Lecture note of Intensive seminar on m-commerce
Mar, 1st~Mar, 5th, 2004
Content: 1 Overview of m-commerce 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 3 M-commerce: definitions M-commerce: components and market players M-commerce: characteristics M-commerce: generations
Framework for m-commerce M-commerce: infrastructure 3.1 3.2 Wireless networking infrastructure Security technologies Emerging applications Functional platform of m-commerce applications Impact of wireless infrastructure failures on m-commerce applications. Scenarios for m-commerce applications Mobile payment methods Mobile payment process Mobile payment system
M-commerce: applications 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4
Mobile payment 5.1 5.2 5.3
Issues in m-commerce
Key words: Mobile commerce, M-commerce application, Network infrastructure, Wireless infrastructure, Mobile payment, M-commerce issues.
1. Overview of m-commerce 1.1 M-commerce: definitions Mobile e-commerce (also called mobile commerce or m-commerce) is defined as all activities related to a (potential) commercial transaction conducted through communications networks that interface with wireless (or mobile) devices. (Peter Tarasewich, Robert C. Nickerson and Merrill Warkentin, ISSUES IN MOBILE E-COMMERCE, Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 8, 2002) 41-64) Mobile electronic commerce (M-Commerce) is any type of transaction of an economic value having at least at one end a mobile terminal and thus using the mobile telecommunications network. (Aphrodite Tsalgatidou and Jari Veijalainen, Mobile Electronic Commerce: Emerging Issues, 1st International Conference on E-Commerce and Web Technologies, London, Greenwich, UK, September 4-6, 2000, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 477-486) Mobile commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services through wireless hand-held devices such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), mp3 players, digital cameras, handheld gaming devices and computers. (Sojen Pradhan, Mobile Commerce in the Automobile Industry, Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Computers and Communications (ITCC.03)) Mobile commerce is defined as any transaction with a monetary value that is conducted via a mobile telecommunications network. (Xiaolin Zheng, Deren Chen, Study of Mobile Payments System, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on E-Commerce (CEC’03)) M-commerce is the use of mobile handheld devices to communicate, interact and conduct transactions via a mobile or wireless network. (Mylini Munusamy and Hiew Pang Leang, Characteristics of Mobile Devices and an Integrated M-Commerce Infrastructure for M-Commerce Deployment, Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Internet Computing and E-Commerce (ICECE 2002), Florida, USA.) M-commerce is all about wireless e-commerce that is where mobile devices are used to do business on the internet. (S. Schwiderski-Grosche and H. Knospe, Secure Mobile Commerce, Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal, October, 2002) Mobile commerce is exchanges or buying and selling of commodities, service, or information on the internet by using mobile handheld devices. (Chung-wei Lee, Wen-Chen Hu, Jyh-haw Yeh , A System Model for Mobile Commerce, Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCSW'03))
This component works as an important gateway to link the web merchant server and the various wireless devices.Yen. Mobile Commerce: The Convergence of E-Commerce and Wireless Technology.2
M-commerce: components and market players A mobile commerce transaction may involve multiple network components such as location database. ‡A Content conversion server: converts and reformats HTML content to a format such as WML. This component is critical to distinguish between the traditional voice communication and wireless data communication. Mobile Networks and Applications 7. Hsin-Ginn Hwang. SNOW. and multicast server. It securely stores subscriber payment information and transparently fills the form for the subscribers’ payment details and sends them into the web merchant’s payment
. David. UPKAR VARSHNEY and ANDREW P. Also different transactions may require very different types and number of network components. 2002•j ‡@ Web merchant server: the merchant’s virtual storefront on the internet presenting products and/or services for sale.1. like a physical store from which a customer may shop. International Journal of Advanced Media & Communications . Supporting Mobile Commerce Applications Using Dependable Wireless Networks. ‡C Digital payment server: commonly referred to as a ‘digital wallet server’. and Shi-Ming Huang.C. 2002)
Figure 1 Possible components in a m-commerce transaction
A viable m-commerce environment requires a number of key components:•i Emily Yun Zeng. which wireless devices can interpret and present through displaying devices. ‡B WAP server: separates wireless data commands from wireless voice traffic and routes them to the appropriate application. user preference database. (ALISHA D. MALLOY. 225–234.
‡D Wireless payment proxy: converts wireless commands from mobile devices into commands that can be understood by digital payment servers. by being cross-linked to digital payment servers. ‡E Subscriber management system: maintains the mobile operators’ subscriber traffic. ICEIS’2003)
Figure 2 Wireless actors’ map
. account and billing information and. The mobile business market is highly fragmented and the provisioning of complete mobile services solutions requires the collaboration of a large number of different market players. (Giovanni Camponovo. Yves Pigneur.page. A graphical representation of the whole industry with the different actors and their principal relationships is given as follows. can act as private label account issuing systems. BUSINESS MODEL ANALYSIS APPLIED TO MOBILE BUSINESS.
Freedom of movement: services can be used while on the move.1. networks exhibit a characteristic economic phenomenon known as network effects. b. especially including network operators and device manufacturers. Broad reach) Benefits of value-added attributes (Ubiquity. Network operators also have total control over a number of other important assets. ‡@ Mobility is the most important characteristic of mobile business. Since the provision of a service typically requires several components. network effects and proprietary assets. Personalization.
Mobile commerce: Attributes and Benefits ‡@ ‡A Specific attributes of m-commerce (Mobility. Instant connectivity. Localization of products and services)
Exclusive control over important assets: the mobile business market is also characterized by the existence of important assets that are under the exclusive control of a firm. because it represents its only distinctive advantage upon which mobile services can build their value proposition. Reachability: users can be reached anywhere anytime. Convenience. Some constraints: limited and more expensive bandwidth
Network effects: networks are composed of a set of components connected together by links. an example of what economists call a positive consumption externality.
Implications: from these characteristics it follows that the provisioning of complete mobile services solutions requires the collaboration of a large number of market players. Because of this complementarity. Ubiquity: the possibility of using services anywhere. Convenience: as mobile devices are always at hand e. and they can restrict it to particular persons and contexts d. independent of the user's location.3
M-commerce: characteristics The mobile business industry presents a certain number of peculiar economic characteristics such as mobility. they are complementary to each other. c.
Figure 3 The characteristics of m-commerce
1. This framework will allow developers and providers to strategize and effectively implement mobile commerce applications. and designers. so different parties (vendors.) can focus on individual
. which was analog based 2G (Digital network): The second generation of digital wireless technology. providers. etc.4
M-commerce: generations 1G (Analog network): The first generation of wireless technology. accommodates mainly text 2. supports rich media such as video clips 4G: The expected next generation of wireless technology
Figure 4 Mobile evolutions (source: 2001-3 iNavigate Sdn Bhd)
2. simplifying the design and development.5G (GPRS): Interim wireless technology that can accommodate limited graphics 3G (Broadband network): The third generation of digital wireless technology. The framework defines multiple functional layers. Framework for m-commerce
To help future applications and technologies handle m-commerce. we propose the framework as shown in figure 5.
185–198. Various players and possible interactions in mobile commerce are shown in figure 6. content providers. Mobile Commerce: Framework.
user infrastructure. Consumer-based m-commerce applications refer to normal daily commerce
. The framework also provides a developer and provider plane to address the different needs and roles of application developers. It shows that the design of new mobile commerce applications should take into consideration the general capabilities of user infrastructure (mobile devices). Mobile Networks and Applications 7. 2002)
Figure 5 A framework for m-commerce
This framework has four levels: m-commerce applications. Applications and Networking Support. and network infrastructure. Each one of these could build its products and services using the functionalities provided by others. and not the individual devices. generally they are grouped into two categories: consumer-based and business-based.
Figure 6 Mobile commerce life cycle
There are many wireless services and applications under the umbrella of m-commerce.layers. (UPKAR VARSHNEY. RON VETTER. and service providers.
Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences – 2001)
. etc. Examples in this category include mobile inventory tracking systems. A comparison of several wireless and mobile networks is provided in Table 1. A commerce scenario in this case is more complex than a consumer-based scenario.Y. 199–212. (Upkar Varshney. a flexible framework that autonomously manages not only simple services but also complex ones from mobile devices is proposed here. M-commerce: infrastructure
Wireless networking infrastructure Networking support from wireless networks is crucial in realizing mobile commerce applications. standards. Examples include receiving stock prices. mobile offices. Ron Vetter. As depicted in figure 7. technologies. Mobile Networks and Applications 7. There have been significant advances in wireless and mobile networks in the last few years in terms of protocols. (GARY SHIH and SIMON S. shopping on-line. etc. SHIM.activities that are most likely to be conducted by anyone who is a user of a wireless device. 2002)
Figure 7 Business-based m-commerce framework scenario
3. A Service Management Framework for M-Commerce Applications. getting driving directions. wireless data centers. A Framework for the Emerging Mobile Commerce Applications. finding restaurants. quality of service. and user acceptance. Business-based m-commerce refers to business applications that are applied in a corporate or business environment to facilitate business transactions and to improve productivity within a company.
and the ability to roam across multiple wireless networks. To help network designers and developers. 2002)
Table 2 Wireless infrastructure requirements for mobile commerce
A global and comprehensive wireless infrastructure for mobile commerce applications as shown in figure 8. Mobile Networks and Applications 7.Table 1 A comparison of several mobile and wireless networks
Mobile commerce applications would present five general networking requirements: location management. 185–198. In this
. or could be through an ad hoc wireless network that can connect to the IP-based networks via satellites. and GSM networks. and support for Quality-of-Service. A mobile user can use mobile commerce applications in several different ways. A user could connect directly via satellite-based systems. Mobile Commerce: Framework. these five networking requirements into more specific attributes are translated as shown in table 2. network dependability. It could be through infrastructure-based wireless networks such as cellular. PCS. multicast support. Applications and Networking Support. (UPKAR VARSHNEY. RON VETTER.
Depending on the
. response time and transaction rate. This infrastructure also supports efficient location management. especially for those transactions involving monetary value. Mobile Networks and Applications 7. it may be possible to select one wireless network for mobile commerce transaction by translating location requirements of applications to specific attributes. RON VETTER. 185–198. Applications and Networking Support. Loss of access to one or more wireless networks due to various failures could be overcome by switching to the remaining wireless network and still support most of the requirements of m-commerce applications.
Security technologies Security challenges: m-commerce is not possible without a secure environment. Mobile Commerce: Framework. (UPKAR VARSHNEY. and provides fault-tolerance to increase levels dependability. Since a user may access multiple networks that may provide different levels of horizontal and vertical location accuracy.scenario. 2002)
Figure 8 A global comprehensive wireless infrastructure for mobile commerce. multicast. a mobile user can roam across multiple different wireless networks and a dynamic QoS negotiation may be required due to vastly different resources and users of these networks.
mobile ticketing. mobile e-billing and mobile e-salary. (Mylini Munusamy and Hiew Pang Leang. mobile cash. mobile telematics.) Be classified as mobile financial services. especially those involving payment. Characteristics of Mobile Devices and an Integrated M-Commerce Infrastructure for M-Commerce Deployment. mobile shopping.)
4. for example. and network operators
Security of network technologies
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networks) Bluetooth (Wireless technology developed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group. This raises questions regarding the security of the user’s data within and beyond the access network. mobile inventory management. Mobile shopping would involve services such as mobile retailing. there are different security challenges. mobile auctions. Within these classifications. need to be secured to assure customers. mobile payment. and mobile information management. mobile financial services includes services such as mobile banking. integrity. This defined protocol stack that permits ad hoc piconets and connections to peripheral devices. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Internet Computing and E-Commerce (ICECE 2002)) There are potentially an unlimited number of mobile commerce applications.1 Emerging applications (Various classes of m-commerce applications have been defined. mobile broking. various services may be identified. mobile education.points of view of the different participants in an m-commerce scenario. mobile advertising. mobile reservations and even mobile postcards. and authenticity The network operator infrastructure: security mechanisms for the end user often terminate in the access network. a few
. mobile office. mobile entertainment.
4. These challenges related to:
The mobile device: confidential user data on the mobile device as well as the device itself should be protected from unauthorized use The radio interface: access to a telecommunication network requires the protection of transmitted data in terms of confidentiality. merchants. The kind of m-commerce application: m-commerce applications.
Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences – 2001)
Table 3 Classes of m-commerce applications
4. Ron Vetter. (Upkar Varshney. A Framework for the Emerging Mobile Commerce Applications. Mobile Commerce in the Automobile Industry.03))
. The emerging unlimited number of potential mobile commerce applications can be classified into the following five platforms set out in table 4.2 Functional platform of m-commerce applications There are many ways mobile devices are used to conduct business and exchange information. (Sojen Pradhan. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Computers and Communications (ITCC.important classes of applications are identified and some examples within each class are provided as shown in Table 3.
(ALISHA D. location. 225–234.4 Scenarios for m-commerce applications (UPKAR VARSHNEY. RON VETTER. For example. MALLOY. Supporting Mobile Commerce Applications Using Dependable Wireless Networks. 2002) Mobile financial applications (MFA): Mobile financial applications are likely to be one
. SNOW. Therefore. 2002)
Table 5 Impact of wireless infrastructure failures on m-commerce applications
4. and authentication servers. mobile auctions may need multicast.3 Impact of wireless infrastructure failures on m-commerce applications.Table 4 Functional platform of m m-commerce applications
4. Mobile Commerce: Framework. Mobile Networks and Applications 7. while mobile advertising could just use a location database. Applications and Networking Support. failures of different network components would affect mobile commerce transactions differently. 185–198. Mobile Networks and Applications 7. UPKAR VARSHNEY and ANDREW P. Different transactions may require very different types and number of network components (table 5).
services. very targeted advertising can be done. thus improving customer service and obtaining a competitive edge over other businesses. and possibly even people. mobile money transfer.
Product location and search (PLS): This class of applications includes locating an item
in a particular area or location. The tracking of goods may help service providers in determining the time of delivery to customer. and whether it is available in a specified area or not. These could involve a variety of applications such as mobile banking and brokerage service. which concerns with finding an item (or person) with certain specifications.of the most important components of m-commerce.
Figure 9 Several mobile financial services
Mobile advertising: Mobile advertising is also a very important class of m-commerce
applications. and mobile micro-payments as shown in figure 9. Using demographic information collected by wireless service providers and information on the current location of mobile users.
Figure 10 A possible scenario for mobile advertising and shopping
Mobile inventory management (MIM): This class of applications involves location
tracking of goods.
Proactive service management (PSM): This class of applications is based on collecting
5. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on E-Commerce (CEC’03)) Basis of payment: Mobile payment methods currently in use or under trial may be classified according to the basis of payment
Account-based: every consumer is associated with a specific account maintained by an Internet Payment Provider (IPP) Token-based: the alternative to maintaining an account for each consumer is to use electronic tokens. a wireless business re-engineering application can be used which allows on-the-spot claim adjustment. i. entertainment and other services: With an increasingly mobile
society. going back to the office.e. To improve this business practice. One such application may involve collecting information about the aging components of an automobile (shown in figure 11). This process takes a long time and is not very efficient. In token-based payment methods. consumers typically need to convert actual currency to their electronic equivalent. video-on-demand services. and other entertainment-oriented services.
Mobile auction. While mobile. Deren Chen. Study of Mobile Payments System.1 Mobile payment methods Existing systems can be classified and compared according to several standards: (Xiaolin Zheng. and then taking suitable actions. tokens.pertinent information about current or near-future user needs and providing services to users proactively. people may prefer to be involved in some business or entertainment activities. These include mobile auction/reverse auction.
Figure 11 Information transmission on aging automobile components to dealers
Wireless business re-engineering: Many insurance business situations involve going to
customers premises. Many of these services can be offered to people through mobile devices and wireless networks. Mobile payment
. more and more people are on the move. taking notes of a particular situation.
Medium of payment: In terms of the medium of payment. Payment methods that adopt the real-time or “cash”-like payment schedule involve some form of electronic currency that is exchanged during a transaction. Consumers receive the content and consume it before paying. the mobile service run in Japan by the leading mobile operator. it has the card directly read by the mobile phone. Consumers pay in advance to obtain the content they desire. Therefore. the IPP or CP authenticates the consumer and verifies that the consumer has sufficient funds to make the purchase.
Payment transactions have identified multiple dimensions. the mobile payment methods can be classified as follows
Mobile payment by bank account or credit card Without directly access to the card during the payment. these payment systems are based on the established payment methods such as direct debit or credit card. A distinction between the different types of payments should be also described. Mobile payment by phone bill: this method offers settlement via phone bill for general m-payment. reloadable Visa cash cards. Examples of real-time payment methods are e-Cash and beenz.Timing of payment: Mobile payment can be made at different times
Real-time (cash). offers this kind of settlement to content providers using its portal. a classification of the payment market’s dimensions is proposed in this following table adapted from (Telecom Media Networks 2002).g. Smart cards that store value and electronic “wallets” (e. without direct physical access to the respective card. Electronic cheques and credit cards are examples of credit-based payment methods. Proton-based cards) are examples of these kinds of payment methods. Post-paid (credit). NTT DoCoMo. Put the payment card into the mobile phone. Pre-paid (debit). I-mode.
Figure 12 Mobile Payment Main Phases
Suppose the consumer and content provider both have accounts in the financial institution.Table 6 The different payment dimensions
5. the trusted third party and the payment service provider. 2002). Study of Mobile Payments System. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on E-Commerce (CEC’03))
.2 Mobile payment process Mobile payment infrastructures were based on four-parties models which gather the consumer. (Xiaolin Zheng. the merchant. The main phases of a mobile payment are described below in Figure 12 (Buhan et al. Deren Chen. The process of pre-pay and account-based payment method are show in Figure 13.
Financial institutions verify the request of virement (i. After receiving the feedback of financial institution. mobile payment system sends successful information of virement and a request of delivery to the content provider. the system inquiries some details with certain content provider. and packs the request in the CMPP format. then transfers them to the Mobile Payment System. Request of virements. counting the sum of business. After receiving the request in CMPP format. The mobile interface platform classifies the consumer requests in terms of service number.e. Send original request of purchase and payment. Return payment result to consumer. Inquiry and verification of content provider (CP). The content provider sends out the merchandise to the consumer.
. and sending the request of virements to the financial institution. Validation of virement. The consumers indicate their intent on purchase and payment by short message service (SMS). Return payment result to content provider. The mobile interface platform transfers the feedback to certain consumer in terms of mobile number. verify the balance). After receiving the feedback from financial institution. Return the original notification of result. deal with the virement and send a feedback (success or failure) to system. the mobile payment system transfers the feedback to the mobile interface platform.Figure 13 Mobile Payment Process
It mainly includes following steps: Register. such as checking the validity. If the CP agrees with the request from consumer. Delivery. Send worked payment request. system will preprocess the request from consumer. The consumer needs to open an account with the Mobile Payment Provider (MPP) to enable mobile payment. And the content provider sends feedback.
(Jan Ondrus. Coupling Mobile Payments and CRM in the Retail Industry) In order to determine the success of a payment system.5.3 Mobile payment system Mobile payments are generally defined as payments carried out wirelessly via a mobile device. we propose three dimensions. This mobile payment framework is inspired from a m-business application framework designed by (Camponovo and Pigneur 2003). juridical and technological requirements (de Clercq 2002). (as show in Figure 15)
. Yves Pigneur. de Clercq proposes some commercial.
Table 7 Some requirements for the success of a m-payment system
To have a better understanding of the technologies in mobile payment.
Figure 14 Mobile payment framework
Mobile payment system includes the following layers.
It holds information of consumer and the business data. System monitor and control. Customer service. according to the track of each interface such as mobile operating network and banking. This module ensures the consumers to get the corresponding service.
. this module controls the number of businesses. This module monitors the working state and traffic. It monitors and controls the system’s operation. and load/uninstall the operation interfaces.Figure 15 Layered framework of mobile payment
The functional modules of mobile payment system are summarized in Figure 16. Control of communicating interface. Query and statistic for service states. startup/stop the operational management to modify the running parameters of system. Charge account. and ensures the running in gear of each interface. Based on the traffic of mobile network. This module generates and registers the charges of different business. Database.
Transaction platform: the core of our mobile payment system. Statistic and analysis for business. It provides a query interface for consumers.
organizational level. One useful paradigm for the examination of these issues is a viewpoint containing multiple dimensions (Figure 17). and geographic level—represents an alternate continuum for evaluation. (Peter Tarasewich. or global issues.Figure 16 Functional modules graph of mobile payment system
6. implementation. application. Robert C. The classification system can be augmented by alternative perspectives. Issues in m-commerce
There are numerous issues related to the design. and management of mobile e-commerce systems. Each distinct dimension—technical level. These issues may be categorized as technology. 2002) 41-64)
Figure 17 An alternate classification system for mobile e-commerce issues
. Nickerson and Merrill Warkentin. Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 8. ISSUES IN MOBILE E-COMMERCE.
Mobile e-commerce technology issues Mobile e-commerce technology issues can be categorized into those related to:
Mobile clients (Table 8 summarizes the issues related to mobile e-commerce mobile client issues)
Table 8 Summary of mobile e-commerce mobile client issues
Communications infrastructure (Table 9 summarizes the issues related to mobile e-commerce communications infrastructure)
Table 9 Summary of mobile e-commerce communications infrastructure issues
Other technology (Table 10 summarizes the issues related to other mobile e-commerce technology)
(Table 11 summarizes the issues related to mobile e-commerce applications.)
Table 11 Summary of mobile e-commerce application issues limitations
.Table 10 Summary of other mobile e-commerce technology issues systems
Mobile e-commerce application issues
A number of applications of wireless technologies for e-commerce are currently constrained by technology limitations and issues.
(Table 12 summarizes the global issues related to mobile e-commerce. social. cultural. and technical differences among countries.Mobile e-commerce global issues
The global use of wireless technologies and applications adds another layer of complexity to the issues in m-commerce. political.)
Table 12 Summary of mobile e-commerce global issues
. This complexity derives from the legal.
ALISHA D. Mobile Commerce in the Automobile Industry. Mobile Commerce: The Convergence of E-Commerce and Wireless Technology. Supporting Mobile Commerce Applications Using Dependable Wireless Networks. 225–234. 2000. ISSUES IN MOBILE E-COMMERCE. Hsin-Ginn Hwang. 477-486 Chung-wei Lee. A System Model for Mobile Commerce. 185–198. BUSINESS MODEL ANALYSIS APPLIED TO MOBILE BUSINESS. Mobile Networks and Applications 7. Jyh-haw Yeh . ICEIS’2003 Jan Ondrus. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2002 Upkar Varshney. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Computers and Communications (ITCC. October. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Internet Computing and E-Commerce (ICECE 2002). Mobile Commerce: Framework. Knospe. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on E-Commerce (CEC’03)
. International Journal of Advanced Media & Communications . A Service Management Framework for M-Commerce Applications. Yves Pigneur. London. Yves Pigneur. 199–212. RON VETTER. Wen-Chen Hu. Applications and Networking Support. Florida. UK.Yen. 2002 UPKAR VARSHNEY. Secure Mobile Commerce. and Shi-Ming Huang.C. Characteristics of Mobile Devices and an Integrated M-Commerce Infrastructure for M-Commerce Deployment. David. Study of Mobile Payments System. Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences – 2001 Xiaolin Zheng.Y. MALLOY. Nickerson and Merrill Warkentin. SNOW. 1st International Conference on E-Commerce and Web Technologies. USA Peter Tarasewich. 2002) 41-64 Sojen Pradhan. Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 8. 2002 GARY SHIH and SIMON S. Coupling Mobile Payments and CRM in the Retail Industry Mylini Munusamy and Hiew Pang Leang. A Framework for the Emerging Mobile Commerce Applications. Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCSW'03) Emily Yun Zeng. SHIM. Robert C. Mobile Electronic Commerce: Emerging Issues. Ron Vetter. Greenwich. pp. UPKAR VARSHNEY and ANDREW P. September 4-6. Deren Chen. 2002 Giovanni Camponovo. Schwiderski-Grosche and H. 2002 Aphrodite Tsalgatidou and Jari Veijalainen. Mobile Networks and Applications 7.03) S. Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal. Mobile Networks and Applications 7.