social purpose through the practice of collective bargaining. other jurisdictions. codes of practice. registrations. acts. licenses and registrations Accreditation. regulations. apprenticeships 18 . manage your risks. prosecutions. in an emergency. enforceable undertakings. fines. worker. standards.
and capability of the organization. conference papers.Reports. large and small. blitzes. however they manifest themselves differently depending on the organization’s previous success with mentoring. submissions. research. Accountability enhances performance and produces long-lasting results. organizations. are looking outside traditional mentoring paradigms to raise the bar on the practice of mentoring by creating a mentoring culture. A mentoring culture continuously focuses on building the mentoring capacity. eight hallmarks build on and strengthen each other. subject index A-Z MENTORING More than ever before. It requires shared intention. newsletters. codes and standards. All are present. A mentoring culture encourages the practice of mentoring excellence by continuously: • • • creating readiness for mentoring within the organization. competence. forms. and Building in support mechanisms to ensure individual and organizational mentoring success. facilitating multiple mentoring opportunities. In a mentoring culture. The Eight Hallmarks of a Mentoring Culture • Accountability. at least to some degree. audits. responsibility and 19 .
• Value and Visibility. practices. It creates value. visibility and demand for mentoring. and --formulating action goals. --clarifying expectations. it increases trust.ownership. Alignment focuses on the consistency of mentoring practices within an institution’s culture. share best practices. and providing mentoring support within an organization. and celebration are high leverage activities that create and sustain value and visibility. A shared understanding and vocabulary of mentoring practice exists that fits naturally with the organization’s values. role modeling. recognition. Its effects are far-reaching. generating learning opportunities. and promote and support mentoring by their own example add to the value proposition for mentoring. 20 . it is part of its DNA. It is also the catalyst for developing mentoring readiness. Communication is fundamental to achieving mentoring excellence and positive mentoring results. Sharing personal mentoring stories. mission. Leaders who talk about formative mentoring experience. • Alignment. a commitment to action and consistency of practice. --monitoring progress and measuring results. When mentoring is aligned within the culture. Accountability also involves very specific tasks: --setting goals. --defining roles and responsibilities. --gathering feedback. and helps align organizations. strengthens relationships. It builds on the assumption that a cultural fit already exists between mentoring and the organization and that mentoring initiatives are also are tied to goals larger than just initiating a program. and goals. • Communication. reward.
• The content of the message has to resonate and connect. establish and maintain the level of comfort that other employees experience when they are asked to speak up. to speak up in disagreement with the higher level person is appallingly bad. the willingness of employees. Change management practitioners have provided a broad range of suggestions about how to communicate well during any organizational changes. Effective perfectly communication for “shared requires meaning.” four my components favorite interworking definition of communication. With all of this going on in a communication. with the already-held beliefs of the receiver. even managers. LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT Leaders of organizations. especially people with high level titles and ownership positions. • The individual sending the message must present the message clearly and in detail. and radiate integrity and authenticity. I think it’s a wonder that organizations ever do it well. and trust the sender of the message. on some level. In most organizations. Why is this so? Is it because people lack personal and professional 21 . • The delivery method chosen must suit the circumstances and the needs of both the sender and the receiver. • The person receiving the message must decide to listen. ask questions for clarity.COMMUNICATION Communication is one of the toughest issues in organizations.
add to workplace confusion. The good leader. Job descriptions clearly identify and spell out the responsibilities of a specific job. an understanding of the competencies and skills required to accomplish needed tasks. Poorly written job descriptions. who wants to take and thoughtfulness advantage of of talented the staff. remembers this. Job descriptions also include information about 22 . job descriptions are communication tools that are significant in your organization’s success. people are willing to agree. it is the leader who establishes the tone and the work environment in which people chooses – or chooses not – to exercise personal courage and freedom of expression. required qualifications. JOB DESCRIPTION Effectively developed. and make people feel as if they don’t know what is expected from them. knowledge. and differing opinions. and the needs of the organization to produce work. experience.courage at work? Or. and express opinions. on the other hand. are they too beholden to these executives for their job? In any case. debate. and reporting relationships of a particular job. Job descriptions are based on objective information obtained through job analysis. Job descriptions are written statements that describe the duties. hurt communication. disagree. If the leader has traditionally proved to be genuinely open to comments and criticism. The good leader is aware of their power to encourage or stifle opinions and debate. responsibilities. They use this power to genuinely appreciate and encourage input.
As a leader.working conditions. you assure the interfunctioning of all the different positions and roles needed to get the job done for the customer. vision. Whether direction. Job descriptions help you cover all your legal bases. This understanding starts with the job description. He says you need to make certain that they clearly understand your expectations. this is the first place to look if people aren’t doing what you want them to do. you’re a small business or a large. and mission spells success for your organization. and relationships with other positions. Alignment of the people you employ with your goals. Whether you’re recruiting new employees or posting jobs for internal applicants. tools. According to Ferdinand Fournies in Why Don’t Employees Do What They’re Supposed to Do and What to Do about It. job descriptions tell the candidate exactly what you want in your selected person. Positives about Job Descriptions Job descriptions provide an opportunity to clearly communicate your company direction and they tell the employee where he or she fits inside of the big picture. equipment used knowledge and skills needed. Job descriptions set clear expectations for what you expect from people. Still uncertain about the value of job descriptions? Consider these tips about employee job descriptions. multi-site organization. well-written job descriptions will help you align employee 23 .
This article identifies and discusses a number of themes and trends that together make up the developing research agenda for this field. Performance appraisal and management. Developing job descriptions is an easy way to involve people in your organization’s success c. As a result of this. and multi-source feedback). who must work with the person hired. 2001: Performance appraisal has widened as a concept and as a set of practices and in the form of performance management has become part of a more strategic approach to integrating HR activities and business policies. goal orientation and self awareness) and the process of appraisal (appraiser–appraisee interaction. Review of literature • Fletcher C. the research on the subject has moved beyond the limited confines of measurement issues and accuracy of performance ratings and has begun to focus more of social and motivational aspects of appraisal. The former is considered in terms of contemporary thinking on the content of appraisal (contextual performance.Clear job descriptions can help you select your preferred candidates and address the issues and questions of those people who were not selected. The discussion of the 24 . November 4. understand the boundaries of the person’s responsibilities. It breaks these down in terms of the nature of appraisal and the context in which it operates. Well-written job descriptions help organization employees. People who have been involved in the hiring process are more likely to support the success of the new employee or promoted coworker.
25 . Results indicate that managers and subordinates believe that typical poor performance has different causes and that actual productivity levels far outweigh person or system sources of performance variance in appraisal judgments. Two studies are reported that investigate two specific questions that arise from a broader view of the appraisal process. Dobbins. the traditional human resource management view and the statistical process control view (Deming. • Gregory H. The results provide substantial support for conceptualizing appraisal satisfaction as a contingent function of both appraisal characteristics and organizational variables.context of appraisal concentrates on cultural differences and the impact of new technology. Performance Appraisal as Effective Management or Deadly Management Disease. 1986). Two divergent perspectives on this issue. Implications of the findings for the design of appraisal systems. and supervisors had a large span of control. Analyses indicated that the appraisal characteristics of action plans. • Gregory H. Dobbins. and future research are discussed. were not closely monitored. A Contingency Approach to Appraisal Satisfaction. 1990: The present study explored the moderating effects of organizational variables on the appraisal characteristicappraisal satisfaction relationship. are contrasted. 1990: Understanding person and system sources of work variation is fundamental to performance appraisal. frequency. appraisal effectiveness. and rater training were more positively related to appraisal satisfaction when subordinates experienced role conflict.
and current appraisal context were used to predict preferences. Two studies were conducted involving data collection in a large Canadian telecommunications conglomerate and a department of the Canadian government. Predictors explained significant amounts of variance in user 26 . respectively. Differential Performance Appraisal Criteria. Users are defined as either recipients of PM processes or those whose job it is to administer the process. Results indicated that social behavior factors are more highly correlated with the overall job performance of black ratees than for white ratees. The performance appraisal form included items that measured both the social behavior dimen sion and task/goal accomplishment dimension of job performance. Predictors of Employee Preferences for Multirater and Group-Based Performance Appraisal. Waldman. 1986 : Performance appraisal ratings of 125 first-level managers were analyzed to investigate the degree to which the criteria used to evaluate the overall job performance of black managers differs from that used to evaluate white managers. 1997: This study conceptualizes and measures user preferences for 360degree appraisals and group-level performance management (PM). Implications of these results for both black managers and organizations are discussed. their work design. The appraisal ratings of both groups on each dimension were correlated with measures of overall job performance and promot ability.• Taylor Cox. Aspects of individual users. • David A.
A Restatement of the SatisfactionPerformance Hypothesis. • Dennis W. 27 . 1988: This article reviews recent evidence in support of Organ’s (1977) argument that satisfaction more generally correlates with organizational prosocial or citizenship-type behaviors than with traditional productivity or inrole performance. suggestions for future research are offered concerning the need to examine a broad range of users in different organizational settings and to measure actual system design features and their effectiveness. and management practice are offered. An attempt is then made to interpret just what it is in satisfaction measures that provides this correlation. Organ. In addition. especially those pertaining to group-level PM. It involves the study of performance standards of the employees of JK Paper Mills.preferences. Implications of this interpretation for theory. research. CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY Need of the study: The study concentrates on the HR affairs of the company. Practical implications are suggested with regard to collecting and using user preferences. leading to the suggestion that fairness cognitions comprise the major factor.
by providing suggestions if any. The collection of information has been done through two major sources: 1. • To verify the standard of JK Paper Mills when compared to other paper industries present in the market. company. To know the best performance appraisal strategy of the Improve the performance of the employees and there by improve the performance of the individual employees. Primary Data. Objectives of the study: • • • • To analyze and apply performance appraisal strategies to To know about the requirements of the employees. Scope of study: It is a systematic procedure of collecting information in order to analyze and verify a phenomenon. human resource officers and other concerned 28 . improving the overall performance of the company. Ltd. it is gathered through interviews with various employees. Secondary Data. In this study.This study has been carried out in order to learn the Performance Appraisal System of JK Paper Mills Pvt. to know what strategies are being implied and how far they are effective. Primary Data: It is the information collected directly without any reference. 2.
industry in India. Some of the information were verified and supplemented through personal observation. The data collection includes: • Ltd. Secondary Data: The Secondary data was collected from already published sources such as pamphlets. This chapter also deals with how the survey was carried out by taking the primary data and the secondary data. It also tells us about the other important world markets for paper and the future prospects in these markets.people. • • Reference from textbooks and journals relating to the paper Annual reports of the company. objectives and limitations of the study. annual reports. It also tells us about the various concepts that are related to performance appraisal strategies. Chapter II: This chapter deals with the methodology of the study along with the needs. various journals and internal records. Collection of required data from annual report of JK. 29 . Papers Presentation of the study: Chapter I: This chapter deals with the history and the global prospective of the Paper industry.
It also includes my findings and suggestions and conclusions during my project period. 30 . in the end it talks about the unique performance appraisal strategy of the company and a few of the products that the company sells. It tells us about the quality legacy of the company. performance appraisal strategies used by the company and various other aspects.that is by carrying out a survey and also taking the findings of other surveys and documents into account. It also finds out the limitations that I encountered during the period of study. It goes on to talk about the progress and also the innovations and technological progress that the company has excelled in papers over the years. awareness in the organization. It talks about the need and objective of the study that is to find out how the company is faring in regard to its performance. Limitations of the study: • The study is focused on a very general level rather than a full scale detailed report. It gives a brief history of the company. Chapter IV: This chapter deals with the analysis of the survey that I had conducted during the period of my study. Chapter III: This chapter deals with the profile of the company. performance of the employees. Chapter V: This chapter includes the summary of the project. The survey tries to find out various aspects like the satisfaction of the employees.
• There were a lot of breaks and hindrances while the study took place. CHAPTER 3 a. • The feedback given by recipients is not necessarily right.• • The study does not get information from an in depth prospective. Profile of Paper Industry 31 . The study is not necessarily the solution to the problem that exists.
as a medium of preserving knowledge for progeny. sanitary as well as storage and transport of all kinds of goods. The Arabs captured Chinese city containing a paper mill in the early 700’s and from this started their own paper making industry. Century B. an official attached to imperial (2 nd court of China .C) Chinese considered paper a key invention and kept this a closely guarded secret for over Five Centuries until the technology slowly made it way westward.D. INTRODUCTION Paper is derived from the word “papyrus”. since times immemorial. There is a degree of consensus that the art of making paper was first discovered in China and its origin in that country is traced back to 2 nd Century. 32 . hygienic.(Early 700’s )Invention of printing in 1450’s brought a vastly increased demand for paper . as the most versatile material for packing of goods. as a means of communication. paper includes a wide range of products with very communication. created a sheet of paper using Mulberry and other bast fibers along with fishnets. old rags and hemp waste. artistic. In about A. It’s almost impossible to imagine a life without paper.WHAT IS PAPER “Paper has played a vital role in the development of mankind. Today. cultural. different applications: educational .105 Ts’ Lun . Paper is defined as “A mat of cellulose fibers arranged in crises –cross fashion with hydrogen bond and other forces”.
33 .LIST OF SATEWISE INDIAN PAPER INDUSTRY Table 1: STATE ANDHRA PRADESH ASSAM BIHAR GUJARAT HARYANA HIMACHAL PRADESH JAMMU & KASHMIR KARNATAKA KERALA MADHYA PRADESH MAHARASHTRA NAGALAND ORISSA PONDICHERRY PUNJAB RAJASTHAN TAMIL NADU UTTAR PRADESH WEST BENGAL 37 07 31 16 09 01 21 71 01 02 04 68 15 06 01 14 05 NO.OF PAPER MILLS 22 TOTAL 594 SOURCE: Indian Press Services News Bulletin.
JK Jute Mills Co. Kamla Ice Factory – were few of the initiatives of Lala Kamlapat Singhania. Kamlapat Singhania industries across India – Sir Padampat Singhania. The family settled down in JK Organization was born Kanpur and slowly spread its roots there. JK Hosiery Factory. JK Iron & Steel Co.K. A VISION TAKE SHAPE The foundation of JK Organization was laid when the nation was passing through turbulent times. other enterprises were started by him.J K ORGANIZATION . One after another. It was the time when Indians were discriminated against. set up the first Cotton Mill in Northern India in 1921. Born on 7th November. Ltd. in their own home land. Lala Kamlapatji. LEGACY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP CONTINUED Keeping alive the spirit of entrepreneurship. They were the pioneers in setting up a mini steel plant in 1924. under the leadership of Lala Kamlapatji and his father Lala Juggilalji. Ltd. JK Hosiery Factory (Calcutta). and first Indian Jute Mill in 1929 in Uttar Pradesh. exclusively using Indian capital.. the worthy son of Lala Juggilal Singhania. which lies in the Shekavati region of Rajasthan. the three sons of Shri. Management and Labour. JK Oil Mills. Lala Kailashpat and further consolidated the existing Singhania and Lala Lakshmipat Singhania – started up a number of businesses..HOW IT ALL BEGAN During the later half of the 18th Century . JK Cotton Manufacturers. migrated to Uttar Pradesh. Kamlapat Motilal Sugar Mills. Shri Binodia Ram Singhania of village Singhana. 1884. Hence the name – J. 34 .
Under the visionary leadership of Shri Hari Shankar Singhania. Readymade Apparels. GROUP COMPANIES Chart 1: With a century of multi-business.FROM HISTORY TO CONTEMPORARY The Singhanias of today and their generation next have inherited the spirit of meeting the entrepreneurial challenges of the times from their forefathers. Cement. Cosmetics. With its operations spread in almost every state of India. President.000 people along with a nationwide sales and 35 . multi-product and multilocation business operations. VBelts. Sugar. All products of the Group are not only strong brand names but also reputed market leaders in their respective segments. Hybrid Seeds. the Group employs over 30. the Group has Companies with a diverse portfolio including Automotive Tyres & Tubes. the organization has shown exemplary growth in diversified businesses. Woollen Textiles. JK Organisation. etc. Oil Seals. Food & Dairy Products. supported by his brothers. Paper & Pulp. Power Transmission Systems.
JK Sugar – It is one of the leading producers of high quality Sugar in India. JK Seeds – JK Agri Genetics Ltd. 36 . b. JK Lakshmi Cement – It is a renowned and well-established name in the Indian Cement Industry. Is one of the most reliable and wellknown names in Hybrid Seeds.000 distributors and a large number of retailers and service centers. JK Paper – It is one of the India’s foremost paper manufacturers. Ltd. JK Dairy – It is engaged in the production and sale of Milk Powders and Ghee. Profile of JK Paper Mills Pvt. Some of the leading Group Companies include: JK Tyre – JK Industries Ltd. Is a leading Tyre manufacturer in India. Oil Seals and Power Transmission Systems.service network of over 10. Fenner India – It is the leading manufacturer of V-belts.
000 tonnes per year. Over the years. Orissa with a capacity of 127. one in the East – JK Paper Mills (JKPM) in Rayagada. India’s largest producer of Branded papers is a leading player in the Printing and Writing segment. Jaykaypur. Rayagada JK Paper Mills. Rayagada.000 tonnes per year and the other in the West – Central Pulp Mills (CPM). 37 . located in Songadh. JK Paper Ltd. Orissa. the production capacity has been enhanced to a level of 127. JK PAPER MILLS Chart 2: A View of J K Paper Mills. In 2005. an offline coating machine has also been set up to manufacture premium grades of coated papers. Gujarat with a production capacity of 55. JKPM was commissioned in the year 1962 with an integrated pulp and paper plant with 15000 TPA installed capacity for manufacturing high quality writing and printing papers. Dist. Is a premier integrated Pulp and Paper Mill located at Jaykaypur..000 TPA with the addition of 4 more paper machines manufacturing diversified product range from 29 GSM to 300 GSM of different grades of paper. a Unit of JK Paper Ltd. It operates two plants in India.J K PAPER LTD.
Most modern and largest pulp mill in the country. ORGANISATIONAL CHART Chart 3: 38 . JK Paper Mills has strived for excellence and consistently set high standards in quality.Since its inception. Japan. Capacity utilization of 120% First Paper Mill in India to get ISO 9001 and ISO 14001. conservation of energy and water. productivity. First Paper Mill not only in India but also in South-East Asia to have received TPM Excellence Award from Japanese Institute of Plant Maintenance. industrial safety as well as pollution control and environment protection which are indicated by achievements like: Manufacture of surface sized Maplitho for the first time in the country with indigenous raw material. Adjudged First Greenest Paper Mill in India in 1999.
000 tpa 4.000 tpa 16.000 tpa 8.000 tpa 90. TPA 35.II Paper Machine –III Paper Machine –IV Paper Machine –V TOTAL YEAR INSTALLATION 1962 1970 1972 1989 1994 OF INSTALLED CAPACITY.000 tpa J K PAPER MILLS PHILOSOPHY 39 .700 tpa 26.Headquarters Strategy Department Finance Department IT Department Administration Marketing Department Public Relations Department Legal Department Personnel Department Sales Department Research Department Logistics Department Production Security Department PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF JK PAPER MILLS Table 2: MACHINE Paper Machine –I Paper Machine.
besides enabling to fulfill social responsibilities. to investing in and nurturing a future ready organization that is driven by its two core growth engines – Customers and Environment. And therefore. Be it converting wastelands into productive plantations to produce world-class pulp. wider product range and better value. Leadership demands transformation. At JK Paper Mills. With leadership. technology up-gradation has meant more than just better business sense.JK Paper Mills believe that leadership is not merely a matter of size. people and nature. J K Paper Mills firmly believe that much more than the technology. or scouting for and mentoring professionals who can drive the technology movement at JK Paper Mills. it’s how well equipped we are to harness it that determines the road to transformation. comes the responsibility to drive growth in all its possible dimensions. And to that extent. VISION To be a dynamic benchmark and leader in the Indian paper industry MISSION 40 . it is this ceaseless quest for holistic growth that has shaped its operations in the present as well as influenced their investments in the future – in world-class technologies for enhancing customer experience. At JK Paper Mills. JK Paper Mills have moved beyond enhanced productivity. JKPM’s investments are focused on continuous and consistent up-gradation of processes. leadership shapes the very quality of growth.
41 . quality and management systems. technological innovation and cost leadership. JK Paper of its products. LEADERSHIP IN BRANDS The secret of success of the J K Paper Mills is attributed to its policy for sustained efforts for quality. productivity. while continuously enhancing shareholder value. QUALITY POLICY To provide ‘customer delight’ – both internal and external – through our products and services at lowest cost by continuous improvement in processes. new product development and continuous offering of value added products to customers. customer obsession. Beyond this. with a clear focus on environment. To achieve growth and leadership through the JK brand equity. Mills has been investing continuously in “Branding” resulting in almost half of its revenues coming from branded products. JK Paper Mills has been consistently consolidating its leadership position in the Indian Paper Industry by continuously focusing on quality upgradation and productivity increase.
“JK Copier Plus” and “JK Savanna” year after year in International quality consumer friendly packs. Both JK Copier and JK Easy Copier are the country’s two largest paper brands. Suitable for Laser Printer TITANIUM DIOXIDE LOADED A better grade food packaging paper TISSUE PAPER OPAQUE PRINTING PAPER A common food packaging 42 . PRODUCTS OFFERED BY JK PAPER MILLS Table 3: SURFACE SIZED MAPLITHO Super grade of writing & printing AND SURFACED SIZED SUPER paper with high finish and brightness. A superior variety Bond and writing and printing.Not only has the Company retained its dominant leadership in the branded paper market but has been introducing premium new brands like “JK Excel Bond”. SURFACE SIZED PULP BOARD Super grade of Board for printing & & SURFACE SIZED SUPER paching with high finish and HIGH BRIGHT PULP BOARD CHANCELLOR BOND JK BOND WOOD FREE PRINTING brightness. HIGH BRIGHT MAPILTHO JK COPIER A paper most suited in all Xerox Machines. ARIMAL A lower grammar writing & printing paper used for Bills Books as well as JK LASER PRINTING Airmail. A normal grade of Bond Paper A writing and printing paper with good finish and brightness meant for export market.
WHITE OFFSET BOARD VARNISHABLE MAPLITHO A high bright board supplied to cigarette industries Catering labels and quality printing jobs with varnishing YELLOW PRINTING Used for yellow pages in Telephone Directory as well as for other quality printing Used for match sticks of better quality WAX MATCH TISSUE OFFSET PRINTING A paper used for coating base For playing cards A superior coated board used for (NATURAL SHADE ) Block centered art board INVORY BOARD Visiting cards and invitation cards. 2800 children is the strength of the students at present. Rayagada (Orissa). JK PAPER & SOCIETY JK Paper has always been a front runner in taking initiatives for improving the quality of life of the community. which include 43 . Some of the initiatives taken in the last few years towards Community Development and enhancing Community Relations include: EDUCATION 2 full fledged schools at Jaykaypur. ENAMEL BOARD CHROMO PAPER A superior coated board used for visiting A coated Board used for printing magazine covers. especially in the vicinity of its manufacturing plants.
Schools for mentally challenged with residential care facilities. which.children of Company employees as well as from the community of nearby villages. Scholarship to students. doctors and renowned experts dental. Adult literacy programme for local community. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FOR – School construction & Furnishing Providing educational aids & school uniform. in addition to the employees. black boards etc. Health awareness programme. local clubs etc. eye and family planning programmes in are invited to organize camps for awareness and also for cardiology. also attend to residents of the communities in the vicinity. gynecology. Night schools for adults. which are being run by unemployed youths from the villages. text books. HEALTH JKPM has its own dispensary. collaboration with Government hospitals. SPORTS AND OTHER RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES 44 .
providing pipe water supply. Projects for conservation of energy and water are regularly taken up at both Mills. apart from organizing rural tournaments. etc. sports kits are distributed free of cost to over 25 villages in Orissa every year. Treated effluent water is being used for irrigation purpose. construction of Water storage tank. Games and sports are promoted among the village youth through local tournaments. to promote sports. ANCILLARY DEVELOPMENT 45 . INFRASTRUCTURE Infrastructure development projects like building approach roads to nearby villages. ENVIRONMENT JK Paper Mills ensures that not only are its effluents well within the notified parameters but it also takes proactive measures to continuously improve them further. Police Chowki. are regularly taken up around J K Paper Mills. Town Gate. Similarly. The Company has signed a voluntary Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environment Protection (CREP) with Ministry of Environment & Forests and is investing in the required facilities for environment protection.
the communities also need source of livelihood. immediate relief material in terms of medicines. carton. fly ash bricks and other industries in the vicinity of the Mills. generating local employment opportunities. ASSISTANCE FOR NATURAL CALAMITIES JK has always been in the forefront of meeting the challenges of natural calamities. or other tragedies like tsunami elsewhere. Realising that apart from development programmes. Be it the recent flood in Surat. 46 . core pipe. Additionally. blankets. drought or supercyclone in Orissa or the Gujarat Earthquake. AN EVERGREEN VISION Responsible paper making demands a holistic environmental vision and J K Paper Mills see trees as not just a critical raw material resource but also the means to transform the lives of the rural community while also promoting a greener India. employees have also contributed generously from their salaries. have also been sent to the relief camps for distribution. dry board. tents etc. JKPM opened a special nursery at Bhubaneswar to enable new plants to be planted in places where super-cyclone had uprooted the existing trees. the Company is promoting various ancillary industries like alum. Apart from cash contributions by the Organization.
at all levels in the organization has enabled J K Paper Mills to scale new heights in various facets of the Business. friendly practices are designed Thus. What sets eco-commitment apart is J K Paper’s unique corporate vision to protect the environmental through process innovations rather than end-of-process treatments. 47 . educating and advising farmers about the merits of farm forestry and the latest farming techniques. THE SPRIT OF PEOPLE … JK Paper Mills today continues to be the Industry’s Change Agent and benchmark.000 hectares vast and has become a People’s Movement involving thousands of farmers across Orissa. million employment among the rural masses. J K Paper Mills high tech farm forestry movement is 53. distribution of high yield Clonal plants developed at JKPM’s inhouse R & D Centre has helped farmers to substantially increase the returns from their farms. Alongwith environmental benefits. J K Paper’s environmental to go beyond our operational requirements and work towards ensuring a better and greener tomorrow for the society as a whole. West Bengal. technology and innovative strategies. Chhattisgarh. Leadership. Andhra Pradesh. Teams from the Company travel across the rural hinterland encouraging. Today. both in terms of product quality and cost competitiveness. It has put JK Paper ahead. Gujarat and Maharastra. thanks to the indomitable spirit of its people. Advanced research in high-yield saplings enhancing raw material availability nearly and 28 surroundings and generating has resulted in greening man-days of of quality. quality of products and services. Be it brands.
This effort involves as identifying Circles – the a grooming individuals. To address this challenge. J K Paper has gone well beyond just strategic investments in technology. Suggestion Exemplary Work Award and several TPM related Awards. process front. who can drive the dynamic best shop floor level participative Scheme.people management practices. On the technology movement at J K Paper. by implementing a series of dynamic HR practices so that Team JK is more empowered than its peers in making the most of technology. J K Paper Mills have invested substantially in continuous improvement of processes and human skills. the Company has adopted an ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) system to ensure seamless flow of information and enhance managerial efficiency. human decisions have a far greater impact over a larger interlinked process. The common perception that with increasing mechanization and automation. the value of the human touch reduces could not be farther form the truth. Clearly. J K Paper Mills stands out as an undisputed leader. In today’s world. making it even more critical to deploy the right talent at the right place to manage the operations. 48 . Jishu Hozen Circles within the TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) practices. This also aids J K Paper Mills personnel in ultimately enhancing Customer Satisfaction. through time-tested practices such Quality management system.
c. This is possible if the nature of objectives and the manner in which they are achieved answers the following questions- 49 . it can also be effectively used to build customer focus and enhance competitiveness. Performance Appraisal practices in JKPM PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Introduction: The appraisal system is a key human resources management system. While the system enables the setting of objectives and facilitates the review of performance against these objectives.
business and functional plans. Objectives must be• • • • • Specific: The appraisee must understand them clearly. Relevant: to the role and responsibilities with the job and link up with the unit. • A statement of the key result areas that flow from the purpose of the job. to what extent will the company’s competitiveness be enhanced? Setting objectives: Objectives must flow from the business and functional plans and address the key result areas of the job.M. Time bound: agree to the timeframe within which the objectives must be achieved. quantity.A.The overall rate of the job from organisation’s point of view. cost and time. objectives must be S. to what extent will it help the company respond to change? When achieved.T Pre-requisites of an effective appraisal process: • Purpose of the job. Measurable: In term of quality. Attainable: Targets must have inbuilt stretch but yet be within the capabilities of the appraisee. 50 .R. Remember . why the job exists and what contribution it is expected to make. which will also help prioritization. statements which identify what the job achieves and why.• • • When achieved. to what extent will customer value be enhanced? When achieved.statements of the continuing end results and outcomes required of the job.
For objectives to be meaningful. etc and serve as a forum for dialogue between the individual and the organization. • • • For objectives to invoke commitment. • The process must focus on performance. not personality. attainable. Performance appraisal process: Chart 4: 51 . The appraisal process must focus on performance against agreed objectives. on facts. difficulties. These objectives must flow from the business. relevant and time bound. it is necessary to clearly state the objectives for the year. measurable. aspirations. enable the individual to give feedback to the organization his own feelings. not hunches. functional and unit plans. not perception and demonstrated behaviour.• Having listed the key result areas. they must be agreed between the job holder and his boss and not set unilaterally. they must be specific.
Planning for performance Goals Standards KPA’S/KRA’S
-Ratings -Review -Action
Periodic review/feedback Observations Feedback Support
Annual performance evaluation/review Ratings Review discussions Action plans -
To Appraisers: • • • More productive- Allows the appraiser to concentrate efforts on the more productive managerial tasks and activities. Less stressful- Creates a more harmonious, less adversarial, working relationship between appraiser and appraisee. More rewarding- Improved productivity of the work group.
To Appraisees: • • • Feedback Opportunity Autonomy
Performance counseling can be defined as the help provided by a manager to his subordinate in analyzing his performance and other job behaviors in order to increase his job effectiveness. There are three processes involved in counseling- communication, influencing and helping.
• • • • • •
Helping the counselor to realize his potential as an employee. Helping him to understand himself- his strengths and his weaknesses. Helping him to have better understanding of the environment. Encouraging him to set meaningful goals for further improvements. Encouraging him to generate alternatives for dealing with various problems. Providing him an empathic atmosphere for sharing and discussing his tensions, conflicts, concerns and problems.
Conditions for effective counseling:
• • • • • • General climate of openness and mutuality. General helpful and empathic attitude of the counselor. Uninhibited participation of the subordinate. Joint goal-setting and performance review. Focus on work behavior. Solving work related problems.
A formal counseling process is of three phasesPHASE I: Rapport building. a) Attending. b) Listening. c) Acceptance. PHASE II: Exploring. a) Problem identification. b) Diagnosis. PHASE III: Action planning. 54
b) Decision making.
Establishing for dialoguing:
The appraisal interview is also an ideal opportunity for the boss and the job holder to dialog on his career. Here are some sample questions that can constitute the basis for a dialog on an individual’s career-
• • What do find challenging and exciting about your current assignment? Do you feel you are being fully utilized in your current assignment?
Goals and aspirations:
• • • What objective have you set for your personal and professional growth? How do you intend to pursue these? How can an organization assist in the process?
• • What responsibilities do you see yourself capable of assuming? What do you see yourself doing three years from now?
Barely adequate performance.Performance ratings: Appraisal system requires an overall performance rating Outstanding performance. 56 . difficulties. Periodic review and feedback on performance as well as the process of dialoguing whereby the individual feeds back his overall feelings. Poor performance. spurs on performance and enables the achievement of results against agreed objectives as well as reinforces ‘desired behaviors’ which in turn enhances the competencies of the business. etc. Good performance.something to be got over with for the sake of the firm. Once objectives are set at the beginning of the year. challenges. Satisfactory performance. any time is a good enough time for the job holder and his boss to engage in a review of how things are going. An ongoing process: It is necessary to engage in a formal appraisal process once a year. However we must guard against the process degenerating into a year-end ritual.
Particulars 0-1 yrs 1-5 yrs 5-10 yrs 10+ yrs Total No. This question was asked to the employees working in JKPM to find out the duration for which they have been working in the organization. of respondents 2 33 15 10 60 Percentage of respondents 3% 55% 25% 17% 100% 57 . based upon which we can know if the employees are satisfied with their job in the company or not. Table 4: Duration of work period in JKPM.CHAPTER 4 Analysis of the study on Performance Appraisal System in JKPM Duration for which the respondent has been working in JKPM.
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0-1 yrs 1-5 yrs 5-10 yrs 10+ yrs no. 25 percent of the respondents are dealing in JK Paper Mills from 5-10 yrs. 17 percent of the respondents are dealing in JK Paper Mills for over 10 yrs. of respondents 3 percent of the respondents are dealing with JK Paper Mills for less than a year.Chart 5: Duration of work in JKPM. 55 percent of the respondents are dealing in JK Paper Mills from 1-5 yrs. 58 .
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 very satisfied satisfied dissatisfied no. of respondents 63 percent of the respondents are very satisfied in setting their goals and objectives in the beginning of the year. Table 5: Extent of satisfaction Particulars Very satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Total No. 30 percent of the respondents are satisfied in setting their goals and objectives in the beginning of the year. 7 percent of the respondents are dissatisfied in setting their goals and objectives in the beginning of the year.Extent of satisfaction in setting goals/objectives in the beginning of the year. of respondents 38 18 4 60 Percentage of respondents 63% 30% 7% 100% Chart 6: Extent of satisfaction. This question was asked to the employees of JKPM to find out the extent of satisfaction of the employees in setting goals/objectives in the beginning of the year to know if they are being given opportunities to express their views. 59 .
30 percent of the respondents rate the Performance Appraisal strategies as average. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Good Average Bad no. Table 6: Ratings of PA strategies. None of the respondents rates the Performance Appraisal strategies as bad. of respondents 70 percent of the respondents rate the Performance Appraisal strategies as good. of respondents 42 18 0 60 Percentage of respondents 70% 30% 0% 100% Chart 7: Ratings of PA strategies. Particulars Good Average Bad Total No. This question was asked to the employees of JKPM to rate the standard of various PA strategies and programmes that take place in the organization.Ratings of the PA strategies and programmes in the company. 60 .
16 percent of the respondents say that the Performance Appraisal strategies are not fair and objective. of respondents 34 26 0 60 Percentage of respondents 84% 16% 0% 100% Chart 8: PA strategies are fair or not. 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes No Can't say no. None of the respondents are there who can’t say anything.Performance Appraisal strategies are fair and objective. This question was asked to the employees to know if the performance appraisal strategies are fair and objective to the employees. of respondents 84 percent of the respondents say that the Performance Appraisal strategies are fair and objective. 61 . Particulars Yes No Can’t say Total No. Table 7: PA strategies are fair or not. It is necessary to appraise an employee.
of respondents 60 0 60 Percentage of respondents 100% 0% 100% Chart 9: Necessity to appraise an employee. 62 . 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No no. Table 8: Necessity to appraise an employee. None of the respondents says that it is necessary to appraise an employee. of respondents 100 percent of the respondents say that it is necessary to appraise an employee.This question was asked to the employees to know how important it is to appraise an employee. Particulars Yes No Total No.
None of the respondents say that they are not clear with what is expected of them. This question was asked to the employees to know if they are made clear on what is expected of them so that they can work accordingly. Particulars Yes No Total No. of respondents 60 0 60 Percentage of respondents 100% 0% 100% Chart 10: Clarity in what is expected from the employee. Table 9: Clarity in what is expected from the employee. 63 . Feedback is given to the Management Cadre Staff for the task accomplished by them.There is clarity in what is expected from the employee. 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No no. of respondents 100 percent of the respondents say that they are clear with what is expected of them.
Suggestions and innovations are rewarded. based upon which they can work better in future.This question was asked to the employees to know if they are provided with proper feedback for the task they accomplish. of respondents 62 percent of the respondents say that the feedback is given to the MCS for the task accomplished by them. 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes No no. Particulars Yes No Total No. 38 percent of the respondents say that the feedback is not given to the MCS for the task accomplished by them. Table 10: Feedback is given to MCS. of respondents 37 23 60 Percentage of respondents 62% 38% 100% Chart 11: Feedback is given to MCS. 64 .
of respondents 21 39 60 Percentage of respondents 35% 65% 100% Chart 12: Suggestions and innovations are rewarded. 65 . Supervisors take interest in sharing an employee’s personal concern. Table 11: Suggestions and innovations are rewarded. 65 percent of the respondents say that their suggestions and innovations are not rewarded.This question was asked to the employees to know if they are motivated by accepting their suggestions and innovations in the form of rewards. of respondents 35 percent of the respondents say that their suggestions and innovations are rewarded. Particulars Yes No Total No. 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes No no.
of respondents Yes No 72 percent of the respondents say that the supervisors take interest in sharing their personal concern. of respondents 43 17 60 Percentage of respondents 72% 28% 100% Chart 13: Supervisors share an employee’s personal concern. Table 12: Supervisors share an employee’s personal concern. This question was asked to the employees to know if the annual increments/promotions are based on their performance or not. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 no.This question was asked to the employees to know if the employees’ problems are dealt well by their supervisors so that their morale increases and they are satisfied with their job. 28 percent of the respondents say that the supervisors do not take interest in sharing their personal concern. Annual increments/promotions are based on performance. 66 . Particulars Yes No Total No.
67 . Particulars Yes No Can’t say Total No. of respondents Yes No Can't say 82 percent of the respondents say that the annual increments/promotions are based on their performance. Extent of satisfaction in interdepartmental teamwork. of respondents 49 9 2 60 Percentage of respondents 82% 15% 3% 100% Chart 14: Increments & promotions based on performance. This question was asked to the employees to know the extent of satisfaction in interdepartmental teamwork based on which their effectiveness in work can be known. 50 40 30 20 10 0 no. 15 percent of the respondents say that the annual increments/promotions are not based on their performance. 3 percent of the respondents can’t say or their answers are inapplicable.Table 13: Increments & promotions based on performance.
respondents are dissatisfied with interdepartmental teamwork. 68 . Extent of help of training and development programmes in improving employees’ performance.Table 14: Satisfaction in inter departmental team work. of respondents 28 percent with of the respondents are very 22 satisfied percent of with the interdepartmental teamwork. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 very satisfied satisfied dissatisfied no. of respondents 17 30 13 60 Percentage of respondents 28% 50% 22% 100% Chart 15: Satisfaction in inter departmental team work. 50 percent of the respondents are just satisfied interdepartmental teamwork. Particulars Very satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Total No.
Performance Appraisal System is used in job rotation. 8 percent of the respondents say that the training and development programmes help to a very little extent to improve their performance. of respondents great extent some extent very little extent 22 percent of the respondents say that the training and development programmes help to a great extent to improve their performance. Table 15: Particulars To great extent To some extent To very little extent Total No. 69 .This question was asked to the employees to know how far the training and development programme is helping the employees to learn and work better. 70 percent of the respondents say that the training and development programmes help to some extent to improve their performance. of respondents 13 42 5 60 Percentage of respondents 22% 70% 8% 100% Chart 16: 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 no.
of respondents 7 53 0 60 Percentage of respondents 12% 88% 0% 100% Chart 17: 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Mostly Partially Nil no. Table 16: Particulars Mostly Partially Nil Total No. None of the respondents say that performance appraisal system is not at all used in job rotation. 88 percent of the respondents say that performance appraisal system is partially used in job rotation. Extent of the purpose of performance appraisal system being fulfilled.This question was asked to the employees to know the extent of use of performance appraisal system in job rotation. 70 . of respondents 12 percent of the respondents say that performance appraisal system is mostly used in job rotation.
of respondents 65 percent of the respondents say that the purpose of performance appraisal is completely fulfilled. Table 17: Particulars Completely Partially Total No. JKPM always strives for continuous individual improvements. 71 .This question was asked to the employees to know how far the performance appraisal system is actually helping them in their work. of respondents 39 21 60 Percentage of respondents 65% 35% 100% Chart 18: 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Completely Partially no. 35 percent of the respondents say that the purpose of performance appraisal is partially fulfilled.
5 percent of the respondents strongly disagree that JKPM always strives for continuous individual improvements. of respondents Percentage of respondents 22% 58% 15% 5% 100% 22 percent of the respondents strongly agree that JKPM always strives for continuous individual improvements. 15 percent of the respondents disagree that JKPM always strives for continuous individual improvements. 58 percent of the respondents agree that JKPM always strives for continuous individual improvements. of respondents 13 35 9 3 60 Chart 19: 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree no. CHAPTER 4 72 .This question was asked to the employees to know how far they agree with the fact that JKPM always strives for continuous individual improvements. Table 18: Particulars Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Total No.
73 . Findings 1) Presence of a firmly implemented career plan. 2) High proportion of routine work. Supervisors are patient with the employees’ problems. Proper feedback is not given to the management cadre staff. 3) Organization climate• • • • • • • • • • Well analyzed goals are set. Suggestions and innovations are not rewarded.during training and immediately after. Good and effective performance appraisal strategies applied. The purpose of Performance Appraisal System followed in the company is fulfilled. All the strategies are fair and objective. Training and development programs are not very effective and helpful.a.good sense of growth. Good performance leads to annual increments and promotions. The employees are well aware of what is expected of them.
Performance appraisal system should be extensively used in job rotation. Focused job responsibility. Proper feedback should be given to the management cadre staff at fixed time periods. Free hand in decision making. The company should concentrate more on individual development. Giving chance in decision making. Proper interactions with seniors.b. Transparent career planning of all officers. Improve competency of the workers. Suggestions • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Extensive of the job training. Reward for employee work. 74 . Effective training and development programs should be held. Informal were calling as and when they need. Exemplary rewards should be given for unique achievements of the employees. Up gradation of basic qualification of all workers to be taken in future based on their performance. Suggestions and innovations should be encouraged. Give tangible advantages.
It deals with how the survey was carried out by taking the primary data and secondary data that is by carrying out survey and also taking the finding of other surveys and document into account. it tells us about the quality 75 . It also gives us proper introduction and definitions of Human Resource Management. it goes on to talk about the progress and all innovations and technological progress that the company has made over the years. Chapter II: This chapter deals with Methodology of the study and also its needs and objective of the study. It also includes the various articles which are referred for the accomplishment of the project.c. Summary Chapter I: This chapter gives us insight into the world Human Resource Management in general and talks about all the related topics which effect the Human Resource Management in myriad ways. It talks about the needs and objective of the study to find out how the company is faring in and around its region and how it can improve its retention strategies. It also find out the limitation that I encountered during the period of study. Chapter III: This chapter deals with the Profile of the company it tells us the history of the company. This chapter includes the review of literature of performance appraisal. it also talks about how the company has excelled in retaining its employees over the years.
it end it talks about the unique retaining strategies of the company and few of the products that the company sells.legacy of the company. it gives us an insight about the top management of the company. This survey tries to find out how the performance appraisal strategies effects the employees in the organization. Chapter IV: This Chapter deals with the analysis of the survey that I had conducted during the period of my study. 76 .
com www. Indian Journal of Social Work. Kirkpatrick. Richard Rudman.org 77 . 2006. 2003. oak Hill press. Essentials of Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations. 1997. Herman.BIBLOGRAPHY Books: • • • • Donald L. Indian Journal of Human Resource. The Process of excelling. P. Roger E. 2006. Subba Rao. Journal of Occupational and Environmental medicine.in www. Improving Employee Performance through Appraisal and Coaching. Journals: • • • • Gitam Journal of Management. Performance Planning and Review.com www.answers.wikipedia. Himalaya Publishing House. Websites Visited: • • • • www.jkorg.google.
Questionnaire on Performance Appraisal for appraisees and appraisers (Tick your choice) 1) Since how long have you been working in JK Paper Mills? □0-1 yrs □ 1-5 yrs □5-10 yrs □10+ yrs 2) How satisfied are you in setting your goals and objectives in the beginning of the year? □ Very satisfied □ Satisfied □ Dissatisfied 3) How are the Performance Appraisal strategies and programmes in the company □ Good □ Average □ Bad 4) Do you consider Performance Appraisal strategies fair and objective? □ Yes □ No □ Can’t say 5) Is it necessary to appraise an employee? □ Yes 78 .
□ No 6) Are you clear with what is expected of you? □ Yes □ No 7) Are the Management Cadre Staff provided with regular performance feedback? □ Yes □ No 8) Are your suggestions and innovations rewarded? □ Yes □ No 9) Do your supervisors take interest in sharing your personal concern? □ Yes □ No 10) Are your annual increments/promotions based on your performance? □ Yes □ No □ Can’t say 11) How satisfied are you in interdepartmental teamwork? □ Good □ Average □ Bad 79 .
12) To what extent do training and development programmes help in improving your performance? □ To great extent □ To some extent □ To very little extent 13) How far is the Performance Appraisal system used for job rotation? □ Mostly □ Partially □ Nil 14) To what extent is the purpose of Performance Appraisal fulfilled? □ Completely □ Partially □ Nil 15) Does JKPM always strive for continuous individual improvement? □ Strongly agree □ Agree □ Disagree □ Strongly disagree 80 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.