# 3.

Antenna Concepts and Analysis
• • • Wire Antennas Aperture Antennas Microstrip Antennas

Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling

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3.1 Wire Antennas
• • • • • •
Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling

Dipole Antennas and Derivates Antenna Matching and Balancing Loop Antennas Yagi-Uda Antennas Helix Antennas and Broadband Antennas Mobile Phone Antennas
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Wire antennas 1
• Oldest antenna form • Most prevalent antenna form • Nearly any imaginable antenna shape and configuration • Simple concept • Easy construction • Inexpensive
Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling

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Wire antennas 2 • Many analytical solutions have been presented • Modern numerical solutions .g.Easy application to computers .Usable for many wire configurations • High accuracy of simple theory Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 4 . Method of Moments (MoM) .Simple concepts. e.

Example of a wire antennas Base station antenna for GSM Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 5 .

Stutzman.Straight Wire Dipole 1 for L < λ /2 current distribution ⎛ ⎛L ⎞⎞ I ( z ) = I m sin ⎜ k ⎜ − z ⎟ ⎟ . ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎝2 Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling L z ≤ 2 Maximum current at the terminals: ⎛ L⎞ I ( z = 0 ) = I m sin ⎜ k ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 6 Source: W.A. Wiley. 1981 . New York. G.L. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design.

Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design.Straight Wire Dipole 2 current distribution for various centre-fed dipoles Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: W.A. New York.L. Stutzman. G. 1981 7 . Wiley.

1981 Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 8 .L.A. Stutzman. Wiley. G.Straight Wire Dipole farfield pattern 1 The radiation integral: f (θ ) = ∫ I ( z ' )e − jkz ' cosθ dz ' L 2 L − 2 leads to the far-zone electric field: Eθ ⎛ kL ⎞ ⎛ kL ⎞ cos ⎜ cos θ ⎟ − cos ⎜ ⎟ − jkr e ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ jη Im 2π r sin θ for L = λ/2: ⎛π ⎞ cos ⎜ cos θ ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ F (θ ) = sin θ Source: W. New York. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design.

7148 sin θ 9 Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: W. Wiley.Straight Wire Dipole farfield pattern 2 for L = λ: cos (π cos θ ) + 1 F (θ ) = 2sin θ for L = 3λ/2: ⎛ 3π ⎞ cos ⎜ cos θ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ F (θ ) = 0. G.L. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design.A. 1981 . Stutzman. New York.

Balanis. 1997 10 . A. New York. 2nd Ed.25λ Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: C. Wiley.Straight Wire Dipole farfield pattern 3 Radiation pattern for L = 1. Antenna Theory.

Straight Wire Dipole Input impedance 1 with the radiated power Pr: 1 Pr = 2η 2π π 2 Im η2 ∫∫ 0 0 ( 2π r ) 2 ⎧ ⎛ kL ⎞ ⎛ kL ⎞ ⎫ cos ⎜ cos θ ⎟ − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎪ r 2 sin θ dθ dφ ⎨ ⎬ sin θ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 2 the radiation resistance Rr gives: 2 Pr Rr = 2 Im Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling for L = λ/2: Rr = 73Ω 11 .

Straight Wire Dipole Input impedance 2 for L = λ/2: Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Z in = 73 + j 42. Stutzman.A. New York. 1981 . Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design. Wiley. G.L.5Ω 12 Source: W.

A. 1997 0<L<λ/4 λ/4<L< λ/2 λ/2<L< 0. Balanis. 2nd Ed.7(π L/λ)2. Wiley.14(π L/λ)4. New York.637λ 11. Antenna Theory.Straight Wire Dipole Input impedance 3 Length L Input resistance Rin (Ω) 20π2(L/λ)2 24.4 Approximations for the input impedance: Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: C.1713 .

49λ 0. 1981 Resonant length L 0. Wiley.A.475λ 0.Straight Wire Dipole. New York. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design. Stutzman. G. shortening by thick wires L/2a 5000 50 Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: W.455λ Shortening 2% 5% 9% 14 10 .L.

1981 15 . New York. Stutzman. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design.Folded Dipole Antenna 1 Transmission line mode Antenna mode Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: W.L. Wiley.A. G.

Folded Dipole Antenna 2 Folded dipole PF = 1 2 Z in I F 2 Dipole PD = 1 2 Z in I D 2 in the antenna mode 1 IF = ID 2 Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling for L = λ/2 Z in = 4 Z D 280Ω 16 Source: W. New York. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design.L. Stutzman. 1981 .A. G. Wiley.

Antenna Matching and Feeding Two primary feeding considerations: • • Matching between transmission line and antenna Excitation of the current distribution on the antenna Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: W. G. New York. Stutzman. 1981 17 . Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design.A.L. Wiley.

Important point: • • Good matching not always necessary High voltages can arise on the feeding line with high power applications 18 Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling .Antenna Matching 1 Reflected and transmitted power in relation to VSWR Ways of matching: • • • Discrete matching network λ/4-line transformer Tuning devices like stubs etc.

L.A. Wiley. New York.Antenna Matching 2 Change of input impedance: Off-centre feeding of a full wave dipole ⎡ ⎛L ⎞⎤ I in = I m sin ⎢ β ⎜ − zin ⎟ ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝2 2 Im Rin = 2 Rrm I in Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: W. 1981 19 . Stutzman. G. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design.

2nd Ed. Antenna Theory. Balanis. New York. 1997 20 . Wiley.Antenna Matching 3 The T-Match for Z in l' λ /4 2 (1 + α ) Za α current division factor between the wires for equal radii conductors Z in Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 4Za Source: C. A.

1981 . Stutzman. New York. G.L. Wiley.Antenna Balancing 1 balanced currents I1 = I2 unbalanced currents I1 > I2 Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Example: Cross section of a coaxial transmission line feeding a dipole at its centre 21 Source: W.A. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design.

New York.A. Wiley.L. G. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design. Stutzman.The Balun BALanced to UNbalanced Coax-fed dipole Cross section of a sleeve balun Sleeve balun-fed dipole Split coax balun Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Equivalent circuit Source: W. 1981 22 .

L. Stutzman.A. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design. New York. 1981 .Wire antennas above imperfect ground Elevation pattern of a vertical short dipole at the surface of the ground plane IL e − jkr Eθ = jωμ sin θ ( e jkh cosθ + ΓV e − jkh cosθ ) 4π r with Γ = V σ and ε ′ = ε r − j ωε o σ = 10−3 − 3 ⋅ 10−2 1 Ωm 2 23 ε r′ cosθ − ε ′ − sin 2 θ ε ′ cosθ + ε ′ − sin θ 2 typical: ε r = 15 r Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: W. Wiley. G.

Loop Antennas
The radiation resistance of a small loop is
⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎛ kS ⎞ Rr = η ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎠⎝ λ ⎠ ⎝
2

⎛ S ⎞ 31,171⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝λ ⎠

2

Increase of the loop resistance by:
Rr ⎛ S ⎞ 31,171 ⎜ n 2 ⎟ ⎝ λ ⎠ ⎛ 31,171 ⎜ n μeff ⎝
2

Several turns of number n

Introduction of a ferrite core of effective permeability μeff
Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling

Rr

S ⎞ 2 ⎟ λ ⎠

2

Typical μeff: 100 - 10,000
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Square Loop Antennas 1

For the one-wavelength square loop antenna: ˆ I1 = I 2 = − xI 0 cos ( kx ′) ˆ I 4 = − I 3 = yI 0 sin ( ky ′)
Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling

x′ ≤ y′ ≤

λ
8

λ
8
25

Square Loop Antennas 2

xz-plane xy-plane Principle plane patterns for one-wavelength square loop antenna
Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling

yz-plane
Source: W.L. Stutzman, G.A. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design, Wiley, New York, 1981

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1981 27 .L. Input Impedance Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: W. Wiley.Square Loop Antenna. Stutzman. New York.A. G. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design.

Equivalent Circuit Z in = Rin + jX in = ( Rr + RL ) + j ( X A + X i ) Rr = radiation resistance RL = loss resistance of loop conductor XA = external inductive reactance = ω LA Xi = internal high-frequency reactance = ω Li Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: C. Antenna Theory. 1997 28 . Wiley. New York. 2nd Ed. Balanis. A.Circular Loop.

Simplification of an antenna array if only a few elements are fed directly. all arrays examined have had all elements active. A parasitic linear array of parallel dipoles is called a Yagi-Uda antenna or Yagi-Uda array or Yagi First published by Shintaro Uda 1926 Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 29 .Yagi-Uda Antenna 1 Up to now. Such an array is referred to as a parasitic array. requiring a direct connection to each element.

Example of a Yagi-Antenna Yagi-Antenna for TV and Radio reception Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 30 .

Yagi-Uda Antenna 2 Consider a driver element that is a half-wave dipole and a parasitic element very close to it Field incident to a parasitic element is: Eincident = Edriver with then 0 = Eincident + E parasite tangential to the parasite E parasite = − Eincident = − Edriver Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: W. 1981 31 . Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design. Wiley.L.A. G. Stutzman. New York.

4781λ Parasite of length 0. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design. Wiley. 1981 32 . G.45λ Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: W. Stutzman.Yagi-Uda Antenna 3 Driver of length 0. New York.49λ Driver of length 0.4781λ Parasite of length 0.L.A.

Stutzman.45λ Source: W.Yagi-Uda Antenna 4 Three-element Yagi-Uda antenna H-plane E-plane Driver of length 0. New York. 1981 Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 33 .49λ Director of length 0.A. G.L. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design. Wiley.4781λ Reflector of length 0.

New York. G.A. 1981 34 . Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design.Yagi-Uda Antenna 5 Configuration of a general Yagi-Uda antenna Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: W. Wiley.L. Stutzman.

1981 . Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design. G.Yagi-Uda Antenna 6 Radiation pattern of a six-element Yagi-Uda antenna for TV Channel 15 H-plane Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling E-plane 35 Source: W.A. Wiley. New York. Stutzman.L.

we classify it as a Course Antenna Engineering broadband antenna 36 Dirk Heberling .Broadband Antennas 1 An antenna with wide bandwidth is referred to as a Broadband antenna The term „broadband“ is a relative measure of the bandwidth and varies with the circumstances With fU and fL the upper and lower frequency of operation and fC the centre frequency Bandwidth as a percent of the centre frequency fU − f L × 100 fC Bandwidth defined as a ratio fU fL If the impedance and the pattern of an antenna do not change significantly over about an octave (fU/fL=2) or more.

Broadband Antennas 2 • Broadband antennas – Helical antennas – Biconical antennas – Discone monopole • Frequency independent antennas – Spiral antennas – Log-periodic antennas Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 37 .

2nd Ed. Antenna Theory. Balanis. A. Wiley. New York. 1997 S +C 2 2 38 .Helical Antennas D = diameter of the helix C = circumference of the helix = π D S = spacing between turns −1 S α = pitch angle = tan C L = total length = NS L0 = length of one turn = Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: C.

Normal Mode Helical antenna Equivalent model Radiation pattern for NL0 λ Farfield consists of dipole field ED and loop field EL Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling AR = Eθ 2S λ = 2 2 Eφ π D 39 Circular polarization for C = 2 S λ Source: C.Helical Antennas. 1997 . A. Balanis. Wiley. Antenna Theory. 2nd Ed. New York.

Helical Antennas. Antenna Theory. A. 1997 Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 40 . Balanis.Circumference in the range of Spacing about Typical farfield pattern 3 C 4 < < 4 λ 3 S λ Left-hand sensed helix 4 Pitch angle usually 12° ≤ α ≤ 14° Right-hand sensed helix Source: C. Axial Mode Axial (endfire) mode of helix with: . New York. 2nd Ed. Wiley.

Stutzman. New York.Log-Periodic Dipole Array (LPDA) A log-periodic antenna is an antenna having a structural geometry such that its impedance and radiation characteristics repeat periodically as the logarithm of frequency Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Construction details of the LPDA Source: W. 1981 41 . Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design. Wiley. G.L.A.

Log-Periodic Dipole Array 2 A wedge of enclosed angle α bounds the dipole lengths! with L1 = R1 Ln Ln +1 = = Rn Rn +1 LN = RN the scale factor τ is given by: Rn +1 Ln +1 τ= = <1 Rn Ln dn σ= 2 Ln and the spacing factor σ is defined as: Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 42 .

Example of a LPDA Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Source: W.A. G. Thiele: Antenna Theory and Design. 1981 43 . Stutzman. New York.L. Wiley.

Example of a LPDA Farfield Pattern Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 44 .

Example of a LPDA Farfield Pattern Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 45 .

Example of a LPDA Farfield Pattern Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 46 .

Example of a LPDA Farfield Pattern Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 47 .

Example of a LPDA Farfield Pattern Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 48 .

Example of a LPDA Farfield Pattern Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 49 .

Antennas for Mobiles 1 Basic antenna types Loop Antenna Sleeve-Dipole Helical Antenna Inverted-F Antenna Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 50 .

Antennas for Mobiles 2 Influence of the human body on the electromagnetic field Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 51 .

Antennas for Mobiles the loop-antenna Example of a printed loop antenna Realisation forms of loop antennas Equivalent circuit and matching circuit Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 52 .

Antennas for Mobiles the sleeve-dipole Principle of a sleeve dipole Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Current distribution on a cellular phone 53 .

Antennas for Mobiles the helical antenna Model of a helical antenna Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Operational modes 54 .

Antennas for Mobiles the inverted-F antenna λ/4 -Monopole -Monopol InvertedL-Antenna InvertedL-Antenne InvertedF-Antenna InvertedF-Antenne (IFA) Examples of Inverted-F Antennas Planar InvertedF-Antenna (PIFA) PlanareInvertedF-Anenne(PIFA) Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 55 .

Antennas for Mobiles Miniaturization Shortening and loading of antennas a) Introduction of an inductance b) Surrounding by dielectric or magnetic materials c) Introduction of a capacitance Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 56 .

an Example 1 CONCEPT-Model of a cellular phone with an helical antenna Z Y X CONCEPT-Model of a cellular phone at the user Z Y Z Z Y X Y X Calculated radiation patterns at 450 MHz Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 57 .Antennas for Mobiles.

Antennas for Mobiles. an Example 2 Simulated nearfield behaviour CONCEPT-Model of the mobile phone Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Calculated magnetic nearfield at 450 MHz (cut plane through the device) 58 .

Antennas for Mobiles. an Example 3 Optimised Antenna: EID-Antenna L Overall efficiency η= P rad (with user) P rad (without user) lelektr =λ0/2 EID-Antenna: • Concentration of the nearfield in the feeding point • Electrical decoupled from the casing Optimised nearfield distribution Principle of the EID-Antenna Optimised overall efficiency Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 59 .

an Example 4 CONCEPT: Nearfield Characteristics Mobile phone with EID-antenna Cellular phone with helical antenna Calculated magnetic nearfield at f = 450 MHz (cut plane through the device) 60 Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling .Antennas for Mobiles.

Antennas for Mobiles. an Example 5 CONCEPT: Farfield @ 450 MHz Z Y X Z Y X Mobile phone with helical antenna with user Mobile phone with EID-antenna with user Z Y X Z Y X Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling η = 38 % η = 84 % 61 .

without user Handy mit EID am Benutzer user Mobile Phone. freistehend Mobile Phone. am helix and y 135 x 90 2 dB -2 φ=180° φ=0° 45 -6 φ in ° -10 φ=270° -14 180 -10 -6 -2 2 0 x Measurement Situation 225 315 Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling Measured horizontal farfield characteristic 270 62 . with EID and Handy mit HelixwithBenutzer user Mobile Phone. an Example 6 Measurement: Farfield @ 450 MHz y φ=90° Handy.Antennas for Mobiles.

and Multiband-Antennas Antenna Interaction Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 63 .Antennas for Mobiles Development Trends Integrated Antennas Dualband.

Ceramic Antennas • • • • very popular good electrical properties easy fabrication mech. 3D-MID-Antennas 3. fixation necessary • difficult fabrication • flexible antenna design • electric properties depend on the material • antenna design difficult • small size • difficult fabrication Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 64 .Antennas for Mobiles Integrated Antenna Technology 1. Metallic patch 2.

8 1 1.6 DCS 1800 1.4 1.2 1.8 GHz 2 f Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 65 .Antennas for Mobiles Dualband Helical Antenna 0 GSM dB -5 S11 -10 Return Loss (S11) -15 free space talking position Double Helical Antenna -20 0.

Antennas for Mobiles Interaction with the Head Course Antenna Engineering Dirk Heberling 66 .