Metrology in Industry

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Metrology in Industry
The Key for Quality

French College of Metrology
Series Editor Dominique Placko

First published in Great Britain and the United States in 2006 by ISTE Ltd Translated into English by Jean Barbier Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licenses issued by the CLA. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address: ISTE Ltd 6 Fitzroy Square London W1T 5DX UK ISTE USA 4308 Patrice Road Newport Beach, CA 92663 USA

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© ISTE Ltd, 2006 The rights of the French College of Metrology to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

____________________________________________________________________ Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Metrology in industry : the key for quality / edited by French College of Metrology. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-905209-51-4 1. Quality control. 2. Metrology. I. Collège français de métrologie. TS156.M485 2006 620'.0045--dc22 2006003530
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 10: 1-905209-51-7 ISBN 13: 978-1-905209-51-4 Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire.

. 1. 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Durability of the instruments used . . . . . Choice of the means of measurement . . . . . . 1. 1. . . . . . 1. .3. . . . . . . . . .8. . . . 1. . . . Possibility of traceability . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . 1. . . . 1. . . . . . .4. Computerization and the speed of taking measurements . . . .4. . Adaptation of the instrument . . .4. . . . .2.3. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . Quality of the supplier’s service .4. . .4. . . . . .9.4. . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .4. . . . . Capability of measuring instruments. . . . .4. . 1.10. . . . . . . 1. . . . . 1. . . . . . . . Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . .4. . Basic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 1. . . . .4.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.4. . . 15 17 19 19 21 22 22 23 24 24 25 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 . . . . . Analysis of what is already available . . . Chapter 1. . . .4. . . . . . .3. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . Foreword. .5. . . . . . . . 1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . Choice of the method of measurement . . . . Introduction. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ergonomics . . . . . . . . . . . Comportment towards influence quantities. .1. . 1. . . . . .1. . .Table of Contents Preface .4. 1. . . . . .4. . . . . Homogeneity of the supply of instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definition of the objectives . .4. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assessment and acquisition of material . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical criteria . 1. . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining the method and the principle to implement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . Accounting for the selection of the method . . .4. Jean-Yves ARRIAT and Klaus-Dieter SCHITTHELM 1. .4. .

. . . . .7. . . . . . .3. . .5. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . Patrick REPOSEUR and Jean-Michel VIRIEUX 2. . . . . . . . . . . . Calibration requirements . 2. .1. . . The EXERA (France) . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . 1. . . . .7. . .3. . . .5. . . .1. . . . . . . Technical assistance for users of measuring instruments. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . Grid of the analysis of the choice .3. . .4. . . .6. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . A metrological organization: why? .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal metrology in Switzerland . .4. . . . Luc ERARD. . . . .6. . . .5. . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .4. . 2. 2. . 2. . . . VDI/VDE-GMA (Germany) . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legal metrology in France . . .4. Results of the international activities .4. 43 45 47 48 50 51 51 54 58 59 59 63 65 67 67 68 71 71 71 73 73 73 74 76 . . . . . . .1. . . Scientific. . . . . The selection of standards . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .4. . . . . . . . . . Legal. . . . . . 1. . . . .4. . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . .2. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . Scope of legal metrology . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .1. . . 2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . .4.3. . . 2. . . . . . .3.3. . . 2. . . . . Other regional bodies . Accreditation procedure . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . 2. . .4. . . . . . Scientific and technical metrology . . . 2. . . . The International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) . . . .3. .3. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .1. . The Italian national calibration system (SNT) . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .1. 2. . European Union harmonization . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . 1. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization of Metrology: Industrial. . . . . . . .4. . . . .3. . . . . . . . EUROMET .4. .4. . . . . . . . . 1. Legal metrology in Italy . .1. . . . .4. . European Cooperation for Accreditaton (EA) . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .3. . . . Economic criteria . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3. . .1. . . 2. . . . . . Stage 1: primary technical requirements (unavoidably necessary) .3. . . The Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE) . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . 2. . . The necessity of traceability of the measurements . . . . Metrology: how?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . The BIPM . . . .4. The traceability of the measurements . . . . . . . . . .3. . . WELMEC .4. . 2. . Roberto PERISSI. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . At national level. 2.4. . . . . . Organization at the national level . . . .6 Metrology in Industry 1. .3. . . . 1. . The European level . 2. . .2. . . . . .3. .3. . Regional organizations. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . Legal metrology . 1. . . . . . . . .5. . . 2. . . . . . .4.3. . . . . . .4. .1. . .4. . . . . . . The Swiss national calibration system . . . . Stage 2: secondary technical requirements (desirable) . 30 31 31 31 33 33 34 36 36 38 39 42 43 Chapter 2. .6.4. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . Jean-François MAGANA. . . . 1.3. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .

. 3. . . .1. . . . . . . .3. . . . Analysis of the requirement and selection of the measuring equipments . . . . . . . 3. Marc PRIEL and Patrick REPOSEUR 3. .5. .1. . . . .5. Technical dossier of the equipment . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . .1. .3. . . . .4. .3.1. . . . . . . . . 3. . Maximum permissible errors . . . . . 3. 3. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . Exploitation of a valid process . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . Fitness for use of measuring equipment. . . . . . The measurement processes . . .1. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . Mastering Measurement Processes Approach to the Setting up of a Metrology Function . . . Compliance with the order . 3. . . 3. . . . . . . .4. . . . . Traceability of the measuring instrument(s) to the firm’s reference standards . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . .4. . . . .Table of Contents 7 Chapter 3. .3. Analysis of the metrological requirements and setting up standards . 3. . . . . . . . . . Basic definitions . . . . . . Transcription of the characteristics of the product in “measurand” form or “characteristics to be measured” form .4. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . Analysis of the requirements . . .3. . . The development of a measurement process can be managed as a project . . . . .1. .1. . . . . . . . . . . stability . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Freedom from bias. . . . 3.2. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 3. Assessment of the measuring equipment . . . . . . .4. . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . .2.3. . . What to do at the beginning? . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . Continuous improvement of measurement processes . . . .2. . 3. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical requirements . 3. . Demands for an assurance of the quality . . . 3. . .5.1. . . . . . . Calibration and verification operations . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .5. . . 3. . . . . . . . .4. . .3. . . . . . . . . . 3. .1. . . . . . . . . . . .2. .2. . . . . . .3. .1. . . . . .3. . . . . 3. .3. . . . . . . . . .4. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supervision of the measuring equipment . . .3. . Calibration or verification program . . .6. . . . .5. . . . Calibration or verification intervals . . . . . . . . .4. . . . 3. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .4. . . Conception and development of a new measurement process. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . Setting up a metrological structure within the firm . . . . .3. .3. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .2. . . .4. . . . .1. . . . . . . .2. . . . .2. . . . .4. 3. . . .4. .4. 3. . . . . . .3. . . . .4. 3.2. . . 79 79 80 86 86 86 87 87 88 88 89 91 91 93 93 93 94 94 94 94 94 94 97 99 99 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 104 104 .4. .3. Technical documentation . . . . . . . Traceability of the firm’s reference standards to the SI. . . . Management of the measuring equipment (metrological confirmation) . . .3. . . . . .4. . . . Economic and commercial conditions. . . . . . 3. . Receiving the measuring equipment and putting it into service. . . . . . . . . Goals and role of the measurement management system – metrological function. . . . . .3. repeatability. 3. . .4. 3. . Inventory (description). . . Identification of the measuring equipment .4.4. . .

. . . . . . . Storing and environment. . . . . .1. . . . Objective and commitment of the firm’s management . . . .2. . . . . . Work instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Metrology in Industry 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precautions. . Software for the handling of the means of measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . Campaign of recall . . Bibliography . . . . . . Metrological policy of the firm . . . . . 4. 5. . 5. . . . . 4. . 105 106 109 110 110 110 113 113 113 113 114 115 115 116 117 118 119 119 120 120 120 121 121 122 123 123 124 125 125 127 127 127 127 128 129 129 131 Chapter 5. . . 4. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traceability chains 5. . 4. 4. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other documents . 3. . . . . . . Codification of the documents . . . . . . . . .2. . . Suggested approach for setting up a metrology function . . . . . . . 4. . 4. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traceability . . . . Transfer. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .1. . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . Introduction. . .4. . .1. . . . . .1.2. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . Transfer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .3. Traceability to National Standards . . .1. . . . .2. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodicity of the follow-up . . Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . .4. . 4. .2. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection of the material to be followed periodically . . . . 4. .1. . . Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . .3. 4. Inventory . . . . . . .2.2. . . . Follow-up of the results . . . . . . . . . . training and vocabulary . . . . .4. . . .2. . . . . Traceability .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .3. . . .5. . . . . . 4. Receipt . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .2. .4. . . Traceability . . . . . . . 4. . .6. . . . . . . Plan of actions to launch. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . Chapter 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . Physical handling of the measuring instruments . 4. . Luc ERARD and Patrick REPOSEUR 5. . . . .1. 4. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments . . . 4. . . . . Jean-Yves ARRIAT 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . Calibration . . . .3. . .1. . 5. . . . . . Result-recording documents . . . . . . .3. .4. . . . . . . . .2. . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .1. . . Awareness. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . Drafting of the documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Follow-up of the measuring instruments over time . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acquaintance with the bank . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .7. . . Definitions . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 152 152 154 157 158 161 . . 5. . . . . .3. . . .6. . . . . . 6. . . .3. . . .5.9. Comparative method . . . Traceabilty in metrology in chemistry. . . . .5. . .1. . . . . . . .2. . . . . Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . .1.1. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . Use of the results of a verification . . .1. . . . . . .2. . . . . .1. .9. . . . . . 5. . . . 5. . . . . . . . . Relative method. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .9. . . . Influence of the principle of the method . . . . . . 5. . . .2. “Self-calibrating” or “self-gauging” measuring instruments. . . . . . . . Second method: checking the coherence of the results . . . . . . . Verification in an accredited laboratory and in its accreditation scope . . . . . . . The determination of the calibration intervals . . . . . . 5. . . .Table of Contents 9 5. . . . . . Control charts . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . .2. . . . Statistical control of the measurement processes . .2. . . 136 136 137 139 139 140 140 141 143 145 145 146 Chapter 6. .2. .5. .1. . . First method: metrological redundancies . . . . .1. . 6. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use of calibration and verification results . . .2. . . . . . . . . 5.2. . Methods for monitoring the instruments in use – general criteria . Use of the monitoring methods. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . “Documentary” traceability . .8. . . . Complex instruments in which components/equipments and software are narrowly combined and large measurement ranges are covered for complex quantities. . . . . . . Verification .3. . . Assessment of traceability . . . . . . 6. . . Calibration Intervals and Methods for Monitoring the Measurement Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use of the results of a calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .2. . . Control of the reference materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verification in a non-accredited laboratory or out of the accreditation scope. . . . . . 5.2. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . Absolute methods.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . 6. .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normative requirements . 6. . . .9. . .2.3. Calibration in a non-accredited laboratory . . . . . Calibration in an accredited laboratory .3. . . .2. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . .7. . . . . . .7. . . . . 5. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metrology in chemistry and physical methods of chemical analysis . . .11. . . . . .3. Third method: “monitoring standards” and statistical supervision of the measurement processes . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . Conclusion . . . . .9. . . 5. . . . . . . . Patrizia TAVELLA and Marc PRIEL 6. . . .3. . . . . . . . .9. . 132 132 132 133 133 133 133 134 134 135 135 . .2. . . . . Particular cases. . .4. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .

. . Assessment of the covariances by considering the terms common to two input quantities . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . .2. . . Assessment of the covariances by calculating the terms of covariance . . 7. . 7. . . . . . 7. 7. . . . . . . .2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .5. . . Marc PRIEL 7. . . . . . . .3. . . . . .4. . . 7. . . . . . . . .4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .1. 7. . . . Comparing the Type A and Type B methods . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . Assessment of the uncertainty of the input quantities . . . . 7. .4. . . . . . . . . . 7. . .or interlaboratory approaches . . Type B methods. . . 7. . . .7. . . . Measurement of physical quantity . . .3. . . . 7. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .1. . 7. . . Measurements and Uncertainties . . . . . . . .10 Metrology in Industry Chapter 7. . . . . .and interlaboratory approaches . . . 7. . . . Use of the performances of the method (repeatability and freedom of bias) to assess the uncertainty of the measurement result .2. . . . . . . Situation when all the input quantities are independent .2. . . . .1. 7. . . .2. . 7. .5. . . . . . . . . .6. . The terms ∑ c u (x ) . . .1. . . . . . . x j ) . . Cutting down random errors by repeating measurements . . . .4. . . . .2) .6. . . . 7. . . . . . . . . .3. Intra-laboratory approach . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . .1. . . . . .6. . . Evaluation of the linearity . Situation when the input quantities are independent and the model is a sum. .7. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . An essential stage for the assessment of uncertainty: modeling the measurement . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . The cause and effect diagram method . . . . . . . . Type A methods. . . . Cutting down systematic errors by applying corrections . . . . . . Analysis of the measurement process . . 7. 7. .1. . . . .1. 7. .2. . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .1.3. . . . . . 7. Assessment of the repeatability and the reproducibility . . . .6. 2 i i i 163 163 164 166 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 172 173 174 175 176 179 180 180 180 181 181 181 181 181 183 184 185 186 187 187 188 189 189 . . . .4. . . 7. . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . .2. . Assessment of the freedom of bias (trueness) . . . . Situation when the input quantities are dependent . Modeling of the measurement process . . Using the list published in the GUM (section 3. . . .4. . 7. . . . Intra. . .5.7. . . . Measurement procedure and model of the measurement process . . . . . . . . .3. . . Interlaboratory approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . Assessment of the covariances by assessing a coefficient of correlation r(xi. . . .7. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .1. .2. . . .7. . 7. . . . . . .4. . .2.2. . . . . . . .7. .3. . Cutting down the errors .1. . . . . Situation when the model is a product . . . . . . 7. .1. . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . Calculating the combined uncertainty on the result .7. . . . . . . Data processing for intra. . . . .3. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . .7. 7.2. .4. . .5. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . Introduction. .4. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.1. . . . . . .1. . . . . 8. . . . .1. . Choice of a measuring principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four types of uses of measuring instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . .3.4. . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents 11 7. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . About Measuring . . . . . . . . . . Example . . . . .1. . . . . . . .1. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 9. .5. . . 8. . . . Indirect measurement . . . Appendix . 8. . . . . . . . . . .1. . Relative humidity .2. . . The personnel . . Differential measurement . . 8. . . . . . . . Ambient temperature . . . . . Field of measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. 8. Physical quantity . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . .3. . .1. . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Records regarding quality . . . . .1. .1. . . . .1. . . .3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . 8.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .2. . . . . . .5. . . Management of the documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radioelectric disturbances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Environment of Measuring . . . . . . . 8. . . . .1. . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influencing quantities . . . . .2. . . . 9. . .1. Reporting of the measurement result . . . .1. . .2. . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .2. . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Claude KOCH 9. . . . . . .2. . . 8. . . . Handling of the air conditioning systems . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The connection of metrology function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 189 190 193 195 196 197 198 199 199 199 200 200 200 201 202 202 202 202 203 204 205 206 209 209 209 210 210 211 212 213 214 214 214 Chapter 9. . . . 9. . .3. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . Jean-Yves ARRIAT and Marc PRIEL 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Direct measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . Bibliography .1. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . Preliminary information . . . . . . 9. . . . Power network . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements on-site . . . . . . . . . .3. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . The qualification of the personnel . . . . The premises . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. .8. . . . . Bibliography . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . Documents dealing with the quality system 8. . .3. . . . Staff involved in the metrology function . 8. . . . . . . . . The object to be measured. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 9. . . . . .4. Filing of the documents . . . . . . . . . . . The documentation . . 7. . . . . . . . . . .

. .5. . . . .5. .3. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 10. . . . . . . Organization of Metrology at Solvay Research and Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 9. . . . . . 10. . . . . . . .2.4.4. Measurements . . . . . . . . Expression of the results . . . . 9. .12 Metrology in Industry 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . 9. . 10. . . . . . . . .1. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3. . . . . . . . . . . Calibration operations . .8. Be observant . . . . . .3. . . . . . .2. . .3. . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel and subcontracting . . . . . .2. . . . .4. .5. . . . 9. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . Be tidy and methodical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . 9. . . . . 225 225 226 226 226 226 227 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 231 231 232 . . . . . . . . . . . Indication of the state of the calibrations . . . Metrology . . .2. . Graphs . . . Geographic localization of the activities . 10. . . . . What qualities does a metrologist require? 9. . . . . Implementing the instruments . .4. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . Composition of the bank of measuring equipment. . . . . . . 9. . . . . . .3.2. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . 9. . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . Documentation of the calibration results .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 10. . . . . . Histograms . . 9. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . Be open to doubt . . .3. 9. . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection of the standards . . . 10. . . . . . 10. 215 216 216 216 217 218 218 220 220 221 222 222 222 222 223 Chapter 10. .3. . . . . . Missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . Creation . . . . . . José MONTES 10. . . Organization . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . Precautions before measuring. . . . . . . Periodicity of the calibrations . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .5. . . . . 9. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . Be inquisitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Be honest. .3. . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Presentation of the company . .4. . . . .3. . . 9. . . Variations and their sign. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . Practicing in metrology . . . . . . . .1. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . 10. . The time factor . . . . . . . . . . .5. Organization of the metrology sector . . . . . . Verdict of the metrological confirmation . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Authors . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metrological operator. . . . . Metrology profession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement control process . Training for the Metrology Professions in France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents 13 Chapter 11. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . 12. 11. . Index .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . The process approach. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . Bernard LARQUIER 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . Vocational high schools . . . . . 12. . . Introduction to the evolution of the standard 11. . . The teaching of metrology in secondary schools . . . . . . 233 233 234 234 235 236 238 245 247 247 248 249 249 250 250 250 251 251 251 253 265 265 266 267 269 Chapter 12. .3. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . Philippe LANNEAU and Patrick REPOSEUR 11. . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .5. . .3. . . . The ISO 9001 (2000) standard step-by-step . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . The concept of continuous improvement 11. . . The metrology function in a firm’s strategy . Introduction . . . .2. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . Continuing education . . . . . Long-lasting training courses . . . . . Initial training. . .2. . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. Prospects for the development of long-lasting training courses 12. Courses for higher level technicians . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .5. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . 11. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . Metrological technician . Metrological engineer . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . 12. . Bibliography . . . . 12. . . . . . . . .2. .2. Schools for engineers . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Human health and safety depend on reliable measurements in diagnosis and therapy and in the production and trade in food and food products. In order to meet the needs of society for accurate and reliable measurements in all its many applications. T. Metrology is not an activity that is only carried out in specialized institutes or calibration laboratories. Global climate studies depend on reliable and consistent data from many disciplines often over long periods of time and this can be assured only on the basis of measurements traceable to measurement standards that are themselves linked to fundamental and atomic constants. It gives a clear outline of the basic ideas of metrology. Navigation and telecommunications require the most accurate time and frequency standards.Preface Metrology is an essential part of the infrastructure of today’s world. The economic success of most manufacturing industries is critically dependent on how well its products are made.J. a strong spirit of metrology must also exist in companies and enterprises that make the instruments and that use them to make measurements. why we need it and how. It enters into our lives in a multitude of ways. The protection of the environment from the short-term and long-term destructive effects of industrial activity can only be assured on the basis of accurate and reliable measurements. in an enterprise it can be practiced. a requirement in which measurement plays a key role. National and international trade increasingly require demonstrated conformity to written standards and specifications and mutual recognition of measurements and tests. I wish it every success. For this reason I welcome this book. Director of BIPM . some direct and some indirect. Quinn.

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Foreword Technically. together with the willingness to impart all the knowledge acquired so far. It is on this fundamental principle that the Metrology College was created in 1986. analyses and tests is a real asset for a firm which wishes to make efficacious decisions. – to perform any action likely to contribute to the development and promotion of metrology. the methods of measurement uncertainty assessment or those to secure the traceability of measurements are all complex and it is more necessary than ever to integrate them into a network of competent bodies so as to exchange experience and information. The purpose of this association is obviously much wider: – to identify which firms and organisms’ needs are to be met from the angle of metrology. scientific and economic fabric. Nowadays. the normative and statutory requirements. statutorily speaking. which became the French College of Metrology in 2002. have led a working party of the French College of Metrology to write a second edition of the book Metrology in the Firm. . You cannot achieve such an end if you do not have firm control over the processes of measurement. sometimes. Metrologists from various callings (national metrology laboratories. The permanent evolution of metrology. – to spread metrological culture and knowledge through the industrial. however. analysis and testing. having relevant and reliable results of measurements. commercially and. – to be a form of exchange between people involved in metrology. economically. the measuring techniques. accrediting organisms. – to contribute to make the collective national and regional actions coherent in this sphere.

whether it is the concept of firm certification developed in the 2000 version of standard ISO 9001. The contribution from foreign authors gives the book an unquestionable international aspect which accurately reflects the current reality. testing or analysis as expounded in standard ISO 17025. laboratories. the latest normative evolutions are to be found in this book. As a result. most of the authors belong to different national or international standardization committees. It is my sincere wish that whatever your need and country may be. I am confident you will find here some clues which will help you progress and improve your processes. or are simply interested in a concrete matter of measurement. Moreover. metrology contributes to the free circulation of goods between countries. More than ever. P. as a matter of fact. May you enjoy reading it. you can get as much out of it as our French colleagues do. The growing interest you have shown in this book has encouraged us in our intention of producing this English version. Whether you are involved in your firm’s metrology function. or the approach concerning the competence of activities of measurement. This broad range of authors gives the book a pragmatic characteristic and enables it to answer the questions and concerns of organizations. analysis or testing. etc. LEBLOIS.18 Metrology in Industry industrial concerns and consulting firms) and from different nationalities make up this working party. President of the French College of Metrology . thanks to the international organization of metrology and thanks to the international agreements between national metrology laboratories and between accrediting organisms. small or medium firms. whether they be principals.

Are those needs great enough to require the introduction of full-scale metrology? Are premises or qualified personnel needed permanently? What possibilities are there in the region? Chapter written by Jean-Yves ARRIAT – Ascent Consulting – and Klaus-Dieter SCHITTHELM – Expert in Metrology. too often alas. And then. 1.1. Let the reader’s mind be put at ease first. grow out of the inadequacy “means of measurement/real need”. Germany. is it not normal to start wondering what one really needs? Experience has taught us. or many costs. to be carried out literally. it is primordial to analyze the metrological needs carefully. There are two kinds: – The organizational needs for the management of metrology. and more particularly this chapter. . Introduction Before we start any concrete action. that this is not a natural process.Chapter 1 Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality Anybody with a mind to implement (or improve) a metrology function might feel a bit panicky at the thought of all the work to be done if they read this book unwarned. All the content is not. fortunately. Many industrial difficulties. All we want to do is to offer as broad as possible a survey of the subject by pointing out practically all the items that require consideration.

all the stages from conception to utilization must be taken into account by the specifications. these means are found after analysis of the objectives and the possibilities of the instruments and the connection. In order to realize measurements correctly. How is to be used the selected instrument? – What assembly is to be set up and what procedure is to be followed? – What technical competence do you have to have to use it? Then a question of a very different magnitude arises: how am I going to guarantee the quality of my measurements? Setting up a metrological function The three key components of a metrological function have to be under control (see Chapter 4): – adequacy of means to needs. or to handle it to a subcontractor? – The material needs for the realization of the measurements.). The preliminary analysis of the needs will produce a first set of specifications. standards. For a new measuring instrument. – administrative management of the equipment (measuring instruments. How can I meet my needs? – What are the possible measuring methods? – Which method and principle will be used? 3. You have to accept the principle which says that the specifications will evolve and obtain agreement from the major actors taking part in the drafting of the specifications. it is necessary to answer the following questions: 1. In order to define the firm’s needs. with the help of a someone else. What are my industrial needs? – What do I have to measure and what accuracy shall I expect? 2. There is a good chance that these analysis are going to be a bit theoretical and take little heed of the notions of profitability. it is necessary to have appropriate means. This is fundamentally the concern .20 Metrology in Industry Does someone want to manage metrology on his or her own. etc. Which measuring instruments can be used? – Which instrument shall I use? – Can the selected instrument ensure the required accuracy? 4. – traceability of the means of measurement to international standards.

the firm sets up a real management of the means of measurement. the maintenance of air conditioning). one must always begin by analyzing one’s real meterological need. Pareto. However big or small the problem is. etc. Let us point out that the analysis of the value (fundamental at the outset) is among the most useful tools. but its chief role is to act as a consultant. For this purpose. which make analysis and collective participation easier. and take into consideration the problems of maintainability (for instance. etc. . The specifications for a new measuring laboratory must ignore all of the environmental characteristics of the measurement (see Chapter 8). a process of management by quality). This process makes it possible to identify and quantify the means (personnel and material) to be implemented to take the intended measurements. but potential users may sometimes take part in the elaboration of the specifications. of access to the personnel.2. Its role may depend on each particular firm (see Chapter 3). the metrological function conducts the management of these means according to needs that are clearly defined and regularly updated.. Definition of the objectives The metrological function must be approached as soon as you start thinking about problems of measurement.e.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 21 of the manufacturers. – the analysis of the achievement of the measurement results (and of the level of accuracy reached). 1. – the analysis of the non-conformities which could be encountered. of user-friendliness. It examines the need in a logical process based on: – the functional analysis of the measurement (drafting of specifications). cause/effect diagrams. we strongly recommend to use “brainstorming”. It is during these phases that the “tools of quality” will be used. – the analysis of the risks related to the selected means. This involves examining a large number of actions in order to start up and maintain the supply of measuring instruments necessary to meet the firm’s needs. So as to guarantee the quality of its measurements (i. In order to clearly define the objective.

g. Then.1 mm to 1. electric resistance.5 mm range will be different from the one which is expected between 100 mm and 1.. The fact is that within the scope of some contracts (notably related to safety. health. 1. – the operations related to the moving of these means (protection.1 mm to 0. – the needs for the realization of the measurements. – the traceability of the measurements (which material do they come from?).000 mm). public security. etc. etc. length from 0. – the permissible uncertainty for each quantity and each range (the uncertainty in the 0. the ISO/QS 9000 or TS 16 949 certification process also involves a description of the selected method.).000 mm). It is to be understood by this that the criteria have to possess as little subjectivity as possible. – the updating of the inventory of these means. for each separate case.3.). – the acquisition. This choice must take possible restraints of qualification into consideration. – the traceability of the material of measurement (in the case where materials of measurement are assigned). in accordance with the relevant program and by a very precise process. – the calibration or the verification of the means and the decisions they entail. This means it must be subjected to an authenticated description. officially certified tests. Accounting for the selection of the method You have to justify the choice of the selected method. authorization.) you may have to qualify the method of measurement. the reception and the implementation of these means. etc. it will be necessary to consider and define: – the analysis of the needs and the choice of the means of measurement. – the ranges which need to be covered for each physical quantity (e. – the exploitation of the calibration results. . Choice of the method of measurement 1. length.3.g.22 Metrology in Industry The first thing to do regarding the analysis of the supply of material is to work out: – the list of physical quantities (e. temperature. etc. The outcome of this is that the intended objectives must not be mixed up to satisfy: – the needs for the management of metrology with. Besides.1.

the conditions of the material and the environment. and in Germany. there are in metrology three great principles of measurement. Our advice is to keep only the two (maybe three) most important criteria in mind and to draw a table. 1. you may want to measure a dimension on a rubber part: you happen to be close to a three-dimensional measuring machine and your instant reaction may be to go to this machine without thinking whether there may be a more suitable method than this one. Let us consider the example of Table 1.2. these are the laboratories of the LNE (Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais). – the characteristics measured (two families of them here). You must not forget that the great metrology laboratories can be a great help in this area. For example.1. Two criteria have been selected: – the principle of measurement (two groups of them here). . those of the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische-Bundesanstalt). it is often possible to hang on to the methods which are known and officially accepted.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 23 Fortunately.e. i. must be written in a document and will be taken into account particularly when choosing the operators. One of the very first principles of quality assurance is to write down what is being done. There must be a clear distinction between chosing a method and chosing a measuring instrument. See Chapter 9 for more details. Defining the method and the principle to implement When there are several methods of measurement. everything related to the carrying out of these measurements. or calibration laboratories accredited by the DKD (Deutscher Kalibrierdienst). They are: – differential measurement. Whether the method is qualified or not. In France. for example. after the metrological objectives have been set. It makes it possible to analyze the different methods of measurement that lead to the assessment of the characteristics of industrial robots. This process is simple and allows people to think further about the choice of the method. the operations that make it possible to get the measurement.3. it is important. – direct measurement. As a rule. The different stages. the three of them have advantages and drawbacks. it is often difficult to determine which one will best fit your need if you are not able to classify them. – indirect measurement. to make the methodology of the measurement explicit.

NEL and SETP-LNE) Local methods Big base methods Table 1. General Motors. England) Selspine system Robotest (Polytech. etc. England SETP: Photogrammetric Studies and Works Society Method of the two theodolites (Renault) Theodolites with automatic data (LNE) Selspine system Photogrammetry (University of Dresden. NEL and SETP-LNE) IPA: Institute for Production techniques and Automation. – the assessments already made. for the technical specifications have to be seen first).1. .24 Metrology in Industry Positioning characteristics Trajectory characteristics Measurement terminal with cubes (Peugeot SA and LNE) Measurement terminal with Measurement terminal on materialized trajectories measuring machine (IPA) (rule and circle) (LNE) Different realizations based on the Measurement terminal with trajectory same principles have been (broken line) (Peugeot SA) developed (IBM.4. you must take into consideration: – the technical needs. Choice of the means of measurement 1.) Devices with three sensors and wire (Peugeot) Sweep of two laser beams (University of Surrey. – the economic conditions (last.1.4. “Classification of the methods of measurement” (Reproduced with the kind permission of Techniques de l'ingénieur – France) 1. Germany LNE: National Testing Laboratory NEL: National Engineering Laboratory. FRG) Stroboscoped photogrammetry (University of Dresden. – the possibilities of calibration. Introduction The choice of the material and/or the equipment must be based on specifications. To make this choice.

which come with documents and certificates. a special material has to be used. you do not borrow a frequency meter from a colleague and you do not hire a “lowborn” multimeter.2. For further information. Moreover. therefore. It is known that: – the ideal instrument does not exist. to better guarantee the quality of the measurements. To begin with. – in manufacturing (the “cost” factor will probably prevail). – for a laboratory (your preference will go to a very reliable. see Chapter 9. Four types of utilization can be distinguished: – for a study (you must look for an instrument that can evolve). so as to be sure of their traceability and. – the instrument closest to what is ideal is too expensive. This requires: – good communication between the various parties concerned with the measurements.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 25 Practicing metrology is not simply doing plain measurements. Analysis of what is already available The first thing to do will be to see if there is not already in the firm some available material which can meet your needs. – for a site (robustness ought to be favored). which means that you do not simply use any dimensional comparator lying about on a shelf. and – a good knowledge of the material available. you use instruments which are well-known and well-regarded. . you make its amortization easier). 1. These instruments (said to be “reference instruments”) have to be acquired after you have seriously studied the criteria of choice. or when the material is very expensive (when you increase the duration of its productive use. strong and proven instrument). – each buyer limits the claims of technical applicants. On the contrary.4. the choice of an instrument depends on its type of use. The latter point is all the more important when there is a risk of technological obsolescence (using a state-of-the-art instrument to its maximum capacity justifies its acquisition and it makes it easier to get new ones).

the parameters of each of them are numerous and. few are the cases when the material is selected without the price being considered (either before or after the purchase!). This is partly explained by the fact that the stated characteristics are obtained by the manufacturers. time of assistance after the sale. Furthermore. before launching into testing. in frequent cases. the tests are long and expensive. consequently. However. in order not to have to repeat work endlessly. they quite simply depend on the competence and professionalism of the person in charge of the metrological function. the instruments that can perform the same function are many in number. So. when? Where? By whom? In which domain? Is a report of the tests available? – How long has the instrument been manufactured? How many copies of it have been produced? – Has stopping its production been considered? – Who has bought it? Is it possible to consult users? Once you have got this information. in a laboratory and in ideal conditions of use. any person who is interested in purchasing an instrument is entitled to ask the salesman the following questions: – Have any tests been done? If the answer is yes. A few years ago a survey showed that the percentage of rejected instruments could reach 50%. As for the assessments which are otherwise made.26 Metrology in Industry 1. the economic requirements are obviously taken into account.3. A distinction must be made between learning about a instrument which is presented by a salesman and having its characteristics verified by a specialized laboratory. Once again. and if tests seem necessary. you have to choose between doing them yourself or subcontracting them to a better-equipped organization whose results cannot be questioned. he must make an inventory of what is in store (material and tested material). However. Of course. He must estimate whether the supplier is capable of keeping to the agreed times in general: time of delivery. and this situation is very remote from the user’s reality. the role of the buyer is not simple. it . Besides.4. evidence arises of the importance of good relationships (partnership even) with the manufacturers of the instrument and of their obligation to pass on information in a transparent and unrestricted way. He must indeed be on a permanent technological watch. The companies which take the trouble to check all the electric and electronic material they buy admit that a far from negligible proportion of the instruments delivered is partly defective or does not comply with tolerances on delivery. Assessment and acquisition of material Speaking of compromise about the choice was actually slightly simplistic. Tests of assessment preliminary to purchase would be greatly recommended.

on-off cycles are more harmful than a long. Comportment towards influence quantities This concerns the way the basic characteristics change with time according to external constraints: variation of the temperature or the electric power. vibrations. – They get used more easily to equipment they have helped to choose (working and utilizing conditions are improved: that is what is called communicating without demagogy!). said to be reference conditions: a temperature of 20°C or 23°C. generally speaking. should be involved in choosing the instruments they need for their activities. which make all the difference (and those which mostly “hinder” the smooth progress of their work). or by purely economic criteria.4.4. .3. no mechanical and electrical perturbations. 1.4.) are liable to drift in time. electromagnetic perturbations. Basic characteristics For a measuring instrument (whether used as a standard or not) this most often means that its necessary accuracy is in one certain domain of the studied quantity in ideal conditions. of the instrument. – They are not so easily influenced by attractive advertising. In essence there are three reasons for this: – Because of their experience. The way instruments react over a period of time is often undetermined. Contrary to a widespread opinion. the user and the maintenance team know the little details.4. As a rule. Durability of the instruments used The durability is the interval of time during which the instrument remains capable of meeting your normal need of it.2.4. even if the instrument no longer meets your need. which defines the lifespan. 1.1. etc. etc.4. as well as the users. we find ourselves left with technical criteria. They have to be recalibrated or reset regularly.4. It must not be mistaken for the longevity. the expensive ones. uninterrupted. economic conditions and assessments generally being what they are. which makes the overall analysis more objective. etc. all instruments (even the very accurate ones.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 27 seems to be of paramount importance that the team responsible for maintaining the instruments. working period. 230V/50Hz power from the mains. The following are those that seem to be the most important. 1. Technical criteria 1. So.4.

As a matter of fact. will he make you wait? The more sophisticated the instrument is. sometimes. as such. The information provided by the maintenance teams allows us to have good facts upon which to make a decision.4. The most accurate metrological instruments are expensive and.28 Metrology in Industry A material is durable if it is both reliable (few breakdowns) and maintainable (easy to repair). maintenance.5.e.4. maintenance will be less costly. It is very often difficult to go beyond the stage of purely commercial advertising. instruments adapted in their principle and realization to the needs of metrologists. and how long. you have to be able to use them for a sufficient length of time.4. or at least in English? How is the supplier able to help if problems occur. It is therefore eminently desirable that any synthesizer or frequency meter should be able to work either on its internal oscillator or on an external signal. Adaptation of the instrument It is advisable to get instruments which have been conceived with a “metrological” outlook. which are excellent sources of 5 or 10MHz. 1. you should prefer the makes with good durability. For example. higher investments having sometimes to be considered. intervention. Placing an order with a instrument dealer may. the more these questions matter. In addition. in the language of the country where it will be used. there are few dealers who have a good knowledge of the instrument they sell.). Quality of the supplier’s service Your relationship with the supplier of instrument must not stop with the purchase. or who attend to the training of the users.4. i. You have to estimate how much longer the instrument will be manufactured or maintained. all metrologists who work in the timefrequencies scope have “major oscillators”. you will know your material better.4. for clear explanatory documents (utilization.4. periodic calibrations or verifications can be automated. 1. or at least a . Have provisions been made for the setting up of the instrument. Homogeneity of the supply of instruments You must avoid having too many different types of equipment and material: if you have equipment of similar types. The best-equipped “frequency” laboratories possess a caesium clock. etc. but there is actually nothing that can replace communication with the manufacturer. there will be a possibility of interchangeability in case of a breakdown. is this instrument “open” to future evolution? Is there any assurance that it will be compatible with the next generation of equipment? 1. So.4.6. on average. etc. the supplies of spare parts will be cheaper. You must analyze the technical assistance the supplier can provide. save time.

5 below. etc. Is it or is not possible to relate your measurements validly to the accepted standards at the national or international level? The question of traceability is developed in 1. and also in metrology laboratories. in particular. and its answer. Computerization and the speed of taking measurements There is a technical parameter which has a direct consequence on the cost of quality to the firm: how fast it will be to take a measurement? The question.7. to those instruments which are used on sites or in production. The “capability” of the . you have to raise the question of traceability to national or international standards before you eventually make up your mind to proceed with the purchase. some will turn out to be less “handy” to implement. In addition. Computerization makes it possible: – to increase the speed at which measurements are obtained by decreasing the input time. it may be important to computerize the measurement.4. 1. writing the results out by hand.8. – to incorporate the measuring instrument into a computerized “Statistic Process Control” (SPC). reduce by a factor of five the time it takes to take measurements. 1.4. These remarks refer. Of course.4.9. for instance digital display instruments which have an outlet to connect to an RS 232 plug. from which a 10MHz signal is drawn and distributed in the firm in order to synchronize frequency meters and synthesizers. integration into the work surface.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 29 rubidium clock. bulk and weight.4.4. However. Possibility of traceability When you buy a measuring instrument. 1. for example. 1.10.4. A digital display offers ease of reading and can. – to increase the Quality Assurance by reducing the risk of making mistakes while. is as much about how quickly the instrument can provide the necessary information as about the transcription of the measurement in a simple form. utilization by a left-handed person.4. in the case of the vernier calliper for example. Capability of measuring instruments This is a very important parameter that people in charge of metrology and people who use measuring instruments must keep in mind. computerization is possible on adaptable instruments. The ergonomic aspect of the utilization must not be forgotten: ease of handling.4. Ergonomics Several types of instruments can be selected for a specific measurement.

the capability index (whole or by centering) is given by the following formula: Cp = [upper tolerance . Who amongst us has not had to struggle with too strict intervals of tolerance. Economic criteria For reasons that are the very bases of the metrological function. You have to clearly delimit the uncertainties of measurement that will appear when you use the material. and to what extent. Choosing too effective a means would result in a superquality which would lead to too high a price. It is possible to reckon .lower tolerance]/6 s with s = standard deviation of the series produced Cpk = MIN [ (upper tolerance .mean)/3 and (lower tolerance . applied measurement processes (the methods) and the personnel who do the measuring. Consequently. it is necessary to practice metrology with well-known measuring equipment. the measuring system fits with the tolerance that is being checked. and also in measurement? What is the good of striving to get a result to the hundredth of a unit (0.5. On the other hand. The measuring system includes the measuring instruments (the material). The French standard NF E02204 (which concerns mechanical engineering. In production.mean)/3 s] In metrology.01 volt for example) when the dispersion of a series of measurements is already equal to one tenth of this unit? You need to take into consideration the limits (and the cost) of the measuring instruments to be used to check the technical specifications (intervals of tolerance) when you choose the instruments. that is to say the users (the person). the capability index of the means of measurement (Cmm) is often: Cmm = IT/6 Ig with IT = interval of tolerance (from specifications) Ig = overall uncertainty of the measurement 1.30 Metrology in Industry measuring instrument is an indication which is the extent to which the instrument makes it possible to assess whether. the choice of the instrument depends on the tolerance to be verified. To put it another way. which are hard to comply with in manufacture. but which can serve as a basis for other purposes) provides very useful supplementary information and definitively repeals the widespread “10%” rule. it is about whether the prescribed interval of tolerance properly fits with the overall uncertainty of measurement. a lack of effectiveness would bring about an unacceptable percentage of defective parts being manufactured.4.

6. then to attribute to each criterion a coefficient depending on how important each criterion appears to be.4. 1.6. Here is a tool to help thinking with the decision-making: a good mind of “Management of Quality” will always try to use practical tools. automation increases the purchase price. usually the lowest cost). High reliability also increases the purchase price. The important thing is to make a careful list of questions and provide an answer to each one. and preventive and corrective maintenance). 1. the user. electric power. – the costs of operation (expenses for operating the material. Grid of the analysis of the choice There are two stages when you select a measuring instrument.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 31 how much a measurement costs.2).6. recording paper. Stage 1: primary technical requirements (unavoidably necessary) The point is to determine the quantities. but it reduces the operating cost. the buyer and the personnel responsible for the maintenance. – the cost of lack of availability: will a replacement material be needed while it is being maintained? Will there be any financial consequence? These different parameters are interdependent. the ranges of measurement and the uncertainties which should be found in the instrument so that you can get the expected quality of instrument.1. The items on this grid should come from the analysis of the criteria undertaken by the manager of the metrological activities (the person in charge of the metrological function in the firm).4. . It is true that experience is not easy to weigh.2.4. 1. We suggest that you make a list of the criteria to consider when choosing an instrument. Stage 2: secondary technical requirements (desirable) It will be possible at this stage to make a decision based on the results of outside evaluations. but this does not mean anything unless all the parameters of the cost are taken into account: – the purchase price of the material and its resale price after it has been used a certain number of years. and then a mark. but it cuts down the cost of maintenance. The outcome of this stage will be a list of the instruments available on the market which meeting the technical requirements. Each person’s opinion will thus be taken into account. but the object of this method is just to provide a starting point to work out a decision (Table 1. – the cost of maintenance (including calibration. accessories. and taking commercial and economic conditions into account.

etc.32 Metrology in Industry The various people who are concerned with the instrument should meet to determine the values of the weightings.) – experience gained on similar material of the same make – press-cuttings from the specialized press – etc. The role of these weightings is to give more weight to one or several items of the grid which. c Note n c*n Table 1. Grid of the evaluation of a measuring instrument . The final mark for each item is obtained by multiplying the mark of the item by the associated weighting (n*c).2. The weightings c (Σc) are added. The evaluation of the measuring instrument is obtained by the division: Σc*n -----Σc ∑c = ________ ∑c*n = ________ Identification = Type = Manufacturer = Technical – homogeneity of the supply of instruments needs – risk of rapid obsolescence – documents from the supplier – technical assistance – adaptation of the instrument to technological requirements – etc. Coef. have a certain importance. according to the group. Economic – cost/price of the competitor’s range and – possibilities of purchase or loan commercial – required time for delivery conditions – time allowed for repair – etc. Outside – evaluation from a centre accredited by the evaluations COFRAC or the DKD – evaluation by users (EXERA. then the products c*n (Σc*n) are added.

The EXERA is a non-profit-making association. one of the few associations which work to support industrial metrology. the USA. an amalgamation of companies and organizations that are major users of instruments and systems of measurement. . The EXERA (France) This chapter. Canada.4. for example. the EXERA signed an agreement of international cooperation with two other organizations of users: – the SIREP (Britain). There are technical commissions about automation. Two examples of such organizations are given below. through its members by organizing the technical evaluation of materials. to choose. etc. Belgium. regulation and automation. in 1970. Finland. Technical assistance for users of measuring instruments In some countries organizations have established themselves to provide users of measuring instruments with technical assistance. It also initiates the writing of guides about the choice of material in the different technical areas and. in essence. to install and to operate materials and systems. as well as information about instruments and systems. In 1982. at the same time. etc. This enables the users and the manufacturers to obtain more elements of explanation on investments and technological trends. Switzerland. and – the WIB (the Netherlands). In a spirit of partnership. it is a privileged meeting place for users. 1.1. does its best to develop a constructive dialogue with manufacturers. instruments. This club acts.7. where specialists (over 500) can freely exchange what information about what experience has taught them. its purpose has been to produce and circulate original information and to provide its members with assistance when they need to express their requirements. measurements and systems for the tests. would be left unfinished if no mention was made of the EXERA. Since its foundation. analyzers.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 33 1.4. Sweden. The EXERA is first and foremost a club. groups of users are constituted so that they can take responsibility for their needs and they can better express and defend them in front of manufacturers. Japan. which deals with the analysis of metrological requirements. These two other associations have members in other industrialized countries.7.

In December 1991. EDF. the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and several industry associations and societies. among them are: CEA. For more information. It combines expertise of institutions such as the German National Metrology Institute (PTB). – the scientific preparation for standardization. there are about 90 members in the three associations. Electronic and Information Technologies VDE (Verband der Elektrotechnik.und Automatisierungstechnik). conferences. which ultimately concerns more than 100 large companies. public authorities and scientific institutions. the SIREP. The GMA is a network of technical competence in metrology and other fields of activity.bc or www. At present. CGE. symposiums.2. RENAULT. L'OREAL. – the preparation of publications. etc. IFP. which are all written in English. etc. – the organization of congresses. Altogether. approximately 80 reports are distributed annually by the three associations.exera.34 Metrology in Industry The main features of the agreement. etc. VDI/VDE-GMA (Germany) In Germany an organization similar to EXERA is the Society for Measurement and Automatic Control GMA (Gesellschaft Mess. recommendations. 1. are: – the full-scale and well-balanced exchange of assessments of instruments and surveys. see www. .com. PECHINEY. – the gradual adjustment of the formalities regulating the testing of materials. GIAT. 40 of the members belong to the EXERA.7. the WIB and the EXERA were officially recognized by the European Organisation for Conformity Assessment (EOTC) as “Agreement group”. to promote the flow of information concerning new processes and developments. GMA activities include: – the promotion of the exchange of information between industry.4. This organization is a joint organization of the Association of German Engineers VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure) and the Association for Electrical. the German Calibration Service (DKD).eotc. to improve understanding. Elektronik und Informationstechnik). guidelines. TOTAL. – the harmonization of the work programs. – the acceptance of common principles regulating the procedures of evaluation and the presentation of the documents. the German Institute for Standardisation (DIN).

Metrology literature used in Germany In the VDI/VDE guidelines there are three series dealing with the treatment of measuring equipment: The series VDI/VDE/DGQ 2618. e.g. in metrology. – the publication and promotion of technical and scientific literature. as well as information on the expression of uncertainty in measurement. In separate documents there are procedures for calibration and surveillance of specific-measurement instruments. research and science cooperate in different fields of metrology. These metrology documents define procedures for users of measurement instruments (see the following table). In common technical committees.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 35 – the national and international representation in the field of measurement and automation controls. – the support of education and post-graduate training. Views and comments of potential users are evaluated and the documents are modified before they are definitively published. Metrological level National Metrology Institute (PTB) DKD accredited calibration laboratory Optional: In-house calibration laboratory Measurement and testing equipment Product Guidelines. honorary experts of industry. . An example of such papers is the paper about the procedures for “Callipers for external. contains general considerations and determinations. These documents are first presented as drafts. The guidelines published by VDI/VDE-GMA describe standards. internal and depth dimensions”. “Inspection of measuring and test equipment – instructions to inspect measuring and test equipment for geometrical quantities”. Each committee is focused on specific branches of metrology.3. documents and standards National DIN standards or DKD guidelines International EN or ISO standards EA documents VDI/VDE guidelines DKD guidelines EA documents Table 1. These committees produce newly-developed or updated technical documents.

70 cm – foot from Lorraine (East of France) 28. This has to be taken into consideration from the beginning of the process that leads to the selection of the method of measurement. and then the means of measurement. let us look at the measurement of the value of the “foot” in the past.63 cm – foot from Bordeaux (South of France) 35. The metrological function is responsible for the management of the quality of the measurements.5. such as “is it a child’s foot. is entitled “Accuracy of coordinate measuring machines – parameters and their reverification”.1. Again.de). Germany (e-mail: gma@vdi. it gave the following results: – foot of the King of France 32. This series is used as a base for the development of a new ISO standard on coordinate measuring machines. 1. A worthy sample of this quantity was available to avoid arguments. What good is it to take measurements if the measurements do not mean the same thing to everybody? For example.5.50 cm . electrical measurement instruments. or a man’s?” The problem was that when the value was translated into the metric system. the VDI/VDE/DGQ/DKD 2622 guidelines. The traceability of the measurements It has to be said repeatedly: the calibration requirements and the traceability define the quality of the measurements. the “foot” was used as a unit to measure distances. there are separate documents defining the calibration of specific. the acceptance and the surveillance of coordinate measuring equipment is defined in separate documents. along with a general introduction including information on the measurement uncertainty.60 cm – foot from Vienna (Austria) 31. VDI/VDE 2617. The calibration. An example is the calibration procedure for electrical oscilloscopes. 1. More detailed information is available at the GMA secretariat in Düsseldorf.48 cm – Roman foot 29.36 Metrology in Industry Another series. Everyone used the same word. deals with “Calibration of measuring equipment for electrical quantities”. Until about the 18th century (and even later). or a woman’s. The third series. The necessity of traceability of the measurements Traceability is the very basis of metrology.

in order to show that the chain of calibration has not been broken. it is further evidence of his seriousness and commitment to his job. France. and also the traceability of the firm’s instrument. It has been said above that it is important to have reference standards in one’s firm and to have them calibrated in accredited calibration centers or laboratories. – the provider of the service can guarantee the quality of the measurements provided. You have to be able to demonstrate full traceability of the measurement that has been made. and of local comparisons to each reference. The provider with the . However. An audit of the provider’s system of management of the quality will probably be necessary. that a provider with an accredited laboratory knows better what the word “metrology” means than a competitor who does not have any accredited laboratory. a choice must be made between having the metrology integrated in the firm and having it subcontracted. etc. However. In addition. Germany. you need to be careful. Bringing in a provider of services who has their own accredited laboratory is not a must.). As some providers of calibration services propose to calibrate the measuring instruments with standards of their own. Just imagine the Airbus today manufactured from all parts of the world. UKAS.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 37 These discrepancies resulted from the lack of a national reference (let us not even talk of a European one). There is every reason to think. Italy. It is therefore indispensable to have metrological references in one’s firm and to have them compared to national reference quantities by calibration. if the provider has one. Comparisons between accredited laboratories are made by national accreditation bodies (the COFRAC in France. the relationship between the measurement and the instrument used. such European countries as Britain. the Deutscher Kalibrierdienst (DKD) in Germany) and there are programs of comparison that make it possible to ensure that the standards of different countries are related. DKD. are the leaders. However. It is to be regretted that all the industrialized countries are not at the same level of progress in metrology. do not forget to verify that at every stage the uncertainties of measurement are not too large. etc. Spain. You must absolutely make sure that: – their standards are periodically calibrated in a competent laboratory (whose organization complies with the ISO 17025) accredited by a national organization (COFRAC.

which work in mechanical engineering and have their sets of gauge blocks calibrated in an accredited calibration laboratory simply open their calibration certificate? . it gets even more complex! Some methods of measurement demand equivalent methods of calibration. Has anyone even considered measuring rods for a micrometer? What is to be done with dynamometric spanners.? If you go into physical chemistry. Stability is a key word in metrology. etc. the investment required for launching an accredited laboratory excludes the “transitory” type of company that starts up in “commercial niches” and then vanishes as quickly as it has appeared.38 Metrology in Industry accredited laboratory can grasp the primary technical needs of the client: quantities. but what you actually need is a verification. How many firms. etc. scope of measurement and uncertainties. balances. the provider must use working standards which are related to the calibration chains. you will think about using gauge blocks. Therefore. hardness. Nevertheless. you realize that quite often you talk about calibration. for example. control. perhaps even a metrological confirmation (see ISO 10012 standard). do not consider only the price and have a yearly competition. etc. 1. It is not necessary for the provider to have their own laboratory since the whole intervention is carried out onsite. However. it is not only a means to avoid auditor’s critical views. the verification can only be done on-site. some manufacturers of materials provide tips. It is important not to change your provider too regularly when you decide to subcontract the calibrations. which means doing just what is necessary. test or analysis instruments. Calibration must be done intelligently. Furthermore.. Calibration requirements Several problems come to mind when thinking of calibration. etc.). In the case of equipment such as heavy machinery (traction.2. how can a particular measuring instrument be calibrated? If it is a calliper. Fortunately. it might be necessary to proceed to an internal checking between two interventions. air conditioning chambers. let us point out that what has been said so far applies to movable measurement. which is just a simplified examination of good working order. scales.5. When you look deeper into the matter. First of all. compression.

Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 39 Never must it be forgotten that the major purpose of calibration is to verify the measuring instrument and calculate the uncertainties that go with the results of the measurements taken with that instrument. so as to detect and prevent any possible drift. if so.5. is that it depends. 1. The question of the interval of the calibrations inevitably arises quickly. particularly in the field of physical chemistry. In fact. the small. However. It is always possible to ascertain whether there are any local providers of services in metrology and. it is a part of the “Management of Quality”. the reader’s attention is drawn to Chapter 6. However. The selection of standards The content of this technical paragraph does not concern all firms. Some methods of measurement meet a few demands. What is presented here is a practically complete line of thought which can reveal useful for the firms with a metrology service. even though the metrology is not the firm’s chief activity. a firm cannot excel in everything and it must avoid spreading its resources too thinly. The answer. It is our opinion that a compromise can be considered. If you retain part of it in the firm. measuring instruments should be calibrated reasonably frequently. you define the necessary intervals more accurately. let us first recall the definition of the word “standard” in the “International Vocabulary of basic and general terms in Metrology” (ISO document. but not too often because of the overall cost involved. you always start quite randomly and then. with experience. The reader should wary of any person who claims that they can tell which intervals are the right ones. On the question of follow-up interval. their charges.3. it makes it possible to maintain the user’s awareness of the importance of the measuring instruments.or medium-sized firms that do not use many standards (merely a set of gauges or masses for example) need not worry. which should make everybody happy. etc. 1993): . it is not cheap regardeless of whether you do it yourself or subcontract it. of the notion of connected uncertainty. In any event. as well as to the handbook of documentation published by AFNOR on the subject of the surveillance intervals. As a matter of fact. There is the question of subcontracting the calibration.

differ from the usual measuring instruments. they will have to be differentiated from the other usual measuring instruments because they will not have the same assignment. the mode of management concerning them. They are selected according to their type and their individual characteristics. you have to take metrological. work standard. choice. the stability and the metrological reliability. – the assignment of the standard (reference.” Examples: 1 kg mass standard 100 ohm standard resistor standard ammeter gauge block For a given metrological quantity. The standards of the lowest orders often have the same shape as the standards of usual instruments. – the technical level and the complexity of the standard. or may not. because it concerns the references of the measurements made by the firm. etc. – the basic metrological characteristics of the standard. – the assessment of the results of the measurements made with the standard. – the abilities of the users.40 Metrology in Industry Standard: “material measure. as well as to calibrate or verify the standard itself. The metrological aspects are about the following: – the methods that can be used to compare the measuring instrument submitted to calibration to the standard. – special cases of utilization. the standard will be the “reference” of the firm. calibration or verification. All this information must be described in simple and accessible documents.). When you select a standard. conserve or reproduce a unit or several known values of a quantity to transmit them by comparison to other measuring instruments. measuring instrument or measuring system intended to define. Thus. technical and economic aspects into account. The management of the standards will have to take into account: – the metrological level of the standard. identification and conservation of the references. – the importance of the standard for the firm. . that is. An error made on a standard can have more serious consequences than one made on a measuring instrument. realize. Consequently. The standards may. the accuracy. will have to be clearly defined.

– reading security. etc. calibration devices. or – by assessing its errors using methods and means of measurement (for example. reading.) containing the detailed information about the standard. the conception and the structure of the standard and coming to an opinion about them. – protection against deterioration. The technical aspects are about: – ease of use. – by studying the registers (monitoring cards. – ease of transport. – sensitivity. etc. recording. etc. in the case of a material measure. other metrological characteristics can be important in certain cases. total or partial. for example: – measuring range or nominal value. simplicity and reliability of the standard. the method of manufacture and assembly. Note 2: you realize a standard is stable and metrologically reliable: – by studying the working principle. – special accessories necessary for the utilization or the preservation of the standard (installation. – dynamic metrological characteristics. standards of other quantities. either when the standard is being used or when it is just being preserved. of taking to pieces and putting together again. etc. pollution. Besides these basic characteristics. – by scrutinizing the materials that make up its structure. of connection and of setting up in the calibration or verification device. .) that make it possible to preserve the compatibility of the standard with the national standards. – linearity or maximum permissible error of reversibility (hysteresis). – reference conditions. etc. electric power. interferences. Note 3: the metrological reliability is the ability of a standard to fulfill its expected function while maintaining the required freedom from bias and repeatability during a predetermined period of time and in set conditions. of installation.Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality 41 Note 1: the accuracy of a standard is established either: – by comparing it to a reference standard of a superior order and of the same quantity.).

In relation to its metrological function. – the possibilities of repairing. more than ever. selecting a standard can be regarded as the pursuit of an optimum solution. but also economic) and are liable to considerably restrain the choice. its maintenance and its preservation. in practice. The periodical follow-up and the administrative management are somebody else’s affair. – the absence of national or international instructions for some models of standards. – the qualification of the personnel needed. there are even other restraining factors. the selection of the materials and the authentication of their metrological capability. for example: – the order of standardization of the equipment. most of the time. However. and the lifespan.6. the drafting of the procedures and the periodical calibration of the reference standards. the training. 1. a quick economic survey will. Doing that requires data that no one else possesses. . The reality is that doing metrology. one must not forget the necessity to compare the specifications (tolerances) on the measured parameters to the uncertainties of measurements of these parameters. Yet. the firm focuses its attention on its particular activity. Most of these factors have overall effects (metrological. etc. technical. – the cost and the interval of the calibrations (including the costs resulting from non-availability) during the calibrations.42 Metrology in Industry The economic aspects are about: – the price of the standard and its accessories. Conclusion Today. show that having these activities carried out externally is less expensive – just add up the investments (initial and periodical). – the influence of traditions. – the trend towards the automation of measurements and calculations. If you consider the restrictions imposed by the prescribed metrological characteristics. that is. – the cost of its utilization. is a full-time job which requires you to be independent. it must focus its energy on its primary responsibility: the analysis of the requirement. trying to give meaning to the results of a measuring instrument.

Roberto PERISSI – ENIQ/Italy. and it must remain. technical and industrial levels. It is easily understood that a universal language involves a certain amount of dialogue between people from different ethnicity. metrology is. In short. the metrological organization could only comply with the rules that make it possible to meet these needs. national and international coherence of measurements is achieved. A metrological organization: why? The authors have purposefully devoted the first chapter to the analysis of metrological needs.1.Chapter 2 Organization of Metrology: Industrial. Scientific. . Therefore. Patrick REPOSEUR – Comité Français d’Accréditation (COFRAC). Thus. this task falls to the metrologists who intervene at the scientific. a universal language. or at the very core of each firm. and in the modern day to anticipate these needs. It is only through satisfying the needs of industry that metrology finds its raison d’être. People’s needs for measurements of all kinds and the necessity to be sure of their reliability and their universality have given rise to metrology. an intra-firm. whether at the international or national levels. The reason for this choice is simple. Jean-François MAGANA – Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale (OIML). Jean-Michel VIRIEUX – METAS/Switzerland. Legal 2. hence its elaboration may seem Chapter written by Luc ERARD – Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE). of course. the science of measurement.

his habits are not. has on one side “To all times – To all peoples”. which increased needs tenfold. as the only and compulsory system. not to mention the various national habits and customs which are the hereditary enemies of metrology. economic and political interests. Measuring is closely related to any human. It needed powerful triggers to change these customs. political and social realities: localization of the exchanges.. The need for universal and unified measurements made it necessary to establish an independent organization which would guarantee the fairness of exchanges that were affected by deep-rooted economic.. From very early days. the industrial developments of the 19th century. industrial or commercial activity. for tasks that are regarded as commonplace. and fighting poor practices. It is interesting to quote Lavoisier. commemorating the law of 4th July 1837. more coherent in all its parts come out of man’s hand. stamped in 1840. For a long time. Its role is constantly increasing and it concerns such vital sectors as energy. The scientific developments of the 17th and 18th centuries prepared the ground for the French Revolution to create the metric system. In spite of political vicissitudes. until 1st January 1840. is one of the missions of a metrology organization. it is constantly resorted to. A statement made at that time by the Minister for Commerce is still relevant today: “if man’s needs are something permanent that cannot be modified by a law. .” Expressing the real needs. they are mere accidents that can be defeated and dominated after more or less time.” Although the essential notions of coherence and simplicity influenced the creation of the metric system. talking of quantities or units sounded more like a babel of languages than a modern means of communication. in addition. and “Unity of the Measurements” on the other. often unknowingly.44 Metrology in Industry laborious. more or fewer efforts . This states the need that was felt very early in the world of industrial measurement. initiated people in their ivory towers. If the word “need” is a dominant recurring theme. trade required measuring instruments and thus standards. it is because metrology is not reserved for isolated. to establish and use a coherent and universal system. the need to collaborate regardless of political differences and. it was not adopted in France. who said that: “never has anything greater. scientific. accelerated the process of establishing a metrological organization. Each day. simpler. The metric system medal. It emerged from concepts which will be studied later on in the chapter.

Scientific. National coherence mirrors international coherence. be arbitrary. and its results should be unquestionable and might be compared to those obtained at other times and in other places. A national organization studies. each measurement must be related to a standard by an unbroken chain. on which legal metrology in particular depends. which explains the success of the metric system that has become the International System of units (SI). In France. and it must. has to be ensured at the international and national levels. creates. International coherence means an SI resting on sound scientific bases and comparisons of the national standards of the different countries. It ever tends towards being more universal. It is the role of metrology to forge the different links of the chain and to make sure it does a good job. Coherence. It is essentially the sphere of the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) and its laboratory. transport. Europe set an example by creating EUROMET in which the European National Metrology Institutes collaborate. Regional organizations that bring together national organizations have been created. etc. It has also created European cooperation for Accreditation (EA) which brings together the accredited calibration laboratories. communications. armament. and this allows a keener harmonization which makes the user’s task easier. regionalization of the world has been witnessed. and its aim is to harmonize the operation of the national calibration chains. the security of goods and people. and must not. Legal 45 health. although each country has its own national standards. there is a need for a periodic follow-up in the field: it is the accreditation of the calibration laboratories that assumes the checking function. food. It sets up a system that connects the industrials’ standards. 2. environment. evolve. It can.2. As any system drifts. public works. providing a link between the needs of industry and the National Metrology Institute. this system was installed in 1969 by the Bureau National de Métrologie which consisted of five primary metrology laboratories and was in charge of the system of traceability chains and of the accreditation of the calibration . maintains and upholds its standards. In order that measuring should have some meaning. the measuring instruments and the results of the measurements themselves. the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). Metrology: how? The organization of metrology cannot. For about 30 years.Organization of Metrology: Industrial.

Swiss metrology has set up traceability chains that guarantee the traceability of physical quantities. in all the domains of metrology (Swiss Calibration Service – SCS). 273. The Italian system has been acknowledged since 1991 by a law. This centralized organization was adopted at the beginning of the confederation’s activities related to metrology. In 2005. is the business of the cantons.4). The confederation has created a federal office of metrology and the cantons have set up verification offices to carry out the tasks. in particular. The latter activity was taken up by the COFRAC in 1994. METAS. the federal office of metrology and accreditation. In Italy. no. These calibration laboratories calibrate the standards of the clients. In Switzerland. these are the only laboratories that guarantee traceability to the standards. which establishes a national system of calibration (SNT) which in turn integrates all the structures (primary laboratories and accrediting institutes) (see Figure 2. IENGF and INMRI-ENEA) which have established and supervised the national standards since 1950. the monitoring of French metrology was transferred to the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE). All the official activities of metrology are to be found gathered in one institution and one place.46 Metrology in Industry laboratories. The list of the accredited calibration laboratories. which would be called regulated metrology today. after the Convention of the Meter was signed in 1875. and on the Italian calibration service (SIT) which has been accrediting the calibration laboratories in Italy since 1979. the federal government is responsible for the legislation related to metrology and for the diffusion of units. In order that correct values of units be disseminated with the required accuracy. the SAS. Gazzetta Ufficiale. . and of some chemical quantities such as gas mixtures. The Swiss accreditation service (SAS) sets the examinations and delivers the accreditations in all the fields covered by the European or international standards in relation with accreditation and. It provides a chain for the dissemination of the standards and guarantees the traceability of all measurement results to the International System of units (SI). is published in the Official Journal of the Italian Republic. the metrology system is based on three primary institutes (IMGC-CNR. These chains originate from the METAS’s primary laboratories which materialize the units in accordance with their definition and transmit them to the METAS’s calibration laboratories through material standards. Legal metrology. which are called SIT centers. which also manages the Swiss Accreditation Service.

and to the evolution of mankind.3. on a common foundation. On 22nd April 1876. Legal 47 The concept of legal metrology arose as soon as man expressed a need to guarantee the integrity of commercial exchanges. The Convention adopted French as its official language. while undertaking the realization and the upkeep of the (international) materialized standards of the meter and the kilogram. with its organization at the national and international levels.4. an establishment whose initial aims would be: – to make sure that the metric system was used worldwide. Only the essential elements of the general nature and the history of metrology have been retained as they make it possible to better understand the current structures. see section 2. Scientific. – and to ensure the coherence of national standards. it is closely tied to the evolution of science and techniques. Legal metrology. far away from any sources of vibration. it relies on scientific and technical metrology to develop its specific mission. the French government set the former Breteuil pavilion at the disposal of the Comité International des Poids et Mesures. Once the aims of the BIPM were established. and the Convention of the Metre (20th May 1875) advocated a commitment to found and maintain. the necessity of making sure of the unity of measurements was powerfully felt by the middle of the 19th century. Difficulties were caused by the use of many of standards in commercial and cultural exchanges (such problems were especially conspicuous at the World Fairs). but the history of metrology is fascinating. is not redundant. 2. The pavilion was situated at the heart of the Saint Cloud park.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. . Scientific and technical metrology Organization at the international level (the BIPM) With the volume of commercial transactions expanding and with science and techniques developing in the 18th century. all that was needed was a venue. the BIPM was intended to improve the processes of comparison and transfer between standards. It is this fundamental aspect of metrology that appears in the industrially-developing countries where “weights and measures” are still such as they have been traditionally known. The international level In addition. and was a 4 hectare international enclave in French territory.

. it is indeed possible to consider the SI as the oldest published document of international harmonization.48 Metrology in Industry CIPM 18 members 10 consultative committees BIPM Laboratories USA NIST UK NPL Germany PTB France LNE CH METAS Italy SNT Figure 2.1.3. the BIPM continues to attend to the standardization of physical measurements in the world. The BIPM Today. The BIPM and the national laboratories of metrology CGPM CIPM BIPM NIST PTB NPL LNE METAS SNT Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (France) Comité International des Poids et Mesures (France) Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (France) National Institute for Sciences and Technology (USA) Physicalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany) National Physical Laboratory (UK) Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (France) Office Fédéral de Métrologie (Switzerland) Sistema Nazionale de Taratura (Italy) 2. Its scientific activity aside. at the beginning of the 21st century. the BIPM is certainly the oldest establishment that “standardizes”.1.

The CIPM supervises and guides the BIPM’s work and it is itself under the authority of the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM). only the unit of mass is kept under the form of a “materialized measure”. are responsible for the SI. To this day. . – to organize international comparisons at the level of national standards. – chemistry. – to bring into existence the determinations relative to the basic physical constants and coordinate them. such as the distance traveled by light in 3. – electricity. The CGPM meets every four years and its mission is. – mass. together with the national metrology institutes. – to approve the results of the new basic metrological determinations and adopt the various scientific resolutions of international significance. The other basic quantities of the SI are defined today from physical constants. Scientific. which is the key to the uniformity of measurements internationally and one of the unquestionable bases of the industrialized world. In order to fulfill this mission of standardization. the BIPM has to establish the basic standards. The scientific activity of the laboratories of the BIPM is divided in relation to the units of the SI into: – length.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. – to ensure the coordination of the corresponding techniques of measurement. and keep the international prototypes. The CGPM is composed of delegates (51 in 2004) from all the states. – ionizing radiations. as well as the scales of the physical quantities. in particular: – to debate and prompt the necessary steps to bring about the propagation and the improvement of the SI. – time.34 nanoseconds (the physical constant is the speed of light in vacuum): – to compare the national standards to the international standards. which have signed the Treaty of the Metre Convention. Legal 49 The BIPM.

It is then possible to determine the exactitude of the comparison. This agreement is in two parts: in the first part. half of which are reelected every four years. Results of the international activities As a consequence of these scientific activities. in the second part. and thirdly. the actual participation of each NMI in suitable additional comparisons. or in a nation which has joined the Metre Convention. More generally.50 Metrology in Industry At the conference 18 members of the CIPM are elected. In October 1999. after possible corrections due to the environment among other conditions. secondly. Thanks to the work of the CIPM and to the coordination by the BIPM. The agreement concluded there was not any significant gap between the American and French standards. within the scope of the American law (see the Fastener Quality Act (FQA) 1990). the results of a set of key comparisons carried out according to specified methods that lead to a quantitative assessment of the degree of equivalence of the national measurement standards. .2. the signatories recognize the validity of the calibration and measurement certificates delivered by the participating laboratories. 2. Hence metrology has lowered a technical obstacle to the export of our products to the North American continent. first. have been applied. the setting up by each NMI of appropriate means so as ensure the quality of the measurements. in North America. In order that the criteria of mutual recognition be unbiased. the directors of the national metrology institutes (NMI) of the states belonging to the Metre Convention signed an arrangement (MRA) to mutually recognize the national measurement standards and the calibration and measurement certificates issued by their laboratories. the signatories recognize the degree of equivalence of the national measurement standards of the participating national laboratories.3. it is possible to compare measurements made in Europe. The result of these scientific works and agreements of equivalence is that it is now possible for European exporters to prove that they meet the requirements of many American contracts which still stipulate that the supplier has to be “traceable to NIST”. and thus to reach the same conclusions. in South Asia. it has been possible to sign such international recognition agreements as the BNM/NBS agreement of 1989 (which has become the NIST). the agreement is based on. this point turned out to be very important for the approval of the French manufacturers of fastening systems. one of the goals of metrology is to make sure that a measurement made at Ulan-Bator (Mongolia) is comparable to the same measurement made later at La Paz (Bolivia).

by taking into account the human factor. Therefore. The quality of the measurements that ensues will be synonymous with quality in essential spheres at the world level. the international trade of products. Bulgaria and Romania. – to improve the existing metrological services and make them accessible to all members. including new members. Regional organizations 2.1.1. e. and it is made up of the NMI of the countries from the European Union. 2. EUROMET EUROMET is an organization which was officially founded in Madrid. . technical and commercial relationships between peoples.3. – to make sure that the new calibration benches created within EUROMET are accessible to all members. It was set up to develop cooperation between the national laboratories of metrology of Western Europe and provide an efficacious utilization of the means which are available. metrology is unquestionably useful in bringing people closer to one another by avoiding contentions and malfunctions directly related to measurements. Metrology. and excepting the measurement uncertainties of the two laboratories.1. the major objective of the world organization of metrology is to determine the causes of the deviations and to define the uncertainty of the measurements (reproducibility.3. in the work on the standards. Scientific.3. following the signing of a “Memorandum of Understanding” (it was amended in August 1990 and July 1998). contributes to the harmonization of scientific. within the current decentralized metrological structure.3. – to optimize the use of the resources and services the members have at their disposal and emphasize the trend of members to satisfy detected metrological needs. It is now also open to all the European countries. the networks of communication and navigation as well as a multitude of theoretical or applied technical and scientific activities. as a universal language. of the NMI of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and of the Commission of the European Communities.g. More precisely. Objectives and structures EUROMET’s aims are: – to develop a closer collaboration between the members. in September 1987.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. Legal 51 regardless of the geographical location. These spheres include multinational industries which involve the development of subcontracting. Turkey. repeatability).3.3. 2.

– ionizing radiations (dosimetry. Technical activities There are 11 spheres of activities: – mass (force and pressure included). – the coordination of the major investments in metrological means.1. all the delegates constitute the General Assembly of EUROMET which meets at least once a year to debate its aims and objectives. – the facilitation of collaboration between members interested in a particular project. ultrasonics and vibrations (accelerometry included). – the transfer of competence between members in the domains of primary or national standards. – the cooperation with the European legal metrology services. – the cooperation with the European accreditation bodies. – acoustics. However. The expenses for cooperation and research are borne by the participating laboratories. – electricity and magnetism (direct current and quantum metrology.2. – the supply of information on resources and services.3. . low frequency. EUROMET does not have any funds of its own. EUROMET’s president is elected for two years and he provides a secretariat staff. external financing is not excluded: the European Community in particular financially participates in the research programs. – photometry and radiometry (fibronics included). radioactivity. 2. – length (dimensional measurements included). Total autonomy is retained by the members. Structure Each member (the national metrology organizations) appoints a delegate. – flowmetry (properties of fluids included). high frequencies).52 Metrology in Industry EUROMET’s specific aims are: – the coordination of studies about standards.3. metrology of neutrons). – time and frequency. – thermometry (thermal properties and humidity included). it operates on the basis of a voluntary participation.

they play the largest part in the projects. Interlaboratory comparisons come second because they are used to demonstrate the equivalence of standard realizations. There is often a collaboration outside EUROMET for those whose number of projects may seem low. . – intercomparison of measurement standards. Scientific. The number of projects is a proof of the success of EUROMET in terms of European cooperation. His main task is to coordinate the projects which are presented by the “contact person”. organic and inorganic. time/frequency. acoustics and flowmetry give rise to the fewest. The spheres which have the highest number of projects are those that arouse a high interest. A “technical chairman” is elected by the committee in each subject field for a two-year mandate. 256 projects were in progress. The realization of common surveys is the type of collaboration that has the greatest attraction. which shows that metrologists are determined to pool their work. electrochemistry). the number of projects are not the same within the categories of cooperation. Four to five participants on average have collaborated in each project. Legal 53 – chemical metrology (gas.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. – consultation on facilities. and some countries have taken advantage of their participation in EUROMET to develop their own metrological infrastructure. they also make possible the gathering of information about traceability in Europe for the use of accreditation organizations. Each collaborative project in a given activity is classified in one of the following categories: – cooperation in research. which is renewable once. a specialist in the sphere of activities in question who has been appointed by the national organizations of metrology. mass and length. On 1st May 2004. 368 have been previously carried through and have been concluded with a report. The spheres that give rise to the greatest number of projects are electricity. – interdisciplinary metrology. or are developing. It can easily be imagined that an important role in the European metrology is played by the countries with a larger GNP or possessing a larger size of metrology institute. – traceability. Likewise.

3. Among them. The objective of the WECC was to establish and maintain a mutual and reciprocal confidence between the different accreditation services of Western Europe. now called chemical metrology. they have developed a common technical domain or sphere of activity. whose technical support is EUROMET.54 Metrology in Industry EUROMET remains closely linked to many European and international organizations. . the WECC was a working section of the WEMC (Western European Metrologic Club) and it was called the Working Group on Calibration Services. so as to obtain the signing of recognition agreements and thus eliminate the technical obstacles to free trade resulting from calibrations. Originally in 1975. the SADCMET (Southern African Development Community Cooperation in Measurement Traceability) for Southern Africa and the SIM (Sistema interamericano de metrologia) for the Americas. and it is related to physicochemical analyses and measurements. the OIML and COOMET are regularly invited to the plenary meetings of EUROMET’s committee to contribute towards its work and extend the cooperation between the different organizations. European Cooperation for Accreditation (EA) The Western European Calibration Cooperation (WECC)’s object was to testify to the collaboration of the official services of calibration-laboratory accreditation that operated in Western Europe. Another goal of the WECC was to secure and maintain the free movement of the know-how between the different organizations. EUROMET’s twin for legal metrology. EUROMET has links with international and similar regional organizations. must be mentioned. The most significant works to be carried out within EUROMET in the coming years will be the interlaboratory comparisons and the accreditation of the national laboratories of metrology which are the two major components of the planned elaboration of the mutual recognition agreements. This cooperation is now extending to such regional organizations as the APMP (Asia Pacific Metrology Program) for South-East Asia and the West Pacific.2. As a regional organization. EA (European Cooperation for Accreditation). The BIPM.3. in order to bring the capacities of calibration in Europe to the same level and to give the clients of the service the required guarantees. called the “amount of substance”. traceability or measurements. so must WELMEC. 2. EUROMET also collaborates with such organizations as EURACHEM.

This declaration of equivalence concerns all the calibration certificates stamped by one of the mentioned organizations (see Chapter 5). their mode of functioning and their characteristics. these organizations work in the ILAC (International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation) for a recognition of the calibration results. at the same time as it makes sure that the arrangements that appear in the EA’s report are still being applied in the assessed organization. 2. IAAC (Inter America Accreditation Cooperation) for all the countries of the two Americas. individually. In no way do these agreements alter the operation of the organizations which. such as APLAC (AsiaPacific laboratory Accreditation Cooperation) for the Asia-Pacific zone.3. the Western European Laboratory Accreditation (WELAC) to form a new structure. a counterpart which carried on the coordination between the organizations of accreditation and certification organizations. The EA Recognition Agreements These agreements have emerged from a long and rigorous process which begun at a time when the standards of the EN 45000 series did not exist. This process makes it possible to limit the number of crossed evaluations and especially the time spent on these evaluations. as well as observing evaluations made in several countries that have signed the regional agreement. The international agreements depend on the same principle: ILAC’s assessors make sure the regional agreement works well with regard to the requirements of the guide ISO/CEI 58 (EN 45003) by evaluating the work of the committee responsible for handling the agreement.1.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. Scientific. Together with EA. retain their independence. . which in 1997 became the EA when it merged with EAC (European Cooperation for Certification).3. The organizations which have been invited to sign the multilateral recognition agreement declare that: There is no significant difference which might induce a user not to grant the same confidence to the calibration certificates issued by someone accredited: they are equivalent and can then be considered as such by those the certificates are addressed to. There are other regional or international organizations. each organization has at its disposal a document that reports the deviations from the EA criteria. Legal 55 In June 1994. After an evaluation by a group of experts from the member countries of the EA. the WECC merged with its counterpart that dealt with testing and analysis laboratories. EAL (European Cooperation for Accreditation of Laboratories).2. That recognition is validated through the agreements concerning the equivalence of the calibration certificates. not even as projects.

Those elements are ensuring the coherence of the technical activity of the accredited laboratories and their calibration capabilities and associated uncertainties. while ensuring there is a dialogue between laboratories and industrialists. The firms are then in a position to show that their products meet all of requirements. by means of tests carried out in their own laboratories. The accreditation bodies take into consideration the competence and the experience of the personnel. 2. the equipment. The main objective of the national traceability chains is to make possible the connection of industrial measurements to national standards and to understand the needs of industry in the field of metrology. ionizing radiations. in an identified measurement range and with associated uncertainties. global approach.56 Metrology in Industry The purpose of these agreements between national organizations of accreditation of calibration laboratories is to facilitate the recognition of the soundness of the measurements recorded in the calibration documents. forces. (EN 45020) .3.3. etc. while integrating the characteristics of the equipment which is to be connected to the standards. this leads to the drawing up of an accreditation certificate which defines the calibration which can be accredited for a given domain (dimensional metrology. Traceability to the national standards is a priori ensured only by the calibration certificates which bear the logotype of the national accreditation organization and are delivered by accredited laboratories. electricity. in accordance with the standards or rules the product is subjected to.3. the calibration methods used and the connection to the national standards.2. etc. Guarantees provided by accreditation Accreditation is the recognition of a certain competence and the assurance of the durability of this competence by an organization which is accepted as an authority on the subject.). mass. They enable calibration certificates to circulate freely. in the spirit of the directives of the Commission of the European Union (new approach. The EA makes bilateral recognitions easier between the different economic regions of the world through technical and organizational audits. Definition of accreditation Accrediting a calibration laboratory is to recognize that the laboratory is apt to perform calibrations in a specified sphere.3. temperature-hygrometry.). for clearly defined methods. modular approach. 2. Each physical quantity is the object of a similar analysis.3.2.2.

or because it is not reasonable to move the equipment. periodicity and program for traceability of working standards). time-frequency.4. vibrations). – the exhaustive assessment of the causes of uncertainty for each domain. – the technical annexes to the convention do cover all the needs of the firm. Legal 57 That is why. in order to eventually guarantee a traceability to the national standards or to the SI. . Criteria of accreditation The following items are examined before a calibration laboratory is accredited for a field in which the measured physical quantities and the calibration uncertainties are defined by: – the qualification of the personnel and the presence of a technical supervisor. – the calibration methods. The annexes also specify whether the provider of the service is accredited to operate on site. 2. radio-photometry.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. – the internal calibration procedures (follow-up and checking of reference standards. pressure. power machines and other equipment that cannot be moved. and reference materials. In order to inform industrialists.13) and that it is valid at the relevant time. This is important in the case of the connection of scales. electricity. you have to verify that: – the accreditation has been attributed to the firm or the agency that is likely to carry out the calibration (VIM section 6. hygrometry. flowmetry. accreditation organizations regularly publish facsimiles which reproduce in full the technical annexes of the accredited laboratories as soon as the annexes appear. call on several accredited laboratories to cover all the physical quantities and fields of measurement to which it wants its equipment connected. The latter can. recalibration program and periodicity). Scientific. Having obtained this guarantee. temperature. mass. force. either because the movement would ruin the calibration operation. answerable for the validity of the calibration documents and responsible for the accredited laboratory.2. – the means of traceability to national standards (reference standards. accelerometry. ionizing radiations.3. acoustics. – the equipment and reference standards which suit the domain of measurement and the uncertainties stated by the laboratory. if necessary. it is necessary to make sure the provider of the service is accredited for the domain in question. – the environment of the laboratory (temperature. hygrometry.3. These publications concern different physical quantities: dimensional metrology.

the laboratory has two systems at its disposal which make it possible to compare two sets of standard gauge blocks. whatever their nationality. One should be careful to differentiate between calibration and handling a bank of measuring equipment (see Chapter 11). receive equivalent services. etc. – numerous comparisons are organized. – the demands for quality assurance of standard ISO/CEI 17025 and of the EA’s specific documents are met. by itself. – the potential calibration of the implemented measuring instruments and the measurement and uncertainty ranges claimed are coherent. Accreditation procedure The object of accreditation is to ensure that: – the minimum requirements which are indispensable to guarantee the traceability of the references to the national standards are set up. For example. so that the metrology service may.3. between the different accredited laboratories. – quality audit of the general requirements. . 2. can be compared on a measuring machine. the laboratory can use a high-stability generator to verify a high-resolution measuring instrument. connected to an approved center.3. In addition. – yearly survey of the connections achieved. the accreditors have established a number of procedures that are meant to ensure the quality of the calibrations performed in accredited laboratories is permanent: – technical audit of the laboratories.3. however. to ensure the calibrations are coherent and the clients.58 Metrology in Industry The experience of the laboratory is also examined. two smooth rings. in some traceability chains it can be confirmed by means of proficiency testing. that there may be a certain repetition. or two standard gauges. – periodical re-examination of the accreditations. within the EA. be able to detect any fault or abnormal drift. It is important.

3.4.P. its mission was to animate and coordinate the actions initiated by the different ministry departments in the sphere of metrology. Example of traceability scheme in Europe 2.3.2.1. Scientific. .M (Sèvres) Laboratories SIM EUROMET USA NIST UK NPL BDR PTB France CH METAS Italy SNT LNE National Laboratories National Standards Reference standards of the accredited laboratory Reference standards of the firms LNE LNE-INM LNE-LNHB LNE-SYRTE METAS IENGF IMGC ENEA Accredited laboratories Cofrac-calibration Accredited laboratories SCS Accredited laboratories SIT National and European firms Control of the process of measurement Figure 2.1. Role and missions Metrology became organized in 1969 in France.4. A structural reform was undertaken in 1994 to consolidate its action and diversify its activity. when the Bureau National de Métrologie (BNM) was created.Organization of Metrology: Industrial.1. Legal 59 B.3. The Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE) 2.I.4. Organization at the national level 2.

– linking the references of firms and technical organizations to national standards. space and nuclear industries. scientific research. and in trading as well. public works. its temporary nature whereas metrology is a perennial task. etc. its position as an intermediary that did not have a high visibility at the international level.60 Metrology in Industry By a ministerial order on 22nd December 1994. with a structure slightly different from that established in 1994. To meet these needs. which leads to new definitions and realization of units. as most countries have only one national metrology institute (NMI) linked to designated bodies. . form a coherent and coordinated body of four national metrology laboratories and six designated laboratories associated to the LNE (they have signed a contract with the LNE). some of them based on fundamental phenomena. the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Research decided to dissolve the BNM and transfer the central task of metrology to the LNE which was renamed the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais. chemistry and analysis. The group was renewed by notice on 22nd May 2001 for a term of four years. the development of subcontracting. environment. together with three other national metrology laboratories and six designated laboratories. if necessary. health and security. They carry out: – research in physics and chemistry. aircraft. communications. the LNE. One of the objectives of metrology is to ensure the national and international coherence of the measurements made in the firms. the BNM became a public interest group whose mission was to prepare and implement the national policy for metrology. transport. The metrological needs that the LNE is charged to satisfy arise from very various spheres of activity: car manufacture. However. In January 2005. and the technological evolution strengthen the role of metrology in industrial processes. The qualitative and quantitative checks. armament. with the best uncertainties. the organization as a public interest group (GIP) had two principal disadvantages: first. and secondly. – work to improve and maintain current national references.

The associated laboratories are: – LADG: gas flow. develop high-level means of transfer and calibration. mass. pressure. The laboratories of the LNE: metrology in chemistry. absorbed dose. at the Paris Observatory: time and frequency. . force. radiometry-photometry and acoustic pressure in cavity. temperature as a complement of the standards of the LNE-INM and thermophysical properties of materials. together with the national metrology laboratories and designated laboratories. radiometry and photometry as a complement of the standards of the LNE-INM.2. at the CEA (Commissariat à l’énergie atomique): ionizing radiations (activity.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. flux.4. – Observatory of Besançon: time (time interval. Legal 61 2. direct current and low frequency. – ENSAM-PARIS: dynamic pressure. Organization of French metrology (monitored by the LNE) General organization The scientific and technical activities related to metrology are divided between the different partners as follows. couple. – IRSN: neutron dosimetry. temperature (unit. mass and related quantities (accelerometry. dosimetry of X-rays. anemometry. scale). Traceability of the industry’s standards and references The LNE. legal time. – CETIAT: hygrometry.3. kerma in the air. The laboratory LNE-INM (National Institute of Metrology). These means are used to make possible the traceability of any working standard. viscosity). The laboratory LNE-LNHB (National Laboratory Henri Becquerel). The laboratory LNE-SYRTE (Time-space Reference Systems). with the basic unit (second) and the derived unit (hertz). liquid flow. exposure. spectral density of phase).1. references of frequencies (from the radioelectric domain to the optical domain) and chains of measurement of frequencies (from the radioelectric domain to the optical domain)). – FEMTO-ST: frequencies (oscillators. high frequency and electromagnetic radiations. stability of time and frequency). development of references in the ranges. measuring instrument or reference material to national standards set up in the calibration services of the national metrology laboratories and designated laboratories. and guided optics. mass. dose equivalent. at the CNAM (Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers): wavelength and refractometry. Scientific. electricity (quantum metrology). unit and scales of time (dissemination. dimensional metrology (material standards).

The LNE. Standard Laboratories Accredited for calibration LNE NML NMI Transfer to users Laboratories Associated to LNE National Standards Laboratories Accredited for calibration Not Accredited Calibration laboratories Industrial measurements Figure 2. defines the structure of the calibration chains and provides COFRAC with its scientific and technical competence. it publishes a scientific and technical journal La revue française de métrologie.3. Comité International des Poids et Mesures). Information and training Another mission of the LNE is to “gather. This presence enables it. the LNE is responsible. together with COFRAC. To that end.62 Metrology in Industry The calibration services of the national metrology laboratories and the laboratories accredited by COFRAC for calibration are responsible for performing calibrations that ensure traceability to the national standards. to ensure the coherence of the implementation of the SI.3. and SCS in Switzerland (see Chapter 5). together with its counterparts. The principle structure of these chains is shown in Figure 2. exploit and circulate the information and documents touching the developments of metrology”. The LNE also publishes sector-based monographs. COFRAC in France. and of the new Mutual Recognition of the CIPM. for encouraging and coordinating the actions undertaken within the system of the calibration chains. the aim of which is to inform scientific and industrial circles about the achievements. Traceability scheme in France International cooperation The LNE is France’s representative to international metrological organizations (Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures. . This traceability is guaranteed by the logos of the organizations that have accredited the calibration laboratories. together with the national metrology laboratories (NML). SIT in Italy. It is on all the consultative committees and chairs several working groups. In addition. programs and prospects of French metrology.

the LNE. optics and acoustic quantities. in August 1991. The IMGC also uses the units derived from the basic units: angles. joule. For historical reasons. units of electric quantities. The Italian national calibration system (SNT) In Italy. photometry. they also ensure their dissemination at the highest level and guarantee the traceability of the measurement results. . ohm. Every year. the NML and the designated laboratories organize training courses in the various fields of metrology.3. The first level is the primary metrology institutes which establish the SI units and maintain them. The IMGC-CNR and the IEN-GF recently merged to create the INRIM. The IMGC-CNR is situated in Torino where it has. pressure. acoustic pressures and electric quantities (farad. force. not far from the IMGC. The IEN-GF’s activity is not limited to metrology. volumic mass and flowmetry.4. henry. – the IEN-GF. The IEN-GF is also in Torino. volt. in compliance with the SI. The national standards established by this institute. The national standards developed by this institute are: power intensity. Scientific. SNT. unit of ionizing radiations. cover the following basic quantities: length. luminous flux). The SNT has a three-level structure. magnetic flux.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. – the INMRI-ENEA. luminous intensity. scale of hardness. it is comprised of the metrology institutes and the accredited laboratories. as shown in Figure 2. watt. the traceability of measurements is guaranteed by law when the Sistema Nazionale di Taratura (SNT) is used. and takes part in exhibitions about metrology. 273 which established the national calibration system. in an area which is known as the Italian metrological pole. hygrometry and accelerometry. a single national institute covering all the metrological activities. three institutes are responsible for the different units of the SI: – the IMGC-CNR. units of mechanics and science of heat.4.2. it also involved in the sector of materials and technological innovation. since 1968. Legal 63 organizes theme days about specific metrological sectors. 2. time and frequencies. as part of continuing education. mass and temperature. as provided in the law no. been carrying out research in the field of metrology.

electricity and magnetism. as well as at the level of the consultative committees for the definition of the meter. photometry and radiometry. for the units of absorbed doses. it is responsible.4. it is the national accreditation organization with full authority to deliver accreditation to calibration laboratories. the flux of neutrons and exposure. .64 Metrology in Industry The INMRI-ENEA is situated at Roma Casaccia. in the domain of ionizing radiations. enjoy an environment that is very conducive to innovation in the different fields of measurement sciences. the IEN-GF and the INMRI. Accreditation of the calibration laboratories in Italy (SIT) The SIT (Servizio Italiano di Taratura) is found at the second level. thermometric quantities. they contribute to the activities of EUROMET. the activity of a radionuclide. which set up the metrological standards for Italy. The IMGC. at the level of the International Committee of Weights and CIPM. SNT – NATIONALCALIBRATION SYSTEM NATIONAL CALIBRATION SYSTEM MINISTRY MINISTRY of INDUSTRY an INDUSTRYand COMMERCE MINISTRY MINISTRY of UNIVERSITY and UNIVERSITYan SCIENCE RESEARCH METRIC METRIC CENTRAL COMMITTEE COMMITTEE NATIONAL CALIBRATION SYSTEM PRIMARY METROLOGY INSTITUTES PRIMARYMETROLOGY INSTITUTES IMGC ENEA IMGC – IEN – ENE SIT SIT Accreditation Structure Accreditatio Structure SIT SIT Users EA Calibration Calibration services service in Europe SIT COMMITTEE SIT COMMITTEE Secretariat Secretaria TechnicalCommittee Technica Committees Working Groups WorkingGroup Research centers • Researc center • Test laboratorie Tes laboratories • Industrial sectors sector • Services Service SIT Calibration Centres SIT Calibration Centers Figure 2. In addition. mass. These three institutes cooperate in the activities carried out as part of the Convention of the Metre. time and frequency.

thus. the transmission and the accurate estimation of physical quantities. Article 17 states that the office has. but with higher uncertainties. their acceptance or approval and.4. This centralized organization was established as soon as the Swiss Confederation began to deal with metrology. Teams of experts are formed for the particular objectives to be reached. 2. Scientific. if applicable. scientific and legal metrology. as well as the SAS. . – it oversees the enforcement of the law in the cantons. – it gives consultations and performs evaluations.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. the agreement of the relevant department is needed for important activities. came together under one name. – it examines measuring instruments and metrological testing methods and makes decisions about their conformity. At the beginning of 2001. – it performs the activities that third parties request it to do (and is paid for those activities) within the limits of its capabilities. It also manages the Swiss Accreditation Service (SAS). after the Convention of the Metre was signed in 1875. draft directives for these offices and checks their measuring instruments. – it elaborates the requirements needed for the determination. this law sets out the scope of official metrology in Switzerland. The Swiss national calibration system The federal office of metrology and accreditation has gathered all the official activities of metrology into one institution and on one site. the office adopted Metrology and Accreditation Switzerland (METAS) as its name. their verification. which ensures cooperation between all the specialists and a rational and efficient utilization of the experience and knowledge of each specialist. Legal 65 The laboratories which are accredited by the SIT (SIT centers) perform calibrations and deliver calibration certificates which are technically as valid as those of the primary institutes. – it advises and trains the personnel of the cantonal offices of verification. METAS’s tasks METAS’s tasks are defined in Article 17 of the federal law on metrology. in particular. – it determines and circulates sufficiently precise standard values of the units used in metrology and does the necessary research and the scientific and technical work of development. METAS has adopted a matrix organization and a matrix distribution of the work and responsibilities to carry out these different tasks. the following tasks: – it prepares the legislation related to metrology and ensures that it is enforced.3.3.

In their turn. which enable them to obtain a federal certificate of capability. logistic and administrative support services. It publishes a scientific and technical journal. To ensure the availability and the transmission of the correct values of units with the required accuracy. the new definition of the meter and the length metrology. METAS cooperates in research. METAS takes an active part in the works of the following organizations and it collaborates with many of their subcommittees. such as uncertainties. most of them being accredited. conformity.66 Metrology in Industry METAS’s general organization In METAS there are: – two scientific and technical divisions which oversee seven sections altogether. – the SAS. It regularly organizes seminars on topics of general interest. – one management staff member. technical problems. . In order to meet the needs of its clients as satisfactorily as possible. which informs all those that are interested in scientific realizations. accreditation and the recognition of certificates. This well-documented system contributes towards the international recognition of the certificates of conformity issued in Switzerland. we would mention the quantified Hall and Josephson effects in electricity. METAS itself calibrates the standards of the verification organizations which are usually dependent on the cantonal authorities. METAS collects and distributes as much information as it can about metrology. in relation to length. the object of which is to establish new definitions of basic units. and also some training courses for those who verify weights and measures. Swiss metrology has set up traceability chains which guarantee the traceability of physical quantities and of some chemical quantities such as gas mixtures. – one research and development staff member. At the international level. the “METAS Info”. or to improve their implementation. These chains originate in METAS’s primary laboratories which materialize the units from their definitions and pass them to METAS’s calibration laboratories in the form of material standards. the accredited laboratories calibrate the standards of industry. Watt’s scales for the kilogram and. In particular. – two technical. commerce and research. These calibration laboratories calibrate the standards of the clients. In legal metrology. international cooperation and the decisions of Swiss metrology.

Organization of Metrology: Industrial.) legitimate objectives are inter alia: national security requirements. France... With the exception of research. legal 1 This section has been written with the help of Gérard Lagauterie. (. Legal metrology1 2.. animal or plant life or health. Article 2. WELMEC European Cooperation for Legal Metrology (WELMEC). Legal metrology covers measurements and measuring instruments that the state considers to be to much a sensitive subject for society. and this framework applies to the scope of legal metrology. Scope of legal metrology The term “legal metrology” applies to any application of metrology that is subject to national laws or regulations. This is the case in some countries. The Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (World Trade Organization) sets up a framework under which technical regulations may be developed. OIML International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML). protection of human health or safety. Scientific. 2. many countries also regulate Health and Safety policy and evidential measurements.1.2 defines what is and is not be covered by legal metrology: Article 2.. EUROMET International Electronic Electrotechnical Commission. However. In most countries.) technical regulations shall not be more trade-restrictive than necessary to fulfill a legitimate objective.4. .2 (. or the environment. whereas in most countries the regulated area generally concerns measurements for trade. Legal 67 In metrology CGPM General Conference of Weights and Measures (CGPM). and other more specialized organizations.4. This definition means that the scope of legal metrology may vary considerably from one country to another. ISO International Organization of Standardization (ISO). and in particular if quality control is supervised by the state. The first aim of legal metrology is to define which units of measurement are acceptable in the relevant country and for what purposes. any application of metrology may fall under the scope of legal metrology if regulations are applicable to all measuring methods and instruments. the prevention of deceptive practices. Sous-Directeur de la Métrologie.

petrol pumps. to harmonize legal metrology . and whose general objective is to organize mutual information and cooperation among its members in the field of legal metrology. etc.68 Metrology in Industry units are the SI units. customary units.). Although its organization differs from one country to another.). This is to give confidence to the public that regulatory controls are carried out with appropriate and reliable instruments (brake efficiency of vehicles. breath analyzers.2. 2. The International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) The OIML is an intergovernmental organization established by a treaty in 1955. was set up 50 years ago to deal with this aspect of metrology. Instruments used for healthcare. Depending on the country.). or may cover categories of instruments used for transactions between companies. this regulatory scope may be limited to a few categories used in domestic trade (weighing scales.). which generally consist of: – setting acceptable limits to the content of prepackages compared with their nominal value. in some countries. In relation to measurements. Usually. legal metrology is present in nearly all countries – hence an international organization. It is however quite unusual for regulations to prescribe the maximum uncertainty of such regulated measurements as defined by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) Regulations on measurement results. Most often the instruments used for levying taxes are the object of special attention from the regulatory authorities. etc. The third part of legal metrology consists of submitting certain categories of measuring instruments to legal control.4. – prescribing that measurements shall be performed with instruments of a given accuracy class subject to legal control. and that prosecution of offenses is based on reliable measurements (radar speed meters for vehicles. the instruments used for the implementation of technical regulations are submitted to legal control. etc. plus special units for specific applications and. for public safety or environmental protection and monitoring are more and more frequently submitted to legal metrology control (medical instruments. that transactions be based on these measurement results and it may require minimal performance levels for these measurements. but the list may be diverse according to the countries. measurement of pollutant emissions. etc. legal metrology regulations may require that certain measurements be carried out. the OIML. lighting in the workplace. exhaust gas analysis. sound level of equipment for industry or public works.

One of the main activities of the OIML is to harmonize legal metrology regulations by developing international recommendations. supports the work of all OIML structures. the OIML has developed – and is continuously developing – systems to facilitate mutual recognition and mutual acceptance of legal metrology controls. which are model regulations proposed to its members when they intend to regulate a category of measuring instruments. The OIML has about 60 member states (who are signatories to the treaty. test procedures and the test report format.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. Legal 69 regulations and to foster mutual confidence. and about 50 corresponding members. In addition to recommendations. Cooperation within the OIML allows the level of protection of consumers. The BIML coordinates and supports the work carried out by the OIML technical committees and subcommittees. The OIML System is now completed by a Mutual Acceptance Arrangement which came into force in 2005 and which will result in Declarations of Mutual Confidence in the type testing results. and for certifying the conformity of individual instruments against the OIML requirements. The OIML Certificate System for Measuring Instruments was established in 1990 and allows member states. Scientific. the OIML develops international documents. located in Paris. . committed to implementing common decisions). trading partners and the public worldwide to be raised. this harmonization and cooperation will also present important benefits for all countries and for society. by networking and avoiding costly duplication of resources. To complement to its harmonizing activity. under stated conditions. for that will reduce the costs of selling instruments on the market and the costs of international trade. The OIML then intends to establish systems for certifying the conformity of prepackages. and edits and publishes OIML publications. to appoint the authority which issues certificates of conformity for types of measuring instruments that comply with the requirements of the OIML recommendations. However. The purpose of these activities is to set up a global legal metrology system. the OIML is an international standard-setting body and has been accepted as an observer in the Technical Barriers to Trade Committee in the World Trade Organization. The executive headquarters of the OIML are the Bureau International de Métrologie Légale (BIML). Harmonization of regulations and elimination of technical barriers to trade form two important elements of the global system under development. which are of a more informative nature. Due to this harmonizing role. These international recommendations have three parts: requirements. and allows states to develop an efficient legal metrology system at an acceptable cost.

– The International Committee of Legal Metrology (CIML) is composed of one delegate from each member state.Fax +33(0) 1 42 82 17 27 . the Euro Mediterranean Legal Metrology Forum (EMLMF). Regional legal metrology organizations (the Asia-Pacific Legal Metrology Forum (APLMF). The CIML Presidential Council advises the CIML president and vice-president on strategic issues. rue Turgot 75009 PARIS . etc. and in particular with the Metre Convention. the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). – The technical committees and subcommittees are the bodies in charge of developing the OIML recommendations and documents. etc. the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC). in principle the persons responsible for legal metrology in their respective countries. Bureau International de Métrologie Légale 11. and approves the OIML recommendations and other publications. which is the highest level. The OIML languages are French (official language) and English (working language).) are also key liaisons for the OIML. The CIML elects a president and two vice-presidents. ISO.France Tél. The OIML has close liaisons with a number of international organizations. engages discussion and undertakes studies for further decisions at the Conference.: +33(0) 1 48 78 12 82 . – The Permanent Working Group for Developing Countries is an advisory group in charge of studying any action necessary to support developing countries in the OIML and of carrying out these initiatives. the formal adoption of OIML recommendations and any decision for common action by member states. the European Collaboration in Measurement Standards (EUROMET). and in particular its budget. composed of the CIML president and vicepresident. The CIML follows the technical work of the technical committees and subcommittees. These committees are composed of experts appointed by the CIML members and observers from corresponding members and organizations in liaison. and European Cooperation in Legal Metrology (WELMEC)) and regional metrology organizations (the Euro Asian Cooperation of National Metrology Institutes (COOMET). the World Trade Organization (WTO). In addition to this structure. its policy. the International Accreditation Forum (IAF). The Conference meets every four years and is composed of delegations from all member states. It takes all fundamental decisions concerning the OIML. the Systema Interamericano de Metrologia (SIM). The BIML publishes a specialized bulletin four times a year.70 Metrology in Industry The structure of the OIML is as follows: – The International Conference of Legal Metrology. two advisory groups must be noted: – The CIML Presidential Council. the Southern African Development Community Cooperation in Legal Metrology (SADCMEL). plus seven CIML members appointed by the CIML president.

A new generation of tachographs has been defined and regulated by adapting the European Regulation to technical progress (European Regulation 2135/98 on 24th September 1998). Scientific.4. – Directive 90/384/EC modified (“New Approach” Directive). The national legal metrology regulations have been harmonized by four series of European Directives: – Directive 80/181/EEC on 20th December 1979 (modified) on legal units. The European level 2. driving time. In addition. under DG Transport. Legal 71 The BIML maintains a website (www.3. usually called the “Measuring Instruments Directive” or MID). as most of these original associated members have since joined the European Union. its members. There is also a restricted access members-only area. the European Regulation 3820/85 EEC on 20th December 1985 (directly applicable without being adopted into national legislation). completed by European Regulation 3821/85 EEC on 20th December 1985. work and publications.org) which presents information on the OIML. WELMEC WELMEC was created in 1989: it is an organization which coordinates the national authorities of legal metrology of the Western European countries within the European Union and common European economic frameworks.4. European Union harmonization The European Commission (DG Enterprise) has among its missions to harmonize the national regulations that could create technical barriers to trade.oiml. tachographs) installed on trucks and collective transport vehicles to measure and record speed. etc. 2.3. These Directives are applicable through their adoption into the national legislative and regulatory texts. which covers 10 categories of measuring instruments. – Directive 2004/22/EC on 31st March 2004 (“New Approach” Directive. – Directive 71/316/EEC (“Old Approach” Directive) and the Directives adopted in its application.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. drafts of recommendations and news of interest to members are regularly posted.4. Today WELMEC has 28 members and two associated members.1.3. where circulars.2. structures. 2. related to NonAutomatic Weighing Instruments. WELMEC grew after its creation by accepting as associated members the countries of Central Europe which were committed to entry into the European Union. . requirements were set up for legal control of the instruments (that is.

in particular: – checking prepacking. different works were undertaken to harmonize the approach of the member states on different subjects of legal metrology. which has organized itself (new working groups have been created) and launched many initiatives intended to ensure a harmonized implementation of this Directive. . – various technical fields: weighing instruments. WELMEC has published a repertory of the organization of legal metrology in the member states and corresponding members. measuring sets for liquids other than water.72 Metrology in Industry The purpose of WELMEC is to facilitate the exchange of information and favor the mutual acquaintance of the member countries. Since the Directive was published (30th April 2004). and justified. WELMEC has also acted as a group of experts supporting the European Community in the finalization of the future European Directive on measuring instruments. Afterwards. household meters (used by public utility services). in a member country. barring any pressing. – requirements applying to notified organizations. – surveillance of the market for the enforcement of European directives. The objective of WELMEC’s first works was to harmonize the enforcement of the European Directive 90/384 about non-automatic weighing instruments. –the “Chairman’s group” of WELMEC. an instrument is simultaneously granted an OIML certificate of conformity and a national model approval. WELMEC has concluded a multilateral agreement to recognize model approvals. reason. In addition. the European Commission has reasserted its interest in the work of WELMEC. and to promote mutual recognitions. WELMEC’s organization is comprised of: – the Committee of WELMEC. and assisting in the tasks of the working party of the European Council related to the Directive. – methods for the examination of the software of prescribed instruments. it states that when. to harmonize the regulations and checking methods. this instrument is automatically granted a model approval in the other signatory countries. WELMEC published enforcement guides about this new-approach Directive so that the notified organizations might enforce it in as homogeneous a way as possible. – the working parties of WELMEC. which meets every eight months.

– SADCMEL. Legal 73 The federations of manufacturers of prescribed instruments are associated with the activities of the working parties of WELMEC.3. – protecting consumers. The activities differ from one region to the other. – COOMET. The Ministry takes on the main responsibilities of legal metrology. Legal metrology in Italy In Italy. the metric central office is responsible for the following activities: – drafting regulations.4. – SIM.4. – organizing the metric services and the analysis of precious metals. These regional bodies.4. The following are examples of regional bodies: – WELMEC (see above). – South Pacific Legal Metrology Forum (SPLMF). – develop mutual confidence. like WELMEC. – looking into the activity concerning prepacked products.4. but typically aim to: – develop mutual knowledge at regional level.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. Scientific. WELMEC’s member for France is also a member of the Chairman’s Group.3. . – APLMF. the legal metrology is included in the “Harmonization and Market Surveillance” Department of the Ministry of Industry. At national level 2. In the Ministry. Other regional bodies Most regions in the world have set up bodies for cooperation in legal metrology. – study and address the needs for training and drawing up training programs. 2. 2.1. – EMLMF.4. – looking into the activity concerning the market surveillance. are in line with the OIML and their actions complements that of the OIML. – develop exchange of experience on legal metrology.

METAS has defined four groups that characterize the provided services. are responsible for the first link of the traceability chains. These four groups are as follows. where the equipment used for trade is inspected every other year). – the initial verification.74 Metrology in Industry All the inspections and controls have been recently delegated to the local offices of the provincial Chamber of Commerce.4. 2. which are located in the different Italian regions and controlled by the local the chamber of commerce. the federal government is responsible for the legislation in relation to metrology. In this context. It is also in charge of the SAS. or . and for the diffusion of the units. The metric central office of the Ministry keeps close contact with the primary metrology institutes which are described in section 2. METAS is managed according to the principles of the new public administration. Since 1st January 1999. In METAS. they link legal metrology and scientific metrology and ensure the traceability to the SI units. – the periodic verification and inspection assessment (control at the user’s place. all the official activities of metrology are brought together in one institution and on one site. each in its own sphere. This centralized organization was established as soon as the confederation became involved in metrology after the signing of the Convention of the Metre in 1875.3. the federal office of metrology and accreditation. if they have been made in accordance with the official procedures and in the presence of official inspectors from the legal metrology offices. Representatives of the primary metrology institutes are members of the bureau of the metric central office. Measurements made at the producer’s laboratory are accepted. The confederation has created a federal office of metrology where the cantons discharge their tasks and the cantons have set up verification offices.4. These activities are related to: – the approval of the model. Legal metrology in Switzerland In Switzerland. They require a budget and acceptance of the cost of the services by the public authority.2. National basis of measurement This group deals with the services provided by the primary laboratories which. The measurements related to the above activities are performed in governmental laboratories for calibration and testing.2. The enforcement of legal metrology – it is called regulated metrology – is the concern of the cantons.4.

public health and security and also with the official measurements of data related to physical quantities. . The units are established with as high an accuracy as possible. The federal government made provision of delegations of competence and then passed a series of ordinances to deal with the following areas: – the selling of goods in bulk or prepacked. The Swiss constitution states that the legislation on metrology is the domain of the confederation. From this constitutional foundation. have to be added to the above four groups. Legal metrology deals with the domains of trading. Seven sections make up METAS. are dealt with by this group. and the seventh is responsible for legal metrology. Legal 75 for the whole traceability chain. and the strict surveillance of the market. The support activities needed to run the METAS office. – the remuneration paid for metrological work. Scientific. performs the evaluations and delivers the accreditations in all the domains coming under the European or international standards related to accreditation. which will become certificates of conformity. The technical directions regulations concerning the different types of measuring instruments are in the domain competence of the federal councilor (minister) in charge of METAS. Legal metrology The group deals with the preparation of requirements. Model pattern approvals.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. six of them are concerned with a specific domain of physics or chemistry. according their definition. the supervision of their execution. some of the measuring instruments used in legal metrology. – the principles relating to approvals and verifications. – the tasks and the competence of the verification offices and verification laboratories. Industrial metrology In this group are all the calibration services which provide interested parties with sufficiently accurate values of the units. Accreditation The SAS does the tests. but which do not provide services to third parties. the parliament has brought into effect a federal law on metrology which stands as the framework for all metrology in Switzerland. the training of the operators.

Once the delegation process is over. etc. more precisely the metrology department part of the DARPMI (Direction de l’action régionale et de la petite et moyenne industrie). since it is possible.4. in official controls when safety is involved (cinemometers (“radars”). it includes all the statutory measures as well as the administrative and technical procedures that have been introduced by the authorities to guarantee the quality of the measuring instruments used in trading (scales used for retail sales.3. Taking this possibility into account. It nevertheless specifies that the operations are to be performed by state agents. in certain conditions. 2001-387). to entrust third parties.76 Metrology in Industry 2. with some checking operations. some categories of measuring instruments are subjected to regulations and controlled by the state. the role of the state will chiefly consist of approving or appointing the verifying organizations and ensuring that the system as a whole is soundly implemented. clearly states that the processes of metrological control would be delegated to some organizations. or corresponding European procedures when the instruments come under a “new approach” directive). the new Decree of 3rd May 2001 (no. about the control of measuring instruments. etc. research and environment (DRIRE). such as approved repairers or the manufacturers of the measuring instruments. manometers. Legal metrology is the modern form of the very old control of weights and measures. according to circumstances. Concerning the assessment of the design of instruments and the approval of the quality systems of manufacturers.). if there are no suitable organizations.4. petrol pumps. and at the territorial level legal metrology is dependent on the regional departments of industry. with the assent of the regional préfet. Legal metrology in France Legal metrology in France is dependent on the ministry of industry. repairers and fitters. This control is exercised at several levels: – at the conception (approval of model. That role will include: . The control is presently in full (r)evolution. – at the manufacturing level (initial verification. – at the level of the daily use of the instrument (periodic verification and control of the instruments in service). chronotachygraphs (“black boxes”). thanks to the techniques of quality assurance. Consequently. It is well on its way for primitive verification and almost over for in-service checking. the delegation process has been completed.). or EC-type test for the “new approach” directives). or of the minister in charge of metrology.

which means ensuring that the new instruments that are marketed and put into service meet the requirements. – the harmonization of texts at the European and international levels. This Directive comes into force on 30th October 2006 and. quality and absence of impartiality. Informal bilateral agreements of recognition with all the countries of the European Economic Area. Morocco and Tunisia. Some cooperative relations give rise to agreements of bilateral recognition of approval testing. if not the number of categories of instruments). will take over from the national regulation on new instruments. which means ensuring that the instruments in service conform with the regulations and are used correctly and. the agreements concluded with the PTB in Germany and the NMI in Netherlands are examples. . The metrology department has bilateral cooperative relations with a number of national legal metrology authorities. even when accreditation is not required by specific regulations. The assessment of these organizations is done in line with the accreditation methods. – the approval of models. This is true of Poland. However. exchange of experts and technical information. fitters). repairers. The French organization is already compatible with the European Directive. etc. organizations must prove their competence. even if they have not been formally officialized by bilateral agreements of recognition. The new European Measuring Instruments Directive (MID) encompasses most of the regulated measuring instruments (that is. that they have been duly verified. or approved. The relations which are built up in the OIML enable the exchange of information with numerous countries about the statutory requirements. Romania. the number of instruments. Scientific. Such proof usually comes from the systems of reference applicable to laboratories (standards of the EN 45000 series). More formalized cooperation with some other countries is being developed. the state will continue to deal with: – the development of the regulations. – the coordination of metrological controls.Organization of Metrology: Industrial. The topics of collaboration are: activity of model approval. – supervision of the stock. in particular. in particular. The appointed. once it has been adopted into national law. the testing techniques and procedures. Legal 77 – supervision of the organizations and other operators (manufacturers. – the involvement of the French legal metrology in international works. – supervision of the market. The new policy is to require accreditation for most of these organizations.

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. – obtaining a good understanding of the basic concepts of metrology. Patrick REPOSEUR – Comité Français d’Accréditation (COFRAC). for example: – to control the manufacturing processes. etc.Chapter 3 Mastering Measurement Processes Approach to the Setting up of a Metrology Function 3. calibration. uncertainty of measurement. such as traceability. – to guarantee the safety of goods and people. metrology in a firm. – understanding the metrological requirements of the ISO 900: 2000 and 9004: 2000 standards and adapting them to the specific needs of the firm.1. Chapter written by Marc PRIEL – Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE). Metrology is necessary to make pertinent decisions. Firms that are setting up a metrological function find the following difficult: – obtaining a good understanding of the aims of. reference standard. What to do at the beginning? Metrology is neither a fashion nor a fad of auditors. and reasons for. uncertainty of calibration. – to protect the environment. – to verify and certify the products are true to the specifications.

and to define the measurement uncertainties with regard to the requirements of a standard of products. this is the most difficult step. – confining oneself to formal aspects without technically exploiting the results of a well-controlled metrology. . You have to adapt yourself to today’s needs.80 Metrology in Industry There are many pitfalls which have to be avoided when setting up a metrology function: – overdoing the function. – a control of the measurement processes must be organized. of the method of testing or of any other criteria which have to be complied with. – make it your business. Thinking ahead is certainly not reprehensible. – accepting too much guidance. There is a real need to define the physical or chemical quantities. What should be done then? We are inclined to answer: – try to get a good understanding of the basic concepts of metrology. instead of bringing in one’s own views. to define the real needs of the firm. Therefore: – the metrological confirmation of the measuring equipment must be seen.2. first and foremost. Goals and role of the measurement management system – metrological function The EN ISO 10012 standard introduces the concept of a “measurement management system” and defines it as a set of interrelated or interacting elements necessary to achieve a metrological confirmation and a continual control of measurement processes. for example from sometimes not very competent representatives or from an auditor. to set the measuring ranges. but remain aware of what tomorrow will be. but the most momentous because it will give the company a choice of solutions and consequently lead to a budget. 3. – become informed about the EN ISO 10012 standard: measurement management systems requirements for measurement processes and measuring equipment. as well as the characteristics of the products that the firm is to measure.

as well as any required sealing and labeling. the metrological function will be responsible for the metrological confirmation of the measuring equipment. The EN ISO 10012 standard introduces the notion of measurement process and defines it as: – measurement process (ISO 10012 section 3. This developments has led to a new definition of the metrological function.6 of the EN ISO 10012 norm: “Function which is administrative and technical responsibility for defining and implementing the measurement management system. comparison with the metrological requirement for the intended use of the equipment. Note 3: the requirements for intended use include such considerations as range. The continuous control of the measurement processes has been added to this typical activity of management of a set of instruments. – set of operations required to ensure that measuring equipment conforms to the requirements for its intended use. product requirements. any necessary adjustment or repair. and are not specified in. . This operation is defined as follows: – metrological confirmation (EN ISO 10012 section 3. resolution and maximum permissible errors. It is to be found at paragraph 3.2). Note 2: metrological confirmation is not achieved unless and until the fitness of the measuring equipment for the intended use has been demonstrated and documented.” Consequently. – set of operations to determine the value of a quantity. Note 4: metrological requirements are usually distinct from.5). subsequent recalibration.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 81 The first point (the metrological confirmation of the measuring equipment) represents the traditional activity of the metrology function of firms as it was conceived a few years ago. Note 1: metrological confirmation generally includes calibration and verification.

Tallinn 10317 Estonia Tel: 372 602 18 01/Fax: 372 602 18 06 Finland – FINAS c/o Centre for Metrology and Accreditation P.O.1030 Vienna Tel: 43 1 71 100 8248/Fax: 43 1 71 43582 Belgium – BKO-OBE Federal Public Service Economy/Division Accreditation WTC III .5th floor.110 000 Praha Novemesto Tel: 420 2 2100 4501/Fax: 4202 2100 4111 Denmark – DANAK Dyregaardsvej 5 B DK .2740 Skovlunde Tel: 45 77 33 95 36/Fax: 45 77 33 95 01 Estonia – EAK Estonian Accreditation Centre Aru 10.00181 Helsinki Tel: 358 9 616 7553/Fax: 358 9 616 7341 France – COFRAC Secteur Laboratoires 37 rue de Lyon FR . 30 Boulevard Simon Bolivar BE . Box 239 FI .1000 Brussels Tel: 32 2 206 46 80/Fax: 32 2 206 57 42 Czech Republic – CAI Opletanova 41 CZ .82 Metrology in Industry Signatories of Multilateral Agreement “calibration” Austria – BMwA Abteilung I/12 Dampfschiffstrasse 4 AT .75012 Paris Tel: 33 1 44 68 82 28/Fax: 33 1 44 68 82 23 .

2 Dublin Tel : 353 1 607 30 03 / Fax: 353 1 607 31 09 Italy – SIT Strada delle Cacce 91 1 .38023 Braunschweig Tel: 49 531 592 83 20/Fax: 49 531 592 83 06 Greece –ESYD Hellenic Accreditation System 8 Sissini street 115 28 Athens Tel: 30 210 7204514/Fax: 30 210 7204500 Holland – RvA Radboudkwartier 223 P.O.1013 Riga Tel: 371 7 37 3051/Fax: 371 7 36 2990 Lithuania – LA Algirdo 31 LT .2006 Vilnius Tel: 370 5213 6138/Fax: 370 5213 6153 Norway – NA Justervesenet Fetveien 99 NO .10135 Torino Tel: 39 011 397 73 35/Fax: 39 011 397 73 72 Latvia – LATAK 157. Kr.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 83 Germany – DKD member of DAR Postfach 3345 DE .3500 GT Utrecht Tel: 31 30 239 4500/Fax: 31 30 239 4539 Ireland – NAB Wilton Park House .2007 Kjeller Tel: 47 648 48 484/Fax: 47 648 48 485 .Wilton Place IE . Valdemara St LV . Box 2768 NL .

47 High Street Feltham Middlesex TW13 4UN Tel: 44 20 8917 8400/Fax: 44 20 8917 8500 .840 00 Bratislava Tel: 421 7 654 12 963/Fax: 421 7 654 21 365 Slovenia – SA Slovenian Accreditation Smartinska 140 (BTC City. Klobucka 23 A PL . Box 878.POLSKIE CENTRUM AKREDYTACJI ul.O.7° psio E .02 .1000 Ljubljana Tel: 386 (0)1 478 3080/Fax: 386 (0)1 478 3085 Spain – ENAC Serrano.nadstropje) SI . Osterlanggatan 5 SE . Karloveská 63 SK .84 Metrology in Industry Poland – PCA . 240 . 4.28016 Madrid Tel: 34 91 457 32 89/Fax: 34 91 458 62 80 Sweden – SWEDAC P.50115 Boras Tel: 46 33 17 7730/Fax: 46 33 10 1392 Switzerland – SAS c/o OFMET Lindenweg 50 CH .699 Warsaw Tel: 48 22 548 80 00/Fax: 48 22 647 13 01 Slovakia – SNAS Slovak National Accreditation Service PO Box 74.3003 Bern Wabern Tel: 41 31 323 3520/Fax : 41 31 323 3510 United Kingdom – UKAS 21 .

90 andar .2 Science Centre Road 609077 Singapore Tel: 65 826 3000/Fax: 65 822 8326 South Africa – SANAS P.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 85 Signatories of Bilateral Agreements Australia – NATA 7 Leeds Street NSW 2138 Rhodes Tel: 61 29 736 8222/Fax: 61 29 743 5311 Brazil – INMETRO Rua Santa Alexandrina 416 .Rio Comprido CEP 20261-232 Rio de Janeiro Tel: 55 21 502 6531/Fax: 55 21 502 6542 Hong-Kong – HKAS 36/F.O. Box 914-2142 Wingate Park 0153 Pretoria Tel: 27 12 349 1267/Fax: 27 12 349 1249 United States – A2LA 5301 Buckeystown Pike Suite 350 MD 21704-8307 Frederick Tel: 1 301 644 3212/Fax: 1 301 662 2974 . Box 914 2142 1136 Auckland Tel: 64 9 525 6655/Fax: 64 9 525 2266 Singapore – SAC-SINGLAS The Enterprise #02-02 No.O. Immigration Tower 7 Gloucester Road Wanchai Tel: 852 28 29 4830/Fax: 852 28 24 1302 Israel – ISRAC 2 Habonim Street Ramat Gan 52522 Beit Habonim Tel: 972 3575 1690/Fax: 972 3575 1695 New Zealand – IANZ P.

1 illustrates the model of system of management of measurement and provides the references to the different paragraphs of the ISO 10012 norm. manufacturing and final stages. The marketing.4 Improvement Clause 5 Management responsibility Customer measurement requirements Clause 6 Resource management Clause 8 Measurement Management system analysis and improvement Customer satisfaction Clause 7 Metrological confirmation and realization of measurement processes Input Output 7.1. Model of measurement management system (ISO 10012) 3.86 Metrology in Industry 3. . Conception and development of a new measurement process 3.3. 8. and/or that the process can manufacture the product or perform the service required.3.1.1.1 Metrological confirmation 7.3.1. These characteristics are then translated into specifications and tolerances that ensure that the product or service is functional and/or interchangeable. Figure 3. Analysis of the requirements It is vital to accurately and unambiguously define the expectations of the client for the product or service. The measurement processes One of the principles laid down in the ISO 9000 standard lies in the so-called “process oriented” approach.2 Measurement process Measurement results Figure 3. The measurement processes have to be considered as particular processes meant to introduce a support to obtain quality for the products manufactured by the firm. development and research units are consulted to ascertain the expected characteristics of the product or service. The specifications are subjected to measurements at the conception.

safety. an instruction.. The person in charge of the metrology function will have to be made aware of the critical nature of the characteristics to be measured and he will see that processes are developed that are suitable for the controls of the specifications. assignment of the tasks and resources.3. The purpose of the synergies is that the developer will take the performances. has to be defined: .economic: cost of implementation. expected uncertainty. etc. etc. 3... go/no go stages. in particular. or training. such as they have been defined. – A specification of the process. but a few essential conditions have to be met: – Someone has to be in charge of the project.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 87 Paragraph 4.2. service or process be transformed into quantities to measure on the product. .3. The next step will be to verify that the metrological requirements. investment cost.1. Quite obviously. reproducibility. demolition. there is a link between the importance of the development and the structure of the project. are compatible with the state of the technique and with the firm’s strategy. etc. . The development of a measurement process can be managed as a project It is advisable to manage the development of a measurement process as a project. rapidity. operation. etc.7 of the ISO/CEI 17025 states that: “The laboratory must cooperate with its clients or their representatives to clear up the client’s request and supervise the laboratory’s performance with regards to the work done . the costs of the measurement and test processes into account. “quality” and “metrology” functions to translate the specifications into characteristics. operating cost.).). or into characteristics to test.” 3. It is in the firm’s interest to develop the synergies between the “conception”.1. the economic aspects will be examined..technical: repeatability. Transcription of the characteristics of the product in “measurand” form or “characteristics to be measured” form It is important that the characteristics of the product. an assessment of the “prototype” process for a given period. stating the goals to be reached. life cycle cost. rapidity of the process. – A clear definition of what the project is supposed to deliver is required (the notion of the existence of a process is not clear enough): it can be a measurement procedure.3. ergonomics. – Planning of the development (steps. .clear definitions of the input data (quantities to measure.

2. are important. The purpose is to improve the control of the process and thus reduce the costs. the uncertainty of the measurement or test results obtained through the process. 3. The results obtained. a report (with regards to the defined deliveries and the specifications) corresponding to the characterization of the performances of the measurement process (repeatability. Chapter 6 describes the main methods of supervision of measurement processes. . etc. the object of continuous improvement is to reach efficiency.2 shows the “pilot” of the process being provided with the available information to enable him to act on the process. Figure 3. in short it is to do as well as possible. costs. but the process is important as a way to pass on learning and knowledge. Continuous improvement of measurement processes It would be wrong to think that the aim of continuous improvement is to ameliorate.3. 3. This accumulation of knowledge is a vital factor in the continuous improvement of measurement processes.3. and a decision about whether to put the project into service is taken. if the latter meets the expectations. rapidity. In no way does this continuous improvement concern the improvement of the result uncertainty. for instance. and the recording of those results. that is to say to do well at a lower cost. ergonomics.2 is an illustration of the information the “pilot” of the process has at his disposal to optimize the process.) is made.3. for instance. reproducibility. but more cheaply. It is essential for the firm that the development of the measurement process should accumulate knowledge.88 Metrology in Industry – At the end of the development process. Exploitation of a valid process It seems important for critical measurement processes that a “pilot” be appointed in order to ensure a continuous supervision of the process. uncertainty. Figure 3.

that the measuring equipment as a whole is within the limits of permissible errors. This is so as to be able to guarantee. – rate of availability of the measurement process. Management of the measuring equipment (metrological confirmation) One of the roles of the metrological function is to ensure that all the measuring equipment used in the firm. 3. For that purpose the firm must implement a system of management of all its measuring equipment. This system will establish traceability . are suitable for the task. Batches manufacture Information Elements of Element o processes processus Input/output Input / output data Figure 3. Information available for the control and the optimization of measurement processes Measurement process piloting indicators Every process must have its own indicators. – how many times nonconformity has been the result of a fault of the measurement process.2. – operating costs of the measurement process.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 89 Characterization Characteristion data Data method mathod Data Characteristics characteristics instrument Characteristics environment Method method Instrumentation Environment Input data specification Measure object output data result of measurement measuremente Numerical value + uncertainty Manpower manpower Qualification continuing Continuing education Batches. with minimum risk. Some examples of indicators are: – uncertainty of the measurement and test results.4. and likely to have an influence on the quality of the product or the service. They are useful to assess the improvements achieved and the regressions.

the supplier’s metrological function is to have at its disposal all the equipment necessary for carrying out the calibrations and verifications needed to guarantee the quality of the product or the service. resolution. all circumstances bringing. The metrological characteristics of this equipment (measuring range. For internal services within a firm. The list of accredited laboratories is updated monthly on the Comité Français d’Accréditation (COFRAC) website (www. Some of the activities of the metrological function can be subcontracted inside or outside the firm (calibration. or bringing back. the metrological function must resort to subcontracting. In all circumstances it is the responsibility of the metrological function: – to ensure that the subcontractor satisfies the requested demands. To secure the traceability of its reference standards to the SI. freedom of bias.cofrac.) must correspond with the needs of the firm (which can be expressed as a measurement uncertainty). A firm may resort to subcontracting for the management of its measuring equipment (see Chapter 4). However. An uncertainty must be associated to each one of the comparisons (see Chapter 2). a multilateral agreement has been signed for the recognition of calibration certificates which have been issued by the laboratories accredited by the organizations that have signed the agreement. for example.90 Metrology in Industry to the International System of Units (SI) and carry out the verification of all the measurement equipment in use. repeatability. – to limit the choice of subcontractors to only those calibration laboratories that are accredited by the national body in charge of the accreditation of calibration laboratories. etc. through audits or any other method of evaluation. within the framework of EA (European Cooperation for Accreditation).). maintenance. In Europe. .fr). etc. who confirms that the equipment is suitable for the expected use. the measuring equipment into service is the sole responsibility of the person in charge of the metrology function. The metrological function must be able to demonstrate at each level of the traceability chain that the traceability to the SI is ensured through an unbroken chain of comparisons.

In fact. the specification of the measuring instrument depends on the needs of the firm. Analysis of the requirement and selection of the measuring equipments The selection of measuring equipment is made after taking the following factors into consideration: technical requirements. – the traceability to the SI.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 91 Whichever solution is implemented by the firm. the verification and the supervision.4. a large resolution will be required. the implementation and the follow-up of requirements.1. economic and commercial conditions. the requirements concerning the instruments will be modulated. and the selection of the measuring equipment.4. 3. It is advisable to ensure that the measuring equipment meets the requirements of the application in the firm: Conception ------> Tests on the materials or the components Development ------> Tests on the prototype or prototypes Manufacture ------> Setting and supervision of the production tool Control and acceptance of samples Quality control ------> Entrance/exit Marketing ------> Tests of compliance to norms or passed orders At all these levels. the metrological function remains responsible for the decision to confirm the measuring equipment entering into the quality of the product or the service.1. – the statement of compliance with the requirements (the confirmation). in others it will be a capacity of measurement in dynamic conditions. In some cases. – the calibration. in others an excellent freedom of bias and repeatability. The purpose of the management of the measuring equipment is to establish and maintain the measuring equipment necessary to satisfy the requirements of the firm. 3. This management must take into consideration: – the analysis of the requirement. etc. – the reception.1. Technical requirements An understanding of the technical needs can be understood from the following points: . and evaluation of this measuring equipment.

to keep the firm advised of anticipated developments. it is up to the user of the equipment to decide whether the measuring equipment will be submitted to a calibration test and then used. etc. – the conditions of acceptance. definitions for: – the requested characteristics of the measuring equipment. it is recommended that a file of the specifications be opened with.) of these means must be taken into account. – For specific or complex measuring equipment. or whether a verification will be made.92 Metrology in Industry – The main thing is ensure that the performances and the accuracy class. – the particular requirements concerning the calibration and the verification. which makes it possible to say that the measuring equipment is suitable. drafting of the acceptance criteria. the restraints of implementation and use (influence quantities. maintenance. – At the time when the decision is made. parameters ruling the acquisition of data. taken into consideration. standards needed to verify that the test or control equipment is fit for use. which would set the limits of permissible error as well as some acceptance criteria making it possible to qualify the equipment. it may be important to discuss with the supplier the conditions in which the equipment will be used and the content of the assistance required. – the conditions of use. – When the measuring equipment is new to a firm. handling. or the freedom of bias and the repeatability of the measuring equipments. or outside its usual scope. environment and maintenance. adapt it or repair it. – It is judicious to make a prospective and retrospective analysis of the use of the measuring equipment and its possibilities of evolution so as to limit the risks of obsolescence and. resolution. . meet the technological requirements of the firm. for example. use it. The following elements show that the firm has the technical information that will enable it to have the measuring equipment adapted for use: measuring range. Therefore. mostly. conditions of traceability to national standards (interval/uncertainty). – Measuring equipment must be delivered with the information necessary to bring it into service. – A firm’s measuring equipment is often used when assessing whether a product complies with its specification. the homogeneousness of the measuring equipment of the firm can be a deciding criterion if use or maintenance are. freedom of bias and repeatability. the corrections notified in the calibration certificate being applied. in particular.

de Régulation et d’Autoisme). ISO 9001: 2000.2. Receiving the measuring equipment and putting it into service As soon as measuring equipment arrives. . the user alone is aware of the future environment in which the measuring equipment will be used and of the measurement method into which it will be used (see Chapter 8).4.1.1. So it might be advisable to obtain all the information or documentation possible to help the firm in its choice. – demands for availability (what time of unavailability allowed. Assessment of the measuring equipment The selection of the measuring equipment can also be made from evaluations based the experience of other firms. 3. or that of metrology laboratories.3.4. etc. In Europe.2. – delivery time. what time for repairs. These ideas are embodied in the following standards: ISO/CEI 17025. Economic and commercial conditions These conditions must be determined jointly by the purchase function and the metrology function of the firm with the following factors in mind: – should the measuring equipment be bought. rented or borrowed.4. ISO TS 16949: 2002 and ISO 15189: 2003. It will be the role of the metrological function to provide the “purchase” service.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 93 Moreover. the metrological function carries out the following operations. 3. 3. but which would be unsuitable for the projected use. – maintenance contract and/or technical assistance. depending in particular on the conditions of depreciation and the risks of obsolescence. three associations of measuring-equipment users have laboratories of metrology and tests to evaluate equipment (France: EXERA (Association des Exploitants d’Equipements de Mesure.). using the technical information about the measuring equipment and its projected use. the Netherlands: WIB (Werkgroep voor Instrument Beoordeling) (see Chapter 4). the UK: EI (Evaluation International). this will make it possible to justify the cost of one solution or another at the expense of a less expensive option.

which are called life cards.). to master the basic vocabulary of metrology. Technical dossier of the equipment It may in some cases turn out to be useful. Basic definitions At this stage. 3. 3. etc. Compliance with the order Conformity to the order and to the specifications of the manufacturer or of special instructions is verified. verification or repair. which is as follows. order. drafting of the procedures. 3. or in relation to type of use. Technical documentation Make sure. instructions.2.2. 3. The manufacturer’s identification number. or any other event related to any particular instrument. Depending on the requirements of each firm.1. Inventory (description) The identification number makes it possible to develop a permanent and quantitative inventory of all measuring equipment. if the manufacturer uses one. for that purpose.6.4.2. calibration certificates. Identification of the measuring equipment An identification number is attributed to each piece of equipment. etc. report of receipt.4.2.3.4.94 Metrology in Industry 3.2. upon receiving new equipment. and is also useful in relation to calibration operations. 3. or with potential auditors and.2. The choice of the codification system may use a classification which makes it possible to group the equipment together in categories.4. it is a good thing to be able to communicate either with a subcontractor. the number will be affixed on the case of the equipment. When justified by technical reasons.4. to open a dossier in which all the documents concerning the equipment can be filed (specifications. The number will be affixed to the measuring equipment in such a way as to ensure its indelibility.2. This inventory is useful when following the technical evolution of measuring instruments.4. that all the operators have the information needed for a correct use: copy of the instructions. the inventory can be in the form of a set of cards. Some suppliers are marketing software for the management of measuring equipment (see Chapter 4). supplied technical documents are checked. can also be used.5. when new equipment is brought into service.4. .

Calibration (VIM section 6. – a standard electrical resistor. – a standard signal generator. sometimes called a calibration certificate or a calibration report. . Note 1: the results of a calibration make possible either the assignment of the corresponding values of the measurand to the indications. Material measure (VIM section 4.1) Device intended to be used to take measurements. and the corresponding known values realized by standards. Note 2: a calibration may also determine other metrological properties.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 95 Traceability (VIM section 6. – a gauge block. or the values represented by a material measure or a reference material. Measuring instrument (VIM section 4.8. in a permanent manner during its use. or the determination of corrections with respect to indications. Metrological confirmation (EN ISO 10012 section 3. one or more known values of a given quantity. For example: – a weight. – a measure of volume (of one or several values. with or without a scale).12) and (ISO 8 402 section 3. – a reference material.15 note b) Property of the result of a measurement whereby it can be related to generally stated national or international standards through an unbroken chain of comparisons.11) Set of operations which establish. Verification (ISO 9000: 2000 section 3. such as the effect of influence quantities. alone or in conjunction with a supplementary device (or devices).5 without the notes) Set of operations required to ensure that measuring equipment conforms to the requirements for its intended use. Note 3: the result of a calibration may be recorded in a document.4) Confirmation by clear evidence that the stated requirements have been met. under specified conditions. the relationship between the value of the quantity indicated by a specific measuring instrument or measuring system.2) Device intended to reproduce or supply.

Repeatability (VIM section 5. Freedom from bias (VIM section 5. which characterizes the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand. reference material or auxiliary apparatus. Metrological characteristic (EN ISO 10012 section 3. Correction (VIM section 3. necessary to realize a measurement process. Accuracy of a measuring instrument (VIM section 5. .23) Limits of permissible errors Extreme values of an error permitted by specifications. Maximum permissible errors (VIM section 5. regulations.96 Metrology in Industry Measuring equipment (EN ISO 10012 section 3.9 without the notes) A parameter.18) Ability of a measuring instrument to give responses close to a true value.15 without the notes) Value added algebraically to the uncorrected result of a measurement to compensate for systematic error. etc. measurement standard. Note: “accuracy” is a qualitative concept. Uncertainty of measurement (VIM section 3. or a combination of thereof. Accuracy class (VIM section 5. for a given measuring instrument.25) Systematic error of the indication of a measuring instrument.3) Measuring instrument. Bias (VIM section 5.31 without the note) Ability of a measuring instrument to provide similar indications for repeated applications of the same measurand under the same conditions of measurement. associated with the result of a measurement.19 without the note) Class of measuring instruments which meet certain metrological requirements that are intended to keep errors within specified limits. software.4) Distinguishing feature which can influence the results of measurement.26) Ability of a measuring instrument to give indications free from systematic error.

will generally result in a calibration certificate with a view to applying corrections to the measurement results afterwards. or brought back. These uncertainties about the values of the corrections will also be used when assessing the causes of the uncertainties so as to determine the compound uncertainty that will be connected to the measurement results (see Chapter 7). materialized by a appropriate mark indicating the state of the measurement equipment. do not include any intervention on the measuring equipment. . requirements that had been set beforehand (generally as tolerated error limits which allow the measuring equipment to be brought. The result of a verification can be either: – a record of verification.30) Operation of bringing a measuring instrument into a state of performance suitable for its use. Calibration and verification operations Both the calibration and the verification operations are based on a comparison to a standard and. or – a decision to adjust. exploiting them will make it possible to decrease the uncertainty of the measurements taken with the equipment. repair.3. in the strict sense of the VIM. The calibration. which means for the user that the equipment can be brought back to service. – materializing the tolerated limit indications of the measuring equipment that it is compared to directly by means of a standard. The result of a verification makes it possible to assert that the measuring equipment meets. They are indispensable operations. scrap or downgrade the instrument. A verification can then be made either by: – comparing the results of a calibration operation with the tolerated error limits.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 97 Adjustment (VIM section 4. which make the indications provided by the measuring equipment meaningful. The result of a calibration comprises all the values which have got out of the comparison between the measurement results of the equipment and the standard. except for the preliminary operations. User adjustment (VIM section 4. into service). 3. or does not meet. This method does not require figures.4.31) Adjustment employing only the means at the disposal of the user.

E xa m p le : C o n s u m e r. IS O 9 0 0 0 :2 0 0 0 § 3 .98 Metrology in Industry We wish to draw the reader’s attention to the need to adapt the verification program (measurement points.3. e n d -u s e r.) to the use intended of the instrument (see section 3. note 4) rather than verifying the compliance with the manufacturer’s specifications because what matters is that the instrument should be fit for use. METROLOGICAL CONFIRMATION PROCESS N e e d Id e n tifie d S ta rt C a lib ra tio n (te c h n ic a l c o m p a ris o n o f m e a s u rin g e q u ip m e n t w ith a m e a s u re m e n t s ta n d a rd ) Calibration C a lib ra tio n C e rtific a te /R e p o rt C a lib ra tio n S ta tu s Id e n tific a tio n 1 Metrological Verification Recalibration Loop Yes M e tro lo g ic a l R e q u ire m e n ts E x is t? No E q u ip m e n t C o m p lie s W ith R e q u ire m e n ts ? Y es V e rific a tio n / C o n firm a tio n D ocum ent V e rific a tio n Is N o t P o s s ib le No Decisions And Actions Is A d ju s tm e n t O r R e p a ir P o s s ib le ? No T e s t R e p o rt: V e rific a tio n F a ile d C o n firm a tio n S ta tu s Id e n tific a tio n Yes A d ju s t O r R e p a ir S ta tu s Id e n tific a tio n R e v ie w C o n firm a tio n In te rv a l Customer2 R e tu rn T o C u s to m e r End 1 2 C a lib ra tio n id e n tific a tio n /la b e llin g m a y b e re p la c e d b y m e tro lo g ic a l c o n firm a tio n id e n tific a tio n . distribution in the measuring range. b e n e fic ia ry a n d p u rc h a s e r. The different operations for calibration and verification are shown in Figure 3.3 .5 ). Figure 3.3.4. O rg a n iza tio n o r p e rs o n th a t re c e ive s a p ro d u c t. c lie n t. etc. Diagram of metrological confirmation .2. re ta ile r.3. N o te : A c u s to m e r c a n b e in te rn a l o r e xte rn a l to th e o rg a n iza tio n (re f.

4. Calibration or verification program The technical comparisons program is a document that makes it possible to take into accounts all the operations to be carried out on the measuring equipment. Note 3: some measuring equipment is used only now and then. Calibration or verification intervals Whichever measuring equipment is considered. it can be agreed to calibrate (or verify) the equipment only for the function or functions used. It is arranged depending on the calibration or verification program set for each measuring instrument.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 99 3.3. if necessary. clear mention of use restrictions must be stated on the equipment.1. the calibration at set intervals is not required.2. etc. they make it possible to detect any glitch at the measurement points that are normally used. normative and statutory restraints. the nature and wear of the equipment. 3. on when each measuring instrument is easily available and on the work schedule corresponding to the tasks to be done. 1 In some measuring processes it can be considered that if the measuring process remains “under control”. the equipment has to be identified so as to avoid any risk of error if they occasionally were used for a non-calibrated (or non-verified) function. To determine the interval of the comparisons (calibration or verification). The interval initially determined for a given measuring equipment must be reconsidered and. In no way can these controls replace1 the planned calibration and verification operations (see Chapter 6). a systematic process of comparison done at set intervals ought to make it possible to prevent any weakening of the quality of the measurements taken and to ensure the equipment’s credibility over time. it is necessary to take into account such factors as the rate and type of utilization. the strict periodicity rules are not to be applied to them. In those circumstances there should be written instructions that the instruments be submitted to comparison operations before they are used if the validity period of the previous comparison has expired. Note 2: any intervention likely to alter the metrological characteristics makes it necessary to examine the initially determined interval. possibly the economic. In this case.4. Note 1: proceeding to limited controls within the set period is not to be ruled out. Note 4: some equipment is only used for one or a few of its functions. the expected drifts in view of the acquired experience.3. . readapted according to the experience that has been acquired.

The idea of supervision has been developed in order to prevent malfunctions. or what it is planned that it will do. Freedom from bias. it is important to ensure that the measuring equipment. 3. 3. which contributes to the quality of the product or the service.4. Different methods are proposed in Chapter 6 for the supervision of measurement processes and equipment. stability Three metrological characteristics are essential for measuring equipment: – freedom of bias (VIM section 5.26).14). ••• •••• ••• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Repeatability Freedom of bias Figure 3. Repeatability and freedom of bias .4.100 Metrology in Industry 3. – stability (VIM section 5. The reader should read the EN ISO 10012 standard “Measurement management systems – requirements for measurement processes and measuring equipment”.4.27).3.4.4.1. still possesses the performances and characteristics required to what it is meant to do.3. Supervision of the measuring equipment Measuring equipment is the essential element of measurement processes. – repeatability (VIM section 5. Fitness for use of measuring equipment Just as one has to periodically make sure that employees still have the qualifications required to perform the task(s) required – one cannot rely on the initial training and the diploma possibly obtained – likewise.4. drifts between two calibrations or verifications. repeatability.

You have to be aware that the repeatability you will find that way will generally be better than the measuring process. 3.4. measuring equipment requires that its drift should be supervised so that its indications can be brought back within the tolerated limit of errors.5 of the NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 standard – “Equipment”. supervise and assess its environmental performances (ISO 14004 section 4). This can also be achieved by applying corrections.Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 101 The traceability to standards will make it possible to know the value of the corrections to make to indications of the instrument to compensate for its biases.4. The evaluation of the repeatability can be made by.4. when assessing the repeatability of the instrument one must take care not to introduce fluctuations coming from the measured quantity.6 of the ISO 9001 standard – “Control of the measurement and supervision devices” – and in paragraph 5. These three characteristics have to be supervised by the firm’s internal metrology function. measuring a standard. for example. The repeatability of the instrument will be assessed by repeated observations of the same measurand. . Maximum permissible errors The above data materialize the limits that can be set to start the operations of user adjustment.3. 3. The stability will be noted of by watching the calibration results obtained at given intervals. These demands are made clear in paragraph 7. because other factors of variability come into the measuring process. by means of a user adjustment or an adjustment. Why? As it has been seen.2. but it is sometimes preferable to set more restrictive limits if you do not want to have to proceed to corrective actions when a verification reveals that a piece measuring equipment does not meet the specifications (see Chapter 6 for the methods of supervision of measuring equipment and measurement processes). Supervising the drift is equally essential because if the errors become considerable the indications of the instrument might lie outside the tolerated limits of errors. The ISO standard of the 14000 series concerning the system of environmental management states that the firm should measure. Demands for an assurance of the quality The demands for quality assurance clearly indicate that it is necessary to regularly keep track of the measuring equipment.4.

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3.5. Setting up a metrological structure within the firm 3.5.1. Analysis of the metrological requirements and setting up standards A look at the inventory of the measuring equipment will make it possible to group the equipment according to the three following criteria: – measured physical quantity; – measurement field; – freedom of bias and repeatability. The analysis of these groups reveal three typical cases. Case of one instrument only Generally, buying reference standards to calibrate only one measuring instrument will not be contemplated. The easiest and most efficient solution will be to request a calibration laboratory to calibrate the equipment; this will ensure its traceability to the SI. Either a national laboratory of metrology or a calibration laboratory accredited for the quantity and for the measuring range expected would be acceptable. Case of equipment of widespread use in the laboratory It will be possible, with the help of the inventory of the measuring equipment, and taking the measuring ranges and uncertainties into account, to define the standards needed to calibrate and verify such measuring equipment. Let us take a particular case to illustrate this point: the calibration of voltmeters. When there are a large number of voltmeters in a laboratory, it is better to use a tension generator whose calibration will be entrusted to a laboratory – it makes it possible to ensure traceability – the competence of which is guaranteed by accreditation, rather than send away each one of the voltmeters for calibration. Several benefits are derived from this type of organization: less expense, shorter immobilization periods and the possibility of using a local reference if there is a doubt about a measurement (metrological redundancy). Case of measuring and testing equipment where the connection to physical quantities raise technical problems It is the case when those measurements result from the application of conventional methods. Two types of approach are possible: utilization of reference

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materials or interlaboratory comparisons; in some cases, the two approaches can complement each other. In paragraph 5.6, “Traceability of measurement”, of the NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 norm stresses that:
(...) there are calibrations which cannot at the present time be strictly performed in an SI unit Calibration, in such cases, must introduce confidence into the measurements by establishing traceability to appropriate measurement standards such as: – the use of reference materials – it must be certified they are from a competent supplier – to characterize physically or chemically a material in a reliable way, – the use of specified methods and/or standards chosen by consensus, clearly described and accepted by all the parties concerned. Taking part in an appropriate program of interlaboratory comparisons is required whenever it is possible.

In the case of physical methods of chemical analyses (chromatography, spectrometry, etc.), the pre-analysis operations compulsorily include an operation known as calibration or gauging which implements solutions obtained by the laboratory or by reference materials (see ISO 32 guide, “Calibration in analytical chemistry and utilization of certified reference materials”). A procedure has to be established when the firm uses reference materials; this makes possible the control, the implementation of a new sample of reference materials and the answer from the measuring equipment when two samples of reference materials are used. The criteria that have led to the decision to renew the reference material must be in writing. Case of the measuring equipment that cannot be connected to an accredited calibration laboratory Credibility of the measurements will be sought by means of comparisons and cross-checking between laboratories. Contact can be made with the national institutes of metrology and even foreign laboratories may be used to do the calibration, within the scope of EUROMET; the national metrology institutes collaborate and are in a position to direct the requests toward laboratories that can satisfy them. A Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) of the standards and the calibration and measurement certificates issued by national laboratories was signed

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in 1999. See the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) website (www.bipm.org).

3.5.2. Traceability of the measuring instrument(s) to the firm’s reference standards The traceability to the firm’s reference standards determines whether a measurement result can be connected to appropriate standards through an unbroken chain (see traceability in section 3.4.2.6). The traceability of the measuring equipment to the firm’s reference standard can be achieved through a working standard. There does not have to be a working standard; it will depend on the technology of the instruments and the conditions of their use. The number of intermediary firm’s reference standards must be chosen in such a way as the degradation of the uncertainties caused by the use of successive standards is compatible with the uncertainty which is obtained by the measuring equipment: a judicious choice should make it possible to obtain a chain of standards well adapted to the intended application as regards their uncertainties, their stableness and their domains of use. Note: if there is no chain of standards, the traceability can be done through fundamental constants, by the methods of reference measurement (chemical analysis, for example) or by using reference materials. Reference materials make it unnecessary to move an instrument: the reference material is the metrological information medium. For example, a viscosimeter can be calibrated if it is sent to a calibration laboratory, but the user can calibrate it himself by using standard oil (reference material) which will, beforehand, have been calibrated by an accredited laboratory.

3.5.3. Traceability of the firm’s reference standards to the SI The purpose of the connection to the SI is to make sure that a measurement result obtained at one point on the globe is unquestionably comparable to another measurement result obtained in the same conditions at another geographic location. The organization of metrology at national and international levels is intended to guarantee consistency between the standards of the different nations and to ensure that the deviations which occur are not significant at the level of the measurements made in the firm.

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The traceability to the SI of all the equipment which can influence on the quality of the product has to be guaranteed. The connection of the firm’s references to the SI is comprised of the following operations: – external calibrations of the firm’s reference standards, which guarantee their connection to the SI; – internal calibrations of the working standards. For either operation, a connection program sets the list of equipment involved, the interval between calibrations, the points to be calibrated and the possible requirements. This program can be drawn up with the help of a national laboratory of metrology or an accredited laboratory. Note: the optimization of connection programs is one of the major tasks of the metrological function. This optimization must be: – technical: uncertainties are to be optimized; – economic: the costs of the calibrations (traceability program and periodicity) are to be optimized. When the traceability of the measurements to national standards or to the SI units is not feasible, the firm’s metrological function must be in a position to demonstrate that the measurement results are correlated; it can be done, for example, by taking part in national or international interlaboratory campaigns. It would be wise, in any case, to look into the ratio between the uncertainty of the calibration of the equipment and the measurement uncertainty requested by the firm

3.6. Suggested approach for setting up a metrology function It is important not to set up a metrology function at random; the order of the operations can be of some importance. A suggested approach is as follows: – to nominate someone to deal with this operation. However, the person must know the firm and its techniques very well; it would not be a good idea to entrust a trainee or a new employee with this task; – to analyze your real needs for information from a measurement or test result; – to make a list of your measurement processes and choose those you regard as critical;

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– to make an inventory of the measuring means already found in the firm (identification, localization, etc.); – to open a technical file in which to store the information related to these instrument (instructions, certificate, order copy, etc.), for comparatively important instruments; – to analyze your manufacturing processes and testing methods, then pick out the instruments which play an essential part in controlling the processes, or in demonstrating the quality of the products. These instruments are the ones you must deal with first; – to analyze your measuring processes and determine the uncertainty of your measurement results; – to analyze your products, testing methods and manufacturing processes, then verify if your measuring processes are appropriate to your intended objectives (ratio tolerance/uncertainty); – to supplement your equipment when necessary; – to think of the different possible traceability patterns for each type or each instrument; try to optimize them economically and technically (ease of use), the uncertainty being adapted to the needs; – to send your reference standards to accredited laboratories for calibration and optimize your calibration intervals; – to examine and write down your procedures of calibration, of verification of your own instruments; establish supervision methods for your measurement processes; – to put in writing all the measurements you take; – to analyze the malfunctions and your errors; to take steps to ensure that they do not happen again; – do not forget that perfection is out of reach; what is sought is to establish a system that will enable you to make progress.

3.7. Bibliography
International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology (VIM) ISO-IEC-FICCIUPAC- IUPAP-OIML-BIPM 1993 ISO 10012 (2003) Measurement management systems – Requirements for measurement processes and measuring equipment ISO/CEI 17025: 1999 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

Mastering Measurement Processes Approach 107 EURACHEM/CITAC Guide 2: Quality Assurance for Research and Development and Nonroutine Analysis (1998) EURACHEM Traceability in chemical measurement (2003) ILAC P10:2002 ILAC Policy on Traceability of Measurements Results EA-4/07 (rev 01): Traceability of Measuring and Test Equipment to National Standards (previously EAL-G12) .

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Chapter written by Jean-Yves ARRIAT – Ascent Consulting. There is no particular chronology to follow. the subcontractor will have to be found. except that one should start with the inventory. It is a long process that you cannot complete in a couple of months. . with a double purpose: – to give confidence in one’s own measurement results. However. and responsibility for the follow-up of the metrology function will need to be given to somebody in the firm. and that is something that is not subcontracted. this chapter has been written with certain logic. Do not forget that it takes time to analyze the measurement requirements and to select the suitable means. unless there are only a dozen instruments or the handling is fully subcontracted. – to show one’s clients that the measurement processes are controlled. you will have undertake thorough quality audits to ensure that the subcontractor is competent. The time needed to initiate the handling of a bank of measuring instruments is also stressed. and even in the latter case. Initiating the handling of a bank of measuring instruments has to be done with the desire to improve the current organization of the firm while taking the firm’s culture into consideration. etc. subcontracting specifications will have to be drafted. following the order of successive steps. define the responsibilities.Chapter 4 Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments The object of this chapter is to suggest an approach to the implementation of a bank of measuring instruments.

1.110 Metrology in Industry Throughout this chapter. – it is used as a database when a new instrument needs to be chosen.1. Acquaintance with the bank 4. .2. knowing them with an ability to sense their problems will turn out to be very useful later on.1. For example. – from 2000 onwards to the workshops. Identification After you have listed all the measuring equipment.1. the term “measuring” is used in the broad meaning of “measuring. you should take note of the assignment (to places and/or persons) of the measuring instruments and of the people who keep them (in the case of statutory-use measuring instruments). The inventory of the material is very useful for several reasons: – the importance and the size of the bank make it possible to define the policy that directs the metrology function. you have to identify them in a concrete form. It means you have to define a code system. 4. analyzing and testing”. You could also make the allocated number more significant. At the same time. as in each of these actions the result is obtained through measuring equipment which has to be looked after. for those instruments supply results concerning the quality and conformity of products. for example. templates. height gauges. etc. and including the gauges. without omitting those which are never used (the question of why some are never used can then be raised) and those no longer in working order. as well. 4. Inventory The first step is to draw up a complete list of the measuring equipment. you could assign the numbers: – from 0001 to 0999 to the metrology laboratory. it is indispensable within the context of contractual relations. from 1 onwards. checking. – it may save buying new instruments if some are not used. you could take numbers in numerical order. – from 1000 to 1999 to the testing laboratory. – furthermore.. You must take advantage of this step to build up contacts with the users.

It may also be helpful to identify the instrument’s container. because of lack of space).1 .g.1 . The periodicity can be seen immediately by using labels of different colors. can also be used. In most cases. a label is simply affixed to the instrument. . on the condition that the container remains in sight of the instrument and mentions its reference. Almost all measuring instruments have an identification number provided by the manufacturer.. if the marking is engraved. The main thing is to establish a clear. Even if this number is not relevant for the firm’s identification system. date of the next calibration) cannot appear on the instrument (e. in case the data about the periodicity of the followup (e. . it appears on the instrument. The identification must be clearly affixed. preferably with a mark or label fixed on the instrument without altering it.0001. green = 2 years. – Series 300: weighing category.. which can spare trouble when marking instruments. You could also use a two-part number: 000 . especially if it also contains documents or data useful for the operation of the instrument. – do not forget the “others” category..g. it indicates the instrument number.-: assigned to the testing laboratory.1 below).. . provided by the manufacturer.-: assigned to the laboratory of ground mechanic-testing..3. This code system makes the management of the codes easier when the handling of the bank is computerized. for example: yellow = 6 months.. simple system. the date of the last calibration and the date of the next one. the data could appear on the container. – Series 200: electricity category.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 111 You could also use a combination of letters and figures. In the same way. preferably one that can be used for the codification of the documents related to the measuring instruments (see section 4.. you must be careful about which method is used.17: 17th gauge in the laboratory. depending on its size. for example: DG 1117 which would mean: DG: depth gauge. The individual number of the measuring instrument. blue = 1 year. where first part (on the left) would be the category: – Series 100: mechanics category. .

It does sometimes happen that there is no marking (each party thinking it would be done by the other). Here are two models of labels: Last calibration: Instrument number: Next calibration: or more simply: 06/02 M/Y perhaps in green. finally. It is an attractive solution. The bar code refers directly to the data-processing unit for the whole of the information concerning the instrument. some firms use bar codes which are stuck straight on to the instrument by means of a label. Nevertheless. both marking and identification have to be done right at the beginning. or that the service company simply attaches a label with an arbitrary date for the next visit without consulting the firm. . the label may sometimes not be the ideal solution because it may come unstuck. When there are many measuring instruments to handle. it makes the follow-up of the instrument anonymous (which runs counter to the users being made to feel responsible). to indicate the conformity M for month and Y for year Though it is easy to use. In any event. but it involves risks. much progress has been made in this area. it also requires a very advanced computerized management and the ownership of bar code scanners (in good working order) by the users. after the inventory. When a firm subcontracts the handling of its measuring material to an outside service company. these difficulties can be circumvented by putting the individual number of the instrument near the bar code. the individual number and the identification sheet make it possible to easily go back to the verification or calibration report. The firm can define its policy about the handling of the metrology function before or after proceeding materially to the identification of the instruments. it is important that the contract should specify which of the two parties is responsible for the marking. However.112 Metrology in Industry The date can be mentioned in “week – year”. and a little effort may allow you to uncover a good solution.

2. As far as it is possible. Plan of actions to launch Once the objectives have been defined and the commitment has been clearly stated. or to become qualified for the QS 9000 (American motor referential) or the ISO TS 16949. it draws up a plan of what has to be done and defines the responsibilities of the various people who are to intervene as well as their “sphere of influence” and the functional connections. one person can be in charge of several actions: heading the metrology function. or subcontract part of it. Then someone has to be made responsible for each action. drafting the documents. training the users. . 4. 4. or all of it. The list of the missions to be carried out will be established. identifying the material.2. Awareness. from the information gathered during the inventory.1. to obtain an aeronautical acknowledgement of the JAR 145 type. the actions to be launched must be specified. it is worth trying to estimate the time which is needed to perform each operation. however.2. You will then have to start informing people and making them aware of the importance of looking after the measuring instrument. Objective and commitment of the firm’s management The firm must clearly state what objective it wants to reach: for example. verifying the instruments.. they will be reminded that natural drifts are possible. of the personnel’s adherence. assessing the capability. According to what it has chosen. that uncertainties are related to measurement results. he or she must. to satisfy the demands contained in the ISO 9001 norm. make sure that the documents are verified and approved by another person. Metrological policy of the firm 4.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 113 4. It has to decide. training and vocabulary You have to make sure. whether it wants to do everything internally. before any action. The firm then defines the objective of the metrology function.2.2. etc. This makes it possible: – to draw up a schedule and a work program. that it is important not to believe spontaneously in a “top level electronic” instrument. and a degree of priority for each one will be indicated. – to assess a part of the cost for launching the firm’s quality system.3. etc.

but not necessarily all in the same way. in this situation. complying with ISO 10012. will have to be set up. . you must not forget to train the person in charge. However. in quality handling and about the notion of traceability. quite rightly. the military American military norm 45662-A does not leave much room for instruments that are not followed). mean of the measurement results. What are the criteria which can be selected in order to perform the sorting out? The main question to ask is: “how important is the measurement which is to be carried out as far as the contractual requirements of quality assurance. so confusion can arise with “calibration”. People talk about the same subjects but with different words: they do not understand one another. Let us underline the importance of carefully defining the contractual requirements (and reading attentively the documents attached to the contract.114 Metrology in Industry When you analyze what the firm needs for the handling of metrology. for example.4. uncertainty. security and safety are concerned?” All the instruments that fulfill these requirements should be followed very strictly. all the means have to be seen to. A training program. and especially the words: standard. gauges. the English translation of the French “étalonnage”). It is usually at this stage that a number of difficulties arise. they agree on terms they understand differently. all the measuring instruments are not handled in the same way. adapted to the needs of users. or worse. etc. Therefore. both for the person in charge and for the users. 4. whether the same strict handling applies to all the measuring instruments. etc. it is of paramount importance to rapidly define the meaning of the words to be used. constraining and expensive a job. Selection of the material to be followed periodically Faced with all the demands one is supposed to comply with. it is easy to panic and consider that it is too heavy. among other things. although this position is far from being unanimously accepted among metrologists and quality managers. as a rule. Some are merely listed in an inventory. This is for a very simple reason: the cost of the operations. The answer is obviously no. On top of this. calibration. of not guaranteeing a lot of parameters on a product if you do not look after the instruments which are used and if you do not record the results obtained. gauging (“calibration” in French. one wonders. often linked to vocabulary problems. he or she should have technical knowledge in metrology. He or she should also ensure that the users of the measuring instruments have the necessary ability to use the material. sensors. verification. one may prefer to do nothing. apparatuses. others are followed with normative strictness.2.

it is important to list those you need (it is advisable to refer to Chapter 8. section 8. especially within the context of a “quality management” process. unnecessary immobilization (an important element these days when uncontrolled costs are hunted down). let metrology indulge in the free and easy attitude of former times: a minimum of work should always be undertaken. Let us go back to the example at the beginning of the chapter. This leaves us with two categories of measuring instruments: – for those that are strictly handled over time. It is vital to attempt to present and codify them along the same principle as the documents of the firm’s quality assurance system.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 115 Concerning the other measuring instruments. However. etc. you will use “DG” in the codification of all the documents concerning the measuring instrument: ISDG1117: identification sheet of the 17th depth gauge of the laboratory of ground mechanic. for this second category. you should ask yourself: “what will be the consequence of an undetected drift of my instrument?”. only useful documents should be created and they have to be clearly identified. You must not. which are not subjected to constraints from outside the firm. This strictness makes it possible to eliminate all the useless measuring equipment from the firm: they are sources of errors.3. so that they are not thought to be periodicallyhandled equipment that have lost their labels. all the requirements are applied to them. if you use “DG” for the depth gauge. they may simply be listed.3.000 temperature gauges) and whenever it is possible. it will be either on account of doubts the users might have or only when it is first verified before it is put into service. you must not forget to clearly identify the instruments of this second family. the importance of the measurement in the process will be determined. but before the documents are drafted. conflicts between the users. This material will never be followed over time. then assess how likely it is this “risk” will occur and compare the risk to the total cost of a follow-up. even if they have to be put together in series (this is especially the case in the chemical industries which can have 10. Codification of the documents The efficiency of the handling of a bank of measuring instruments cannot last if the handling is not formalized. 4. . Given the vast amount of “paper”.3) and think of structuring their relationship with the firm’s documentary system.1. The instruments must all be listed in an inventory. Drafting of the documents 4. – for those whose handling is not subjected to a plan.

– the instructions about the verification of the measuring means to define the way each category is verified.116 Metrology in Industry It is not essential to use an abbreviation of the name of the instrument.2. TR-0269: 69th test report in 2002 – VFI . – the calibration instructions for the metrological references which have to be calibrated. That is the identification instruction. It enables all the services and shops to identify the material similarly. – the instructions about upkeep and maintenance. After you have defined the codification for the documents. You also have to document: – the instruction that sets the intervals for the periodical follow-up of the material over time.-: verification instruction no. but it is useful to create differences between the classes of documents: – CBI.. It provides the outlines of what is to be done and refers to the work instructions for further details. Thinking things out a bit when finalizing the document can make the work much easier. The first work document is the general procedure for dealing with the measurement processes. The report mentions the references of the verification instruction which was used to proceed to the said verification. 4. These make up two different categories: the work instructions and the documents which will show the results. the meaning of the labels when necessary.. you have to draft them. Work instructions It is important to emphasize here that this approach is only one way to proceed. You have to set out how the material is identified.. CR-0201: 1st calibration report in 2002 – TSI..3. The codification is important because it enables you to find your way through all the documents. VR-0275: 75th verification report in 2002 The identification sheet mentions the references of the instrument in question. as well as the number of the report that contains the results which have been taken into consideration to authorize the instrument being put into service again..-: test instruction no.-: calibration instruction no. .. when the materials would be put at risk if these operations were not done correctly.

– the maximum length of time between two successive calibrations (periodicity).) to be used. get ideas from existing norms and from suppliers’ advice. it only indicates the result. it is often difficult to thoroughly apply all that the norms prescribe. the instructions have to give plenty of details if the personnel are not well-trained. etc. 4. If what you have decided turns out not to be enough. Regarding the verification of the measuring instruments. Do not worry too much about it. only one type of identification sheet should be used in order to facilitate the use of the documents.3. – the references of the work instructions (verification.). To draft it. As a rule. so the documents can be simple. However. clients. – the date of its receipt and setting up. this is dependent on how useful and important it is. The technical content of the instructions must take the users’ standard into consideration. – the account of the interventions it has been subjected to. You should give an instrument only the time it requires. the users are technicians whose basic standard is reasonably good. Result-recording documents At the same time as you define the work instructions. you can get your inspiration mostly from the national norm. – its usual location. If possible. if the question arises. you have to define the documents in which the results are recorded. The most important one among these is the identification sheet. maintenance. work on it to further it. the main thing is to define what you want to do and stick to it. etc.3. There is one identification sheet per measuring instrument and it holds all the information about the life of the instrument in question. – the name of the manufacturer. To begin with. especially: – the name of the instrument (or standard) and its individual identification. by referring to the documents containing the details of the operations and the figures of the results. when there is one.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 117 It is advisable to have one instruction per category of measuring instruments: it makes it possible for the documents to evolve more easily as a function of the various demands (normalization. . The identification sheet does not contain the detail of the operations which have been performed. If it is possible.

gas). – non-destructive testing. maintenance reports. – acoustics. surface.3. duration). depending on the size of the bank. The reports are the documents that contain the details of the results obtained. optics. – test reports. – time (hour. and whose conclusion generally appears in the identification sheet. – verification reports. angle. etc. resistance). etc. By category. because the first steps are simple.). the place of use can also be taken into account. Other documents At the stage when a system for handling a bank of measuring instruments is set up. – light intensity. temperature. according to the firm’s particular needs: – calibration certificates. too. A template report should be established at the same time as the work instruction it refers to. etc. there are the following: – dimension (length. pressure. understandable by everybody and. – quantity of matter. chemistry. The other documents which have to be formalized are. the classification can be by spheres of activities: mechanics. electricity. but the easiest part. current intensity.4. resilience. .118 Metrology in Industry It is advisable to file the sheets by spheres of activities or categories. what has been achieved is both the easiest and the hardest parts: the hardest part because it is never easy to lay the first stones of a construction as they are the ones upon which the stability of the work rests. time. frequency. etc. – chemical analysis (acidity. – molecular composition (spectrophotometry). hardness. – mass. 4. – volume (gauging). roughness.). – electricity (potential difference. step by step. force. – and many others. Hence. who have contributed to their development. demanded by the clients. – flow (liquid. more and more often. power. – thermodynamic temperature.

this should not be done by the supplier. because it is very likely these materials will be put into service without first being identified or verified. such as they are described in the next paragraph. – to calibrate. for instance). can be documented in writing.4.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 119 Beyond that. or have it done by a laboratory which has the required competence. Concerning the initial verification. you should make sure the following operations are adhered to: – to verify that the equipment conforms to the order. for reasons related to the demands of legal metrology. Some exception rules. – to inscribe a mark concerning the calibration or verification and thus start the periodicity. unless he or she can give guarantees of his or her impartiality. exceptionally. it is generally the approval of the model which defines the class. which makes it possible to determine the class of the instrument. also. especially if the first ones have been launched easily. ideally. however. receipt and implementation of new equipment should be defined. you should do this yourself. even then. – to identify the means of measurement (with a registration number. if they are peculiar to the firm. Physical handling of the measuring instruments 4. the equipment must not be implemented except. A craze for documents often arises. It is important to say who in the firm is in charge of acknowledging receipt of the measuring instruments (whether new or being returned). a badly-controlled handling of receipts rapidly leads to disorder in the handling of the bank. in cases of mass and (static or dynamic) volume measurements. it must be handed back as soon as possible.1. do not forget to check the technical documents that are provided. . 4. Until these operations have been completed. in an emergency. and who replaces him or her if he or she is absent. or initially verify before the implementation (possibly done by the manufacturer). As soon as a new means of measurement is delivered. the manufacturer’s specifications or to particular prescriptions.4. – to introduce the means into the inventory. Actually. they are usually called “internal norms” and might be a formalization of the processes of physical handling of the measuring instruments. Receipt The process of acquisition. only what is strictly necessary should be documented. in order to be put through the correct steps.

120 Metrology in Industry 4. occasional moving. . Let us take the example of measurements made on testing benches. Transfer On top of these processes of receipt and follow-up of the material. etc. 4. which would make it possible to know all the transfers. of all the components of the bank. without disrupting the program of the measurements to be made. name the person responsible for them.2.4. It should be possible to locate all the instruments. Several systems are possible. their limits.2. it is indispensable to identify the benches in order to repeat only those measurements which were made on the faulty bench. These operations should be subjected to particular procedures that state what the possibilities of transfer are and.2.4. Traceability In order to know at any moment the state of the bank of the measurement means.4. as the case might be.1.2. Traceability of measuring instruments and measurements also means being able to determine which instrument has been used to make a particular measurement. This should make it possible to obtain: – a good progress of the program of calibration and/or verification. it is vital to ensure a traceability. – the detection of the measurements which need to be checked or done again in case a deviation in the operation of the instrument is revealed during a calibration or verification. and know their latest places of assignment or use according to the contractual importance of the measurements made or the cost of deviation in the case of wrong measurements. Transfers have to be controlled so that the equipment scheduled for maintenance may be called in due course. as well as which precautions should be taken. changing assignments. it is important to perfect control of all the operations concerning the transfer of the metrological equipment: their entry in/out of laboratories or shops. which should be both satisfactory and adapted to the firm’s requirements. Depending on the importance of the bank of instruments and the size of the equipment. There are three benches and one of them turns out to be faulty. it might be a good working technique to establish a computerized procedure of the “outgoing equipment ticket” type. If measurements have to be redone. Transfer Any transfer must be performed under someone’s responsibility. dispatching. 4.

Storing and environment To successfully carry out the processes of storing and control of the environment. or vice versa. – a user sector could be made responsible – its mission would be to keep the verification of its means of measurement up to date. etc. with the purpose of planning calibration campaigns on metrological themes. This does not concern the devices which are meant to be accessible to the user without any outside help. official derogation on the verification date. . You must ensure that the seals are unbroken. in particular. a number of operations have to be undertaken and followed up: – to provide suitably fitted-out safe storing areas or premises to prevent the equipment from damage or premature deterioration. you have to be sure that taking the means of measurement away from the user services can be done without its absence causing a disruption in the operation of these services. The conditioning of the measuring instruments is well defined and the transfer is subject to instructions which are pre-established and which concern handling. The accesses to the adjustment devices which may affect the performances should be protected so that untimely or accidental handling is prevented. 4.4. the arm of a measuring column. the arm of one-pan scales. appropriate precautions have to be taken.2. appropriate arrangements (e. 4. for example. Instruments which are subjected to regulations are protected by lead seals whose location is indicated in the model approval. No uncontrolled intervention by the state should be performed on these instruments.4. In all cases. However.3. Some elements of the equipment may have to be secured before the transfer. or between the place of storage and the place of use. – a call per type of instrument. that is the case. transportation.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 121 For example. for zero adjustments.g. or supply of a replacement means) have to be made in cooperation with the users of the means. the follow-up of the procedure has to be ensured. there could be: – a computerized automatic call in the case of a computerized file. and maybe. Precautions Every time the means of measurement have to be transferred from the place of use to the place of calibration. it might be necessary to send reminders.3. if not. intermediate storage. packing.

if not impossible. hygrometry. To assist you in this task. section 6. as well as the location where lower-class equipment can be sent and used of for less accurate tasks. four classes at most will be defined for their use. for example: – class 0 (wear out limit = tolerance as new). etc. . There are some elements of the measuring equipment which you know will wear out: in particular. – to have perfect environmental conditions (temperature. As measuring instruments can be downgraded. etc. it is necessary to define that accuracy limit which can be tolerated. Replacement should be prepared beforehand so that the services that use the instrument may be as little inconvenienced as possible. – class 1 (wear out limit = 150% of tolerances as new). of the calibration results. belts. springs.2) in order to keep track of the variations of the equipment over time. It is advisable to keep the measuring instruments in their original cases and keep them flat (when possible) on an appropriate piece of furniture. take heed of the manufacturer’s advice.4.4. – to equip the premises with the necessary energy sources. in some cases to do so. the batteries.122 Metrology in Industry – to define suitable methods to allow receipt into and dispatch from these areas. and of the identification sheets. – to have a device to watch over the surrounding parameters (if it is felt to be necessary). It is advisable to use the method of the control charts (see Chapter 6. 4. Maintenance It is important to assess the life span of each instrument. even though it is very difficult. See Chapter 8 for more details. Regarding those instruments for which only one accuracy class was defined when they were new instruments.) and knowledge of the consequences of the variations of any of them. dust. vibrations. Spares should be kept handy to make the immobilization time as brief as possible while any of these elements is being replaced. Regarding those instruments for which several accuracy classes were provided by the norms when the new instruments are received. It is advisable to store separately the common measuring instrument and the standards of the firm. the downgrading is done along the classes as they have been defined.

Periodicity of the follow-up The systematic and periodic comparison of measuring instruments to metrological references is meant to prevent.1. too long intervals may make it impossible to detect a drift of the metrological qualities of the measuring instrument early enough. though it is difficult to draw up a list of universally applicable validation intervals. – accident. You should bear in mind two fundamental and opposing criteria which have to be balanced when you set the follow-up intervals. . overload. It is therefore of paramount importance to ensure that the personnel are fully aware of the precautions to be taken and the necessity to report any accident (fall. – there is a drop in the production of measurements when the instrument is immobilized. 4. However.5.). – class 3 (wear out limit = 150% of tolerances of class 2). except for two reasons: – “natural” drift (whether it is used or not). – there may not be a substitute instrument. It is impossible to say that a lapse of time would be sufficiently brief to eliminate the risk of a measuring instrument becoming faulty before the end of the period. for as long as possible. Follow-up of the measuring instruments over time Keep in mind that a measuring instrument cannot go off limits. In addition. and avoid the question: “what am I doing with the measurements taken with this equipment since its previous verification?” 4. the risk a measuring instrument yielding wrong results. Therefore. a compromise is necessary.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 123 – class 2 (wear out limit = 150% of tolerances of class 1). Following the drift in time will make it possible for the users to avoid facing the very embarrassing situation of the measuring instrument being declared “off limits” at the end of its periodical verification. too high a calibration frequency is costly for the following reasons: – the process is never free of charge. etc.5.

. The calibration frequency does not have to be constant. The periodicities may be granted a tolerance to give the quality system some flexibility. For some instruments. It is strongly recommended that: – the recalls be planned. Once the periodicities have been settled. the follow-up periodicity can vary from 1 year to a month. you must avoid hampering the production line that might need it. as a quick verification. Sporadic checks to detect any malfunction should be ruled out within these periods. 4.124 Metrology in Industry They are: – to make the risk of the measuring instrument straying out of the tolerances while being used as small as possible. or make it possible to adjust the periodicity of the verifications. you can use surveillance standards to check the condition of the measuring instrument. or exclusively used for one or only a few functions. before each use. whether it is to be brought in by the users.5. These means must then be identified so as to avoid any risk of error. or from 6 months to 15 days. etc. – some replacement material be provided. Campaign of recall It is of paramount importance to tack the instruments down over time. They will be increased if the previous comparisons show that longer intervals do not impair the reliability or the accuracy of the means of measurement.2. whether the material is to be collected. If this operation is done in a strict and well-documented way. a specific method of verification could be used for these means. If some means of measurement are used only now and then. whether it is to be checked on site. – to make the costs of verification or calibration as cheap as possible. for example. all that is left to do is to proceed to the recalling of the means of measurement. it can replace the scheduled verifications. It is important to make clear who is responsible for the follow-up. They will be reduced when the results of the previous comparisons do not allow you to permanently guarantee the accuracy of the means of measurement. – the users be forewarned. The time intervals between two verifications or calibrations can be adjusted. See Chapter 5 about this issue. Knowing a instrument is going to be out of use for a time.

See Chapter 6 for more information. you can obtain its details from nearly all the big electricity laboratories. all we wish to do is introduce a few points of reference. if there are not too many.5.6. the inconvenience caused to the users is reduced. you can move the cards back and forth and remove them when the work is done. Hence. However. Other software has a “users’ club”. the instruments which have been sent back can be easily identified by using different colors of cards. This method is also useful when you decide on monitoring intervals. . Follow-up of the results It is important to periodically analyze the results of the follow-up of the measuring instruments.Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments 125 By this way.3. A planning-board with “T-shaped” cards could be used to follow the shifts of the measuring instruments. In electric metrology there is software for the handling of multimeters which is almost unanimously approved in the profession (but it is not suitable for other technical fields). and as the market offers various software for the handling of measuring instruments. Software for the handling of the means of measurements As all companies are becoming increasingly computerized. it is quite tempting to obtain such software. which make it possible to detect a drift before it occurs and to react before it is too late. You must not keep an eye on them only to meet the requirements of the ISO 9000 norm or those of the client. and the application of the scheduled plans is facilitated. No particular software will be mentioned here. For example. Also. that the system is developed. the users of the instruments are easily informed if there is easy access to the board. 4. you only display on a board the work to be done over the next three months. The aim is to detect a possible drift of the measuring instruments and to make use of the results to reduce the uncertainties related to the measurements. It must periodically be subjected to audits to ensure that the procedures are followed. you can see the progress of the follow-up. Also. at one glance. you have to be very careful before deciding to purchase software because it may not necessarily meet the needs of metrologists and it is not easy to offset its cost. you can use graphs of the results. You must not forget to follow the handling of the bank. The results of the calibration are used. and that research is being undertaken to improve it. 4.

and there are limits on the software. For example. you first have to be sure that it is economically profitable. if it is adapted to the real needs of the firm and is in the hands of the person in charge of the metrology function. If it has been badly designed or if it is badly used. to prevent the contents of the data being tampered with by anybody. not to leave any measuring instruments out of the periodical follow-up. the French metrology group FAQ Ouest (Federation of the Quality Associations of the West) established an assessment grid along the following principles: – the main criteria were listed with a rating. there is a danger of depending a bit too much on computers. finally. Handling software is nothing but a tool. the French club. A few years ago. Work has been done by some French associations to help potential buyers (or architects) of software handling measuring material. The main goals of computerized management are to have easy access to all the data in the files. has assessed and compared about 30 types of software. – the criteria rated 2 were more specific to the utilization of the software. to make the updating of the documents easier. it soon becomes a source of problems and then an unwelcome cost for the firm. – the criteria rated 3 were deemed indispensable when choosing software. However. pages in a binder do not urge to work with excitement during an audit: but a computer does not do everything. to have handy all the information about the measuring instrument and.126 Metrology in Industry Regarding software. it becomes a source of productivity. Métrologie Centre. – the criteria rated 1 were a plus. Of course. .

and Patrick REPOSEUR – Comité Français d’Accréditation (COFRAC). Definitions Traceability. the requirements of applicable written standards or contracts require that the measurements performed by the instruments be traceable in relation to the national standards.2. Traceability It is the term that you must base your work on to comply with the demands relative to the traceability to national standards as they appear. this is the reason why the definitions of these terms should be known and remembered in order that they might be unambiguously used.Chapter 5 Traceability to National Standards 5.1. 5.2. The same demand applies when you want to be sure of the quality of the measurements performed by a measuring instrument. mainly in the written standard ISO 9001: Chapter written by Luc ERARD – Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE). in its technical as well as documentary meaning.1. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the main theories that are necessary to achieve this goal in an organization or company that is faced with this requirement. 5. . should not be dissociated from the technical operations which are related to it: calibration and verification. Introduction In many fields or activities.

or – values represented by a material measure or a reference material. – EN 45011 (ISO Guide 65) for product certification. the definition in paragraph 6. 1993 (section 6. and the corresponding values realized by standards. Note 3: the way the connection to the standards is effected is called connection to the standards.128 Metrology in Industry – 2000 or ISO/TS 16949 for firms. A first definition appears in “International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology” (VIM). Note 1: the result of a calibration makes possible either the assignment of values of measurands to the indications or the determination of corrections with respect to indications. – EN 45004 for inspecting activities.5. A second definition appears in the written standard ISO 9000: Essential principles and vocabulary. under specified conditions. Note: in metrology.2. 1993 (section 6.11) defines calibration as: – a set of operations which establish. usually national or international standards. ISO/IEC 17025 for laboratories (or firms when they undertake analyzing.4). .10 of VIM 1993 is the accepted definition. 2000 (section 3.” Note 1: the concept is often expressed by the term traceable. the relationship between values of quantities indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system. 5. through an unbroken chain of comparisons all having stated uncertainties. Calibration “International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology” (VIM). which defines traceability as the ability to retrieve the history.2.10): “Property of the result of a measurement or the value of a standard whereby it can be related to stated references. calibrating or testing activities). Note 2: the unbroken chain of comparisons is called a traceability chain. the implementation or the location of what has been examined.

a verification makes it possible to ensure that the deviations between the values indicated by a measuring instrument and the corresponding known values of a measured quantity are all below the maximum permissible errors. or those which contribute to the guarantee of the quality of a product or of a test. . Notes 1 and 2: within the context of the handling of a bank of measuring instruments. In all cases.3. Traceability chains At the international level. such as they are defined by a norm. 5. from calibrations.Traceability to National Standards 129 Note 2: a calibration may also determine other metrological properties. downgrade it or scrap it. repair it. a written record of the verification has to be kept in the individual file of the measuring instrument. adjust it. Verification ANSI/NCSL (1) – standard for calibration – Z540: 1994 section 3.28 defines verification as an evidence. sometimes called a calibration certificate or a calibration report.3. that the specified requirements have been satisfied. some regulation or a requirement specific to the person in charge of the bank of measuring instruments. the decisions concerning the International System of Units (SI) and the recommendations concerning the realization of primary standards are taken into account by the Conférence générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM).2. at least in relation to the most accurate measurements. The result of a verification entails a decision to put the instrument back into service. As the basic principle of traceability consists of linking the measurement “in its most general sense” to relevant standards. such as the effect of influence quantities. Note 3: the result of a calibration may be recorded in a document. 5. most industrialized countries have set up traceability chains which fulfill this function. the instruments which are regarded as reference standards. The Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) is responsible for coordinating and maintaining the primary standards and for organizing comparisons at the highest level. This written standard should be withdrawn when the ISO 10012 standard about verification comes out.

at the highest level. More and more often. Service d’Accréditation Suisse (SAS). In their calibration services. In Europe. They have other activities which include: calibration. training personnel. these are directly defined in relation to the SI. for the measurement units they provide to users who may be scientists. research laboratories or industries.130 Metrology in Industry These traceability chains rely. these laboratories are requested to become accredited. and technical assistance. It is also their duty to make sure that their realizations are coherent at the international level. be implemented in associated laboratories which are delegated for this activity by the national organization in charge of metrology (the CETIAT (Centre Technique des Industries Aérauliques et Thermiques) for hygrometry in France. for some quantities. Sistema interamericano de metrologia (SIM). improve and maintain the national references. the National Engineering Laboratory (NEL) for flow in the UK. both internally and for third parties. on one or several national metrology institutes whose principal missions are to realize. They can issue calibration documents referring to their accreditation body. Asia-Pacific Metrology Program (APMP). for example: Comité Français d’Accréditation (COFRAC). especially for setting up calibration laboratories. The process of securing the traceability to the SI system is made simpler for industries . etc. etc. Since 1984. or to set up a quality system for their calibration activities in accordance with the requirements of the written standard ISO/IEC 17025. Deutscher Kalibrierdienst (DKD). in their calibration services. so as to secure the quality of the calibrations. or by regional metrology organizations such as European collaboration on measurement standards (EUROMET). The realizations of the national references can. this coherence is obtained through the participation of the National Metrology Institutes (NMI) in comparisons organized by the consultative committees of the Comité International des Poids et Mesure (CIPM).). the national metrology institutes and the associated laboratories directly provide traceability to the references of the accredited calibration laboratories (frequently identified as SMH (Service de Métrologie Habilité) in France) and provide the organization which accredits the calibration laboratories with their technical competence and their support. the accredited organizations (national metrology institutes (NMIs) and SMH calibration laboratories) comply with the requirements of the ISO/IEC 17025 written standard and the specific documents of the accreditation organizations. Theoretically. The national metrology institutes and the associated laboratories are liable. the NMIs and the national accreditation bodies (NAB) have been collaborating in order to allow the free movement of calibration documents.

org – MLA-EA: www. the document which is issued to an industry only has to bear the seal of either the national NAB or the NMI. as a last possibility. then. to the basic quantities of the SI. or on their associated uncertainty (see ISO/IEC 17025. perfectly referenced and with documented procedures. which is a basic requirement of many written standards dealing with quality assurance.european-accreditation.6) The needs of the firm and the causes of uncertainties of measurement will make it possible to determine the consequences of the absence of traceability. Based on interlaboratory comparisons. The traceability has to be secured when the firm cannot technically show that the absence of traceability does not have any influence on the result of the measurements. or to reference materials which are well known in the field involved.org Each seal that has been recognized as equivalent can be consulted and any additional information can be obtained from the national accreditation body (COFRAC in France). is of a technical nature on the one hand and of a documentary nature on the other.Traceability to National Standards 131 by this recognition of equivalence. 5.4.6 of this standard). the arrangements of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (MRA-BIPM) and the European organization of cooperation for accreditation (MLA-EA) are accessible on the internet: – MRA-BIPM: www. – to basic constants. Technical traceability is always secured by a connection through an unbroken chain: – to national or international standards in relation to physical measurements. The presence of this “symbol” proves the accreditation and the recognition of equivalence. Traceability It is clear from the definitions that the traceability of measurements.bipm. section 5. Documentary traceability is generally ensured by complying with the requirements of the quality assurance written standards such as the ISO/IEC 17025 written standard (see section 1. .4.

– the documentary traceability must be justified by compliance with the requirements concerning quality assurance. 5.1. which. or equivalent. a calibration certificate is issued by the laboratory’s accreditation body. it is important to point out that it is not sufficient to look only at the flyleaf (or the label stuck on the instrument). their accreditation body and the principals) no. not limited to the audit of the system of quality management based on the service company’s ability to perform the measurements requested by the user.5.5. Calibration in an accredited laboratory After calibration has taken place in such a laboratory. from the laboratory or from outside.2. The user. should make sure the service of the laboratory is in conformity with the different requirements and relevant.7. at the international level. and by appropriate calibration procedures completed by calculations of the uncertainties. The traceability will not be secured unless the following conditions are met: – the technical traceability must be justified by traceability of the laboratory’s reference standards to the national standards.5. G. it is necessary to ensure that the calibration program is relevant and sufficient for what is expected from the instrument. .5. and they do not mention any certification of a system of quality management in compliance with the requirement of the IAF (International Accreditation Forum. appropriate assessments. but the traceability will be secured only for that range if the calibration program includes a sufficient number of measurement points. thorough. Note: whatever the nature of the laboratory which has delivered a calibration certificate. A calibrator or a multimeter may be calibrated for one function and one range. which prohibits these logos from appearing on anything that can be related to a product or a result. Calibration in a non-accredited laboratory Such a laboratory may issue calibration certificates. in its field of accreditation (range of measurement and uncertainty). Calibration 5. Calibration accreditation guarantees traceability from a technical as well as from a documentary point of view.3. includes the certification organizations.132 Metrology in Industry 5. but they are not guaranteed by an accreditation body.

The traceability cannot be secured unless the following conditions are met: – the technical traceability must be justified by the traceability of the laboratory’s reference standards to the national standards. the user should make sure that. for example) guarantee the traceability from a technical.7. and referring to the national accreditation body.6. uncertainty of measurement. or equivalent. cannot refer to any guarantee from an accreditation body. Verification in an accredited laboratory and in its accreditation scope The verification operations carried out in such a laboratory. The main questions that may be raised on this subject are addressed in the following sections. the content of the verification report completely fits the use scheduled for the instrument (verification program. Note: as for calibrations.6. Verification in a non-accredited laboratory or out of the accreditation scope Such a laboratory may perfectly deliver verification reports. Verification 5. . 5. at the technical level. and within its accreditation scope. entail the issuing of verification reports in conformity with the requirements in effect.1. The requirements of the national accreditation body (COFRAC. quite obviously. under certain conditions. point of view.Traceability to National Standards 133 5. Use of calibration and verification results The measuring instruments which have been subjected to a calibration or verification may. 5. as well as documentary. by means of audits.2. The reports.6. should ensure that the verification reports are relevant and in conformity with the different requirement. etc. and by appropriate verification procedures which include the calculations of the uncertainties of the measurement that have led to the drafting of the report. The user. maximum permissible errors.). DKD and UKAS. – the documentary traceability must be justified by compliance with the requirements concerning quality assurance. be used as references for the calibration or the verification of other measuring instruments. from the laboratory or from outside.

This point is particularly important because a “calibration document” in which no indication of uncertainty appears cannot be used for the propagation of uncertainties or for ensuring the “technical” traceability of any instrument. of course. the standard gauges used to verify calipers). . if a verification report contains the numerical values of the measurements. as in a calibration certificate.7.134 Metrology in Industry 5. plus the combined uncertainties.7. that is. as a rule. In this case. the information about whether it is apt to do what it is intended to do. However. or class. they are recorded in a file or on measurement sheets.1. Use of the results of a calibration The calibration certificate. In the particular case of a verification report issued for an instrument. it can be used afterwards to ensure the “technical” traceability of any instrument. theoretically contains all the technical elements that enable the beneficiary instrument to be one of the technical links of the traceability chain: – “relationship between the values of the indicated quantity and the corresponding values of the quantity realized by the standards”. or a standard. However. the uncertainties mentioned in the report are those used as a base for the propagation of the uncertainties. the corresponding instrument can also be used to ensure traceability (for example. but. Use of the results of a verification Theoretically. a verification report only contains a judgment about whether the instrument does or does not meet the requirements of the specification (permissible error limits). – uncertainty of measurement.2. As a result. The calibration certificate of the calibrated instrument is one of the links in the traceability chain in the field for which the calibration certificate has been issued. the numerical value being within the limits of permissible errors. the uncertainty used as a base for the calculation of the uncertainty is the one which appears in the certificate. 5. The numerical values of the measurement results and the combined uncertainties do not. as defined in the VIM. the calibration certificate can be used as the starting point of or the reference for a new calibration or a verification in the field for which was been issued. defined by its nominal value. the instrument and its associated verification report may no longer be used as a new starting point for traceability to standards. appear in the verification report.

or indirectly. Using calibrated reference standards is not sufficient. in theory. “Self-calibrating” or “self-gauging” measuring instruments The new multimeters. such as a Zener diode reference and two resistors of 1 and 10 k . to be more specific or to give examples of traceability to national standards. to assume that traceability has been reached. 5. cannot be regarded as one of the links of a traceability chain. can be mentioned in this category of instruments. As a rule. the internal working of the instrument and the processing of the data provided by the standards are not known (from the point of view of the corrections as well as of the uncertainties associated with the measurement) and so it is impossible to be sure that the different domains and ranges of the instrument have been correctly linked to the SI. or their equivalent. .1. as in a calibration certificate. but as the end of it. 5. or calibrators of electrical quantities. in its usual form and except in the special cases mentioned above. in some domains or for some particular instruments. Ensuring the traceability of these instruments can only be achieved by implementing the classical methods: calibration or verification with the aid of standards that are themselves directly. In such a case – although the principle may be questioned despite being sound on a strictly technical point of view – the values of the uncertainties used as a base for the propagation of the uncertainties are simply the permissible error limits. for example. The manufacturers of these instruments recommend that they be calibrated with the help of 2 or 3 reference standards.8. but nothing about the uncertainties of measurement.8. together with the associated instrument.Traceability to National Standards 135 Likewise. Particular cases It may be necessary. it can also be used as a new starting point for traceability to standards. if a verification report contains only the numerical values of the measurements. The verification report. traceable to the national standards.

Metrology in chemistry and physical methods of chemical analysis Whether the concern is the ISO 9001 written standards. The problem of the traceability of these instruments is not completely resolved. and that the measurement should be independent of the measurement equipment and the method used.). this software should be validated.136 Metrology in Industry 5. – the coordinate measuring machine. which measures the dimensional quantities of complexly-shaped parts. – there should be software to assess the measurement uncertainties. there is a requirement for the person in charge of the metrology function and responsible for the bank of measuring instruments. etc.2. it is possible to suggest a few ways to solve this problem: – a large enough number of standards measured by these instruments are to be used to determine what errors are related to the measurements made in the whole range of operation of these instruments. a particular activity (ISO 14001). is to summarize things all too briefly. however. a “chemist” or a “biologist”.8. aeronautical. or its specific requirements for a particular industry (automotive. or the ISO/IEC 17025 or ISO/IEC 17020 (EN 45004) written standards. . or a derived quantity. integrated software makes it possible to compensate some systematic errors. it is also calibrated from a limited number of reference standards. all at once. There is nothing in this requirement that makes it possible to differentiate between a “physicist”. it is calibrated from a limited number of reference standards. 5. to extend the measuring range. It is: “The measuring equipment must be traceable to national or international standards. to make complex calculations and to reduce the number of random errors. which measures the components in modulus and phase of high frequency electrical quantities. Complex instruments in which components/equipments and software are narrowly combined and large measurement ranges are covered for complex quantities The following instruments are included in this category: – the vectorial network analyzer. They all have to be able to prove that the measurements made are coherent. These instruments work on identical principles.” To say that this requirement for traceability can be applied only in the domains of science in which it is possible to materialize a basic quantity of the SI.9.

).). (LGC) UK. In all cases. the metrology function should be able to ensure the coherence of the measurement results. so as to optimize its method of analysis or by verifying this coherence by using another method of measurement. the notion of traceability to national standards is understandable. etc. hardness.1. or perhaps there was no standard at the national level. for example by taking part in national or international interlaboratory comparisons. (NIST) USA.Traceability to National Standards 137 The objective of the traceability to national standards is to ensure that a measurement result obtained somewhere in the world is clearly comparable to another measurement result obtained in similar conditions in another part of the world. In the case of physical methods of chemical analysis (chromatography. According to the international vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology (VIM).9. the OIML (Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale). the traceability was not technically feasible. though less clear-cut than for physical measurements. Traceabilty in metrology in chemistry No matter what document of reference a firm has chosen. spectrometry. Gauging the measuring equipment of a method of chemical analysis means adjusting the output signal. the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry). it makes use of solutions prepared by the laboratory. 5. LNE). This vocabulary was published by the BIPM. This obviously concerns all the domains of chemical analysis. they thought. problems of traceability have always been considered by standardization bodies because. or of reference materials supplied by producers who may be accredited ((IRMM-JRC) Brussels. etc. or using a standard curve in such a way that for each . the ISO (International Organization for Standardization). (EMPA) Switzerland). the IEC/CEI (International Electro Technical Commission). A pragmatic approach has been taken in a conference by Mr Alain Marschal entitled “Traceability and calibration in analytical chemistry” (National testing laboratory. but also all the measurements to characterize a physical property of a material (bending by shock. the IUPAP (International Union of Pure and Applied Physics) and the FICC (Fédération Internationale de Chimie Clinique). the traceability must be implemented through an unbroken chain of comparisons. In the case of physical methods of chemical analysis. the operations prior to an analysis usually include an operation which is said to be a calibration or a gauging.

the mean of the results coincides with the conventional true value (CTV) which is given by reference samples. or polluted by gases such as the CO2 from air. – is not sufficiently resistant to the effects of time for instance. a thermo gravimetric (TGA) or differential thermo analysis (TDA). even if it is purchased from a specialized producer.138 Metrology in Industry level of concentration. so no evidence such as an accredited calibration certificate is recorded. calorimetric methods. and also of the shape of the cloud of experimental points. – cannot always have its characteristics verified by the buyer. a drawback of chemical analyses applied to liquids and to solids is that they usually destroy or modify the sample by turning it into a solution. etc. for example. many “chemist-analysts” consider that they have only one means at their disposal to validate their method and verify their measurement results: to repeat the analyses on samples characterized by known values which have . must not be taken into account unless the purpose of the comparison is to “adjust” an alternate method in relation to a method that is taken as a reference. Faced with this situation. As in most methods in which the object is to physically characterize a material. causes systematic deviations which can be constant or proportional to the input signal and thus dependent on the concentrations. as it is subjected to oxidization or reduction reactions. by one method or another. by extraction. Gauging errors. On the other hand. a case which ought to be considered is that of a piece of equipment that is very difficult to calibrate or verify and it is practically impossible to obtain traceability to the national standards according to the usual protocol. This inconvenience makes it very hard to maintain an unbroken real chain of comparison to a national-level standard. The problems encountered in what could generically be called chemical analysis come from the fact that the “standard” product: – is not a reference material which is certified (or whose traceability is completely established). with a modification of the position of the experimental line in comparison with an ideal line. – responds in a way differently from the analytes in the real sample owing to matrix effects. or by a reference method (absolute). The notion of gauging error.

in all cases. The method for the traceability chain consists of separately identifying the elementary quantities which have been measured in the analysis process and linking them to national standards. to precisely define the concentrations of some elements or components in a specified matrix.fr). It can be classified in three categories according to the principle of calibration which is used.cofrac. in many cases. intervene in them to reduce their effects. that is to say. These samples are selected or prepared by laboratories which are well-known or recognized to be competent because of their experience or because of the results of a campaign of interlaboratory analyses for which the purpose was. Their accredited possibilities are accessible on the internet sites of the European Cooperation for Accreditation (EA) (access through www. to use a certified reference material. – determining a volume of titration reagent. then the requirements defined in the ISO/IEC 17025 written standard in sections 5. – weighing a mass of precipitate. for example. possibly. 5.9.Traceability to National Standards 139 been established by a process deemed to be reliable. . Absolute methods The principle of the method consists of obtaining the result of the analysis from laws which link physical or chemical phenomena. to make an assessment of the causes of uncertainty in order to be able to identify the most influential ones and.6 must be complied with.9. However. or it is the value of the uncertainty which is dissuasive. – determining a volume of generated titration. Some laboratories have become accredited for performing these calibrations since the first edition of this book was published. or too expensive.2. The measurements consist of. it is rather difficult. It is vital. 5. for example: – weighing the quantity of a substance. Should these properties have a significant effect on the results of an analysis.2. In practice.4 and 5. the samples have to be conceived and prepared in and by the laboratory in accordance with the requested analysis. to control all the parameters used for a calculation.1. Influence of the principle of the method The influence of the type of the method is not insignificant.

volume. etc. . EURACHEM (European Cooperation for Chemical Analysis) and the CITAC (International Committee for the Traceability in Chemical Analyses) have published a document which is a guide to the assessment of uncertainties of measurement.3.9. geometry of the standard. and the nature of which is very close to that of the sample to be analyzed. In their concern to help industrials and laboratories as a whole. another method consists of using samples prepared from the pure analyte and some blanks.2. 5. When no reference materials are available on the market. the concentrations of which are known by the user. Comparative method The principle of the method consists of comparing the indications given by the instrument for the measurement of the sample with those obtained from a “calibration” curve drawn from samples which are known to be of the same nature and taken as references.9.).). for example. The method of connection consists of connecting the different systems of measurement used for the preparation of the “standards” (mass. Relative method The principle of the method consists of comparing the indications given by the instrument for the measurement of the sample with those given for the calibration performed from a range of “reference” products prepared by dilution of the pure analyte in a solvent. 5. interpolation between two points. Another technique consists of comparing the results of the sample with those of a reference method from the first two categories. etc. temperature. nature of the impurities. measuring out fat in milk by infrared spectrometry compared with an ether-hydrochloric extraction. preferably certified material if there is any. and without any additional disruptive effects (influence of the matrix. that is to say some samples of the same type which are supposed to not contain any trace of the analyte. purity of the basic products. one should always keep in mind that the objective is to satisfy an industrial need and therefore one should estimate the share contributed by each one of the causes of uncertainty and then compare their total sum to the final uncertainty of the result of the analysis.2. content of the measured-out element.140 Metrology in Industry This assessment can then be used as a tool of the functional analysis of the measurement process. The method of connection consists of using reference materials. However. This method does not give the same guarantees as the methods which depend on external reference materials.2.

it corresponds with the general meaning of traceability as defined in the ISO 8 402 written standard.9. in France. which is wellknown in metrology. or by a member who has signed the equivalent recognition agreement of the EA. which has an accreditation by COFRAC. “Documentary” traceability Strictly speaking. Is this uncertainty comparable to the maximum errors allowed for this order of pipettes? Surveys of new or “precision” material have been undertaken and are currently being continued in some laboratories. Therefore. For example. the accuracy of the means of reference is in the order of 0. it is”. In the case of physical methods of chemical analysis. what uncertainty can you guarantee when you weigh a volume of water from a micropipette of 10 µl? 2. It is possible to verify one volume per weighing: 1. note (b) excepted. the Physikalish Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). for the moment. The proof of this connection can only be internal as there is no delivery of a calibration certificate issued by a laboratory. we use it in opposition to the term traceability chain. the question arises: “what is to be connected and how do you prove the connection?”. in Germany. it is to be able to prove that the techniques used for “adjusting” the method make it possible to have confidence in the measurement result and the uncertainty which goes with it. the Laboratoire Système de Références Espace Temps (SYRTE). but quite suitable for the use to be made of the measuring equipment. that about . However.3. they conclude. The traceability to a national standard is valid. you need to be cautious about this demand. and in Italy. The error made at the time of the setting of the “chronometer” is much larger than the uncertainty of the connection. therefore. the Instituto Electro Nazionale Galiléo Ferraris (IENGF). Should all the gauged glassware be verified and how often should this be done? This equipment may represent more than 80% of a “chemistry” laboratory’s bank of measuring equipment. On the other hand.Traceability to National Standards 141 5. as this term is not defined in any published text of terminology. the question is not so much to find the track of a particular document. is the verification of a stopwatch used to determine a time interval traceable to a national standard if you use a method describing the verification process or if you use a “standard telephone” directly linked to the speaking clock? The answer is “yes.1 milliseconds in France and the timekeeping of this clock is controlled from an atomic clock connected to the national standards: in France.

The laboratories of chemical analysis frequently use this chromatography equipment. the analysis temperature. The result of a measurement is obtained by transferring the determined value on the calibration curve that has been drawn.142 Metrology in Industry 80% of the verified glassware was within the error limits allowed by their class or their requirements. the geometry of the column. or in a liquid state. To sum up. the response of the detector and the response of the integrator. The decision to calibrate a spectrophotometer will depend on the type of analysis made with this spectrophotometer. it is a relative or comparative method. The user. Spectrometry is not an absolute method. It is then possible. has to determine the contribution to the overall uncertainty of the injection system. Once again. which requires drawing a calibration curve of the indication from internally diluted solutions or from reference materials when there are some. In order to reduce the influence of the successive dilutions. before turning his attention to the connections of these two quantities. the principle of this method consists of an elution of the elements constituting a sample. it is the analysis of the need and the calculation of the uncertainties which tell you whether the method of connection is relevant and whether it is reasonable to invest in these verifications. Instruments such as spectrometers and chromatographs which have to be calibrated every time they are used should be calibrated with chemicals known to be sufficiently pure. The reference materials are obtained by the user through successive dilutions (mass and volume). as long as the sought for uncertainty permits it. it is like using an experimental graph. This technique seeks to make use of reference products so as to be able to identify the constituent elements. either in a gaseous phase. the detection at a time T is depending on each one of the constituent elements. knowing that deviations of internal repeatability can reach from 3 to 8%. the same parent solution has to be used for each dilution. . depending on the various cases. Spectrometry techniques are commonly used in the laboratories which practice the determination of chemical elements of a substance. or reference materials whose composition is known. to trust the values of the permissible maximum errors and use them in the evaluation of the overall uncertainty of measurement.

In addition. which belong to and are created by the laboratory.Traceability to National Standards 143 5.9. in order to determine the systematic component of the uncertainty related to the reference. etc. . when this cannot be done. Control of the reference materials When the laboratory uses reference materials (RM) of its own or from outside. then through the internal traceability chain which implements the metrology function. Moreover. – manufacture of the products when this operation is within the laboratory’s scope. These procedures concerning the use of reference materials should be described in detail in the documents which are at the disposal of the operators. – storing conditions. a procedure has to be established which makes it possible to check. especially the follow-up of the monitoring of the coherence of the product which is used to control the drift over of the response of the measuring equipment. with the two samples of RM (the older one and the newer one). the laboratory should have at its disposal a range of RMs adapted to its sector of analysis. the sampling conditions. The metrological traceability is achieved through reference standards. The different stages of the manufacturing to be taken into account are the following: – supply and receipt (definition of the expected requirements. in all cases. the laboratory must be absolutely sure about the homogeneousness of a lot. etc. check of the products on arrival. to use a new sample and to compare the response of the measuring equipment. The criteria that rule the decision to renew the RM must be written down. at the level of the external connection to a national standard kept by the national laboratory of metrology or by an accredited laboratory.). The chain is broken when the final link is compared to a link of the same nature. if these RMs are available.4. make the traceability of the operations possible. especially when faults are detected. The file relating to the equipment should always contain its follow-up information. the products used as references must be treated like consumable products used as part of the tests or analyses. These RMs must meet the previous requirements and be applied to the standards related to the SI. The laboratory must be in a position to prove that every calibration of the internal traceability chain has been done according to the set up procedures. the observations made should. that is to say.

in relation to labeling.). a tolerance of 0. uncertainties and variations of the stated values are usually obtainable from the producers and this information must be used to assess the quality of the CRM and whether it is appropriate to use it for a given analysis. . the storing conditions. One is encouraged to use them as much as possible. they are used to prove the correctness of the results.). The required purity of chemical standards can be defined in relation with the tolerances of the method. The reference materials and the chemical standards have to be clearly labeled so that they can be unambiguously identified and referenced in relation to the certificates and other documents that go with them. in the case of internal reference materials.1% of the targeted value requires the chemical standard to have a precision of concentration significantly better than 99. It is important that the certified reference material (CRM) is produced and characterized in a technically sound way. to calibrate the material and the methods. They also make it possible to compare methods when they are used as transfer standards. conditioning. with a measured-out addition. the applicability. inventory. – management (identification. Details about the tests of homogeneity and stability. of a chemical standard is generally acceptable. using a sample. – reference materials which have or have not been certified and about which the laboratory has to show they are suitable for the use that is made of them.9%. etc. and the restrictions of use. The reference materials provide the essential traceability of chemical measurements.144 Metrology in Industry – handling (preparation. For example. follow-up. – assessment of the uncertainty provided or evaluated by the laboratory. The made-up standards should be treated as the reagents. Particular attention should be paid to the manufacturer’s advice about the storing and the duration of preservation. The users of CRM should be aware that all materials are not validated from the same standard. and so that their documentary traceability is secured. the methods used for certification. When there are matrix interferences. to check the performances of the laboratory and to validate the methods. etc. It is essential to control the impurities for an analysis of traces. The information must be available and mention the duration of preservation.

are based on different principles. as procedures to ensure quality (ISO 9004. admittedly. as well as in the field of the measurement of the basic quantities of the SI. 5. a posteriori. however. and will remain. of the coherence of the measurements. etc.Traceability to National Standards 145 Reference materials and standards should be handled in such a way as to protect them from possible contamination or alteration. remain at the base of some methods. 5. Conclusion In the domains of what we have called chemical analysis. Assessment of traceability This is an especially important point because. many firms have to prove that their measuring equipment is connected to national standards or the like. only the assessment of the traceability makes it possible to verify that the corresponding requirements have been met. Thus. the safest means to make sure. it is fundamentally important to remain open-minded and to take the whole process of measurement into consideration. but they must not eclipse other parameters which have a greater influence when assessing the causes of uncertainties and which are not to be dealt with simply by a connection to the basic quantities.5. and have to be connected. but “the conscience of the process of measurement”. the development of “crossed” analyses has to be supported and helped either by: – resorting to two similar methods which. or – promoting campaigns of interlaboratory analyses to verify the result of a measurement. Such campaigns are. volume. The measurement process includes additional parameters such as sampling.10.9. Furthermore. . preparing the sample and relativizing the influence of basic quantities (mass. rather than making one method more worthwhile than another.). which. The difficulties of guaranteeing the traceability to national standards make a good case for the implementation of a quality system which would evolve as and when corrective actions are applied. Theoretically. for example) are currently developing. particularly in wet process chemistry. temperature. metrology is neither the science of measurements (as defined in the Concise Robert Dictionary) nor the science of uncertainties (Pierre Giacomo – Honorary Director of the BIPM). Personnel training procedures should reflect these requirements.

COFRAC in France) in its sphere of accreditation.ansi. both technical and documentary. there is reason to ensure the content of the documents (functions. American National Standard for Calibration – Calibration Laboratories and Measuring and Test Equipment – General Requirements (www. etc.org) .146 Metrology in Industry When the calibration and verification operations have been performed in a metrology laboratory accredited by an organization (for example. ILAC. connections to the standards. In cases where there is no accreditation.) is adapted to the intended use of the instrument. similarly. As for the principal.org) Guide ISO 35:1989.). the best way to ensure that the stipulated requirements have been met is to rely on the technical and documentary requirements of the ISO/IEC 17 025 norm about technical and documentary requirements.) as evidence of equivalent traceability. by using the document ILAC P 10. an assessment is necessary to make sure that the technical and documentary traceabilities are satisfied and relevant (calibration procedures. the results of national or international comparisons can be used as bases for traceability. During an audit. standards used. uncertainties. programs.iso. he must demonstrate that the services of calibration and verification he has ordered from the subcontractor are relevant. The subcontractor will need to prove that the operations of calibration and verification that he performs are traceable to the SI. EA.afnor. etc. etc. for example. it is not necessary to have an audit done since the traceability. Certification of reference materials – General principles of statistics (www. December 1992 (www. calculations of the uncertainties.fr) ANSI/NCSL Z540: 1994. is guaranteed by the accreditation. The assessment will have to be gone through by. gauges. those firms which subcontract the calibration or the verification of practically the entirety of their bank of measuring instruments. Bibliography French norm NF X 07-010. Nevertheless. there will come a time when the connection to national standards can only be proved by showing a calibration certificate delivered by an accredited laboratory. in particular. It should be noted that the auditors use the agreements of international recognition (the MRA CIPM.11. The metrology function in the firm. 5. In any case.

Accreditation of CHEMISTRY laboratories: Guide for the no. www.ilac. February 1993 (www. LNE (www. Malcolm Loveday.ul. JJ Beliardo – BCR EUROLAB Congress. Calibration of chemical analyses and use of certified reference materials.ilac.fr) Engineer’s techniques Calibration in analytical chemistry and testing of Reference materials R 52 Measurements and Controls. Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement. Quality system requirement for the production of reference materials. Introducing the Concept of Uncertainty of Measurement in Testing in Association with the Application of the Standard ISO/IEC 17025 (www.iso. EA Policy on Traceability of Measurement Results.org) ILAC-G17: 2002.org/iso/fr/iso 9000-14000/tour/magical.org) ILAC.fr) ISO 9004: 2000 System of Quality Management – Guidelines for the improvement of performances (www. LNE (www. in connection with ISO 9 000.eurolab. December 2001 (www.eurachem. www. 2000 (www. Guide for calibration and maintenance of measuring test equipment in laboratories.org) Metrology Congress.ilac.ilac.fr. May 1993/Draft ISO guide 32 (www. Alain Marschal. “Approach to the metrology function in laboratories of Lille 1993 (MFQ) chemical analyses” – Christian TRICARD/DGCCRF Talence BCR. “Traceability and calibration in analytical chemistry and Florence – April 1994 material testing – Principles and applications to real life.org) ILAC P 10: 2002.pt.lne. NPL. Head of Reference Materials Department. and the Guide ISO/CEI no. Head of Reference Materials Department.lne. 2nd edition. “Reference material for mechanical testing and uncertainty of measurement”.org) ILAC. Division Material Metrology.fr) EUROLAB Congress.fr. www.lne.org) EURACHEM-CITAC. 25RNE.european-accreditation.Traceability to National Standards 147 Guide ISO 34:2000. 25”. Alain Marschal.eurolab. 1/WGD2 interpretation of the norms of the series EN 45 000. EN 45 000 and guide ISO/CEI no. ISO-CASCO EURACHEM-WELAC. February 1994 (www. Report reference materials – checking the quality of the analyses of agricultural produce.eurachem. Teddington (www.html) .

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3. Chapter written by Patrizia TAVELLA – IENGF/Italy. and Marc PRIEL – Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE).Chapter 6 Calibration Intervals and Methods for Monitoring the Measurement Processes 6. . This type of demand also applies to testing and calibration laboratories. Normative requirements Calibrations at fixed (possibly variable) intervals are indispensable processes which are usually expensive for firms. The ISO 10012 norm.3): If the result of a metrological verification prior to any adjustment or repair indicates that the measuring equipment did not meet the metrological requirement such that the correctness of the measurement results may have been compromised. The control of the measurement processes resulting from the application of the norm ISO 9001 (2000) is an inducement to ensure that the measurement process “does produce” correct results.1. This can involve re-examination of product produced using measurements taken with the nonconforming measuring equipment. the equipment user shall determine the potential consequences and take any necessary action. Having these intervals well under control is a major technical and economic objective. “System of management of the measurement – requirements for the measurement equipments and processes” introduces the following demand (section 8.

– the need to set up methods of monitoring the measuring instruments. – speed of execution: the time needed to implement these methods must be short.2. The ISO 10012 international written standard requires the organization to specify which measurement processes should comply with the measures stated in this international standard. It is advisable to take into account the risks and consequences of not satisfying the metrological requirements when the limits within which a standard has to be complied with have been defined. or at least to control it. The determination of the calibration intervals and their modification. make it possible to minimize the risk. First method: metrological redundancies Principle This method consists of deliberately duplicating some critical elements of the firm’s metrological system so as to easily compare information that should normally be in agreement.2. these methods have to be implemented by the instrument operators. 6. – motivation of the operators: the operators must be interested in the methods and motivated to use them.150 Metrology in Industry These measures can have significant technical and financial implications for a firm or a laboratory. – use of the results: the results should be easily understood and provide the operators with information. . Any deviation makes it possible to easily detect a fault. A selection of the instruments to be monitored will have to be made when setting up the monitoring methods. so that the monitoring can be done frequently. Methods for monitoring the instruments in use – general criteria These methods should satisfy some criteria in order to work efficiently and be applicable when the instruments in use are monitored: – ease of implementation: in many cases. Those instruments that are especially critical from an economic point of view or for security reasons should be examined first.1. plus the setting up of the methods of monitoring. 6. For firms there are two immediate consequences of this requirement: – the need to have the intervals of calibration of the instruments under control.

these are undetectable if no duplicating item is available in the firm. etc. and a discontinuity in the curve will act as a warning. This assumption may lead to choosing measuring instruments which are technologically different or from different manufacturers. by way of example. most importantly. The cause of the alteration was probably a defect in the stabilization of the material. Applications This method is implemented. this alteration is to be compared to the uncertainty on the known diameter of the ring which was +/. 6. standard masses. the model of the variation of the resistance as a function of the temperature is shown by a second degree polynomial: R = Ro (1 + at + bt 2) It is widely accepted that the value Ro can vary between two thermometers.2. for example. if it happens to drift. in particular. platinum-resistance temperature sensors.2. or the same technology. Second method: checking the coherence of the results Principle This method is based on the examination of the measurement results and the calculation of characteristic values such as the standard deviation of repeatability. this may entail serious errors of measurement and. Take. in relation reference standards: standard rings. The reference standard represents the first link of the calibration chain inside the firm. Applications The two following examples illustrate this method: – An electronic comparator made of a table fitted out with two inductive sensors is generally used to calibrate standard gauges. but the general aspect of the curve remains parabolic. or on drafting graphs.0. reference-standard rings whose 80 mm diameter has altered by 2 µm in a year. Let us mention.Calibration Intervals and Methods 151 Hypothesis The method rests on the assumption that the probability of a similar and simultaneous drift in two instruments is low.17 µm. and comparing them to typical values or to standard graphs. perform more or less similarly. Hypothesis This method assumes that instruments of the same nature. A method can be used to monitor .

manufacturing companies have shown interest in the monitoring of the means of production.2. graphs. Third method: “monitoring standards” and statistical supervision of the measurement processes 6. The operator is alerted if the values are not similar. – the operators (manpower). For the first time. Statistical control of the measurement processes The measurement process can be considered as a part of the production process For many years.) in a curve very often reveals a faulty measurement.3. it consists of testing the repeatability of the measurements and to compare them to a “typical” value. they are perfectly suitable for the monitoring of instruments. The measurement process is then considered as a production tool that does not make objects. but which “manufactures” results of measurement. – Some analysis procedures recommend that the measurements be repeated twice and to compare the deviation between these values with a “critical difference” that has been determined by taking the repeatability of the analysis procedure for its basis. Studying a chart of numerical values does not generally make it possible to detect the abnormal values.152 Metrology in Industry these benches. Measurement process concept The measurement process is a set comprising of: – the measuring instrument (means). etc. – the environmental conditions (medium). Statistical methods can be used as a basis to perfect this type of test (comparison of a variance to a given value). on the other hand. – the method of measurement and the measurement procedure (method). Graphic techniques also deserve attention. The operator will have to examine if the difference between the two results is greater than the critical difference. 6. The measurement process provides the results of the measurements. Chiefly adapted to manufacturing processes. – the standards used (means).1.3. These techniques can be used to verify the calibration of thermocouples by watching out for the regularity of the calibration curves. are very rich in information and something unusual (change of gradient. in 1924. WA Shewhart explained the principle of control charts.2. .

cannot turn out identical products. etc. but not to attributable causes that can be controlled. – the measured quantity (measurand). – the operator. That is why it is necessary to attempt to monitor and control the measurement processes. standards. even one that is perfectly controlled. and sometimes to the operator’s initiatives.1.). Principle The objective of this method is to place and then maintain the process under “statistical monitoring”: the dispersions of the results that are observed are only due to the random fluctuations of the instrument or of the environmental conditions. In order to monitor the measurement process.Calibration Intervals and Methods 153 MEANS METHOD RESULTS OF MEASUREMENT MATERIAL MEDIUM MANPOWER MANPOWER Figure 6. the different causes of variability will be examined when the system of control charts is set up. and the environment. – the method of measurement and the measurement procedure. – the means (instruments. These causes come from: – the medium. . it can be said that the samples represented by the series of measurements of the same object are extracted from the same population and so have the “same mean”. so the measurement process comes with errors of measurement that fluctuate from one result to the next. From a statistical point of view. Measurement process concept Just as any manufacturing process.

special care should be taken when these standards are stabilized. a voltage reference can be used. or the automatic measurement sequences. or even several. 6. It is possible to associate one “check standard”.2. A frequent measurement in a laboratory is the measurement of direct current. The abscissa of each point corresponds to the number of samples and its coordinate is the value of the statistic calculated from these samples. they make it possible to follow the evolution of the measurement process. These techniques are applied in the field of dimensional metrology. material measure.3. These standards are of the same type as those that are usually measured on the bench.154 Metrology in Industry Check standard Monitoring standards have to be used to implement these techniques. In order to monitor the digital voltmeters. Several examples illustrate this concept. A provisional definition of monitoring standards may be measuring instrument. to each measurement bench. There are numerous types of control charts. or product. whose function is to generate or achieve the value of a quantity in a stable way in time. First step: know your process well It is necessary before you compile a control chart to estimate the parameters µ and the characteristic of the distribution of the measurements of the monitoring standard with the aid of the process that you want to check.2. standard deviation). and the cumulative sum chart. the chart of the standard deviation. range. three should be retained: the chart of the mean. These standards are used at regular intervals to ensure a statistical control of the measurement processes. but in relation to the monitoring of the measurement processes. several monitoring standards (representative of the field of measurement) may sometimes be necessary to supervise the measurement process. Checking and control limits have been drawn beforehand on the graph. . The value of the quantity which is measured and represented by these monitoring standards must also be representative of the measurements customarily made. it can be introduced on different measurement benches to monitor them (by the connection of the reference tension generator to a channel of a channel scanner). Control charts A control chart is a graph on which a point is made to correspond to each value of a statistic calculated from successive samples (mean.

The series of measurements should be sufficiently representative of the different operating conditions so as to ensure a proper characterization of the distribution. you can draw the limits of control and warning. the number of repetitions is n. If k series of measurement. have been made: n0 = ∑n h =1 k h xh = 1 nh ∑x i =1 nh ih then m will be calculated by the quantity: m0 = 1 n0 ∑n x h h The variance of each one of the samples should be estimated with ν h = nh − 1 degrees of freedom by the expression: 2 sh = 2 1 nh ∑ ( xih − xh ) nh − 1 i = 1 The variance of the population should be estimated by use of s by combining the different variances: 2 s0 = (n 1 2 2 2 − 1) s1 + ( n2 − 1) s 2 +A+( nk − 1) s k (n 1 − 1) + ( n 2 − 1) +A+( nk − 1) = 2 2 2 ν1s1 + ν2 s 2 +A+ν k s k ν1 + ν2 +A+ν k The control charts of the mean and of the standard deviation: LS = m 0 + 2 s0 n LC = m 0 + 3 s0 n Regularly. Two cases are to be considered to calculate the value of m. for each series of measurements. each made of n1.Calibration Intervals and Methods 155 These two estimators will be called m and s. and you use the value of m supplied by the calibration. n2 . thanks to a calibration of the monitoring standard by a method of a higher accuracy. or the monitoring standard is only supposed to be stable and m should be estimated by performing a number of series of measurements. knowing the . the monitoring standard has to be measured using the measurement process that you want to control. If. … nk determinations. Either you know the value of m.

They can be modified in accordance with the risk you are willing to take. for example). Leaving the checking limits means a compulsory examination of the measurement process. whereas an abnormal increase of the standard deviation indicates that the measurement process is not stable.m0) .m0 S2 = (x1 . A variation of the mean reveals a drift either of the instrument or of the environmental conditions. Nevertheless. it will be noticed that the process is not “under control” and the attempts to find the attributable causes will be a indicator of obvious progress. using a whole multiple of the standard deviation is certainly sufficient and more meaningful for metrologists. It seems that the control charts of the mean and of the standard deviation both deserve attention..m0) + (x2 .m0) St = St-1 + (xt . they provide complementary information on the way the process works. practically all the time. s0 n .156 Metrology in Industry estimators m and on the graph.α (n-1. Its principle is to calculate the mean of the series x for each one of the series of measurements. The warning and control limits for the standard deviation are: s ≤ s 0 F1− α ( n − 1.m0) = S1 + (x2 . ν) is the “fractile” of 1-α order of Fisher’s distribution with n-1 degrees of freedom (ν = ∑νh in the numerator and degrees of freedom in the denominator) and has the accepted values of the risk of first kind (α = 5% for the warning limit and α = 2% for the control limit.m0) S3 = S2 + (x3 . The mean of the series of the n measurements will be noted The values of the warning limits (WL) and control limits (CL) will be the coefficients 2 and 3 respectively appearing in front of the estimator of the standard deviation of the mean. and then to work out a series of cumulated sums: S1 = x1 . The initial phase of the drawing up of the chart is bound to involve progress because. F1 .ν ) in which s2 is the estimator of the variance-estimator obtained with the considered series of measurements. The cumulative sum chart Such a control chart can turn out to be a good thing in metrology because it makes it possible to detect small drifts.

– to protect oneself against the malfunction of the instruments and.3. The log book of the measurement process If it is used with an intention to progress. – to provide formal evidence that the results of measurement are under control. it saves supplementary treatments on the chart of the mean. the cumulated sum remains close to zero. You cannot.Calibration Intervals and Methods 157 If the successive values are all obtained in the region of m. without information. it is quickly detected.2. . the method of the control charts shall be accompanied with information to understand and explain the “abnormal” points which are bound to appear during the life of the instrument and the process. – to have a particularly efficient tool available to adapt the calibration intervals permanently and thus cut down the firm’s metrology expenses. more generally. As. Use of the monitoring methods The methods of monitoring make it possible: – to know and control the measurement processes. –15 points lower than 1 σ. connect the appearance of an abnormal value with an event in the measurement process. Tests on the successive groups of points on the charts These tests can detect the presence of a phenomenon which might be abnormal: – nine successive points on a same side of the mean. the cumulated sum smoothes out the paths. – to monitor the environment parameters of the measurement process (influence quantities). 6. – two points among three successive ones higher than 2 σ. – four points among five successive ones higher than 1 σ. in order to study the tendency. It is possible to use a mobile mean to “smooth out” the series. – seven points higher and lower than the mean successively. – six increasing or decreasing points successively. the measurement processes. but if on the contrary a phenomenon of drift occurs.3.

2 – Intervals between metrological confirmation The methods used to determine or change the intervals between metrological confirmation shall be described in documented procedures.3. Due to the very different causes that affect the calibration requirements. chemical. The same concept is extensively reformulated in the ISO 10012. Consequently. it is justified to assume that the calibration condition varies according to random steps. human and electromagnetic fluctuations. some corrective actions need to be taken on the production process which was measured by the instrument since the last positive calibration check. Let us assume that the calibration condition of a particular instrument can be monitored by an observable parameter. . ISO 10012 section 7. other suggestions can be found in Document 10 of the Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale. For example.2 describes an example of the evolution in time of the calibration condition. it is fundamental to establish a system that carefully watches the instrument calibrations.1. deciding upon an optimal calibration interval for a given type of instrument may be worthwhile if for instance the item has a particular importance in the firm’s production and quality system. These intervals shall be reviewed and adjusted when necessary to ensure continuous compliance with the specified metrological requirements. such as environmental.158 Metrology in Industry 6. The determination of the calibration intervals The importance of establishing appropriate calibration intervals for each instrument is well-recognized in international and European standards. the EN ISO 9001 requires that measurement and testing instruments should be periodically confirmed through calibration. A very good guide is the NCSL RP – 1 document. considerable resources are meant to be paid. s(t). Figure 6. in some cases. mechanical. after which the instrument is considered “out of calibration”. When a measuring instrument is found to be outside the limits of permissible errors. The calibration interval is often determined by observations on a large group of similar instruments and estimations of their “average” behavior. However. whose possible variation is bounded by predefined limits of permissible errors ± a . In order to reduce such costs. Some documents or standards give estimates as to the calibration interval. whose accumulated effect degrades the calibration condition until it reaches an assigned threshold of permissible error.

Two calibration interval determination policies can be considered. Setting the calibration status to zero or to some other conventional value is called adjustment. we speak of calibration interval independently if it is followed by a physical or software adjustment. Therefore. The recalibration is only performed when deemed necessary.2. meaning the time interval at which the calibration condition of a measuring instrument is measured and its value is taken into account for the subsequent measurements. which is fixed below the limit of permissible errors ± a .Calibration Intervals and Methods 159 s(t) + a 0 tim e -a in itia l a d ju stm e n t n e w a d ju stm e n t n e w a d ju stm e n t Figure 6. whose results are registered on a control chart as in Figure 6. once a calibration is performed. for example when the calibration condition exceeds an alert threshold ± m .3. Example of the evolution in time of the calibration condition with some adjustments Calibration means the passive observation of the calibration status without any action. . Nevertheless. Let us suppose that the measuring instrument at hand is kept under stochastic control.2. the calibration error is kept in due consideration either by a physical adjustment or by a software a posteriori correction of the successive measures. according to the methods explained in the previous sections. as depicted in Figure 6. the measuring instrument is always kept under stochastic control and the calibration condition is almost continuously monitored on a control chart. In the first policy. by means of repeated measurements of check standards.

These processes have been examined and some of their properties can be expressed by known analytical expressions.160 Metrology in Industry +a +m 0 ∆t time -m -a initial adjustment new adjustment new adjustment new adjustment Figure 6. for example. but they can also be used in the case of the continuous calibration condition monitoring described above. Example of the evolution in time of the calibration condition with alert thresholds On the other hand. In that case. the control chart and check standard are only used for a limited period. Such a learning period can be sufficient to evaluate the risk of using the measuring instrument “out of calibration” when it is used at a certain time after calibration. The use of stochastic processes to model the degradation in time of the calibration condition of a measuring instrument or standard proves to be very effective in estimating the probability that.3. the monitoring of the calibration condition can only be performed for a certain learning period useful to identify a stochastic model suitable to describe the evolution in time of the calibration condition. the probability that the calibration condition exceeds a threshold level at a certain time after calibration. when using the second policy. the calibration condition exceeds the tolerance threshold. at a certain time after calibration. These analytical expressions are then useful to fix the calibration interval according to a predefined risk level. it can be necessary to estimate the probability that the calibration condition has not . Simple stochastic processes as a random running or a Wiener process can be physically justified by considering that the degradation of the calibration condition can be due to the accumulated effect of minor random variations. In this case. after which a certain reasonable rule is deduced and the calibration interval is determined. The optimal calibration interval is then identified by time interval which guarantees that such a risk does not exceed a certain fixed level.

10. therefore leading to the unpleasant situation of an instrument out of calibration before the adjustment is performed (see last example in Figure 6. C Hagwood. Tech. Measurement management system – requirement for measurement processes and measuring equipment (2002) ISO 7870. These two contrasting tendencies can be formulated by a suitable annual cost function. FD X 06-030. the cost of instrument unavailability during the calibration. to reduce the risks and the costs of using an instrument out of calibration. plus other costs as standard breakage or their equivalent. either if calibration is performed internally or by an external body. or of repeated calibrations. a cost function can be added by inserting the cost either of the use of an instrument out of calibration. 33 Metrologia. one is led to calibrate very seldom. Kacker. Shewhart control charts (1991/Cor1 1993) AFNOR.4. 433-445 (1996) . Bibliography NF EN ISO 9001: Quality management systems – requirement (2000) ISO 10012. For safety. Control charts – general guide and introduction (1993) ISO 8258. to reduce calibration costs. NF Zhang. the cost of calibrations depends on the operations themselves. International Document no. On the other hand. Therefore. In addition to the criteria in section 6.2. which increases the calibration interval. but that it has exceeded the limits of permissible errors before the next check. whose minimization leads to the identification of the optimal cost saving calibration interval. Application of statistics – control charts Parts 0 to 4 (1995) AFNOR FD X 07-014. pp. one should choose a brief calibration interval. Application of statistics – guide for the setting up of the statistical control of processes (1992) AFNOR. with the aim to minimize the total cost. “Establishment and adjustment of calibration intervals”. which means calibrating very frequently. 6. Intervals of metrological confirmation (not yet published) OIML (International Organization of Legal Metrology): “Advice for the determination of the intervals of recalibration of the measuring equipments used in testing laboratories”. NFX 06-031. National Conference of Standard Laboratories RP1 (1996) R. (1984) NCSL. "Real-time control of a measurement process”.Calibration Intervals and Methods 161 exceeded the alert threshold m at a certain check.3). Rep.

P. NBS Special Publication 676-II (1984) Part II. Quality Progress (1981) Statistical Methods in Research and Production. Montefusco. edited by Owen L. The Theory of Stochastic Processes. IEEE Trans. Davies and Peter L. International Metrology Congress.290 Marc Priel and Christian Ranson. Tavella. S. Lyon (1991) . “Monitoring the calibration condition of a measuring instrument by a stochastic shock model”. Vol. Editions d’Organisation (1990) Gérard Brunschwig and Alain Palsky. 4th ed.. “Continuous improvement of quality”. Cox. Bobbio. no 4. London: Chapman and Hall (1965) Carroll Croarkin Measurement Assurance Programs implementation. HD. Meas. 46. pp. Goldsmith. Techniques of the Engineer R . Science Paperbacks. 747-751 (1997) DR.162 Metrology in Industry A. “Let’s make sure of the quality of our measurements”. Measurement and Statistics. A. Costamagna. London and New York: Longman (1984) Esa Vitikainen “When do we need calibration of equipment used in testing laboratories?” – Nordtest Report 226 (1994) Jean-Luc Vachette. “Statistical control of processes (MSP) – Utilization of control charts”. Instr. Development and John Mandel. Miller.

on the results of the measurements. – the setting (or adjustment) of a measuring instrument. As a rule. – the protection of the environment. Aware of this information.Chapter 7 Measurements and Uncertainties 7. – the definition of safety conditions for a product or a system. Introduction Measurement results are necessary to make decisions. Chapter written by Marc PRIEL – Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE). – the setting of a parameter as part of the control of a manufacturing process (servo-control). the user will then be able to make a decision about: – the acceptance of a product (when measuring its characteristics or performances toward establishing conformity to a specification). All these decisions work toward the quality of products or services. that is to say. .1. – the medical diagnosis. – the validation of a hypothesis in the framework of a development. it can be considered that the result of measuring constitutes a piece of technical information which gets passed over to a user. Whether the decisions taken are apt and wise directly depends on the quality of the received information. – the validation of a process.

The firm makes its decision on the basis of the information. The mass of a body is characteristic of its inertia. they must not be confused or interchangeably used. or – in relation to the reference values stated in a norm or a specification (measurement results are used to prove the product conformity). Measurement of physical quantity Measuring amounts to attributing a numeric value to an observed property by directly or indirectly comparing it to a standard. comparison of successive calibration results with a view to the possible modification of a correction).2. a system or a physical state. Note: the words “error” and “uncertainty” which stand for two different concepts must be carefully distinguished. Three inextricably connected elements are included in the expression of a physical quantity: – a numerical value. A physical quantity is an observable property specific to an object. The quantity to be measured is called the measurand. pressure and temperature are characteristic of the thermodynamic state of a gas. This piece of information is vital for the users of this result so that they are able to assess its reliability. – a unit. . 7. Without the uncertainty. – an uncertainty. The systems of observation and comparison and the standard make up the measurement system.164 Metrology in Industry The quality of a measurement result can be described by its uncertainty. the measurement results cannot be compared either: – between themselves (values obtained by two laboratories. Uncertainty: a quantitative indication of the quality of a measurement result Together with a measurement result. the uncertainty makes it possible to provide a quantitative indication about the quality of the result.

. For decades it was error that was calculated. The GUM is referred to in numerous national norms. Presentation of the concept of uncertainty The metrologist’s aim is to get a result close to the right value. probability uncertainty error value 1 value 2 value 3 result true value values that could be attributed to the mesurand Figure 7.1. but it is never perfect). he will reduce systematic errors by applying corrections and random errors by repeating his measuring process. “GUM”.Measurements and Uncertainties 165 Uncertainty: a new concept introduced The concept of uncertainty is comparatively new in the history of measurement. This chapter is based on the concepts and notations written in the 1993 ISO guide. It has resulted in the publication of an ISO guide in 1993 entitled “Guide for the expression of measurement uncertainty”. In order to reach this goal. also known under its acronym. but the fundamental difference between the concepts of error and uncertainty must be clearly defined. This new approach was initiated in 1980 by a working party formed within the context of the International Bureau of Weights and Measurements (BIPM). there still remains an uncertainty about the value of the stated result (the correction is done as accurately as possible. It is now admitted that once all the known or suspected components of the error have been assessed and the adequate corrections have been made.

1. Two methods can be recommended for the analysis of measurement processes: the cause and effect diagram method or the method which consists of using the list published in the GUM. It can only be performed by somebody who perfectly masters the technique of measuring. The cause and effect diagram method Finalizing the mathematical “right model” requires to have minutely analyzed the measurement process in order to identify the possible causes of uncertainty. X 2 ) u ( X 1 )× u ( X 2 ) 7. 7. X 2 ) = – combined uncertainty: uc ( y ) – expanded uncertainty: U = kuc ( y ) with k as coverage factor. – standard deviation of X: s (X). Analysis of the measurement process To make the analysis of the measurement process correct is most likely the toughest and trickiest task in the assessment of uncertainties. X 2 ) – linear correlation coefficient: r ( X 1 .166 Metrology in Industry Notations used in the GUM Classical notations of statistics: – variance of X: V(X). There is a technique called the “cause-effect diagram”. which makes it possible – with some racking of one’s brain and a very good knowledge of the measurement process – to deduce all of the causes. This analysis demands some technical abilities.3.3. . u(X 1. an inquisitive mind and a sense of analysis. when these quantities are used to express uncertainties the following notations will be written: – variance of X: u 2 ( X ) – standard uncertainty of X: u ( X ) = u 2 ( X ) – covariance of X 1 and X 2 : u ( X 1 . It will be noticed that the u symbol found in the notations is the initial letter of the word uncertainty.

3. 7.3. i) approximation and assumption incorporated in the measurement method and procedure. Using the list published in the GUM (section 3. the method of measurement. c) non-representative sampling: the measured sample may not represent the defined measurand. g) inexact values of measurement standards and reference materials.2. Cause and effect diagram method Successively. hygrometry.Measurements and Uncertainties 167 MEANS METHOD RESULT OF MEASUREMENT MATERIAL MEDIUM MANPOWER Figure 7. j) variations in repeated observations of the measurand under apparently identical conditions. the medium (temperature. pressure. b) imperfect realization of the definition of the measurand. etc. e) personal bias in reading analogue instruments. h) inexact values of constants and other parameters obtained from external sources and used in the data-reduction algorithm. d) inadequate knowledge of the effects of environmental conditions on the measurement or imperfect measurement of environmental conditions.2. f) finite instrument or discrimination threshold. .2) The following list (from the GUM) can also be used in order to have as exhaustive a list as possible: a) incomplete definition of the measurand. the operator and the measured object (measurand) will be analyzed.). the contribution of the means.

it will probably be sufficient. When a standard is being established. the best to be done is to reproduce the definition as precisely as possible.168 Metrology in Industry 7. the position of the gauge in relation to the direction of the acceleration of the gravity will have to be given. the primary standard is an imperfect materialization of the definition of the unit it is supposed to represent. Have we given precise enough details? Definitely not: the temperature at which we wish the result to be expressed has not been mentioned. for this purpose.3. without totally managing to. Let us take a simple example: an observer is asked to measure the length of a 1 meter standard gauge. The measuring system The measuring system is never perfect. It can be sensitive to the environment (effects of temperature. Errors Any measuring operation is inevitably marred by errors. we know from the mechanics of continuous environment that its length will depend on the position of the supports. . Two origins for these mistakes are: – the measuring system. etc. The objective of the metrologist is to declare a result as close as possible to the true value. The error concept is ideal and errors cannot be known. – a poor definition of the measurand. because vertically the length of the gauge is shorter than if it is lying horizontally on a plane (it gets smaller under the effect of its own mass).3. he has to reduce the errors. pressure.). An imperfect definition of the quantity is itself is a source of errors Simply consider the numerous details it would be necessary to give to obtain an exhaustive definition of the quantity to be measured. even the standards used for its calibration are not exact. In fact. The unit is conventionally defined by the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM). but is that sufficient? If the system of observation is accurate and reliable within a micrometer. it is definitely not reliable (since a dispersion of values is observed when observations are repeated). So. If its performances are 100 times higher. If the gauge rests on supports.

. Note 1: the random error is equal to the error minus systematic error. it is only possible to determine an estimate of the random error. 1933) makes it possible to write the following equation: Result of measurement = true value + error It is always possible to split up the error into a systematic error and a random error. 2nd edition.14) A systematic error is the mean that would result from an infinite number of measurements of the same measurand carried out under repeatability conditions.3. ISO. UICPA.Measurements and Uncertainties 169 7. Note 1: systematic error is equal to the error.13) A random error is obtained by a measurement minus the mean which would result from an infinite number of measurements of the same measurand carried out under repeatability conditions. Cutting down errors The terminology defined in the international vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology (VIM) (International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms of Metrology. minus random error. UIPPA. CEI. Note 2: like true value systematic error and its causes cannot be completely known. Systematic error (VIM 3. minus a true value of the measurand. Note 2: because only a finite number of measurements can be made. Random error (VIM 3.4. BIPM. FICC. OIML.

1. this error can generally be reduced by making a greater number of observations. hence the need to cut down the errors. Cutting down random errors by repeating measurements A random error probably results from unforeseeable or stochastic temporal and spatial variations of influence quantities. Although it is not possible to compensate the random error of a measurement result. . Random and systematic error The following equation can then be written: Result = true value + random errors + systematic errors The objective of any metrologist is to provide a result close to the true value.3. – systematic errors are cut down by applying corrections. entail variations for the repeated observations of the measurand.3. The effects of such variations.170 Metrology in Industry Value obtained with an infinite number of repetitions True value Measuring Result systematic error random Figure 7.4. Its mathematical expectation or expected value is equal to zero. How can these errors be cut down?: – generally random errors are cut down by repeating the measurements and calculating the arithmetic mean of the readings. 7. hereafter called random effects.

– error brought in by the measuring method. then the necessary corrections likely to compensate the assumed errors have to be assessed. (GUM section 3. Cutting down systematic errors by applying corrections This is unquestionably the hardest operation for the metrologist because it requires a keen sense of analysis. Let us consider a very simple case: an operator uses a glass liquid dilatation thermometer. pressure. depth of immersion of a thermoelectric couple.2. – error in an algorithm of measuring results processing.6 °C . many sources of error can slip in: – effect of influence quantities (temperature.3°C. the numeric value of his measurement result is then: y = x + Ce y = 19.2. – error brought in by the measurement procedure. – perturbation of the measured quantity by the presence of the measuring instrument. He has it calibrated by a laboratory which gives it back with a calibration certificate indicating a correction (appropriate around 20°C) equal to +0. It is instead a measure of the uncertainty of the mean due to random effects. – position of the measured object (warped mechanical part. – bias of the instruments. etc.2) 7. – faulty correction of a result.4.3 °C y = 19. A vast knowledge of the measuring process and of the involved physical principles is very often necessary to imagine the factors which may influence the result of the measurement.3°C. although it is so designated in some publications. The measuring process is to be scrutinized in order to identify as many causes of errors as possible.Measurements and Uncertainties 171 Note: the experimental standard deviation of the arithmetic mean or average of a series of observations is not the random error of the mean. The operator takes the temperature of a bath and he reads it as 19.3 °C + 0. – etc.).). etc. The exact value of the error in the mean arising from these effects cannot be known. In practice.3.

an uncertainty concerning the value of the corrections.1. the values of lengths are usually expressed at 20°C. either to attempt to make up for assumed errors or to express the results in standard conditions. The next paragraph will examine how these different doubts combine. For example. – Ce is the calibration correction. but there will remain a doubt. and a number of repetitions will be decided upon. but think of all those forgotten ones. Measurement procedure and model of the measurement process When the process of measurement has been thoroughly analyzed and a certain number of causes of error have been identified. In other words. The process of putting this measurement procedure into a mathematic form is called the modeling of the measurement process. it will be decided. These corrections will be as good as possible. The corrections can be grouped together in three categories: – corrections of calibration: determined by calibration and appearing in calibration certificates.4. 7. in dimensional metrology. for example. to make these corrections you have to know the coefficient of sensitivity of the instrument to the different influence quantities. This leads to the development of a measurement procedure.172 Metrology in Industry where: – y is the numeric value of the measurement result. to repeat the observations so as to cut down these errors. modeling the process means transcribing in a mathematical formula the way the experimenter uses all the . – corrections to bring the results back to standard conditions: it is customary in some fields of metrology to express the values of the quantities in normalized conditions. – x is a one reading (or the mean of readings if measurement process has been repeated). do not boast. Corrections making it possible to compensate for errors will be applied to the identified errors. – corrections related to the environment: compensate the effect of influence quantities such as pressure and temperature. Modeling of the measurement process 7. In relation to random-type errors. numerous corrections are made.4. Generally.

.. the value of a quantity obtained from a book.. When several input quantities X i ..6. the model for the process is then: Y = f ( X 1 . and even illusive. On the other hand.2... useless. but to the process of measurement or test. laboratories and times of the measurements. Therefore. Optimization of the number of measurements It is often possible to decrease the effect of random errors by increasing the number of repetitions. It is. An essential stage for the assessment of uncertainty: modeling the measurement You must be aware that the most critical phase of the evaluation of the uncertainty of a result happens when the mathematical model describing the measurement is being written. the value of a correction read in a calibration certificate. a series of readings of the instrument. the function must consider all the quantities that significantly contribute to the uncertainty of the final result.4.Measurements and Uncertainties 173 information at his disposal to calculate the measurement or test result he gets: for example. .. the measuring or the assessment of the effects of an influence quantity. X N ) The corrections (or corrective factors) appear among the Xi. That is why the stage during which the measurement process is analyzed and as thorough as possible an assessment of the causes of error is made is the key part of the estimation of measurement uncertainties. X 2 . samples. however.. X N through the functional relation f.2 for an example of the application of the realization. the measurand Y is usually not measured directly. as well as some quantities which take all the other sources of variability into account: the different observers. X j are contributory to a same quantity t. X 2 . you will forget about it when the law of propagation of uncertainties is applied. due to ignorance). to increase it rashly.. it is sometimes useful to write the developed mathematical model... in particular. Meanwhile the input quantities are made explicit according to that same quantity t in order to avoid the introduction of terms of covariance into the application of the law of propagation of uncertainties later on. the function f does not merely refer to a physical law. etc. 7. See section 7. it is determined from N other quantities X 1 . If you omit to introduce a correction into the model (even if it is estimated equal to zero. the instruments.

– the diagram below illustrates the situation. 7. the result is referred to the arithmetic mean of n observations. it can be admitted that in order to optimize the number of observations n.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number of repetitions "n" Figure 7.00 3. Evolution of the uncertainty as a function of the number of repetitions 7.174 Metrology in Industry It is often possible to express the combined standard uncertainty by an expression such as: uc = s2 + u2 n in which s represents the variance of repeatability of the measurement process and n the number of measurements defined in the measurement procedure. the two components have to be of the same quantity.00 4. for n > 5 for example.4.00 1. the uncertainty is the result of the combination of two terms.00 6.5. Therefore. Uncertainties .00 0. As you watch the curve of the compound uncertainty you can observe that increasing the number of measurements n does not make the uncertainty drop dramatically. – the curve s / n shows the decrease of the variable part of the uncertainty as a function of n and the curve u = 3 shows the invariable part. Application: – let us suppose that s = 5 and u = 3. the contribution of each one of the input quantities to the uncertainty of the announced measurement result will have to be assessed. Assessment of the uncertainty of the input quantities When the model of the measurement process has been established.00 2.00 5. – let us estimate the optimal number of measurements.

if the measurement process has a good enough resolution. Type A methods Type A methods are based on the application of statistical methods to a series of repeated determinations. the same procedure. the standard uncertainties u(xi) or the corresponding variances u2(xi) of each one of the components occurring in the combined uncertainty will have to be assessed. 2 k . The estimator of the expectation is given by: x= 1 n ∑ xi n i =1 The estimator of the standard deviation (experimental) is given by: s= 1 n ∑ (xi − x ) n − 1 i=1 As in the past....1. Two methods can be used to estimate the numeric value (standard deviation or variance) of each one of the components: Type A method and Type B method.5. the operator often performs numerous series of measurements (the number of measurements in the series can be different) with the same method.. the best estimator of the standard deviations is given by the arithmetic mean of the individual values xi . s 2 . These different series will enable him to calculate some estimators of the variance of the population: s12 . a scattering of the measured values is generally observed. They are chiefly used to quantify the repeatability uncertainties of the measurement processes.Measurements and Uncertainties 175 In every process of assessment of the measurement uncertainty. s 2 . Type B methods require experience and technical skills. the same instruments and in similar conditions. all the components can be estimated with Type A methods. With n independent values xi . The best estimator of the expectation of the population is given by the arithmetic mean of the individual values x. When a measurement process is repeated while keeping (as well as possible) the same conditions. If there are enough resources. 7.

because in this case n = 1. a better knowledge of the variance of the total population can be obtained by combining the different estimators (pooled variance): s2 = (n1 − 1)s12 + (n 2 − 1)s 2 + .. for example: u 2 (x ) = s2 n Note: this method of calculation (pooled variance) enables a better assessment of the variance of repeatability of the measurement process because the estimator bases itself on a significant number of observations.176 Metrology in Industry The number of measurements in each series being (n1..5.. etc... The operator can then use this value to assess the variance of the average of his observations in his usual measurement process. then the variance would have been divided by five.. Type B methods are used when you cannot or you do not want to use statistical methods. + (n k − 1)s 2 2 k (n1 − 1) + (n 2 − 1) + . then u 2 (x ) = s 2 . This highlights the advantage of assessing the repeatability of the measuring process with preliminary tests (implementing the highest number of causes of variability of the measurement process) before starting the operation. These Type B methods will be based on the experience of the operators. n2 . Type B methods These methods are used to quantify the uncertainties of the different components occurring in the model of the measurement process: uncertainty about the calibration corrections. and on the knowledge of physical phenomena.. nk). .2. + υ k 2 The application of this reasoning makes it possible to calculate the component of repeatability u 2 (x ) .. if in his routine measurement process the operator performs only one measurement. If the (routine) measurement procedure had planned five observations. uncertainty about the environment corrections. 7.(n k − 1) which can also be written depending on the number of degrees of freedom υi = n i − 1 : s2 = υ1s12 + υ 2s 2 + .. For example. on some tests. + υk sk 2 υ1 + υ 2 + ..

Measurements and Uncertainties 177 For each one of the Xj occurring in the model describing the measurement process. the only information you have is that between two limits (lower (aii) and upper (ais)). the value of the correction will be estimated by: xi = 1 (aii + ais ) 2 and the estimator of the corresponding variance will be: s x2 = i 1 (aii − ais )2 12 If the difference between the two limits (lower and upper) is noted 2ai. which means that xi is as likely to take some value or other in the interval [aii .006g (k = 2).006/2 = 0. ( ) a . Example 1: a correction must be made in a measurement process. The following table sums up various practical cases. the corresponding standard uncertainties will be “assessed” by using all the available technical information (extent and a priori distribution of possible values).003g. that is u(Ce) = 0. ais]. the equation above can be written: 1 s x = ai2 3 i from which the standard uncertainty of xi can be assessed as u xi = . the standard uncertainty about the correction will be very simply assessed by dividing the expanded uncertainty U by the coverage factor k. The first column specifies the type of the component. but this correction (xi) is not completely known. the second the a priori selected distribution law and the third indicates which calculations to make. 3 These calculations correspond to a rectangle distribution. Example 2: a standard mass is returned after calibration with its calibration certificate which specifies its deviation from the nominal value and a calibration uncertainty expressed as follows: U = 0.

3.1. Example of Type B evaluation of uncertainty . The uncertainty about this correction is assessed.4 example.4. then u= d 18 Asymmetric components of the type: error of parallelism between the measured object and the standard in dimensional metrology. you do not do a correction. the GUM suggests a solution: see sections 6. If the process is under statistical control. If the class is defined by ± a. then u = more or less sinusoidal way. right-angled triangle Instrument verified and conformity with a class.178 Metrology in Industry A priori distribution rectangle rectangle Component Resolution device. for a/1. then u = b / 12 Effect of influence quantities derivative of sine If the variations of the temperature arc varying between two extrema in a are referred to by ± a. If the examination of the results of the successive calibrations does not show any tendency. or pouring out the contents of a phial in chemistry (the quantity poured out is always smaller than the contents of the phial). Hysteresis. but of reproducibility. of an indicating Calculation method If the resolution is b u = b / 12 If the maximal difference between the indications obtained by increasing and decreasing values is b. then u =u=a/ 3 Table 7.2.5. This has nothing to do with assessing uncertainties.1 and F. a Type A method is used. in rectangle You make an error if. then a correction is made. If the basis of the right-angled triangle is equal to d. for example by a regression technique. Drift of a measuring instrument. knowing about it. you can not talk of drift. Nevertheless. If the analysis of the results of the successive calibrations reveals a tendency that can be modeled. the temperature of premises whose temperature is regulated. Correction not done.

the Type B methods are based on: – the choice of a form of the distribution of Xi.3. Conversely. Use of statistical methods. data obtained from calibration certificates or books. too great a stress should not be put on the differences between these two approaches. a Type B method based on long experience is preferable to a repetition of observations that would not implement all the causes of variability. He has two options: either he measures the temperature at regular intervals. formerly used to classify the uncertainties. Note: the classification in A or B types applied to uncertainty is not a substitute for the word “random” or “systematic”. techniques of assessment of statistical parameters. repetitions make it possible to get closer to the uncertainty.Measurements and Uncertainties 179 In summary. or he consults the characteristics of the air-conditioning system.5. the system is set for a prescribed temperature of 20°C ± 2°C. 7. Comparing the Type A and Type B methods The following table compares Type A methods and Type B methods. The expression “systematic uncertainty” must not be used. Type A methods Experimental results.7. for example. Table 7. Assessment of a standard deviation from an extension and the choice of a form of distribution. In section 7. the norm ISO 5725: “Accuracy of results and measurement methods” is put into practice. then he calculates the mean of the values and their standard deviation (Type A method). . all he will have to do is divide the half range (2°C) by root of 2 to assess the standard deviation (Type B method). Comparison of the Type A and Type B methods To conclude. Type B methods require some experience and scientific knowledge. Type B methods Results of previous measurements-makers’ data. Type A methods require resources to perform experimental tasks. when you have little experience. an example will be found in which the uncertainty is assessed by only using Type A methods. – the assessment of the limits of the variation of Xi (the extension of Xi). if. series of measurements.2. Example: alternative use of the Type A or Type B methods: an operator wants to study the effect on his measurement process of the influence quantity “temperature”.

7.6. The law of propagation of uncertainty makes it possible to calculate the “combined” uncertainty of y. uc(y). Note: it will be noticed that the partial derivatives represent the “coefficients of sensitivity of the result” to the different input quantities. introducing the coefficients of sensitivity c i : 2 uc ( y ) = ∑ ci2 u 2 (xi ) i =1 7. For example. + u 2 (xN ) . Situation when all the input quantities are independent In this case the terms of covariance are zero and the law of propagation is more simply written: 2 uc ( y ) = ∑ N ⎡ ∂f ⎤ 2 ⎢ ⎥ u (xi ) ∂x i =1 ⎣ i ⎦ N 2 or.6... the law of propagation of uncertainty can then be used to calculate the combined uncertainty on the measurement result..1.180 Metrology in Industry 7... if in the mathematical model the temperature is mentioned as an influence quantity. Situation when the input quantities are independent and the model is a sum y = x1 + x2 + . which in its general application may seem a bit complex. does in many cases get simpler.1. or rather its variance uc2 ( y ) : u (y) = 2 c ∑ i =1 N N −1 N ⎡ ∂f ⎤ 2 u (xi . then the corresponding partial derivative may represent the coefficient of temperature of the measuring instrument. + x N then: uc2 ( y ) = u 2 (x1 ) + u 2 (x2 ) + .6... Calculating the combined uncertainty on the result Once the model has been worked out and the standard uncertainties of the input quantities of the model have been assessed. x j ) ⎢ ⎥ u (xi ) + 2 i =1 J =i +1 ⎣ ∂xi ⎦ 2 ∑∑ The law of propagation of uncertainty..1.

... +1. Situation when the model is a product y = x1 × x2 × . x j ) You can write: u (xi .2. -1. through reasoning based on physics. x j ) can be assessed.k − x j ) k =1 n 7..2.. then the covariance can be calculated by the following expression: u xi . to evaluate r. In such a way as X i = F (Q1. Assessment of the covariances by calculating the terms of covariance In a case where you have two connected input quantities X i and X j . Q2 .3.QL . and watching the values of the uncertainties on y and for safety’s and caution’s sake keep the utmost value of the uncertainty. Q2 .. if the variance associated with the estimation q k of Qk is noted u 2 (qk ) . Situation when the input quantities are dependent In this case the terms of covariance will not be zero any more. Q2 .. but this requires much experience.2. x j with: ( ) ( ) s xi .1... the relative variance of the result Y is the sum of the relative standard uncertainties for the different input quantities xi of the model: 2 uc ( y ) y 2 = u 2 (x1 ) 2 x1 + u 2 ( x2 ) 2 x2 + .2.6.2. three methods of assessment are possible: 7. determined from n independent pairs of repeated simultaneous observations. the terms of covariance are expressed by u xi .1.. x j )× u (xi )× u (x j ) A practical solution will consist of varying r for the extreme values. x j = s xi . × x N This type of model is frequently seen in chemistry.6. x j = ( ) 1 n(n − 1) ∑ (xi... 0.Measurements and Uncertainties 181 7.... Assessment of the covariances by assessing a coefficient of correlation r(xi. In this case.. j − xi )(x j.. Assessment of the covariances by considering the terms common to two input quantities Suppose two input quantities X 1 and X 2 assessed by x1 and x2 are dependent on a set of unconnected variables Q1 .. assessed by their means X 1 et X 2 ....6.2. 7. The covariance u (xi . QL ) some of the variables possibly only appearing in one or the other function.. x j ) = r (xi ...6.6. It is also possible.QL ) and X j = G (Q1 . + u 2 (x N ) 2 xN 7. x j = ( ∂F ∂G ) ∑ ∂q ∂q u 2 (qk ) k k k =1 L .

The way the model is written may lead to simplifications when the law of propagation of the uncertainty is applied. are compared to a same standard E. Making clear their relations with the third quantity when writing the model makes it possible to avoid introducing terms of covariance. you get the following equation in which there is a term of covariance. 2 uc ( y ) = u 2 (E ) + u 2 (x1 ) + u 2 (E ) + u 2 (x2 ) Note: when the non-linearity of f becomes significant. these quantities are connected. the common term comes from using the same standard. When you write a model describing a measurement process.2 and H. you should include terms 2 of a higher order in Taylor’s development for the expression of u c ( y ).3. B ) = 2u 2 (E ) (see GUM section F1.3). Experience teaches us that it is advisable to develop written models. What is common to A and B is the standard E. Then. .2.1. you get an equation in which there are no more terms of covariance: Of course the same result will be obtained if you consider that 2u ( A. If you apply the law of propagation of uncertainty directly.182 Metrology in Industry See the GUM section F.7.2. whose nominal value is 50 g. The example below uses this expression of the covariance to calculate the uncertainty about the sum of the two masses. see the GUM sections 5. it can be randomly developed. This term comes from the fact that A and B have been calibrated in relation to the same standard E: 2 uc ( y ) = u 2 ( A) + u 2 (B ) + 2u ( A.1. it avoids introducing covariance terms. B ) If you take the precaution to simplify the model it can be written as follows: y = E + x1 + E + x2 If then you apply the law of propagation of uncertainties. The fact is that if different input quantities are dependent on another quantity. Let us take the following example: two masses A and B. it is better to use a developed written model of processes. To conclude. and x2 the result of the comparison of the mass B to the standard E. A and B are used together to make a 100 g standard: what is the uncertainty on the 100 g mass thus obtained y = A + B? The mathematical model can be written as follows: A = E + x1 B = E + x2 y=A+B in which x is the result of the comparison of the mass A to the standard E. it will be noticed that the covariance of A and B is the variance of their common terms.1.

Precision corresponds to a characteristic which quantifies a performance of a method. The quality of a test method is judged by its accuracy (see ISO 5725): – trueness of agreement between the average value obtained from a large series of test results and an accepted reference value. In order to ensure a reproducibility of the results. This idea has been taken up at the ISO level by the “statistical methods” 69 Technical Committee. where independent tests results are obtained with the same method on identical test items in the same laboratory by the same operator using the same equipment within a short period of time. The method is described in the fascicule of documentation AFNOR X 07 . reproducibility and trueness estimates in measurement uncertainty estimation”. or you do not want to.7.Measurements and Uncertainties 183 7. the conditions in which the test method is implemented are vital and must be perfectly controlled. it means that a method is appropriate to supply test results which are very close to each other when the same product is tested several times with the respect of the test conditions defined by the method.021: Assistance to the process of assessment and use of the uncertainty of measurements and test results (1999). There are numerous situations for which the method for obtaining the result is complex enough to make it impossible to model it. You are always situated between two extremes: – repeatability (r): precision under repeatability conditions. This situation is particularly found in some test processes. The publication “Guidelines on the expression of uncertainty in quantitative testing – EA 4/16” also develops this approach for the domain of testing activities. . write or use the mathematical model to describe the measurement process. This method is based on the idea that information can be drawn from the results of interlaboratory tests or intra-laboratory tests to assess the uncertainty. Use of the performances of the method (repeatability and freedom of bias) to assess the uncertainty of the measurement result The method developed in this section constitutes a means which supplements the procedure of the GUM (see Chapter 8) when you do not know how to. – precision of agreement between independent test results obtained under the stipulated conditions. they are the subject of the ISO TS 21748 publication “Guide to the use of repeatability.

In an intra-laboratory approach.”. for example.6. different equipment and personnel. Those readers who might find it difficult to connect this with the traditional application of the GUM can imagine a “Type A super method”. 7. The most quoted characteristics which quantify the performances of the method are “detection limit. etc.184 Metrology in Industry – reproducibility (R): precision under reproducibility conditions where test results are obtained with the same method on identical tests items in different laboratories with different operators using different equipment.2). the robustness of the linearity and the freedom of bias are sufficient to assess the uncertainty of the result. The ISO/CEI 17025 norm provides that the validation data can be used to evaluate the uncertainty of the measurement result: Reasonable estimation shall be based on knowledge of the performance of the method and on measurement scope and shall make use of. linearity. selectivity of the method. The branch entitled “analytical process” represents the classical approach developed in the preceding sections and .4. Figure 7.5 illustrates the possible different approaches by repositioning the procedure of the GUM described in Chapter 8. robustness.g.. etc. repeatability and/or reproducibility. one is an intra-laboratory approach: the characteristics will be determined exclusively by tasks done within the framework of a laboratory. which alters all the identified factors as having an effect on the measurement result.1. previous experience and validation data (section 5. In general. A collective approach (called interlaboratory) can also be conducive to the evaluation of the characteristics of the method.or interlaboratory approaches Several approaches are possible to assess the characteristics of a method. linearity. but not all are useful for assessing the uncertainty. robustness against external influence. Intra. Other characteristics of the method (e.) can also contain some interesting information to assess the uncertainty. knowing the repeatability. the reproducibility. etc. The collective approach is the richest in information since the sources of variability of the result are more numerous: different laboratories. it will be necessary to make sure that the largest number of causes of variability can be expressed during repeated tests so that the dispersion of the results is representative of the uncertainty. All these characteristics matter when making sure that a method is capable of meeting the needs of the customer of the test.7.

The other branches present the channel “use of the method’s validation data”. This model can be written as: y = m +C Jus +C Lin + ∑c x + e i i i where: y = result of the measurement.2.g.g. factors e. Intra-laboratory approach Although there is no physical model that describes the measurement process. Measuran . Definition of the Definition measurand. repetitions. .7. List of uncertainty components Intra-laboratory Intra laboratory approach interlaboratory Inter laboratory approach Yes Analytical method Physical model ? model? Including correction No Statistical model Proficiency testing Proficiency testing Evaluation Evaluation of standard uncertainties of standard. this channel can be activated either by an intra-laboratory approach or by an interlaboratory approach.Measurements and Uncertainties 185 summarized in Chapter 8. sampling. C Lin = correction of linearity. validation method validation method Method accuracy ISO 5725 Iso 5725 ISO guide 43 Iso guide 43 + Iso/Dis 13528 ISO/Dis 13528 Use of propagation law of uncertainty GUM Adding othersuncertainty Adding other uncertainty factors e. time.uncertainty on the bias uncertainty on the bias Use of values already published Published + Uncertainty on the bias on the bias and factors not taken into account during interlaboratory study Variability + Uncertainty on the bias not taken and factors not taken into account during interlaboratory intelaboratory study Figure 7.5.uncertainties Organization of Organisation of repetitions. ∑ ci xi = corrective terms for robustness. there is still a statistical model for the data processing. the operator. C Jus = correction of freedom of bias of the method. m = true value. Diagram of the different possible approaches for the evaluation of the uncertainty 7. i e = residual error (repeatability).

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The law of propagation of variances is then applied to this statistical model to assess the variance on the final result y:

u 2 ( y ) = u 2 (cJus ) + u 2 (cLin ) +

∑ c u (x ) + S
2 2 i i

2 r

The methods of evaluation of the different components will be presented in section 7.7.4 below.

7.7.3. Interlaboratory approach

Just as a statistical model has been established for the intra-laboratory approach, the same thing can be done for the interlaboratory approach with:

y = m +δ + B +

∑c x + e
i i i

where: y = measurement result; m = true value;

δ

= freedom of bias of the method;

B = laboratory effect;

ci xi = corrective terms for not included effects at time of interlaboratory tests;
e = residual error (repeatability). The variance of reproducibility is the sum of the variance of repeatability and the intra-laboratory variance:
2 2 S R = S L + S r2

and the variance of the result will be noted:
2 u 2 ( y ) = u 2 (δ ) + S R +

∑ c u (x )
2 2 i i

The methods of assessment of the different components of the uncertainty of the result y will be presented in the next section.

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187

7.7.4. Data processing for intra- and interlaboratory approaches

7.7.4.1. Assessment of the repeatability and the reproducibility The processing methods, whether for an intra-laboratory approach or an interlaboratory approach, will be similar for assessing the repeatability and the reproducibility. If you plan a test (for a level of the quantity) you should use a table in the following form:
Laboratories Measurements Position dispersion

1 : : i : : : p

y1 y11..........y1n1 y1 yi1..........yin1

s1

si

yp yp1..........ypnp

sp

If the approach is intra-laboratory, the experiments will not be repeated in different laboratories, they will be repeated in the same laboratory. Two statistical tests (Grubbs and Cochran tests) will then be used (homogeneity test and elimination of ouliers). After checking the validity of the data, the average level will be calculated; it is the arithmetic mean of the different values:

y=

∑y
i =1

p

i

p

then the standard deviation of repeatability sr:

sr =

∑s
i =1

p

i

p

and the standard deviation of reproducibility sR:
sR =

1 p −1

∑ (y − y )
p i i =1

2

+

n −1 2 sr n

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If the laboratory has applied the test method correctly and the obtained results could have been partly used in the interlaboratory test, it may first be satisfied when its uncertainty can related to the reproducibility as follows:
uc ( y ) = s R

This statement is not quite correct, because if you adopt this solution, you actually modify the definition of the measurand; you are no longer concerned by the value announced by a laboratory, but by the average value resulting from the tests of all the laboratories. Considering that the standard uncertainty is equal to the standard deviation of reproducibility may lead to overestimating the uncertainty, which is being cautious, but it entails drawbacks, namely a standardization of uncertainty. This practice may conceal real differences of quality between different laboratories. It is preferable to give an attention to the intermediate repeatability. 7.7.4.2. Assessment of the freedom of bias (trueness) References must be available to be able to assess accuracy. Reference values may come from certified reference materials, values obtained from a reference method, values from an interlaboratory aptitude test, but you have to check that the reference value is traceable to the International Units System (SI). Corrections of bias are seldom applied in some fields (e.g., analytical chemistry); it is customary to improve the accuracy of the method until it is acceptable. This procedure is developed in chemical analysis; you have to be able to decide whether the bias is acceptable and the following test can be used. To calculate the normalized error En, if this quantity is lower than 2 the deviation from the reference is regarded as negligible: EN = xi − xRe f
2 ui2 + uRe f

However, even if the deviation is not significant, the uncertainty of the reference will come into this process and at least it will be necessary to consider that the uncertainty due to the bias is equal to the uncertainty about the reference used:
2 u 2 (CJus ) = uRe f

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189

7.7.4.3. Evaluation of the linearity To evaluate the linearity on the studied domain of measurement, n measurements are to be repeated at k levels of the quantity, then the calibration line will be estimated by the method of least squares. The deviations from the line are calculated (deviation between the value experimentally obtained and the value obtained by the model); these deviations are then tested by comparing them to the repeatability to determine whether they are significant. The following equation can be used as an uncertainty component related to the lack of linearity. In this equation, the maximal residual constitutes the largest deviation between the experimental points y and the modeled points y, by the calibration curve drawn by the method of the least squares:
U (C Lin ) = Residual Max 3

7.7.4.4. The terms


i

ci u 2 (xi )

The reader has noticed that the terms of this type appear in the intra- or interlaboratory approach. They represent all the contributions to the uncertainty of the result which it has not been possible to implement, or that were not used when the tests were being repeated. For further details, see the norm ISO TS 21748.

7.8. Reporting of the measurement result

Applying the law of propagation of uncertainties makes it possible to assess a combined standard uncertainty uc ( y ) . For diverse reasons, the expanded uncertainty U has to be written as:
U = kuc ( y )

in which k is the extending factor. The value of the extending factor k is chosen according to the level of confidence requested for the interval y - U, y + U; generally k = 2 or 3. Choosing k = 2 is the same as considering an interval with a confidence level of approximately 95%. The numerical values of the estimation Y and its standard uncertainty u (y) or U must not be given with an excessive number of digits. Two significant digits are usually enough for the standard uncertainty and the expanded uncertainty: Y=y±U

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As for the numerical value of the result, the last figure to retain is the one which holds the same position as the second significant figure in the expression of the uncertainty. The estimate of the measurand has to be rounded according to its uncertainty: for example, if y = 10.057 62 Ω with u c (y ) = 27 m, u c (y ) has to be rounded up to 10.058 Ω.
7.9. Example

Calibration of a mass: nominal value 10 kg (from an example published in the EAL R2 document, supplement 1) The calibration of an OIML M1 class, 10 kg nominal value mass is carried out comparatively to an OIML F2 class reference mass with the same nominal value by using a mass comparator whose characteristics have been determined beforehand. E1: Analysis of the measurement process The analysis of the measurement process shows the following causes of error: – value of the standard mass; – drift of the standard (durability of the standard); – repeatability of the comparator; – effect of the off-centering of the mass on the pan of the comparator; – thrust from the air. E2: Measurement procedure In order to eliminate the phenomenon of drift during the weighing process, a method of substitution called Standard Mass Mass Standard (SMMS) will be used: the standard, then the unknown mass, then the mass again, and finally the standard are placed on the pan of the comparator. In order to reduce random errors, the weighing process is repeated three times. E3: Mathematical model of the measuring process
mx = ms + δmD + δm + δmc + δB

where:
m x : value of the unknown mass (conventional mass); ms : value of the standard mass (conventional mass);

δmD : drift of the standard mass since the last calibration;

45 = 22. E4: Estimation of the standard uncertainties on the input quantities of the model – Reference standard ( ms ): the calibration certificate indicates the value of 10. the value of the corresponding standard uncertainty is: u (δmD ) = 15 3 = 8.005 g with an expanded uncertainty of 45 mg (extending factor k = 2).Measurements and Uncertainties 191 δm : difference observed between the unknown mass and the standard. if a rectangular distribution is surmised.5 mg.2) of 625 mg2. δmc : correction to make up for the error due to the off-centering of the mass. but it is considered that these effects result in a maximal variation of the indications of the comparator of ± 10 mg.77 mg – Thrust of the air ( δB ): no correction is applied to make up for the effects of the air thrust. . No correction is applied to make up for the variations due to the off-centering of the masses on the pan. its value is considered equal to zero with variations of ± 15 mg. E5: Making the measurements Three observations of the difference between the value of the unknown mass and that of the standard mass are made by using a substitution method whose sequence is SMMS.000. the value of the standard uncertainty is u (m s ) = 2 – Drift of the standard ( δmD ): the drift of the value of the standard mass is inferred from previous calibrations. If a rectangular distribution is surmised. δB : correction of thrust from the air. – Correlations: a survey of the different input quantities of the model does not show any correlations. The limits of the possible variations are estimated to be at most ± 1 x 10-6. δmc ): a previous evaluation of the repeatability of comparison of two masses having the same nominal value of 10 kg has resulted in a variance (accumulated. see section 7. Therefore. the corresponding standard uncertainty is: u (δmc ) = 10 3 = 5.66 mg – Comparator ( δm .5.

77 mg 29.0 1.4 mg .0 1.01 g +0.4 mg 5.1) is s p (δm ) = 25 mg .015 g +0.77 mg Ci 1.0 1.045 g +0.95 mg 14.4 mg 5.025 g +0.95 mg 14.000 g 0.02 g The arithmetic mean is δm = 0.025 g u (x i ) 22.020 g .025 g +0. application of the law of propagation of uncertainty The mathematical model of the measurement process is written: mx = ms + δmD + δm + δmc + δB The law of propagation makes it possible to calculate the variance on the value of the unknown mass: uc2 (mx ) = u 2 (ms ) + u 2 (δmD ) + u 2 (δm ) + u 2 (δmc ) + u 2 (δB ) – Synthesis table Quantity Estimator Standard Probability distribution Sensitivity uncertainty Contribution to uncertainty Xi xi 10.055 g +0.5.5 mg 8.192 Metrology in Industry Differences observed Series no.020 g 0. the standard uncertainty on the mean of the three measurements is u (δm ) = s(δm ) = 25 mg = 14.040 g +0. 3 E6: Calculation of the combined uncertainty.020 g +0. Thus.020 g +0.005 g 0.000 g 10.025 g +0.020 g +0.000 g 0. see section 7.0 1.010 g +0.3 mg .77 mg 5.0 ui (y ) ms δmD δm δmc δB mx normal rectangle normal rectangle rectangle 22.The estimator of the standard deviation of repeatability of the weighings (estimated by an accumulated standard deviation of tests carried out earlier.050 g +0.000.03 g +0.000.77 mg 5.5 mg 8. Mass Readings 1 2 3 Standard Unknown Unknown Standard Standard Unknown Unknown Standard Standard Unknown Unknown Standard +0.

025 kg ± 59 mg (k=2). E7: Expression of the final result and its uncertainty Expanded uncertainty: U = k × u (mx ) = 2 × 29.4/02 (December 1999) EA Guidelines on the expression of uncertainty in quantitative testing – EA-4/16 Eurolab technical report no. AFNOR X 07 . Measurement uncertainty leaflet (SP INFO 2000 27 uncertainty pdf). 1/2002 June 2002 Measurement uncertainty in testing ILAC – 17: 2002. UK Magnus Holmgren et al.Measurements and Uncertainties 193 It will be noticed in this table that the sensitivity coefficients (partial derivatives) are equal to 1.3 mg ≅ 59 mg Final result The fiducial value of the 10 kg nominal value mass is: 10. Teddington. 2nd ed. “A beginner’s guide to uncertainty of measurement”.10. SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute Quantifying uncertainty in analytical measurement EURACHEM/CITAC Guide CG4.3 mg ≅ 59 mg U = k × u (mx ) = 2 × 29. “Guideline for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results”. Introducing the concept of uncertainty of measurement in testing in association with the application of the standard ISO/IEC 17025 . QUAM: 2000. this comes from the fact that the mathematical model of the measurement process is a sum. 7.000. ISO/TS 21748 The expression of uncertainty and confidence in measurement. Bibliography Norms and general documents Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement ISO (1993) Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results. NAMAS M 3003 Barry N Taylor and Chris E Kuyatt.021 (1999) Guide to the use of repeatability. Measurement good practice guide No 11 (1999) National Physical Laboratory. 1 Expression of the uncertainty of measurement in calibration. NIST Technical Note 1297. reproducibility and trueness estimates in measurement uncertainty estimation. 1994 edition Stephanie Bell. EAL . ISO 5725 Metrology and application of statistics – help for the process for the estimation and the use of measurement and test results uncertainty.

194 Metrology in Industry Books Twenty-seven Examples of Evaluation of Calibration Uncertainty. Collège Français de Métrologie. Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) ISBN 0-7503-0840-0 . Marc Priel. Estimer l'incertitude – Mesures Essais (Assessing uncertainty – Measurement and tests). (1999) Christophe Perruchet. Evaluating the Measurement Uncertainty: Fundamentals and Practical Guidance. Afnor (2000) ISBN 2-12-460703-0 Ignacio Lira.

Chapter written by Jean-Yves ARRIAT – Ascent Consulting. – the intervention of operators. the place where the instrument is used is analyzed in order to reveal any possible significant interactions. the qualification of the operators has to be checked and ascertained. – it can be difficult to guarantee the quality of these activities without a good document which describes. – a physical environment (temperature. the measurement procedures. – the utilization of measuring equipment. it is essential to make a few general points: – depending on the expected accuracy. – so as to make sure of the quality of the measurement results. As in any field.” The result of a measurement is the conclusion of a process which is comprised of: – the implementation of a method.” – “It is not enough to use good equipment to make good measurements. it is important to ensure the suitability of both the manpower and the function. and Marc PRIEL – Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE). All these elements have an influence on the result. among other items.Chapter 8 The Environment of Measuring This chapter might be summed up as: – “It is not because a measuring instrument is new that it is good.). – a measurement procedure. Thus. . etc.

). – the relative humidity of the ambient air. the main points that should be taken into account and are what we define as the “environment of measuring”. – to define appropriate instructions about maintenance and protection (against corrosion. depending on the measurements required they can be: – the average temperature and its variations as a function of time and space. the dust and the drafts. – the shocks and the vibrations. – the atmospheric pressure. etc. – the quality of the air. These environmental conditions are of differing natures. there are a certain number of processes: – to define safe storing areas. so they will have to be maintained within certain limits (defined in accordance with contractual demands). as well as of storing the instruments when they are not used. if particular conditions of hygiene and cleanliness are required and specified for the measurement procedures. Thus. calibration or verification.1. 8. For equipment which requires periodical maintenance. for example). the cleaning and maintenance must be thorough. according to us. – the various fluctuations related to the supplies (power. fluids. – to define appropriate instructions to ensure that the premises are kept clean. etc. the user determines these limits depending on the uncertainty on the measurement results that is sought. The premises In order to successfully carry out the operations of measurement. These main parameters cannot be completely controlled and kept independent from the outside environment. It is advisable to record the evolution of these parameters over time. some instructions must indicate how to deal with this maintenance. – to define the procedures for the reception and the dispatch of the material (when instruments are sent away for maintenance or calibration). – to know and control the environmental conditions as well as the influence quantities which should be taken into consideration.196 Metrology in Industry These are. fitted out so as to prevent damage to or premature deterioration of the equipment. . It may sometimes happen that the cleansing products are not compatible with the measuring premises (for example.). – the radioelectric disruptions. emanation of alcohol or chlorine.

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It will be necessary in some firms to reserve a place specifically for calibrating and verifying the measuring equipment. For more information about the creation of a calibration laboratory, see the bibliography in section 8.4. The requirements about premises depend on: – the physical parameters (for example, thick lead walls and remote controls are necessary for the measurements of ionizing radiations); – the uncertainties (for example, in the national metrology laboratories, the calibrations of gauge blocks are taken with interferometers whose temperature is known within a few hundredths of a degree Celsius; for the measurements of components with margins of a few hundredths of a millimeter, variations of a few degrees in the workshop will be acceptable). Based on our experience, we would suggest that: – north-facing exposures are preferable; – an indoor curtain insulates from the light and an outdoor curtain insulates from the sun so that the room cannot become warmer; – personnel and equipment require sufficient space so that two operations do not influence each other; – external disruptive activities should be avoided (arc-welding instruments for stamping press, etc.); – electric wiring should be up to the norms with an earth plug adapted to instruments of measurements; – smoking should not be allowed. We will now take a closer look at some of the parameters. We suggest that the reader carefully note each one of them. If the reader thinks that some of the parameters do not concern him, he will be wrong. By way of example, the remarks about electric measurements concern most laboratories as there are electronic devices which can be sensitive to radioelectric disturbances in all measuring instruments instruments.

8.1.1. Ambient temperature This is not subjected to any particular requirement (except, of course, contractual requirements). Nevertheless, the engineering industries work at around 20°C ±2°C and 65% RH ±10% HR, complying with the recommendations of the international ISO no. 1 standard which sets the reference ambient temperature at 20°C. Electricians prefer to use the value 23°C ±1°C and 50 % RH ±10% RH as reference temperature, which complies with the criteria of the ANSI D 2865 and D 3865.

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Recently, attempts have been made to standardize the reference temperatures (a change from 20°C to 23°C for various reasons: comfort of the operators, standardization in firms with mechanical and electronic activities, and also decreasing costs of air conditioning in tropical countries). As a change in reference temperature would result in a large number of changes in many companies (new plans, checking tools, etc.), as well as in costs of such changes, it has been decided to maintain the status quo. In many cases, keeping the temperature at about 2 to 3°C will be satisfactory. Depending on what uncertainties are sought, a fluctuation of 0.4°C to 0.6°C will also be satisfactory. We would like to emphasize the approach a firm should adopt: the specifications on the conditions of temperature have to be established according to the margins on the manufactured items, the uncertainties of measurement required to master the manufacturing processes and the uncertainties of measurement which establish the conformity of the manufactured products. It is one of the firm’s responsibilities to check their implementation. We would draw the reader’s attention to a very important point: the cost of installation. You may wish to have a very hi-tech installation to make life easier, but you must also have the means to ensure its maintenance; it is not enough to have the funds to buy it, you also have to keep it functioning over time. In metrology, good working organization and an ability to meet deadlines and under pressure are usually the required qualities.

8.1.2. Relative humidity Regarding causes of error, in practically all the fields of measurement, relative humidity (RH%) has comparatively little influence. It can nevertheless generate the following problems: – too low a rate of RH% causes discomfort to the personnel who have to remain on the premises; – big or sudden variations in time between the place of use and the place of calibration can generate abnormal drifts at the level of the supports of the standards of resistor – or capacitor – standards; – if the RH% value is too high, it can cause damage to the measuring equipment due to oxidation of the contacts, variation of the insulation resistance, corrosion, etc. Too high an RH% must be subjected to a measurement procedure when the laboratory is situated in an area where the humidity rate is high. A stocking time

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must be determined before the instrument is plugged in, in order to avoid harmful condensations; likewise, when the equipment is temporarily stored after calibration, means have to be found to make it possible to control the environmental conditions as well as possible.

8.1.3. Handling of the air conditioning systems Particular attention must be given to the handling and the maintenance of air conditioning systems; in some metrology laboratories, temperature is one of the essential components in the budget of uncertainty. It could be considered that air conditioning should be looked upon as a measuring instrument and be as well looked after. Technical files with the recordings about all the maintenance operations and adjustments, and charts of the temperature readings should be kept.

8.1.4. Power network The fluctuations of the voltage of power supply may affect the performances of the electrical measuring equipment. The variations of the effective voltage may appear in two ways: – slow variations of voltage, which are generally attenuated by the equipment itself; – rapid variations of voltage, which require an external adjustment. It may be useful to dispose of several power supplies, when it is justified by the activity of the laboratory, i.e.: – a general circuit (lighting, air conditioning, various equipment); – a voltage – regulated and filtered measurement – circuit; – an emergency circuit: supply of the reference standards which need to be working permanently, e.g. the battery cases and, to a lesser extent, the thermostatcontrolled baths where the standard resistances are kept.

8.1.5. Radioelectric disturbances One should consider taking certain precautions in order to protect the measuring equipment from the influence of these disturbances, especially in those laboratories that are close to a strong source of radioelectric disturbance (radiodiffusion transmitter, etc).

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The “electrical earth” or “grounding” must be the object of the precautions; it is sometimes useful to have one earth specifically connected to calibration equipment. The safety regulations require that the personnel must not be able to access to two different earths. Thus, precautions should be taken at the time of the implementation when the equipment is installed to ensure the security of the operators. In some geographical areas, or when carrying out some measurements, it is necessary to protect oneself against the radiation that is emitted. Consequently, a Faraday cage should be available, or all the laboratory, or part of it, should be screened. 8.1.6. Measurements on-site In many cases, the firm must calibrate the measuring equipment on-site where they are used, either because the instruments cannot be transported or because once they are installed they are not easily dismantled. The calibration equipment used has to be specifically developed for that use (robustness, container for the transportation, autonomy, etc.). The factors that influence the different environmental parameters likely to be found on the site have to be assessed. A specific procedure for the assessment of the uncertainty should be prepared. It should, in particular, take into account the “sensitivity coefficients” of the instruments to the different influence quantities (see Chapter 7). 8.2. The personnel 8.2.1. The connection to the metrology function It is necessary to secure independence for the metrology function; it is often connected to the quality manager. When it is connected to quality, this type of organization provides the metrology function with: – the authority it needs to do its work; – the independence from the other services which makes it possible to avoid the pressures (in particular, from production) that might influence the judgment and the work of the personnel concerned. Assuming that its metrology function does not automatically result in a company creating a laboratory equipped with expensive material, the company can simply obtain a few references such as boxes of gauge blocks, of smooth rings, of reference temperature gauges, etc. These references will then be used to check such measuring means as calipers, micrometer screws, air-conditioned chambers, etc.

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The metrology function can subcontract out of the firm all or part of its activities, or delegate some to other sectors of the firm (especially if it is an industrial firm) but the person in charge of the metrology service remains responsible for the metrology function and continues to manage it.

8.2.2. Staff involved in the metrology function Metrologists must have the technical competence required to do their job. Their job is precisely defined. The person responsible for the service ensures that the qualification and experience of the personnel is maintained at an appropriate level through continuing education. There are different ways to achieve this: – the circulation of scientific and technical journals; – information and training meetings; – the participation in the work of vocational groups; – training courses, etc. The basic need for technical knowledge must not ignore certain useful human qualities such as precision, which is not the least of them. Training-activity records should be permanently available, and should include, among other pieces of information, the results of the activities. The training gets started according to pre-established schedules; it should disturb the metrology activities as little as possible. The metrology function also often takes the role of adviser about the choice of measuring instrument and it participates in the training of the personnel who use the equipment. Therefore, it should be aware of the need for information and should inform the other people in the firm about the existence of courses that are in their fields of activity, or likely to interest them. The metrology function puts them in touch with different working entities which can answer their queries as far as possible. Inexperienced or temporary personnel can undertake measuring operations, but only if this does not entail any risk of prejudice to the quality of the measurements. Such personnel should not be left on their own and there should be more experienced personnel than inexperienced personnel.

etc. it would seem sensible to adapt the knowledge of the personnel to the demands of the activities they undertake.1. with metrology. Filing of the documents Given the number of documents that exist in a firm in relation to the metrology function and their diversity.3. . – the technical documents (directions. The documentation 8.). clients. if it has created any. Training structures for and qualification of the operators make it possible to define the types of measurement or calibration the personnel are able to undertake. The personnel are the motor of the firm.1. – the firm’s internal norms.2. instructions. – there are faster and safer initiatives and decision-making. – the abilities evolve and adapt to the technology and to the requirements of the markets. etc. – the internal documents (programs. which are reference documents.202 Metrology in Industry 8.1.3. 8.3. the operator has to demonstrate his skill and it should be approved. it is important to be well-organized. consequently. etc.). 8.) from outside the firm (suppliers. See Chapter 12 for further information about the metrological profession. Even if there were no formal requirement to do so. Different notions have to be taken into account regarding these documents: – the national and international norms. it can be obtained through organizations approved by the state authorities. guidebooks. Documents dealing with the quality system These documents. Records of all training and qualifications are indispensable. define the criteria that the firm (or the laboratory) has set up to deal with quality and. their training makes it possible to ensure that: – their abilities are appropriate to the needs of the firm.3. There are two categories of documents. precise and methodical when dealing with them. The qualification of the personnel Some regulated activities require a certification. measurement procedures. The fact is that for delicate operations. They make up the firm’s “reference system”. procedures.

a clever use of this data makes it possible to be more accurate about the intervals of calibration and to extract information on the quality and the condition of the different materials. – the calibration certificates. either calculated or estimated. in conformity with instructions which may be part of the method of measurement. Records regarding quality This second category (the documents concerning measurements) makes it possible to preserve the primary results of the measurements so as to be able to repeat all the investigations that might be needed in the future. The results must be laid out accurately. about calibration and verification. for example: – the measurement records. this has to be done with clarity and must be ambiguous. . The signatories of the documents and the meaning of their signatures or initials must be explained in a separate document. In addition. and remember to make the documents reader-friendly. The time spent considering and specifying what you want is seldom wasted. – the monitoring cards of the measuring instruments. or if corrections have to be made in. These documents should be easily accessible. The results are given with their uncertainty. it creates an awareness of responsibility for any metrological action. – the identification sheets of the metrological means.1. Every document must be dated.2. etc. Preserving these data also makes it possible to show that the measurements have actually been taken. If anything has to be added to. the documents about maintenance. adjustments or alterations which are real problems for quality. unambiguously and in full. clearly. the report of revenue. The documents in which the measurement results are saved must be clearly presented. especially on the transcription of the parameters and the measurement results. and to build up confidence between the client and the supplier of the measuring operations.The Environment of Measuring 203 – the files related to the measuring equipment which can include specifications. as well as the copy of the order. 8. It often avoids later corrections. Similar documents should be as uniform as possible. the measurement files. These documents include. The importance of the signature must be emphasized.3. Presentation must be given special attention and care. These documents should be handled and set up with great care before they are used.

Controlling the circulation of documents makes it possible to have the relevant editions of the appropriate documents at all the necessary places. – the frequency of revision. Every document has to be checked. These operations are done by different members of the personnel. – the category of readers the document target. This should make the integration of the documents easier as ownership of the documents will have been given to the users. the verification will or will not be done by the signatories. Only the documents created inside the firm need to be submitted for approval. preferably by an outsider.2. If so. to facilitate the detection of errors. Documents such as work instructions have to be read by the users (there is nothing against involving the users in the drafting.204 Metrology in Industry 8. In general. the users will not be in a position to reject a document that they do not know. two signatures (the drafter’s and the approver’s) are likely to be enough. The phase of creation is fundamental. How many people should sign the document? Not too many. It is vital for the reader that he or she should not to forget that a document is not created for the personal satisfaction of its author. These charts make it possible to know at all times the titles of the documents in use and the name of their present readers. etc. – the titles of the documents. The verification may entail some modification. who should receive a document should be determined at the time of its drafting. It is useful to put the documents into charts with the following information (these lists can preferably be computerized): – the sources of the documents. for it meets a need that has been expressed. – the name of the signatory persons. – the latest edition in use. the approver who is at least as competent is not the drafter. Management of the documents The management of the documents is based on different stages. the document will be re-examined after the modification. sometimes it is advisable) so that they can give their opinion before the final approval. Depending on the importance of the document. prior to approval. .3. but to satisfy a need.

Depending on how important the changes are. Some documents dealing with contractual requirements or security have to be archived in special conditions and for minimum periods. Modifications may be necessary following: – new needs of the users. Bibliography National Conference of Standards Laboratories. Calibration Procedures (January 1990) Monograph no 7 of the BNM . Recommended Practice RP-3. Erard. – a change in the contents of the documents. it can mention the significant modifications that have occurred since the previous edition.4. CHIRON publisher M. If modifications are necessary. As a rule. It is also necessary to ensure that old editions have been regularly withdrawn from the circulation except those that are retained for the archives. Recommended Practice – Laboratory Design (July 1986) National Conference of Standards Laboratories.The Environment of Measuring 205 A system of “acknowledgement of receipt” proves that the documents have been received. 8. The reference documents should be regularly revised. a new edition must be brought out. Any irrelevant document should not remain available. It is then necessary to make arrangements for this. any modification must entail a re-examination and approval by the metrology functions who originally approved the documents. it could lead to errors and a loss of credibility in other documents. “Constitution type d’un laboratoire de référence en métrologie électrique” (Typical constitution of a reference laboratory in electrical metrology) Techniques de l'ingénieur – R 925 – France . Doubt is a generator of chaos. “Organisation d'un laboratoire d'étalonnage” (Organization of a calibration laboratory) Techniques de l'ingénieur – R 1215 – France L. according to a scheduled frequency. The people who use the documents should immediately say if they do not understand a document or if a document is outdated. Priel and B Schatz. – internal audits of the services that use the documents.

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8.5. Appendix Major elements applicable to metrological activities (calibration, verification, etc.) to be taken into account when drafting a procedure When you write a procedure, you must include a certain amount of information. The level of information must be suitable to the level of knowledge of the potential readers. The following are the main headings that you ought to consider, even if all of them are not used: 1. Purpose and scope of application of the procedure 2. Physical principle of the method of measurement 3. Reference to the norms in use, bibliography 4. Limitation of the method – scope of measurement – uncertainty of measurement – types of equipment concerned by this method (category and main characteristics) – satisfactory environmental conditions (considering what uncertainties are expected) 5. Reference materials (related to national standards) – draw up the outlines of the traceability to the national standards 6. Maximum errors permissible, or uncertainties 7. List of the equipment and accessories to implement – diagram of assembly – special instructions about the use of the material 8. Preliminary operations The purpose of these operations is to guarantee the validity of the process after you have ensured that the instrument works correctly; the description of these operations can be found in specific documents. The operations have to be realized so that the validity of the verification, or of the calibration, can be ensured. The following are examples of these operations:

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– the stabilization of the temperature of measuring instruments – the setting of the mechanical zero of analog instruments – the cleaning (and demagnetization) of the gauge blocks – the switching on beforehand of the electrical measuring instruments, etc. 9. Applicable measurement procedure The mode of operation is the main part of the procedure, so it should be welldeveloped. The description of this mode of operation can be found in specific documents. The written procedure must precisely define the sequences of the different operations and, when necessary, refer to the instructions for the software that is used. The measurement procedure indicates the number of points of measurement to be undertaken and the predetermined values to take on the scale of measurement. This will be the largest part of the document; it contains the firm’s know-how and, as such, it is often confidential. The procedure should be adapted to the level of competence of the operator in charge of the work. The question of relation between mode of operation and procedure is often raised. From our point of view, the mode of operation is the paragraph of the written procedure that contains the detail of the operations. However, depending on how complex the procedure is and whether the operators have different levels of qualifications, several modes of procedure (more or less detailed) may have to be written for the same procedure. 10. How can the raw results be processed when necessary? 11. Assessment of the uncertainties of measurement – related to the method – related to the calibrated or verified equipment (short-term repeatability, resolution, discretion, etc.) See Chapter 7 on this particular point. 12. Presentation of the results 13. Criteria for decision-making when a verification is in question 14. Document of evidence (recordings about the quality as it is understood in the ISO 9000 norms)

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This document completes the procedure; it contains the results that have been obtained from the calibration or the verification. At least one copy should be kept to ensure traceability has been achieved. The document will be the calibration certificate if calibration has occurred. In the case of verification, the report of the verification will show which decision has been taken about the measuring instrument verified. Whether a calibration or a verification, the operation will appear in the instrument’s file and will be noted on the instrument’s identification sheet. For further information, you can consult the French documentation fascicle of AFNOR titled “Practical method for the drafting of the procedures of calibration and verification of measuring instruments”.

Chapter 9

About Measuring

9.1. Preliminary information 9.1.1. Physical quantity Set a problem correctly and it is half solved. Therefore, first of all, it is necessary that you should know well the physical quantity, or quantities, to be measured. In the easiest cases it is enough to determine one single quantity: a mass, a temperature, a length of time, an electric value, etc. In many applications some set of quantity has to be measured: – several dimensions of a component; – several electric features of an instrument; – the timing of several events. Finally, when the quantity measured is very sensitive to an “influential parameter”, it is essential to determine this parameter together with the considered quantity. For example: – the mass of a powder does not mean anything unless you know its water content; – measuring a Weston battery is of no use if its temperature is not known;

Chapter written by Claude KOCH – retired.

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– since the coefficients of expansion of metals is never equal to zero, the temperature of gauges is always taken when they are measured. The example of quartz is not so well-known. Even when set in air-tight bulbs, quartz is slightly sensitive to atmospheric pressure. So, even in relation to the best quartz oscillators, one should, strictly, take into account the atmospheric pressure at which they are used.

9.1.2. The object to be measured The choice of instruments, the methods and the precautions will vary depending on the object to be measured. Thus, the pressure exerted by a sensor to measure dimensions is acceptable if the part you examine is made of metal, but it must be rejected if the object is soft. The length of a material will raise other measuring problems. Finally, if the object the length of which you want to know is a red-hot metal ingot, you will have to use non-contact, then optical, methods. Another example: electric resistances with two, three or four terminals require different methods and measuring equipment.

9.1.3. Field of measurement The field of measurement is the set of values that the quantity to be measured can take; this field is entirely defined by the minimal and the maximal values of the quantity. The range of measurement is the difference between the minimal value and the maximal value. It follows from these definitions that the range can be deducted from the field, but not the reverse. Therefore, it is far more favorable to know the field rather than the range. Example: quantity in temperature In a catalogue, a manufacturer introduces five types of mercury thermometers with a resolution of 0.1°C covering the following fields: -20 to +10°C 0 to +30°C +20 to +50°C +40 to +70°C +60 to +90°C These five types have the same range of 30°C, but their various fields design them for totally different applications.

the most adequate type is the automatic monofunction instrument. then you can go on working while some references are left with a calibration laboratory. it will not be necessary to go through a large field of working temperatures. nor even which way it varies. which is very well-suited for these conditions of use. – when the analog/digital conversion has been done. – this type of display can be used unambiguously by anyone. monofunction instruments with high accuracy and resolution will be preferred. Some electronic instruments can be supplemented by filing cards or drawers. it is moderately robust. for example: – length comparators and separate gauges. In manufacturing. the displays can. Nevertheless. however. a digital instrument is not to be used when the operator has to do an adjustment because then the display changes constantly and the operator cannot read its variation. Whenever you have to make a choice. as in a research laboratory the instruments are subjected to low variations of temperature and are not moved about much. . – digital measuring makes it easier to pass the measurements to a global control by computer. On the other hand. it is advisable to have accurate multifunction instruments at one’s disposal. whereas reading a non-digital dial requires interpretation from the operator. they must be watertight and very robust. – digital instruments can be equipped with thresholds to automatically find out those results that do not fit in a given range. For a metrology laboratory.4. – Wheatstone’s bridges and separate electric resistances in order to be able to use several references alternately. Digital display instruments do very well for manufacturing. if needed. Ease of calibration and verification should be taken into account.About Measuring 211 9. For a building site. its precision and its price are limited. which saves having too many instruments. or to be over-careful about shocks.1. be situated at a distance. you should choose types without in-built references and purchase separate references. you have to choose instruments that are automatic and multifunctional and the accuracy of which is limited. Four types of uses of measuring instruments For research.

002°C.1. which modifies many quantities. Metrology instruments should not be subjected to rough conditions of use. see Chapter 5. In order not to be affected by temperature variations. Finally. The best thermostat-controlled oil baths that can be obtained limit temperature variations to ± 0. – possibility of leaving the electronic instruments working permanently.0°C. Consequently. etc. For traceability. Influencing quantities Whatever the principles of measuring instruments. Hence. for example. which dilates substances. especially the following two which almost always interfere: – Temperature. whatever the quality of their manufacture. the frequency of oscillators and the characteristics of electronic instruments. 9. for example: – no shocks.212 Metrology in Industry If you have to choose between adjustable references and fixed references. it divides the fault by roughly 200. an adjustable element may have been modified without it appearing in its file. it is advisable to leave metrological instruments working uninterruptedly. it is impossible to make them proof against influencing quantities. – no vibrations. if the laboratory temperature varies by 0. or to plug them in the evening before using them the following morning. it is no use choosing instruments that are automatic or equipped with a remote control.001°C when placed in ideal surroundings of 20. alters the characteristics of electronic components. choose the latter because the traceability of a fixed element is easier to establish. the oil bath does not provide thorough protection against problems in the air-conditioning. especially soon after they have been plugged in. that of the oil changes by about 0. references are kept in air or oil thermostat-controlled chambers. modifies the viscosity of fluids. using thermostat-controlled oil baths does not mean you can avoid using airconditioning.5. nor electronic instruments that reach their nominal characteristics after only a few minutes. Therefore. – Time (lapse). – restricted temperature field. . However. All this can be taken into account when selecting the types of instruments.5°C. – handling by qualified personnel.

how do influencing quantities interact? And how does one become free of them? This is a difficult problem because of the frequent lack of information in technical notices. Choice of a measuring principle Before you make an inventory of the criteria of choice to consider for a measuring instrument. . it will be possible to measure the temperature at which the comparing of length is done and calculate the error resulting from the gap between the temperatures. when the batteries are new. If element and gauge are kept at exactly the same temperature. 9. if the element in question and the gauges have different dilatation coefficients. Each has specific benefits and drawbacks. – to proceed by compensation: this will be possible if the element to be measured has the same dilatation coefficient as the gauges. It can be solved by making a list of the influencing quantities. or even assess their effects. it must be added. electric and magnetic fields. when it is motionless. What happened the accuracy when these conditions change? In other words. As an example let us take the case of metal gauges that dilate when the temperature rises. at the rated temperature – often +20°C – plugged in on the 50Hz mains at precisely 220V. It will be necessary: – to assess the interference of the influencing temperature quantity: this may entail finding out about the alloy of the gauges in order to know their dilatation coefficient. A measuring instrument should reach the accuracy stated by its manufacturer after a period of stabilization. or if it is battery operated. There are three main measuring principles. which act as an influencing parameter. shocks and vibrations and. – to get rid of the influencing quantity. finding their effects in order to get rid of them or compensate for them. – to undertake some calculations: more generally. you have to choose a principle to apply. the location of the instruments in the area.About Measuring 213 There are many other influencing quantities: the hygrometric level of air.2. this temperature will then be able to vary without the comparison being affected. Therefore. which – still in the same case – will imply a reduction of the variations of temperature affecting the references and elements being controlled. sitting on a horizontal surface. it is essential to make inquiries before any purchase in order to know which principle has been chosen for the instrument that one is considering buying.

1.214 Metrology in Industry 9. the same instrument enables the user to choose between differential measuring and direct measuring.2.2. the user does not have to proceed to any assembly. reference and comparator make up a whole. a frequency meter for a frequency. 9.3. representing a ruler. The issue will come down to measuring a length with gauges or with the aid of a tight link. a weight with a set of masses. The point is to replace the measurement of the unknown quantity by determining another quantity proportional to it. Direct measurement In the case of direct measurement. Direct and differential measurements have the same principle but set out in two different ways: – differential setup is preferable for metrology laboratories. Differential measurement is above all else the metrological procedure: the comparing instrument and the references are identified separately. he uses an instrument that immediately gives a result: a caliper to measure a length. or a chronometric magnitude by comparing the time of the studied phenomenon to a reference clock. Differential measurement Differential measurement consists of comparing the unknown object to another object of the same nature by means of a measuring bridge. The user no longer has to bring together a comparator and separate references. Contrary to what it seems. which leads one to forget that it is a comparison that is being made. Who has not. However. In some cases. a multimeter for a difference of potential. this measurement is also a differential measurement because there is in the instrument a reference of the same nature as the measured magnitude: the caliper “refers” to its graduated body which. measured a crazy-shaped surface by materializing it with cardboard or metal sheet and comparing the mass of the sheet to that of one square decimeter of the same material? All industrial thermometers . – all-in instruments (masked differential measurements) are better suited for industrial uses. which makes connecting easier. the frequency meter compares the unknown frequency to that of its internal oscillator. This is true of digital frequency meters if the user can choose between the inbuilt quartz and an external synchronization signal.2. the multimeter compares the unknown voltage to that of its Zener diode. a comparator or a differential instrument. when a student. a direct measurement is a “masked” differential measurement. Indirect measurement Indirect measurement is altogether something different. usually a quartz one. In fact.2. 9.

within under one meter. more than any others. Measuring a length by determining a length of time An echometer sends a brief impulse in a cable. it is most frequently used to “replace” the physical quantity to be determined. In this case. However. the wire through which an electric current passes gets cooler at a rate dependent on the speed of the air flowing around it.About Measuring 215 proceed indirectly: with liquid-. . a length. a temperature that is to be found. It is not sufficient just to read or record a physical quantity from a suitable apparatus. a precise measurement of mass makes it possible to measure the volume of a liquid or a number of identical objects. by a frequency or an electric quantity that is easily measured even from a distance. from the earth to the moon was established by echometry with an ultra-brief light impulse. the temperature of the wire is identified by the indication of the electric resistance. this signal is “reflected” either at the end of the cable if the cable is sound. resistance-. – calculate the effect of the influencing quantities. in effect. require calibration. but actually it is an electric resistance that is eventually measured. or at a fault if there is one. Measuring the velocity of a fluid by determining a temperature As in the hot-wire anemometer. it is. The time the electric impulse takes to go there and back is proportional to the distance covered and indicates the length of the undamaged cable or the position of the fault. – list. Likewise. thermocouple-. and – determine the uncertainty of the results. 9. an electric resistance or a frequency linked to the temperature by a one-to-one relation. Here are other examples of indirect measurements. Indirect measuring is useful. you must always keep in mind that indirect measuring instruments. the distance. In a similar way. respectively. check and criticize the working conditions. quartz-thermometers you determine. a potential difference. In principle.3. Practicing in metrology The problem is to take measurements in a metrological context. All these extra actions transform mere measuring into a “metrological action”. in addition you must: – directly or indirectly connect the instruments you use for references.

Regarding notices concerning the stabilization of measuring instruments: if there is a lack of indications in technical notices – which frequently occurs – tests will have to be carried out in order to determine how long they should work to obtain the nominal characteristics. As an illustration. – the accessories: calculator.216 Metrology in Industry 9. generally speaking. – the instrument or the measuring assemblies. It will be wise to do five determinations one after the other: – a mass marked 100 grams. time. It is highly desirable to have a large table at one’s disposal with nothing on it but what is necessary. . temperature variations and. let us take the measuring of a mass Mx of roughly 103 grams. away from vibrations. less speed”. temperature. protected from any disruptive “agent”. – give sufficient time for the stabilization of the elements to be measured.3. separate references included. Indeed.. – a laboratory notebook. etc. 9. results. recorder. etc. Precautions before measuring The secret of metrology lies in the saying. – the mass Mx. printer.3. that is: – the elements to control.1. meaning they have to be set up in a suitable place.3. “More haste.3. – the instructions for use of the main measuring instrument.2. 9. identification of the elements controlled. to avoid a series of measurements turning out to be useless. the metrological spirit urges one to repeat the measurements again and again and to practice self-verification. the instruments have to be implemented. operations undertaken. Measurements Taking measurements may take little time compared with the preparation. a many precautions must be taken before starting: – check the measuring assemblies. However. – keep a laboratory notebook and write down all the information about the operations: date. Implementing the instruments Once chosen. – use a guide list that you have drawn up for each type of operation.

Variations and their sign To measure is to compare an unknown element to a reference.997V. the connections or some commutations. this demands much care from the metrologist. – the difference within one-tenth of a micrometer between two gauges. 9. The two results 10. for example.000V when the source supplies 9. represent the same flaw in the voltmeter. seemingly conflicting.003V and 9. .997V. If. for example.003V.3. for a tension (source) of 10. to control digital voltmeters there are: – sources of reference providing round values of. again. tension. – the mass Mx a second time. the voltmeter of the example will show 10. it will be a sign of exactness and it will be a plus in the evaluation of the uncertainty in the two determinations of Mx. but the sign of the variation is dependent on the assemblies. – sources of reference that have to be adjusted until the voltmeter displays a round value.About Measuring 217 – the same 100 gram mass. the three weighings are repeated correctly. The raw result of the control (10. – if a mistake were made about which way the variation goes. – the defect of a right angle within one second of an arc.997V) only means something if one knows the principle of the measuring bench used and the method applied.000V a given voltmeter will display 10. The three determinations of the 100 gram mass (reference) may possibly reveal a systematic error.4. on the contrary.003V or 9. For example. – a third determination of the 100 gram mass. that is about the sign of the difference? You have to be all the more careful as all measuring benches are not based on the same principle. The value is given unambiguously by the instruments. The result of any comparison is a measurement made up of two elements: an absolute value and a sign. What would be the use of determining: – the variation within a nanosecond of two clocks.

– the date.3. – the uncertainty. choosing a method and some instruments. At the risk of making the time spent on this preparation even longer. testing them and critically assessing the results. and in some cases the precise time of day of the measurings. recorded or committed to memory. of the sample.005 mm. of the subset. . it is advisable to write a procedure.005 mm There are three parts in this result: – the numerical value – the unit symbol – the uncertainty 1. 9. especially if the operations are exceptional and only irregularly performed. it is not unusual for the preparation to last 20 to 30 times as long as the execution of the measurements. 1st example: a blade is 1. Expression of the results In metrology. a set of measuring is completed when the values that have been found have been written.072 mm ± 0.999875 gram (or its symbol g) ± 5 µg. As for the actual result. The expression of the results must always indicate the two following elements: – the designation of “the object” that has been measured: identification of the instrument. – the unit. setting these up in a stable thermal surrounding.072 mm thick within ± 0.2 of Chapter 7: – the numerical value.4. printed. The time factor When a measuring problem is tackled for the first time. Preparing actually means studying the problem. 2nd example: a kilogram of steel has a mass M = 999.5.999875 g within ± 5 µg The three elements of the result are: – the numerical value – the unit – the uncertainty 999.218 Metrology in Industry 9. it must include the three parts indicated in section 7.

999.10−12 (no dimension number) It is customary to say this oscillator is at . 999985 hertz (symbol Hz) To avoid using a great many 9s or 0s. – or by an absolute variation with regard to a reference (expressed with the same unit as that of the quantity you study). therefore a no-dimension number). with its many repetitions of the number 9. – or by a relative variation with regard to a reference (the quotient of two quantities of the same nature. the variation and the uncertainty. The value of the mass is at -125µg (which implies “with regard to the nominal mass”).999. In this form.000. – the uncertainty. These three examples highlight the following principle: You can express a metrological result: – either by a value (a number and the unit you use). the frequencies of oscillators are most frequently expressed by their relative variation with regard to the reference. so it will be expressed differently. for the nominal value.000000 Hz F = 4.999.3. the result includes more than three elements: – the nominal value (1 kg). is an algebraic quantity made up of a value and a sign. . In this example: reference quartz Fo = 5. which is implied.000.000 015 Hz = = F0 F0 5.999.10-12 which implies “from the reference”. 000. – the algebraic value of the variation (with regard to the nominal value). The relative variation of the frequency is: F − F0 ∆F −0. – the units.999985 Hz.000 Hz = − 3.About Measuring 219 The value of this measurement. absolute or relative. 3rd example: the frequency of a quartz measured with an atomic oscillator (cesium) is: F = 4. A variation. is not easy to read.

704902 0.704898 0. the histogram is as follows.704898 0.704899 0.704900 0. the great benefit of which is to bring out discrepancies when any occur. taken as an example in section 9. .704892 0.704901 0.704896 0.704899 These values are apparently close.220 Metrology in Industry 9. Graphs Whenever possible. Value 0. numerical results will be supplemented with a graph. but a diagram in a proper scale immediately shows that indeed the results form a cluster.704901 0. Histograms A histogram is a graph which for each value found gives the number of times it has appeared (frequency).2. except the fourth result.704899 0.704899 0.704894 0.704893 0. for example.704892 0.704895 0.1. Number of measurements 9.4. Consider.4.704900 0.4.1.704897 0.704891 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Number of measurements Figure 9. this series of results which should have had the same value: 0.1 above. For the series of 7 measurements.

Therefore. it must not be confused with the frequency of a signal or of a phenomenon.About Measuring 221 Frequency 3 2 1 0 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 Results Figure 9. which is the number of cycles per unit of time and which is expressed in hertz (symbol Hz). statistically) according to measurement results. he must have many qualities. the histogram conceals the history of the results. all the results are mixed up together in the same diagram and the order in which the values appeared is lost.5. Let us remember that the word histogram comes from the Greek histos (texture. web). story). In a histogram. a metrologist must reason and behave in a way “adapted” to accurate measuring. whereas the word history comes from the Latin historia (history. Two notes about the terminology: – The word frequency is used in statistics and means number of times an event happens. The group of the six results on the histogram goes without any comment and the isolated value stands out. What qualities does a metrologist require? Whatever physical quantity he may be dealing with. 9. in spite of the definitions of two words being similar.2. – A histogram is a “bar-chart” that provides the frequency (that is. So. .

measuring means comparing an unknown object to a reference. Be inquisitive First and foremost. 9. It is best to aim for a repeatability and reproducibility of measurings. He must visit laboratories and meet other metrologists. for example: – criticize the processes in order to improve them. etc. and be about everything. creating a vacuum for measurements of absolute pressure.5. comparators. – about the proceedings.2. applying other methods. a metrologist has to be curious. These comparisons will be worthless if they are not always performed in exactly the same way. Be observant A keen sense of observation will enable a metrologist to avoid many mishaps. 9. Be tidy and methodical Frequently. and his curiosity must take many forms.1.4. proceedings. Doubting inevitably leads to repeat measurings. . preferably with several instruments and. stabilization. current and future. Doubt will urge him to. – check that the references implemented were calibrated when they were supposed to be. it would be advisable to write detailed procedures and faithfully follow a guide list rather than rely on one’s memory or on instinctive habits. For some complex operations. Be open to doubt A good metrologist ought to question everything: references.222 Metrology in Industry 9. 9. – check the proceedings are correct: right temperature. for example: – by noticing that an assembly has to be modified.5. – about the influential quantities. But that is not all: he must also keep himself regularly informed of his firm’s activities that have a direct influence on measuring problems.3. even better.5.5. A metrologist must make inquiries: – about the instruments he controls.

even unexpected values. more commonly. 9. You could almost assert that one takes up metrology as one takes holy orders. – by noticing that a standard gauge is scratched. but do not let that worry you. Tackling metrology is the fate of those who intensely love measuring. This is a long list of qualities. odd values can be of great interest because they usually lead to significant results: unstable instrument.About Measuring 223 – by noticing that a 127/220V tension switch must be reversed.5. a confusion between two elements to be measured. . effect of an influential magnitude or. Be honest Being honest for a metrologist means: – leaving a blank in a result table every time a determination has not been worked out because of a lack of time or any other cause.5. – writing down all the results without making any change. – by finding out the temperature of an instrument is not normal.

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In 2002.000 people. transformation and pharmaceuticals. Its research programs take in Solvay’s activities. minus the pharmaceuticals sector. Close to 1.900 million coming from four areas of activity: chemicals. it has subsidiaries and joint companies in 50 countries and employs some 31.100 people from the scientific and technical services of the Solvay Group work there. The site is located at Neder-Over-Hembeek (Brussels) and it stretches over 23 hectares. its consolidated turnover reached €7. the group is deeply involved in a policy of total control of quality for the benefit of its clients. . Presentation of the company Solvay is an international pharmaceutical and chemical group headquartered in Brussels. Organized in “strategic business units” and in “competence centers”.1. plastics. Chapter written by José MONTES – Solvay/Belgium. Solvay Research and Technology is the major research center of the group.Chapter 10 Organization of Metrology at Solvay Research and Technology 10.

Organization of the metrology sector 10.). Creation The creation of a metrology sector in 1995 was the result of a 1994 survey concerning the organization of the firm in conformity with quality insurance. in agreement with the ISO 9000 or GLP-GMP rules followed then by the rules of the internal clients. One of the major requirements of these rules is to control the checking. The main conclusions of the survey revealed the urgent need for some divisions to join a quality system (ISO 9000. Missions These following missions are assigned to the metrology sector: – to ensure the development and the management of the working standards and their connection to national standard.2. The metrology sector was naturally integrated to the group in charge of the activities concerning the instruments and the automation on the site. – to draft the necessary general and measurement procedures.226 Metrology in Industry 10.2. the greatest part of this control consists of periodical calibrations. mass flow of gases.3.). – to take charge of the computerized management of the periodical verification of the measuring means. Organization The organization of metrology is dictated by the company’s internal rules. . pressures. masses. etc. – to provide internal clients with advice and technical support. – to centralize and keep up-to-date the data of the supply of measuring instruments which are periodically checked. keep records.2. archive. measuring and testing equipment.1. – to carry out the plan technical tasks of calibration. GLP-GMP) and the necessity to create a metrological organization of the basic quantities (temperatures. time. some of its personnel who were technically competent were recruited.2. 10. – to keep documents (draft the calibration certificates. and in which the consistency of the management of the metrological requirements was secured. etc.2. The mission assigned to the organization was that it should be a center of competences in which the means and experience of the site were integrated. 10.

4. the process goes through the main following stages: – inventory of the representative measuring equipment and analysis of the metrological constraints is undertaken with the client. 10. using labels. – checking whether the measuring equipment is suited to the needs specified by the clients. .Organization of Metrology at Solvay Research and Technology 227 The metrology sector has organized itself in such a way as to provide a technical competence which is adaptable to the needs of the client and to offer an administrative organization which is as homogeneous as possible for all the internal clients of the site. Composition of the bank of measuring equipment The bank of the measuring equipment. drafting the documents and handing them over. When he decides to set up a quality system.020 units.5. marking the measuring equipment. Geographic localization of the activities Calibration activities are carried out either at the laboratory of metrology where the instruments are returned. which is periodically attended to. the documents and the archives.2. Calibrating on-site makes it possible to consider the measuring equipment in their environment. the standards. – introduction of the data and the specifications of the measuring equipment into the database. the client uses these services in order to define and organize the calibration operations. In it are most of the working equipment. it also favors direct dialog with the client. the data-processing tools. The metrology laboratory has air-conditioned premises.2. Once started. – calibration of the measuring equipment. continues to grow and in December 2003 numbered 4. – periodical follow-up of the measuring equipment. or directly on-site. the temperature of which is regulated and the hygrometry of which is under control. – identification of the measuring equipment in agreement with the codification that has been adopted and. 10. The figure below represents how the categories of measurements are distributed.

FT). . Identification The measuring equipment must be identified one by one. Self-adhesive labels mark the measuring equipment and instruments.2. The identification attributed to the equipment at the time of the manufacturing process has priority and is maintained. In their turn. In cases where the manufacturer did not identify the equipment. The basic principle of identification has two parts: – the functional identification generated by the type measurement (for example. oven. TE. The latter part also mentions the general identification of the equipment.). etc.3. and thus a coherent link is ensured.1.228 Metrology in Industry Dimension 1% Pressure 30% Mass 8% Others 15% Flow 6% Speed 2% Level 2% Temperature 49% Others 4% Figure 10. 10. Metrology 10.1. which is itself a member of the EAL (European Cooperation for Accreditation of Laboratories). identification is determined from an internal general convention of engineering based on the ISA (Instruments Society of America) norms. PI. the working standards are periodically calibrated by laboratories accredited by the OBE (Belgian Organization of Calibration). Connection of the standards The measuring instruments or equipment are calibrated with the help of working standards.3. and – the identification related to the geography location (building and premises) as well as to the type of instrument (viscometer.3. Solvay R & T Park – metrology distribution of the measurements 10.

and of the working standards is entered into the database. Some equipment. The data concerning the measuring equipment are recorded in a file located in a share zone of the firm’s local area network.3. . it will be shortened if drifts or systematic excesses are observed. or as a consequence of the results of several calibration cycles. The schedule includes the list of the measuring equipment that is due for verification in the week.3. It will be lengthened if the results prove to be stable and always within the tolerance interval. 10. The periodicity is defined according to the manufacturer’s specifications. Periodicity of the calibrations The periodicity of the measuring equipment calibrations. which is not worth investing in expensive standards. our experience with the equipment. conversely. which are metrologically dealt with. the environment in which it operates and whether the client makes intensive use of it or not. All the clients can access and read the file. 10. The work done amounts to more than just a calibration. is simply calibrated by a competent accredited laboratory.4. as a result of a particular cause. it is a certificate of verification as it declares the instrument to be in a state of conformity or nonconformity. A sliding schedule is drawn up at the beginning of the week and is used as a base for planning the interventions.3.Organization of Metrology at Solvay Research and Technology 229 This procedure guarantees the traceability of the measuring instruments or equipment through their connections to the national standards. The periodicity can be reviewed. as well as that due in two and four weeks’ time. The chief benefit of this organization is the updating of the source in real time and the ability of the client to use his part of the file for his own internal management. Calibration operations The calibration schedule is subordinate to the dates which are obtained by confronting the requested checking periodicity with the date of the last calibration.

.5. a drying-oven temperature). flow.3. 10. the chief identification data of the measuring equipment are automatically transferred from the file to the worksheet. it is called a calibration certificate or metrological control if the testing was of a secondary piece of measuring equipment that it is not really possible to adjust (for example. The results of the measurements are recorded in a document which is addressed to the client. The copies of the calibration certificate and of the worksheet are archived in the metrology laboratory and make it possible to keep track of the measurements. – the comparison with the specifications (tolerances). perhaps. corrective maintenance. temperature. mass. – automatic input of the identification data and of the calibration results on the certificate. the results concern the period to come. When you select the measuring equipment’s identification. there are several steps (or stages): – the results of the calibration before corrective maintenance (adjustment or repair). The successive operations stated on the certificate sum up as follows: – selection of the equipment to calibrate. – automatic input of the main identification data from the file to the worksheet. The synthetic results are then automatically transferred from the worksheet to the calibration certificate.) have led to develop a more complete specific worksheets for specific categories of measurement. The document. The document for the benefit of internal clients is always the same regardless of who the client is or what type of measurement has been made. beyond the date of the calibration. they concern the time since the last calibration and make it possible to verify the possible impact of a measurement drift on the process. The constraints inherent to each category of measurements (pressure. – the ruling about whether the measuring instrument that has been checked is metrologically in conformity with the specifications. – encoding of the results and intermediary automatic calculations on the worksheet. etc. – the final comparison with the specifications. Documentation of the calibration results The documentation of the calibration results is made complex by the diversity of the measuring equipment found on-site. – the results of the calibration after.230 Metrology in Industry Details of the work done are given in the calibration certificate.

the instrument is judged to be unsuitable to measuring. both interventions require a new compulsory calibration before the measuring equipment returns to service. – the dates of the calibration and of the next calibration (based on the determined interval).7. . intended for the repair of similar instruments.downgrading. – the reference of the calibration certificate. – if the deviation is outside the interval of tolerance.adjustment or repair. are salvaged.3. . 10. In the end. after supplementing the results of the calibration certificate(s) and any other tests undertaken. . – the identification of the measuring equipment (according to the file). the measuring equipment is said to be conformable and brought back into service. The label mentions: – the identification of the metrology sector. Indication of the state of the calibrations When a measuring instrument has been calibrated. which means one of the three following solutions: .scrapping. Verdict of the metrological confirmation Metrology is responsible for the quality of the measuring equipment it has verified and its role is to guide the client into establishing the overall conformity of his equipment. 10. – the initials and signature of the performing operator. it is scrapped and some parts.Organization of Metrology at Solvay Research and Technology 231 In order to make the transcriptions of the information dependable. its state is indicated by a calibration label clearly visible on the instrument. the database is automatically updated after the documents have been edited. there will be a less demanding new prescription adapted to the new use. The comparison of the calibration results with the instructions about measuring equipment (tolerances) leads to two possible types of decisions to be decided: – if the deviation is within the interval of tolerance. it is up to the client to make the decision about conformity. If there is no label – the label having been lost or deliberately removed – it means the state of calibration has been not conformable.3. The label guarantees that the measuring instruments has been verified and tells how accurate it is.6. the measuring equipment is said to be not conformable.

They work according to the procedures and with the documents established by the metrology function. Handling the amount of work and spreading it over the year is done in agreement with the clients. . Personnel and subcontracting The personnel of the metrology function organize its interventions according to plans dependent on the list extracted from the database.232 Metrology in Industry 10. It is autonomous in the performance of its tasks and the production of its documents.3. The metrology function is responsible and answerable for the quality of the performances of the subcontracting personnel. Qualified subcontracting personnel are used to carry out part of the activities.8.

Introduction The control of measuring equipment is based on the following observations: – you cannot know what quality you have obtained if you cannot measure it. – you cannot make measurements if you do not have the proper equipment for it. From the beginning. a chapter (out of the 20 of the original standards) was devoted to this theme. Chapter written by Philippe LANNEAU – Management Services. This binding link between metrology and quality was taken into account by the quality directors who took part in the drafting of the ISO standard of the 9000 series on the “management of quality”.Chapter 11 Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 11. and Patrick REPOSEUR – Comité Français d’Accréditation (COFRAC). mostly regarding the strictness of their technique. etc. – you cannot trust your equipment if you do not have them under control.1. Its drafting by quality directors somehow raised problems for its implementation by metrologists. . particularly the specificity of the vocabulary. and that is the object of metrology.

Naturally.2.1d). 11. as part of the organization which has been set up.234 Metrology in Industry On the other hand. with all the partners concerned and circulated under the double stamp of COFRAC and BNM. Metrology will be one of the elements to “manage”.2. because it is written in a more “everyday”. It is not without reason that metrology is positioned as one of the elements integrated into the firm’s central process. The concept of continuous improvement Continuous improvement symbolized by the “(PDCA) cycle” proposed by E. the aim is no longer to give the clients “the assurance of quality”. easier to read. less normative. it is proposed split it up into four phases which come one after the other in a logical order with the purpose of improving the functioning of the existent organization. the client gets something out of it. Introduction to the evolution of the standard The third version of the “quality” ISO 9001 standard (December 2000) presents noticeable evolution in comparison with the previous versions. has to be coherent with the requirements of the system of reference. measuring and testing equipment (section 7. French. Finally.6) is explicitly mentioned in the phase which describes “the realization of the product” (Chapter 7). Deming is familiar to quality managers.3). so everyone is satisfied. it is to “manage the quality” on behalf of the firm. at the national as well as international levels.2.4). As a matter of fact.1. the approach is more general. . “product” (section 8. it is the basis of the structure of the new system of reference. This has brought the Comité francais d’accréditation (COFRAC) together with the National Metrology Institute (BNM). The control of the checking. the official metrological structure. The elements which are necessary to control the measurements are found in the phases called “monitoring and measurement of the processes” (section 8. less manufacturing industry-oriented.5.2. and “control of the production” (section 7. The concepts themselves – the ideas – are accessible to most readers. 11. The new output is more user-friendly.

that is either: – moderate control of its measurements for a low cost. It is the process (sometimes called “client – client” process) that is positioned crosswise in comparison with the firm’s vertical hierarchical organization. Metrologists become involved very much earlier. but a high risk of internal malfunctions or of clients’ complaints. the client being the user of the result of the measurement. The process approach The phase of the process of “realization of the product” also proposes an original approach that seeks to put the functioning of the firm on a line which goes from the client’s request. . However. our approach to metrology is defined in the ISO 9001 standard as a control of the “measurement process”1. to the delivery of the product (or service!) to the client. 1 The ISO 10012 standard provides the elements of an explanation.Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 235 11. This approach has consequences in the area of the process which concerns metrologists who are no longer satisfied by simply having their measuring equipment calibrated and affixing the appropriate labels. Measurement request Measurement process Measurement result Figure 11. which means a higher cost for a greater security. this makes it possible to make a decision that is suitable for the kind of risk the management has decided to take. at the time of choosing of the equipment which means at the time of implementation. first of all. or – an intensive control.2.1.2. the “policy of the control of the measurement” has to be defined at the firm’s highest level. in order to meet the needs of user of the measurement (the client of the process). In this context.

3. its impact on the control of the firm’s general process or of the quality of the products.2) to situate the process of measurement control. Continua l improveme nt of the quality mana gement system Management responsibility Customers Customers Resource management Measurement.2. This evolution of the standard encourages the firm “to take itself in hand” by defining objectives without going into details or fixing the means necessary to reach the objective. by analyzing the case’s need in measurement. The function which assumes the responsibility of the “measurement process” will then have to implement the policy of the control of measurement. Given its implications. 11. analysis and improvement Satisfaction Requirements Input Product realization Product Output Value-adding activities Inform ation flow Figure 11. Measurement control process Let us start with the schematic representation to be found in the ISO 9001 standard (section 0. It is one of the “management processes”. Model of a process-based quality-management system . it is unquestionably up to the firm’s management to make this decision about a risk of such a level. The decision will be made “in accordance with each different case”.236 Metrology in Industry It is obvious that something between these two extreme options would be preferred.

This includes the supply (purchase.Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 237 The contents of the five steps of the measurement process are described as follows. as the client’s and his supplier’s results are similar. or looking for what is immediately available). the assembly. in agreement with the client. . These latter checks make it possible to ensure that the equipment has an adequate calibration status. – the range in which the expected results are to be found. Step 3 – setting up of the appropriate equipment (the response) From the elements defined in the previous step. From this step it will be possible to give a correct answer to the problem regarding: – which technique to implement. the receipt. It also makes it possible to specify and make clear the need. or outside (the buyer or the consumer who sets the specification in his schedule). the metrological follow-up corresponds to the traceability to the national references (the standards) and to the checking done within the firm. The control of the whole process depends on the quality of this cooperation with the client. and also the realization of the “administrative” part of the control of the equipment. The characteristics of the need will be: – the type of measurement. Step 4 – traceability In our approach. Step 2 – analysis of the need for measurement This second step corresponds to the metrological competence’s taking responsibility for the process. It is necessary to make a periodic check of of the calibration status to be able to confirm that it is fit for use. – the tolerance of the measurement. – the corresponding fitting range. from inside the firm (the design department or the process service). This makes it possible to create confidence in your exchanges with the clients. for example) and opening a file or an identification sheet (one can get ideas from the FD X 07-018). This last part consists of identifying the equipment (marking it. this step makes it possible to set up the measuring equipment. – the uncertainty that goes with it. Step 1 – expression of the need for measurement This step comes from the “customer” of the measurement.

5 Production and service provision 7. Section 7. the conditions of the implementation. The significant moments of the “life” of the equipment are to be recorded on the identification sheet mentioned in step 3. In addition. dust.4. This makes it possible to complete the whole set of the measurement processes. 11.5. are kept away. etc. Available equipment means that the need has already been defined.238 Metrology in Industry Step 5 – availability This step comprises the work environment. and where electromagnetic radiations. in the same way as it is for the other . this may mean premises where the temperature is controlled and where there are no vibrations. It is about the availability and the implementation of the equipment. to assess these components in order to take them into account when stating the result of the measurement. both at the technical level and concerning the amount of equipment needed to carry out the measurements. Also included are the methods of protection while the material is used. when this is not convenient. the environmental conditions of the measurement must be defined and the setting up of the appropriate means must be ensured. This makes it possible to minimize the components of uncertainty or. The implementation implies that one knows and complies with the measurement procedures and/or the specific competence of the personnel. which are presented as one of the elements of the control of the realization of the products of the company. The ISO 9001 (2000) standard step-by-step This chapter addresses the different requirements of the ISO 9001 standard and provides point-by-point explanations and practical illustrations: Section 7 – Product realization 7. For example. stored or transported.1 Control of production and service provision d) the availability and use of monitoring and measuring devices The requirement about measuring equipment is integrated into the chapter that is devoted to the “realization of the product”. dampness.6 – Control of monitoring and measuring devices It is to be noticed that a specific paragraph of the ISO 9001 standard is devoted to the control of the measuring equipment. the measurement procedures and the operator’s competence.

Section 7.Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 239 requirements of the realization. The functions should assess their needs for measurement and have an objective knowledge of these needs. A real. The determination of the uncertainty about the measurement is one of the essential elements for the definition of the aptness of the measurement. Section 7. necessary competence has to be on hand to assess this. in relation to the equipment capable of meeting the need determined in the previous step. the fitting range for this measurement and the tolerance which goes with it.6 (continued) – The organization shall determine the monitoring and measurement to be undertaken … This requirement corresponds to the step where the need for measurement. – available range. This confirms the place of metrology in the management of quality and in the control of the product (or service). specific competence is unquestionably necessary to see this step through successfully. Section 7.1) … This step corresponds with the definition of the technical response that is to be set up.2. The answer as regards equipment: – type of measurement.6 (continued) – The organization shall establish processes to ensure that monitoring and measurement can be carried out and are carried out in a manner that is consistent with the monitoring and measurement equipment. This point is amply developed elsewhere in this book. either by the ultimate client or by the person who has conceived the measured element (the measurand). It ought to be available inside the firm.6 (continued) … and the monitoring and measuring devices needed to provide evidence of conformity of product to determined requirements (see section 7. – periodicy of external calibration and/or verification useful to ensure SI traceability. It must be satisfied by the functions which are concerned with the result of the measurement is defined. This last point is provided earlier. This includes various parameters that associate the methods implemented and the personnel’s competence to the equipment which has been used. – uncertainty that goes with it. Into this notion of accuracy should be integrated the type of measurement. .

Section 7. It is the firm’s responsibility to make sure they are implemented and complied with. Taking the uncertainties into account is a part of the fundamental elements of these connections.org). these connections are made under the aegis of the COFRAC2 whether the quantities concerned are physical or chemical. Since then.6 (continued) – Where necessary to ensure valid results. in chemistry). the environment. Section 7. . We now return to the need to control measuring equipment and associated uncertainty. More information can be found on the EA website: http://www. an identical agreement at global level has been reached (www. or prior to use. In France.org. This phase widens the notion of “standard” as it is generally used in the fields of physical measurement to the other fields of monitoring and measurement (for example. measuring equipment shall a) ….europeanaccreditation. where no such standards exist. measuring equipment shall a) be calibrated or verified at specified intervals. this phase corresponds to the implementation of the tools in accordance with defined methods. which includes the measuring instrument as well as the personnel who operate it (and their competence). … This requirement concerns the connection to the national traceability chains. in accordance with whether it suits the need.240 Metrology in Industry After the need for measurement and the relevant responses have been defined.ilac. against measurement standards traceable to international or national measurement standards.european– accrediation. The evidence of the connection with the references (metrological traceability) has to be available at the level of the firm. This phase also broadens the notion of equipment to the notion of the process as a whole. The setting up of the rules is described elsewhere in this book. It is vital to say what methods are to be set up to realize the measurements. 2 Since 1989. the methods.6 (continued) – Where necessary to ensure valid results. there has been a multilateral agreement of recognition of the equivalence of the calibration certificates delivered by European calibration laboratories (www. etc.org). which are the measurement processes themselves. the basis used for calibration or verification shall be recorded. what competence the personnel who implement them must have and what environment conditions are required.

The methods of assessment use the classical statistical tools which make it possible to get as close as possible to the true value and determine the uncertainty around the assessment. and – adjusting: fitting it by using only the devices that are at the user’s disposal.) It is the recording of this analysis which should be retained. (Some elements are given by the ISO guide 35 on this point. or some ranges of a measurement (“use only between 100 V and 500 V”). the point is to determine the appropriateness of the equipment to be used and the degree of criticity which is associated with it. For example. Metrologists make a distinction between: – fitting: bring an equipment “as close to zero as possible”. measuring equipment shall b) be adjusted or re-adjusted as necessary. It is to be noted that after any fitting (and therefore any adjustment). These standard references have to be evaluated to give a reference value.6 (continued) – Where necessary to ensure valid results.Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 241 One speaks of “references” or of “reference materials”. Section 7. Section 7. a new calibration and a new verification must take place which will make it possible to confirm that the equipment can be used (and is back within “maximum permissible errors”). The solution can be anything from a mere label (with the date of the limit of validity) to the supplying of the calibration certificate (or its copy). When the calibration status is being considered. … Identification consists of providing the user with information about the extent to which the equipment can be used in relation to its suitability or its possible restrictions of use. or the verification of some values of “product” tolerance. It makes it possible to restore conformity to this equipment by using its fitting devices. “Best before …” says the inscription printed on the pot of yoghurt. This phase comes after a verification that has concluded that a piece of equipment is beyond permissible error limits. measuring equipment shall c) be identified to enable the calibration status to be determined.6 (continued) – Where necessary to ensure valid results. if it is equipped with any. likewise a calibration value may still be used beyond the date that ends its . The method of identification must be adapted to the context (environment) and to the users. a multimeter is limited to one type of quantity (“use only on ohmmeter function”).

etc.) to prevent access or adjustment. but there is a risk that only the user can accept.) should not be able to make adjustments. He can decide whether to take the risk from the follow-up of the corrections made between two successive calibrations. shocks. storage. The organization shall take appropriate action on the equipment and any product affected … This requirement concerns metrology. Likewise. the most fragile instruments are delivered in packaging which protect them during transport. . what metrologists generally call the “drift”. UV). and.6 (continued) – Where necessary to ensure valid results. the measuring equipment ought to be protected from extreme variations of temperature.6 (continued) – In addition. transfer. even by mistake. etc. of course. storing. The users or handlers (transfer.. The instruments should be kept in these containers when they are not in use. The instruments may therefore be equipped with blocking devices: “locks” (physical or computer) or physical protection (shutters. the storing conditions must take into account the restraints relative to the materials. Investigation of the consequences of a doubtful measurement result concerns metrology function and quality assurance function through on the one hand the measuring equipment and on the other hand the measurement of the product. humidity.6 (continued) – Where necessary to ensure valid results. etc. Measuring equipment is generally fragile or at the least needs to be handled (during use. Consequently. cleaning. the organization shall assess and record the validity of the previous measuring results when the equipment is found not to conform to requirements. Section 7.g. whether initially or after verification. … In order to avoid undue adjustment of the equipment.242 Metrology in Industry effectiveness. the components. which go into them. measuring equipment shall e) be protected from damage and deterioration during handling. or which can detect these: varnish. access to the devices which make it possible to make these adjustments should be limited to competent persons. hatches. etc. etc. as well as a “quality assurance” approach. from dust. Section 7. seals. Section 7. maintenance and storage. etc. measuring equipment shall d) be safeguarded from adjustments that would invalidate the measurement result. light (e.) with care in order to guarantee the preservation of their metrological qualities. Frequently..

. with or without informing the user (external or internal client). This technical information is passed on to the firm which. the deviation on the instrument having had no impact on the quality of the product. thus informed. the information that the operations has to be done has to be kept available. makes a decision about the product that has been measured with the faulty equipment: – recall of the doubtful products. – modification of the permissible error limits set on the measurement if relevant.4 are applicable. thus informed.2. With this objective in view.). Let us point out that the materialization of an action is not the only aim of a calibration certificate. which limits the consequences of non-conformity. etc. – change of measurement method and/or of equipment. it is also (and is chiefly) intended to apply the corrections necessary for the use of the measuring equipment.4). repair. makes a decision about the product that has been measured with the faulty equipment.6 (continued) – Record of the results of calibration and verification shall be maintained (see section 4. – dispensation. user adjustment.Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 243 The metrologist makes use of his knowledge of the equipment and of the consequences of the registered deviation through asking the following questions: – Is the deviation significant in relation to the measurement and the use to be made of it? – What is the relation between the level of the measured non-conformity and the uncertainty on the method of measurement? – Does the deviation have an influence on the process regarding the accepted tolerances? This technical information has been passed on to the firm which. There are two aspects of this requirement: – all the calibration and verification results have to prove that the operation has been performed. the requirements of “control of the recordings relative to quality” of section 4. – accepting products as they are. so that the previous point may be applied efficaciously.2. Section 7. The equipment itself is subjected to specific action so that the fault does not occur again: – small verification intervals. – it is particularly important to be in possession of the information on the initial state of the equipment before a calibration or any other intervention (adjustment.

6 (continued) – Note: see ISO 10012 This note allows the possibility of using the ISO 10012 standard ‘Measuring equipment – meteorological confirmation’. Section 7. The detail of the technical answers to be implemented has been partly transferred to the ISO 10012 standard. More and more frequently. As this point is given in a “note”.2 – Monitoring and measurement Section 8. too. analysis and improvement Section 8. Periodically. particularly about the determination of measurement uncertainties. 07015 and 07017. If this verification is not integrated into the software (find out from the supplier or manufacturer). 07011. they should be known and complied with. This shall be undertaken prior to initial use and reconfirmed as necessary. a test should make it possible to ensure the software has not wandered. Section 8 – Measurement. Two levels have been defined by the standardization body: 1. among other metrological norms which were drafted by French experts in the field.2.244 Metrology in Industry Section 7. Nevertheless. are to be found in the bibliography of this book. The classical methods of validation of software that apply here are: – measurement in parallel with other software that is certified to be fit for the purpose. Such a verification is integrated in some software. it is called the “check sum”. measuring equipment is connected with software which directly intervenes in the process of measurement. You have to ensure that the software does not bias the final result provided by the equipment. 2.3 – Monitoring and measurement of processes . should be subjected to the same principles of control.6 (continued) – When used in the monitoring and measurement of specified requirements. or before each new use. There is only one result and it is characteristic of the program. Any modification of only one of these bits results in a different sum and the user is alerted. it is possible to have it installed later. it is its “genetic fingerprint”. the ability of computer software to satisfy the intended application shall be confirmed. The ISO 10012 recommendations can be completed by reading the norms NF X 07010. Further technical norms. and is invisible to the user and it makes the sum of the “0” or “1” of the program in binary. it is not compulsory to put the recommendations of these standards into practice. – non-automatic verification that the software is working correctly. It stands to reason that the software.

5.Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard 245 The organization shall apply suitable methods for monitoring and.6 and already analyzed. These methods shall demonstrate the ability of the processes to achieve planned results … Controlling the progress of the processes may require the implementation of measuring equipment. a means of progress for a firm. where applicable. at the same time it generates greater dependence on and a greater trust in the relationship with partners. But beyond strict answers to the questions of an auditor. previously discussed. 11. controlling measuring equipment is. It is the section that connects the control of the process of measurement to the need for measurement itself. After it has determined the critical points of the manufacturing process. It goes back. Conclusion Putting the answers which have been proposed in this chapter into concrete form makes it possible to satisfy the requirements of an audit of certification which relate to the control of the processes of measurement. first of all. which is then certain of optimizing its measurements and the cost of its metrology. This is especially the case for production processes (the “proceedings”). and it replaces the need into its context of surveillance of the products. The associated equipment is then within the competence of the metrological control mentioned in section 7.1d). to the need for measurement.4 – Monitoring and measurement of product The organization shall monitor and measure the characteristics of the product to verify that product requirements have been met. Section 8. either clients or suppliers. the firm must define the corresponding checks and set them up. with a greater precision with more details.5. This section corresponds to section 7. measurement of the quality management system processes.2. .

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. as the dictionary defines it. Metrology. + 3. Bac+ 2 is the level required to enter a school for engineers. etc. It is often difficult to know what comprises the metrological activity of a firm. BEP (Brevet d’Enseignement Professionnel) and Bac Pro are lower-level exams opening straight into professional life. It has. in fact. 1 Secondary education students in France have to pass an exam called baccalauréat -Bac.. The metrology function in a firm’s strategy Metrology training at education’s higher level is provided by a few organizations in France1. CAP (Certificat d’Aptitude).at the end of the cycle to acceed to higher education. indicates the level reached in higher education (how many years after the Bac are normally required to reach that level). Chapter written by Bernard LARQUIER – BEA Métrologie. it is also the level necessary (and sufficient) to be a higher-level technician. It is generally limiting and metrology is often understood as management of the measuring equipment or laboratory activities.Chapter 12 Training for the Metrology Professions in France 12.1. If firms are short of specialized metrologists. is therefore an activity which should enable the user to give meaning and reliance to the stated measurement results. it is obvious that metrology still remains a mystery in higher education curricula. the science of measuring. Bac+ 2. a vast field of applications. It does supply the necessary tools to claim the conformity of a product while controlling the risks.

they are an important aspect of the competence expected from the person in charge of the metrology function of a firm. agribusiness. agriculture. aeronautics. into the uncertainties of measurement. The synthesis tables show which long-lasting courses are currently available in France. The different professional categories (engineers. Managing a firm’s metrology function requires a competence which reaches far beyond merely managing measuring instruments or knowing about calibration techniques. medicine. The evolution of the norms relating to the control of quality systems in firms leads one to ponder over the growing influence of the metrology function. far beyond the mere technical aspect. 12. biology. The general-education universities are beginning to offer supplementary training in the field of measurement. nuclear power. etc. or to an investigation of performance. in the fullest sense of the word. indeed. technicians. space. How. chemistry. To reach this objective the metrologists will have to have much broadened competences. Metrology profession Long-lasting specialized training courses in the field of metrology are most often provided at the higher education level and they generally lead to management jobs. environment. If engineers and technicians have been able to benefit by specialized training courses. The set of organizations given do not provide an exhaustive list of the establishments likely to offer long-lasting training courses in metrology. pharmacy. It is logical to think that the position of the metrology function. electronics. It is therefore probable that the list to be found here will be greatly extended in the years to come.2. . can one give meaning to a survey of clients’ satisfaction. operators) consequently get very different training. operators have entered the metrology function thanks only to brief training courses within the framework of continuing education. without looking into the influence factors which affect the results and.248 Metrology in Industry It is clear then that controlling measuring amounts to controlling processes which may be complex. therefore. will be strategic for the management of firms in the years to come. All the industrial sectors are concerned: mechanics.

The metrological engineer is seldom employed by a small. He then becomes an expert in some field and generally works as a researcher in a top-level laboratory. or the development or settlement of calibration methods. the technician assists him.or mediumsized firm. He is able to head a team of operators. his mission is to implement all the actions that are needed to optimize the metrology function. In laboratories or technical centers. that he holds his position. If the organization chart of the firm includes a metrological engineer. So it is in large companies. He can. Wishing to specialize.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 249 12. He may also be called upon to manage the quality section and it is not unusual for him to have to manage both quality and metrology. These specific courses enable the technician to have a broad knowledge in metrology.or medium-sized business in which the metrology department is often limited to one or two persons from whom a broad polyvalency is generally expected. He may also intervene in the phase of conception of methods and manufacture. Metrological technician Initially. he has added to this qualification by spending an extra year in one of the organizations that provide specific training courses. He usually manages a team of technicians and operators. have to see to the improvement of the national standards. He has the necessary competence to determine the uncertainties of the measuring processes and initiate actions to optimize the metrology function. He may.2. . among other missions.2. after a few years’ experience.2. but he can also implement specific measurement processes.1. 12. as well as a good basic understanding of the domain of quality. aspire to take charge of an accredited laboratory. Metrological engineer Having received a higher scientific education. his role is to control the measurement techniques and their traceability. He can go on studying to obtain a doctorate in metrology. the metrological engineer is in charge of the metrology department. the metrological technician is trained as a higher-level technician. or in organizations specializing in measurement. meaning that two years after completing secondary education – Bac+ 2 – he has passed a DUT (university diploma of technology) or a BTS (higher level technician diploma). He is responsible for the laboratory or the accreditation of the organization. He is then in the position to be in charge of the metrology function in a small.

Their curricula are general to prepare to the metrological trades. It is a pity that there is no specific training for metrological operators at the level of secondary education because firms frequently bemoan the lack of training of their operators. 12. specific training courses in metrology. It is found mostly at a post-secondary education level and it delivers engineer. BEP.3. On his first job a technician can serve as an operator. Depending on the school. In France. Metrological operator In general.1. a metrological operator has not had any specific training in metrology.3. Schools for engineers Schools for engineers turn out metrological engineers after five or six years of training (Bac+ 5 or Bac+ 6). Initial training Metrology is very seldom taught in level IV and V (CAP. the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM) and the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Ingénieurs du Mans. which are not discussed in this chapter. or through continuing education. technician or specialized operator diplomas. Bac) of initial education. . The metrological operator works along procedures and measurement methods established by an engineer or a technician.2. The firms find it necessary to resort to short (less than three weeks) continuing education sessions.250 Metrology in Industry 12. These courses. BEP or Bac) is supplemented by short. the most comprehensive courses at this level are provided by the Ecole Supérieure de Métrologie at Ecole des Mines of Douai. are dispensed by numerous organizations and by most accredited laboratories.3. or specific to the command of a particular quantity. His initial training at the vocational-training certificate level (CAP. which are generally too brief to master the different aspects of measurement. the training is provided either the traditional way. he becomes a metrological operator through advancement inside his firm. Frequently. In the latter case it is a supplementary or an alternate course. 12.

but in a very limited way.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 251 The characteristics of these different schools are presented in the tables below. In general.3. This has induced some lycées or university institutes to open supplementary courses (one extra year. equivalent to a professional degree or to a metrological technician diploma.3. so do those of the Ecole Supérieure de Métrologie which has an international vocation and attracts many foreign students. Bac+ 2 (DUT or BTS).3.4. The particularities of the CNAM’s course are worth noticing: it offers working people the possibility of upgrading their training by attending evening classes. It is dealt with. 12. more in a way to make students sensitive to it than as a specialized field of study. They are chiefly intended for young holders of diplomas who wish to go on with their initial training. Except for the Lycée Jules Richard. the University of Provence. . the University of Toulon and the Var. Courses for higher level technicians Higher level education in two years. personal training time-off and qualification contract.2. the IUT of Aix en Provence. 12. Vocational high schools There are no high schools that specifically train metrologists at the end of secondary-education level. Bac+ 3). Metrology is on the syllabus of some of them. mechanical topics holds first place in these training units. does not have any specific module for metrology. the main concern of the course is the control of dimensional checking and metrology. Continuing education It has been said in Chapter 3 that some organizations that offer training courses in the context of initial training also give some candidates the opportunity to enroll for continuing education. 12. but they can be open in some cases to people who already have professional experience. These courses are open at the Lycée Jules Richard.

while he is away from his firm and to pay. – the schools for engineers. either as metrological operators (CETIM . completely or partially. in production control or laboratory metrology. The long-lasting courses train technicians. New courses are being established: the CNAM has set up a program called “metrologist for the year 2000” and Bordeaux’s ENSAM offers a flexible course intended for the heads of metrology functions. among which are: – the laboratories accredited by the COFRAC. but also of assuming the care of the quality section in a smallor medium-sized firm. – the technical centers. It makes it possible. if necessary. The training course of the CETIM – AFPI Vallée de l’Oise is meant for candidates at Bac level. for the training costs.AFPI de la Vallée de l’Oise). The personal training time-off can be used by employees who have been working for their firm for several years. completely or partially. to remunerate the candidate. if the organization that gives the personal training time-off money agrees. It enables small. Larger firms can rely on candidates with good basic knowledge to specialize. from one day to a few weeks. The “Quality Metrologist” course at the ENSAM trains versatile technicians who are capable of setting up a metrology function and managing it in a small.252 Metrology in Industry Applicants have to be under 26 years old to benefit from a qualification contract that makes it possible to receive remuneration and which subsidizes the firm in relation to the training costs. – the training centers in large companies.or medium-sized firm. . The continuing-education courses offered by the training organizations are of two types: they are either long-lasting (over 8 months) or short. or as higher-level technicians at Bac+ 3 level (Bordeaux ENSAM which trains quality metrologists).and medium-sized businesses to depend on personnel that are versatile in dimensional metrology and metrology function. Short courses are provided by a number of organizations. Its position is such that it complements the different diplomas and qualifications identified in France.

5. general or specialized. A large enough number of trainees are necessary to enable a company to amortize the cost of the course more easily. Specific training courses are experiencing a boom. general or specialized training courses about well-defined metrological aspects are being established. In this case. they make it possible to aim at precise objectives. . A “training” group of the French College of Metrology has played a large part in the collection of the information. and the coursework to be submitted. The choice of the organization is made along several criteria: its reputation in the selected subject. The very small firms find it difficult to have their personnel trained because the size of their staff is not large enough to make up for the absence of those people who are away training. 12. It is likely that. as this chapter is being written. The different organizations come up with a catalogue of inter-enterprise training courses. how much it will cost. they are also in a position to organize specific courses according to the specific needs of a company.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 253 – the adult training organizations. are taught. However. what teaching methods are used. how much theory and how much practice (it is important that there should be a practical side as it helps the students to grasp the theoretical concepts). the level of knowledge required to attend the course. They are opened to very different education levels (from the Bac level to that of engineer). The information to be found in the tables in this chapter does not pretend to be exhaustive it needs expansion. where it will be. The development of training via the internet may become one solution. It is also likely that some organizations that provide long-lasting courses have not been identified. only one company is responsible for the training. Very diverse subjects. how long the course lasts. Long-lasting training courses The information that appears in the following tables has been obtained from well-known organizations. – private specialized companies. The below-mentioned courses last more than eight months.

you have to take the (BULAT) test (technical English) and also meet the required conditions of professional experience (three years’ experience. optical measurements) Measurements and traceability Laser measurements. outside working hours.75003 PARIS Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Engineer in measuring instruments unknown Training available in the whole of France In 1st year: Bac+ 2 In 2nd year: after probationary cycle of the measuring instruments course 3 years 1st year: 360 hours (part-time) 2nd year: 280 hours (part-time) 3rd year: 2. you have to be at least 24.254 Metrology in Industry CNAM (PARIS) 292 rue Saint Martin .028 hours (full-time) Economic and social management and communication: 240 hours (evening classes) The training is done in theoretical and practical modules outside working hours Level at end Bac+ 5 of course Financing Nature Main items of the program Firm training scheme. quality. two of which are in the specialty) Contact Notes . culture. dimensional measurements Measurements of temperature and radiation Control of discrete event systems Management and economy of the firm Human and social management Communication. properties of the instruments and acquisition of the signals Electrical and optical measurements Options in the 2nd year: industrial checking (ground networks. optics (images. or personal training time-off Engineer Measurement and instruments: physical principles of sensors. To defend the thesis and obtain the diploma of engineer in instrumentsmeasurement. supervision. sensors and operators). metrology). you have to obtain all the scientific and technical modules and the management and communication modules. noise. expression Knowledge of professional English Mr Himbert (33 1 40 27 27 73) There are two stages in the training course: the probationary cycle (1st year) and the deepening cycle. quality metrology (signal. experiment plans.

connection of standards Choices. qualification of the personnel: responsibilities linked to the internal management of the sets of measuring instruments. hence a total of 300 hours Level at end Bac+ 3 of course Financing Nature Main items of the program Firm training scheme. ISO CEI 17025. method of supervision Training the firm’s personnel in metrology and setting up training programs Being able to organize normative watchfulness and watchfulness over the techniques of measurement Analysis of the value Management of the measuring means and of the personnel of a laboratory. ISO 10 012. technical negotiations.75003 PARIS Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Training of metrologist for the year 2000 2002 Maximum 12 Bac+ 2. In a small-or medium-sized firm the job may require its holder to head both quality and metrology Contact Notes . NF X 07 010) Securing conformity and keeping the firm in conformity Metrology measurement expert: calculation of uncertainty. technical responsibilities connected with the operations of calibration and verification Definition of the methods and procedures of calibration. or having worked for 3 to 5 years in a laboratory 10 months: one 30-hour-week per month. audit and follow up of subcontractors Mr Himbert (33 1 40 27 27 73) The training should lead to appointments as heads of the metrology function. capability. to the management of a set in the case of total or partial subcontracting. should award a certificate in the short-term Metrology function: organizational responsibilities and securing conformity with the quality systems of reference applicable to the firm (ISO 9001.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 255 CNAM (PARIS) 292 rue Saint Martin . or personal training time-off Training of head of metrology.

Employed person with recognized level of Bac Pro 10 months (4 months (450 hours) in training centre. for firms’ personnel with an experience in dimensional checking and metrology Nature Main items of the program Contact Notes . processing of the results. establishing uncertainties National calibration chain National standardization and ISO texts Analysis of needs in metrology Management of a set of measuring instruments Practice of measurements: influence quantities Rules about the setting up and the operation of a metrology laboratory Mr Gabriel – CETIM (33 3 44 67 33 59) Mr Jacquemain – AFPI Vallée de l’Oise (33 3 44 63 81 63) Great demand from industry Finding a job is easy after the course. by the establishment of a less demanding course.256 Metrology in Industry CETIM AFPI Vallée de l’Oise Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Controller in dimensional metrology 1997 8 to 16 Bac Pro. Over 50% of the trainees are hired by the firm where they have been trained This qualification should be widened in 2002. The trainees spend1 week at the centre and 2 weeks in the firm alternately Level at end Bac+ 1 of course Financing Continuing education Qualification contract Training time capital Personal training time-off Training of controller in dimensional metrology with attribution of diploma MQ 97 04 60 0158 Training centered on dimensional checking and metrology Metrology: vocabulary and generalities Concepts of quality and checking for quality Definition and setting up of procedures Measurement instruments and techniques Verification of the tolerances of products Applications of statistics. 6 months in a firm).

flowmetry Time/frequency Acoustics Ionizing radiations Physio-chemical tests Mr Senelaer (33 3 27 71 23 24) or Mrs Cordelle (33 3 27 71 22 22) Open to all holders of positions involving responsibility in metrology and who are able to: Understand metrology as a full-blown discipline Integrate the metrological component into the conception of products Conceive and implement measuring systems International character of the course. excellence.59508 DOUAI Cedex Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Metrological engineer or specialized master degree 1929 15 to 20 257 Hold a scientific diploma of Bac+ 5 or Bac+ 4 level and have professional experience International recruiting 1 year 7 months at the school (700 hours of lectures. particularly: Electricity. international (teaching in French and in English) General metrology Sensors and signals. pressure Volume. practice. force.Training for the Metrology Professions in France Higher School of Metrology (Ecole des Mines de Douai) 941 rue Charles Bourseul BP 838 . software engineering Data processing Working safety and legislation Quality and project management Metrology of different physical quantities. magnetism Dimensional metrology Mass. only training course of Bac+ 6 level Main items of the program Contact Notes . practical work and supervised practical work) 4 months or more of training in a firm Modulated over several years for firm executives Level at end Bac+ 6 of course The training is finalized by an engineer diploma or by a specialized masters degree accredited by the Conference of Higher Schools Nature Engineer or masters degree This training is based on 4 main concepts: innovation (contribution from research laboratories).

It also offers the trainee the opportunity to be assisted in the accomplishment of a specific mission in his firm Nature Main items of the program Contact Notes .258 Metrology in Industry ENSAM Bordeaux Esplanade des Arts et Métiers 33400 TALENCE Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Level at end of course Financing Training of personnel in charge of metrology 2002 6 to 12 Member of personnel in charge of metrology with Bac+ 2 level or with 10 years experience 248 hours over 9 months at the rate of 3 to 4 days every 3 weeks Assistance for a firm’s project possible (10 half-days) Bac+ 3 Provided by firms. enables some people in charge of metrology to increase their knowledge with a possibility of choosing modules. based on the principle of alternation. The course consists of 3 modules which can be separated: Metrology function (84 hours) Uncertainties and optimization (80 hours) Quality-audit training (84 hours) There is no provision at present for a diploma to be delivered at the end of the course Organization of the metrology function Expression of the metrological requirement and drafting of specifications Management of the measuring equipment Organization of a checking and calibration laboratory Determination of uncertainties and optimization of the metrology function Statistical Process Control (CMM) Quality process Setting up of self-checking and its management Training of personnel Audit of the metrology function Mr Le Roux (33 5 56 84 53 21) Mr Larquier (33 5 56 34 20 63) This course.

geometrical permissibility Checking of machine tools and other checkings connected with mechanical manufacturing Drafting of procedures. or job-seeker or working person with acknowledged Bac+ 2 level 10 months (4 months (470 hours) in a laboratory.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 259 ENSAM Bordeaux Esplanade des Arts et Métiers 33400 TALENCE Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Training of metrologists in charge of quality 1997 11 to 20 Bac+ 2 post-diploma. chemical metrology. accelerometry. mass.and medium-sized firms responsive to metrology A contribution is requested from firms Diploma at the end of the course Setting up of the metrology function Stimulation of awareness of different quantities: dimensional metrology. then the mission in a firm Significant assistance in the firm is provided (4 to 6 visits of about half a day) Moreover. electricity. pressure. 6 months in a firm) The trainees do the 4 months in a laboratory. the trainee can get in touch with his professional tutor at any time to obtain advice about accomplishing his mission Bac+ 3 Contribution of the Ministry of Industry to help make the small. realization of audits Determination of uncertainties of measurement and use of the Statistic Process Control Production management and self-checking in production Communication Mr Le Roux (33 5 56 84 53 21) Mr Larquier (33 5 56 34 20 63) There are many prospects In charge of the metrology function in small. Dimensional and three-dimensional checking. etc.or medium-sized firms In charge of quality: client or supplier In charge of quality in production In charge of a laboratory Level at end of course Financing Nature Main items of the program Contact Notes . temperature.

polarimetry Non-destructive control Calculation of the uncertainties when using the different types of sensors Use of experiment plans.). length. velocity. digital modelization. and environment At the end of the course. technological training in engineering. engineering. management of quality Organization of firms. electronics. etc. vibratory analysis.260 Metrology in Industry ENSIM (LE MANS) University of Maine Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course ENSIM engineer in industrial measurements 1995 60 to 70 2-year post-Bac classes. viscosity. pressure. acceleration. management. measurements of temperature. etc. materials. electronics. plus school records. weight. data-processing. optics.). acoustic and vibratory control. force. chemistry. signal processing and automatics Measurements and sensors: organization of metrology. etc. including: 800 hours of practical work 300 hours of lectures and industrial projects 6 to 10 months of training Bac+ 5 Engineer diploma authorized since 1995 by the commission of engineer titles General education in industrial instruments and measurements. production (manufacturing processes. General education in physics. colorimetry. the trainees can prepare one of the DEAs which are on the curriculum at the University of Maine (acoustics. flow. user-machine interaction) There are many opportunities for jobs and all the engineers find a job within months of leaving the school Level at end of course Nature Main items of the program Contact Notes . plus success at competitive exam. Masters degree-holders in 2nd year 3 years. nondestructive control. volumic mass. hygrometry. techniques of job seeking Mr Breteau (33 2 43 83 39 51) The fields open to the trainees are those of research (integration of sensors. quality control (metrology. or Bac+ 2. security systems.).

or equivalent Open to working people as part of continuing education 600 hours. measurements. automatisms and tests The intended prospects are: Being in charge of research or business in checking. followed by 12 weeks’ practical training Spread out over one school year Bac+ 3 Public financing Professional degree Adaptation modules Theoretical metrology Applied metrology Methods English 120-hour tutored project 12-week training course in industry: its purpose is to materialize the acquired knowledge in the context of professional practice Mr Bois ( 33 4 91 10 62 05) The aim of the “instrument metrology” professional degree is to train some foremen and higher-level technicians for the metrology function of firms to be capable of implementing. measurement and instruments Being in charge of the metrology/quality services Designer of measuring equipment Being in charge of a quality metrology mission Being in charge of maintaining process instruments Contact Notes . in a statutory and lawful industrial setting. detection of sources of uncertainty. technical and methodological abilities about instruments. calculation of uncertainties.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 261 University of Provence – University of Aix-Marseille Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Level at end of course Financing Nature Main items of the program Instrument metrology professional degree unknown unknown Technical Bac+ 2.

economy and growth of the firm. non-destructive checkings. setting up a checking on a coordinate measuring machine (CMM).) General training: communication. etc. setting up a checking at the surface plate based inspection. measuring and testing equipment Being in charge of a quality metrology mission Coordinator of research. technical English.262 Metrology in Industry IUT of Aix en Provence – University of the Mediterranean Title Professional degree in industrial production sciences with optional industrial checking. 150 hours for synthesis project and application) Spread over one school year Bac+ 3 Public financing Professional degree Completing a project: management. labor laws Computer and mathematical tools and methods. control of the project. or a technology transfer subject 12 weeks’ practical training during which trainees must assume responsibilities 33 4 42 93 90 82 The intended openings are: Being in charge of the metrology department Designer of checking. methods. 300 hours of profession-oriented options. by one individual or a team. non-dimensional industrial measurement Tutored project: it is the materialization. metrology of great lengths ISO permissibility. of an industrial subject. experience plans. dimensional metrology. checking unit Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Level at end of course Financing Nature Main items of the program Contact Notes . or equivalent Open to working people as part of continuing education 600 hours followed by 12 weeks’ practical training (150-hour foundation course. fundamental functions of industrial CAD systems Statistics Metrology: Qualification of a measurement. methodological tools (AMDEC. production quality Other option: simultaneous engineering 2000 8 Bac+ 2. metrology of surfaces.

statistics. audit. acceleration. light Scientific and legal metrology: national and international official organizations. written and oral communication. measurements. of impedance. of time and frequency. volumic mass. vibrations. masses. vocabulary of metrology. voltmeter. tools and methods for total quality. force. parameter curves. complex numbers Electrical measurements: definition and calculation of the mean values which are effective For variable currents. probabilities. metrology function. principles used in measuring temperatures. The trainee is paid by the firm which employs him under a qualification contract Bac+ 3 By the firm and an approved collecting joint organization Qualification of metrological technicians Mathematics: calculation of uncertainties. magnetic and electronic measurements Dimensional measurements: measurements of lengths. French and English Technical vocabulary of the metrological technician (French. acoustics. measurement of flow. results of measurements and connected uncertainties Quality assurance and communication: standards. certifying organizations. integral calculus. quality system.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 263 Lycée Jules Richard (PARIS) Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Level at end of course Financing Nature Main items of the program Training of metrological technician (qualification accepted by the National Joint Commission for Employment in the Metallurgical Industry) 1995 12 to 20 To have passed a DUT or a BTS 1 year. English) Mr Desbordes (33 1 53 72 83 60) Openings: In charge of the metrological service Assistant of person in charge of quality assurance Laboratory technician The trainees do not have any problem finding jobs. what is a problem is finding 20 candidates for the course Contact Notes . matrix calculus. alternately 600 hours’ training in Paris/the rest in the firm. definition of physical quantities. of the resistance of a resistor. ammeter. material resistance. pressure Other physical measurements: temperatures. measurements of humidity. measurement of power. linear and angular measurements.

all spread over one year Level at end of Bac+ 3 course Financing Nature Main items of the program By the trainee University degree of metrologist in charge of quality Applied mathematics and physics Characterization of materials Non-destructive checking Scientific and legal metrology Surface plate based inspection Calibration of measuring instruments Measuring machines Dimensions.or medium-sized businesses or industries. Production engineering BTS) or people of a like level recognized by validation of professional experience 520 hours + project and training in a firm. OGP. reading of plan and CAD (design and drawing) English Communication Office automation Applied statistics Quality Reliability 33 4 94 14 21 77 The jobs offered come from all the types of firms. small. They are generally posts that involve responsibilities such as: Person in charge of the metrology service Designer of checking. large companies. measuring and testing equipment Person in charge of a quality metrology mission Contact Notes . laboratories. Physical Measurements.264 Metrology in Industry University of Toulon and Var BP 132 83957 LA GARDE Cedex Title Year of setting up Number of trainees Level at admission Duration of course Training of metrologist in charge of quality 1992 10 to 14 Bac+ 2 (DUT GMP.

when the principle of precaution is called to mind. chemical. of doubting which goes with any measurement result. of meaning of significant numbers. Prospects for the development of long-lasting training courses It seems obvious that firms have a need for specialists in the sectors of measurement at a time when they are determined to reach absolute faultlessness. The hardest part for training organizations is to find candidates for these jobs. food. It seems important to promote such initiatives until metrology is integrated into school programs. Now. The curriculum does not draw enough attention to the importance of measure in daily life and to the problems which arise when measurement should be controlled correctly.7. the methodist. the Education Secretary. as students are poorly informed about them and the image of metrology professions is still austere. The need for this collective awareness is essential so as not to run the risk of making irreparable errors. The user-friendliness of data-processing means has dimmed the notions of observation. uppermost satisfaction from clients and the highest profitability. The teaching of basic notions of measurement control has practically disappeared from the initial school years. .6. and the expert in metrology. and when environmental. but it is the outcome of a whole process in which the leading parts are played by the operator. particularly in secondary schools. Probably the appeal can be emphasized today. the agencies for the employment of managerial and non-managerial staff conscious of the risks that can be generated by badly-controlled measurements. the big companies have to act as catalysts to make the authorities. medical measuring grow more and more extensive.Training for the Metrology Professions in France 265 12. 12. The teaching of metrology in secondary schools The training courses specific to metrology are justified by the deficiencies in the traditional school system. it is important not to make measurements any way and to remember that the measurement is not imputable to the instrument. Initiatives from the French College of Metrology and the METRODIFF association to arouse awareness at different levels. have revealed pupils’ interest in metrology.

Qualification des opérateurs en métrologie dimensionnelle.or medium-sized firms. Fritz. Metrology in the Firm: The Tool of Quality (1996 edition) P.266 Metrology in Industry 12. Larquier. S Gabriel and D Jacquemain. Besoins des entreprises: compétences des métrologues en Europe – Requirements of firms: abilities of metrologists in Europe.8. Desbordes. L'école supérieure de métrologie: une nouvelle formation d’ingénieur – Higher School of metrology: a new training for engineers. International Congress of Metrology (2001) French College of Metrology. International Congress of Metrology (1999) . Le paysage de la formation longue durée en métrologie française – Background of long-lasting training in French metrology. a way to integrate the metrological function in small. International Congress of Metrology (2001) B. International Congress of Metrology (1999) M. un moyen pour intégrer la fonction métrologique dans les entreprises – Qualification of operators in dimensional metrology. Souquet. Bibliography Documentation from the different organizations referred to P.

The following writters have taken part in the compilation of the book: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jean-Yves Arriat Luc Erard Claude Koch Philippe Lanneau Bernard Larquier Jean-François Magana José Montes Roberto Perissi Marc Priel Patrick Reposeur Klaus-Dieter Schitthelm Patrizia Tavella Jean-Michel Virieux Ascent Consulting Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE) Retired Management Services BEA Métrologie Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale (OIML) Solvay/Belgium ENIQ/Italy Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE) Comité Français d’Accréditation (COFRAC) Metrology Expert/Germany IENGF/Italy METAS/Switzerland Pierre Barbier has led the working group and coordinated the compilation of the book.cfmetrologie. Collège Français de Métrologie 1 rue Gaston Boissier 75724 Paris Cedex 15 – France www.com .The Authors This book has been written by a working group of the Collège Français de Métrologie.

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118. 53. 182 I Identification 228-232 Identification sheet 112. 101 . 100 Freedom of bias 183. 115-118 Indirect measurement 214-215 Influencing quantities 212-213. 168-169 M. 199 Bank of measuring instruments 113. 41 Adjusting 241 Air conditioning 198.Index A. 161 label 231 results 133. 153. 159. G Field of measurement 210 Fitting 239. 159. 59. 96. 181. 122 Maximum permissible error 79. B Accreditation 54-55. 160 Covariance 180. 28. 54-55. 154-157. 116 Legal metrology 67-77 Long-lasting training courses 253265 D. 120. 34. 160 Continuing education 251-253 Continuous improvement 234 Control chart 152. E Differential measurement 214-215 Direct measurement 214-215 Distribution of the measurements 228 Error 164-165. 35-42. 188 Graphs 220 C Calibration 22-24. 97-100 interval 149. N Maintenance 116. 115-118 European cooperation 45. 31. 160. 158. 186. 241 Follow-up 123-125 Freedom from bias 96. 75 Accuracy 36. 134 Capability of measuring instruments 29 Check standard 154. 215 Initial training 250-251 International system of units 129 L Label 111-112. 150. 70 F.

36 to national standards 127. 54. 141-145 Regional organization 51-59 Relative humidity 198 Repeatability 87-88. 169-171 T Temperature variations 196 Traceability 127 chain 126. 134. 86-89. 117. 90. 186 P Periodicity 111.270 Metrology in Industry Measurement process 79. 26. 42. 184. 101. 137. 192 Standards 39-42 Storing 121 Subcontracting 232 Systematic error 165. 202. 142. 65 metrology institute 130 S Scientific metrology 74 Stability 100-101 Standard deviation 166. 198. 179. 36. 97100. 174. 170. 251. 122 Recognition agreements 50. 98 engineer 248-250 function 20. 186. 251. 145 Training 247-266 True value 169. 94. 255259. 152-157 control process 236 uncertainty 163. 135. 169-170 Range of measurement 210 Receipt 119. 150. 187. 263 Metrologist 247. 119. 55 Reference materials 131. 187-193 Reproducibility 184. 205207 Process approach 235 V. 139. 92. 129-131. W Variance 166. 183. 149. 180. 143 of the measurements 22. 80-86 operator 250. 187-188 . 165. 133 Verification results 133. 200. 96. 100. 252 technician 249. 186. 31. 141. 252. 140. 183 Measuring principle 213 Metrological confirmation 95. 137. 175. 123-124 Procedure 195. 91. 248. 181. 264 Metrology profession 248 Mode of operation 207 Monitoring the measurement process 149 National calibration system 63. 135. 90. 191-192 Verification 81. 21. 30. 174-177. 188. 134 Work instruction 116-117 R Radioelectric disturbances 199 Random error 165.

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