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William Heath

Revised January 2011

Contents

Sections marked * are not examinable 1 Introduction 1.1 Feedback systems . . . . . . . . 1.2 History of feedback controllers 1.3 Example: automotive control . 1.4 Scope of the course . . . . . . . 1.5 Limitations of the course . . . . 1.6 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 6 8 9 9 10 12 12 12 14 15 15 19 19 20 20 21 22 24 24 24 24 25 25 26 26 26 26 27 27 28 29 29 29 30 32 34

2 Feedback 2.1 Negative feedback ampliﬁer . . . . . . . 2.2 Standard control loop . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Standard control loop without dynamics 2.4 Stability and dynamics . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Case study: edible oil reﬁning . . . . . . 3 Diﬀerential equations 3.1 Linear diﬀerential equations . 3.2 Example: electrical circuit . . 3.3 Example: mechanical system 3.4 Example: ﬂow system . . . . 3.5 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Laplace transforms 4.1 Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Unit step . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Exponential function . 4.2.3 Sinusoid . . . . . . . . 4.2.4 Dirac delta function . 4.3 Laplace transform properties 4.3.1 Linearity . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Diﬀerentiation . . . . 4.3.3 Integration . . . . . . 4.3.4 Delay . . . . . . . . . 4.3.5 Final value theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 Transfer functions 5.1 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Closed-loop response . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Sensitivity and complementary sensitivity 5.5 Open-loop step responses . . . . . . . . .

5.6 5.7

5.5.1 Steady state gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First order systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 First order system with delay . . . . . . . . Second order systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.1 The poles are separate and real . . . . . . . 5.7.2 The poles are identical and real . . . . . . . 5.7.3 The poles are complex . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.4 Time domain step response speciﬁcations . 5.7.5 Second order transfer functions with a zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6 Frequency response analysis 6.1 First order system . . . . . . . . 6.2 Bode plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Closed-loop response . . . . . . . 6.4 First order elements . . . . . . . 6.5 Second order systems . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Separate real poles . . . . 6.5.2 Identical real poles . . . . 6.5.3 Complex conjugate poles 6.6 *Derivation of the main result . .

7 Review of analysis tools: ﬁrst order response to 7.1 Time domain analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Laplace domain analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Frequency domain analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 PID Control 8.1 Proportional control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.1 Stable ﬁrst order plant . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2 Unstable ﬁrst order plant . . . . . . . . . 8.1.3 Stable second order plant (with no zero) . 8.1.4 Higher order plants and plants with delay 8.2 Integral action and PI control . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Derivative action and PD control . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 PD and PDγ control . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.2 Frequency response . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.3 Second order plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 PID control and Ziegler-Nichols tuning . . . . . . 8.5 PID implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Set-point tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Anti-windup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.8 Internal model principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

a sine wave 61 . . . . . . . . . 61 . . . . . . . . . 62 . . . . . . . . . 63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 64 64 65 66 67 67 70 70 71 71 73 75 76 76 77

. . . . . . . . . .2 Phase lead design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tutorial 1 150 Question 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Phase lag design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *Grid lines .7 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 4 . . . . . . .4 Lead-lag compensators .3 Grid lines . . . . . . . 92 92 92 97 97 102 104 106 107 110 110 111 116 118 119 122 122 124 125 126 127 129 130 131 132 132 136 138 140 142 144 147 149 11 Design of compensators 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Nyquist plot . . . . . . . 13 Worked example Problem 1 . . . . . . . . 150 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 10. . . . . . . . . . *Nichols charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 7 . . . . 151 . . . . . . . . . . 83 9. . . . . . . . . . The Nyquist criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . Question 1. . . . .6 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . Problem 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 2 . . . . . . 12 Worked examples Problem 1 . . . . . . . . . Problem 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . *Justiﬁcation of the Nyquist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Root locus analysis 81 9. solutions . . . . . . . . Problem 6 . . .1 Design considerations and constraints 11. . . .5 Notch ﬁlters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . Problem 8 . . . . . . . . . .2 Root locus examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Nyquist criterion Introduction . . . . . . . . . 91 10 The 10. . The − 1 point . . . . . .1 The root locus plot . . . . . . . 11. . . . .1 . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Question 4. . . . . . . Question 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tutorial 4 Question 4. . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Question 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Question 2. . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . .Tutorial 2 Question 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Question 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Question 3. . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tutorial 3 Question 3. . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

start running. similarly as the speed drops the ﬂyballs move in. Too much of a product acts as an inhibitor on an earlier stage of production. . it beyond the scope of this course. There are many examples in biology. its function can be described heuristically as follows: as the ﬂyballs spin faster. and adjust your running speed so that the angle of the gaze remains constant. For example the ballcock in a lavatory prevents the cistern from overﬂowing. He/she has highly developed actuators (the tennis racquet. most enzyme production is regulated by negative feedback.2 History of feedback controllers In this course we are concerned with the design of feedback controllers for engineering systems. limbs and muscles) and highly developed sensors (vision and feel). they move out and open a valve which releases steam. In bright light it closes while in dim light it opens. 2007. and the proportion of carbon dioxide near 0. There are also many examples at the level of cell biology. In the eye the iris opens and closes to control the amount of light that falls on the retina. Some common examples are extremely old. he/she also needs considerable skill and ﬁnesse to co-ordinate the sensors and actuators into a winning combination.”1 1. For example feedback mechanisms maintain the proportion of oxygen in the atmosphere near 21%.” Almost all mammals are “warmblooded”—that is to say they regulate their blood temperature. Gigerenzer: Gut Feelings. The ability of biological systems to maintain attributes at a desired even level is known as “homeostasis. Negative feedback operates on a macro scale in ecological systems. Rather they use feedback heuristics such as the following: “ﬁx your gaze on the ball.1 INTRODUCTION 6 1 1. But to be a good player. Some control mechanisms in nature are highly sophisticated. Similarly the form of the lens is modiﬁed using feedback to ensure correct focus of an object as its distance varies (so-called accommodation). where the governor is used to regulate the amount 1 G. When used as a governor for a steam engine. Watt’s governor (or the centrifugal governor) was one of the catalysts for the industrial revolution (Fig 1). Allen Lane. We are concerned with the use of negative feedback to control or regulate various system attributes to desired levels. Consider a tennis player. and close the valve. this in turn slows the speed at which the ﬂyballs spin.1 Introduction Feedback systems Feedback mechanisms are ubiquitous in both nature and man-made systems. This phenomenon gives rise to the “Gaia hypothesis” that the earth is alive. Mankind is currently testing both this hypothesis and the feedback mechanisms to their limit. Nevertheless feedback is crucial. sportsmen/sportswomen do not calculate the trajectory of the ball. For example. There is an interesting example of such a governor at Quarry Bank Mill in Styal. Note that as this involves a switching mechanism. When catching a high ball.03%.

but that could be stabilized and easily maneuvered using feedback). • Mechanical control. Computer control breaks down the distinction between these ﬁelds. Traditionally control has been divided into the ﬁelds of: • Process control. • Electrical and electronic control. dynamics and systems” edited by Richard Murray gives a fascinating account of both the state-of-the-art in control technology and future challenges that are being addressed. controlling the yield of a distillation column).1 INTRODUCTION 7 of water falling onto a mill wheel. flyball pivot valve Figure 1: Watt’s governor.edu/~murray/cdspanel . The feedback ampliﬁer has stable linear characteristics despite uncertainties and nonlinearities in the vacuum tube ampliﬁer around which it is built.caltech. concerned with the product or operation of chemical engineering systems (for example. report of the panel on future directions in control. concerned with the operation of mechanical systems (for example the Wright brothers’ main innovation was an aircraft that was open-loop unstable. nano technology) or very large scale (e. It is available on-line from: http://www. concerned with the regulation of electrical circuits. Until very recently the same principle was used for the control of Diesel engines. The document “Control in an information rich world.cds. whether on the very small scale (e.g. The invention of the feedback ampliﬁer in 1927 ushered in long distance telecommunications.g. control of power networks).

improve the dynamic performance of the vehicle. . such as traction control and anti-lock breaking. Others. Historically Diesel engines had mechanical governors that regulated the injected fuel according to the speed. simply enhance the passenger comfort. On a modern common rail system. Nowadays electronic control units (ECUs) have replaced mechanical governors. Cruise control is another control loop. The speed is measured (usually from the ﬂywheel) and the ECU then determines the amount of fuel to inject. time varying electrical load) speed measured at flywheel r(t) Controller desired idle speed Engine and vehicle injected fuel dynamics u(t) ym(t) Figure 2: Control loop for a Diesel engine at idle.). where the amount of fuel (as well as the fuel/air ratio in petrol engines) injected to each cylinder is computer controlled. Here the controller measures the engine speed (usually from the ﬂywheel) and regulates the fuel injected to maintain a constant low speed. but the principle of feedback control is neatly illustrated by idle speed control (the state of idle is usually deﬁned to occur when the foot is oﬀ the accelerator).g.1 INTRODUCTION 8 1. d(t) disturbances (e. navigation and traﬃc ﬂow systems may involve feedback. On a larger scale. Some experimental cars also have automated steering where lanes are detected using video cameras. Some. this is achieved by determining the length of time a valve is opened allowing ﬂow of fuel from the reservoir to the cylinder. plant scheduling etc. Some high end cars now have active cruise control. where the speed and position of the car in front is detected (for example via radar) and a set distance between the car and the car in front is maintained. such as air conditioning. The vehicle manufacturing process also has many control loops (for robotics. The control loop is illustrated in Fig 2.3 Example: automotive control A modern car contains many control loops. The controller takes into account many measured variables. Diesel engines are unstable at idle in open-loop so some sort of feedback mechanism is necessary—without this they would either run away or stall. where a small reservoir of fuel is kept at high pressure. and the car’s position in the centre of the lane is automatically maintained. The most obvious example is the engine control. For petrol engines a governor is not necessary but the use of ECUs has greatly enhanced performance. There are many other loops in modern cars. A constant engine speed is maintained (even in the presence of changes in road slope).

• We will consider how feedback can be used to overcome uncertainty. Phase lag compensation.1 INTRODUCTION 9 1. These can be used to deepen our understanding of PID controllers and second order systems. We will combine the two concepts by considering the dynamics of closed-loop systems. • We will consider how feedback can be used to achieve certain performance criteria. . and is still used today. Dynamics. the modeling of a plant’s time response using diﬀerential equations. • We will consider dynamics in the time domain. The Nyquist criterion. For example. the use of measured signals from a plant to help determine the actuator values. • We will consider simple control structures such as PID controllers. • multivariable control. but also to analyse more complicated control structures. • We will consider dynamics in the frequency domain. This was mostly developed in the 1930s and 1940s. • state space models. broadly associated with time domain dynamics. 1. We will then consider three analysis/design techniques: Root locus. However. a frequency response design technique. • optimal control.5 Limitations of the course This is an introductory course. • We will characterise simple ﬁrst and second order systems. • networked control. where we will outline the rudiments of classical control. a frequency response analysis tool. • switched control.4 Scope of the course We will discuss two fundamental concepts in this course: Feedback. we will not consider: • digital control. many subsequent (and important) developments are beyond its scope. • nonlinear control.

Franklin. Princetown University Press. Bishop.ifac-control. H. C. Similarly we will pay little attention to the important topics of system identiﬁcation and modelling. J. A.cds.org/ .6 Further reading The following is an excellent new introductory course to control and feedback systems: K. 2004. 2008. Seborg. Feedback Systems. 2007. Modern Control Systems (11th edition). Emami-Naeni. Murray. Process dynamics and control (2nd edition). Both the IEEE Control Systems Society webpage and the IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) webpage have a wealth of information on current applications and developments: http://www. Wiley. J. R. D.1 INTRODUCTION 10 • modern robust control. F. Prentice-Hall. The following book oﬀers a good introduction to control from a chemical engineering perspective: D. 1. Mellichamp. F.caltech. At the time of writing an electronic pdf version is available from: http://www. One of the main diﬀerences between classical control (that we study in this course) and more modern approaches is that classical control relies on graphical techniques that are relatively easy to draw by hand. Wiley. T. ˚str¨m and R. S. Prentice-Hall. 2005. N. Nevertheless we will ﬁnd a computer useful to generate (or validate) solutions and graphs. Nise. The classical approach results in intuitive solutions. and include many worked examples and practical applications: G.edu/~murray/amwiki/Main_Page The following three books cover the same material as the course. Edgar and D.org http://www.ieeecss. Dorf and R. 2008. By contrast modern approaches tend to rely on the availability of computer software to ﬁnd design and synthesis solutions. M. Powell and A. Control Systems Engineering (5th edition). an introduction for A o scientists and engineers. Feedback control of dynamic systems (5th edition). which is why it continues to be used (and to be useful) today. E.

The full articles can be downloaded from: http://ieeexplore. This has many accessible articles on both the theory and application of control systems.ieee.theiet.1 INTRODUCTION 11 In particular the IEEE page has contents of the IEEE Control Systems Society Magazine.org There is also useful information at the IET: http://kn.org/communities/controlauto/index.cfm .

Furthermore. This is nicely illustrated by the negative feedback ampliﬁer. Suppose the op amp has a gain G which is large. and is a direct result of using negative feedback. We deﬁne the plant as the system to be controlled. with an ideal op amp there is zero output impedance—i.2 FEEDBACK 12 2 2.e.2 Standard control loop A typical control system is depicted in Fig 4. R2 R1 Vin δV − + Vout Figure 3: Negative feedback ampliﬁer. We have the relations Vout = −GδV and (assuming the current into the op amp is zero) Vin − δV δV − Vout = R1 R2 Eliminating δV yields Vout = = ≈ −R2 G V R2 + R1 + GR1 in R2 1 − V 1 R1 1 + G (1 + R2 ) in R1 − R2 V for G suﬃciently large R1 in Thus the gain from Vin to Vout is (approximately) ﬁxed and known. Plants may have more than one actuator. the output voltage does not vary with output current. more than one sensor . 2. possibly time varying and possibly with a nonlinear characteristic.1 Feedback Negative feedback ampliﬁer One of the main uses of feedback is to overcome uncertainty. even though the op amp gain G may be time-varying and uncertain. This is crucial for modularity. uncertain.

To that end the controller computes the manipulated variable u(t) that is fed to the plant actuator. and we would like it to follow some set point (or reference signal) r(t). This is an over-simpliﬁcation. this course. so that the measurement of the plant output is given by ym = yp + n . but we will assume only one of each. but is suitable for much of the analysis in di(t) r(t) P + e(t) C u(t) + + do(t) n(t) G + y (t) + y (t) p m + + Figure 5: Closed loop system. measuring some plant attribute yp (t). In practice control structures usually include additional feedforward paths. Thus we assume we have some measured variable ym (t).2 FEEDBACK 13 and more than one controller. The sensor is represented simply by the addition of a noise signal n(t). Thus the plant output yp is related to the plant input u as yp = G(u + di ) + do The signals di (t) and do (t) represent input and output disturbances respectively. Disturbances Sensor noise Actuator(s) Manipulated variable(s) u(t) Controller(s) Plant Sensor(s) Measured signal(s) ym(t) Set point(s) r(t) and feedforward information Figure 4: Control system. The plant (with its actuator) is represented as the block G together with disturbance signals. We will assume the control loop can be simpliﬁed to the conﬁguration shown in Fig 5.

The system equations can be written: yp (t) = Gu(t) + Gdi (t) + do (t) ym (t) = yp (t) + n(t) e(t) = P r(t) − ym (t) u(t) = Ce(t) Substituting for e(t) we ﬁnd yp (t) = u(t) = ym (t) = do (t) + Gu(t) + Gdi (t) CP r(t) − Cym (t) yp (t) + n(t) Substituting for ym (t) and u(t) gives yp (t) = do (t) + Gdi (t) + GCP r(t) − GCyp (t) − GCn(t) We may rearrange this to give (1 + GC)yp (t) = GCP r(t) + Gdi (t) + do (t) − GCn(t) and hence we obtain the closed-loop equation yp (t) = GC G 1 GC P r(t) + di (t) + do (t) − n(t) 1 + GC 1 + GC 1 + GC 1 + GC (1) Note that equation (1) gives an expression for yp (t) that is independent of u(t). C and P are all simple gains.3 Standard control loop without dynamics For the present discussion we will make the further simpliﬁcation that G. If C is very large. so we give them special names and symbols: . although not the eﬀects of sensor noise. The controller takes a very speciﬁc structure u = C(e) e = P (r) − ym 2.2 FEEDBACK 14 The aim of the controller is to determine the manipulated variable u(t) so that the plant output yp (t) tracks the reference signal r(t) as closely as possible. ≈ 0 and ≈0 1 + GC 1 + GC 1 + GC Thus if P = 1 we ﬁnd yp (t) ≈ r(t) − n(t) Thus the use of high gain feedback allows us virtually to eliminate the eﬀects of input and output disturbances. we may say GC G 1 ≈ 1. 1 GC We will ﬁnd the quantities 1+GC and 1+GC recur often.

Feedback can also be used to stabilise a plant that is unstable in open-loop. taking measurements from Pl1 and Pl2 and feeding them back to the automatic valves AV2 and AV3. Similarly we would like to model yp (t) in terms of r(t). although the ﬂow was controlled by manipulating the automatic valve AV1. GC 1+GC . 15 • The sensitivity S = Note that • The complementary sensitivity T = S+T =1 The block represented by P is usually termed the pre-ﬁlter. In this case the controller was an advanced strategy 2 More details are reported in Wills and Heath: Application of barrier function based model predictive control to an edible oil reﬁning process. 2. We have already seen this in the example of Diesel engine control. 2005.4 Stability and dynamics In the previous section we suggested that the use of high gain control could render near perfect control. It would also be likely to send the closed-loop system unstable. the resultant ﬂows and pressures are shown in Fig 9. Then feedback was installed. C and P capture dynamic behaviour. We will also ﬁnd it useful to allow our controller C and pre-ﬁlter P to have dynamic characteristics. or at least result in some highly undesirable dynamics.5 Case study: edible oil reﬁning Fig 6 shows a process plant where feedback control can be used to reduce variation2 . 2. To analyse such eﬀects we will need a dynamic model of the relation between yp (t) and u(t). Typical ﬂows and pressures are illustrated in Fig 8. This will be the subject of the next chapter. Our aim is to return to a ﬁgure such as Fig 5 but where G. Flow is measured at Fl1 while pressure in the separators are measured at Pl1 and Pl2. the eﬀect of limiting plant variation on the quality/yield tradeoﬀ is illustrated in Fig 10. We see considerably less variation in the two pressures. as illustrated in Fig 11.2 FEEDBACK 1 1+GC . Originally there was no feedback around the two separators. This in turn allows the operators to run the plant much closer to the operating limit. di (t). In practice such a high gain control would likely require undesirable and/or infeasible actuator energy. After designing and tuning a controller. do (t) and n(t) as in (1) but again capturing dynamic behaviour. The control loop is shown in Fig 7—note that schematically it is identical to Fig 2. with the only limit on performance set by the size of the sensor noise signal n(t). An obvious example of an unstable feedback loop is when callers to talkback radio leave their own radios on to listen to themselves. It was also possible to use the controller to specify the operating pressure. In a more general sense. Journal of Process Control. allowing greater yield without impinging on product quality. Crude edible oil ﬂows through two separators producing reﬁned edible oil. .

. as illustrated in Fig 12. Soap and water phase Heat Exchabger Phosphoric Addition PI1 MV1 PI2 MV2 Crude In Separator Separator Degumming Tank S1 AV2 S2 AV3 Steam Caustic Addition AV1 Refined Oil FI1 Figure 6: Schematic of edible oil reﬁning.2 FEEDBACK 16 known as MPC (model predictive control) and was implemented via a PLC (programmable logic controller). upstream flow conditions) measured ym(t) pressures r(t) Controller desired pressures and flow u(t) Plant valve positions and flow Figure 7: Control loop for edible oil reﬁning.g. Plant conditions are monitored via a SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition). d(t) disturbances (e.

Quality Yield Figure 10: Reducing variation allows an improvement in yield without aﬀecting quality. Only the ﬂow is controlled with feedback.5 2 x 10 4 350 Y2 300 350 0 0. 18 16 Y1 14 12 380 360 340 320 300 280 350 0 0.5 1 1. All three variables are controlled using feedback.5 1 1.5 2 x 10 4 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 x 10 4 Figure 9: Flow and two pressure measurements against time.5 1 1. .5 2 x 10 4 Y2 300 Y3 250 0 0.5 2 x 10 4 Figure 8: Flow and two pressure measurements against time.2 FEEDBACK 17 18 16 Y1 14 12 400 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 x 10 4 300 Y3 250 0 0.5 1 1.

5 U 44 43.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 330 325 320 315 310 305 300 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Y Figure 11: Step response in pressure. Ethernet Backbone SCADA PLANT MPC PLC Figure 12: Hardware conﬁguration for the controller.2 FEEDBACK 18 45. The top ﬁgure shows the valve position (manipulated variable) against time while the bottom ﬁgure shows pressure (measured variable) against time. .5 45 44.

a0 and bm . . . an−1 . There is also some redundancy in the choice of the parameters an . .3 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 19 3 Diﬀerential equations When designing and analysing feedback systems we ﬁnd it useful to think in terms of input/output response. bm−1 . . We use the notation y = Gu (which should be interpreted as y = G(u)). given an input signal u. b1 . We assume that given a model of the plant G and its input u = u(t) we can determine its output y = y(t) (see Fig 13. So our n-th order linear diﬀerential equation takes the form an dn y dn−1 y dy (t) + an−1 n−1 (t) + · · · + a1 (t) + a0 y(t) n dt dt dt dm u dm−1 u du = bm m (t) + bm−1 m−1 (t) + · · · + b1 (t) + b0 u(t) (2) dt dt dt We say y = G(u) if. Representing G as a static gain is usually too simplistic. . given u1 and u2 . we are ignoring the eﬀects of disturbances and noise for the moment). . u(t) G y(t) Figure 13: Open loop input-output response. Linearity says that if. we have y1 = G(u1 ) and y2 = G(u2 ) for some y1 and y2 then α1 y1 + α2 y2 = G(α1 u1 + α2 u2 ) for any α1 and α2 . The usual convention is to set an = 1 without loss of generality. . b0 . the output signal y satisﬁes (2). . a1 . .1 Linear diﬀerential equations An n-th order linear diﬀerential equation takes the form dn y dn−1 y dy (t) + an−1 n−1 (t) + · · · + a1 (t) + a0 y(t) dtn dt dt dm−1 u du dm u = bm m (t) + bm−1 m−1 (t) + · · · + b1 (t) + b0 u(t) dt dt dt We must have an = 0. otherwise the order of the equation is less than n. 3. It turns out that representing G as a linear diﬀerential equation is useful for a wide variety of plants (and also control structures).

A mass M is connected to a spring with spring constant K and a damper with damping coeﬃcient B. If such an assumption is justiﬁed. We have L dI (t) + RI(t) + Vo (t) dt dVo C (t) = I(t) dt = Vi (t) Eliminating I(t) yields LC or d2 Vo dVo (t) + RC + Vo (t) = Vi (t) 2 dt dt R dVo 1 1 d2 Vo (t) + + Vo (t) = Vi (t) dt2 L dt LC LC It seems natural to associate Vi (t) with an input u(t) and Vo (t) with an output y(t). u = Vi . a1 = R L. then the equation takes the standard form with n = 2. the assumption that Vi (t) is the driving voltage).3 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 20 3. However this requires an additional assumption of causality—that is to say that Vo (t) is determined by Vi (t) while Vi (t) is determined independently (or more simply. A force F (t) acts on the mass and its distance y(t) . 3.2 Example: electrical circuit Consider the simple RLC circuit depicted in Fig 14. m = 0: d2 y dy + a1 + a0 y = b 0 u dt2 dt with y = Vo . a0 = 1 LC and b0 = 1 LC .3 Example: mechanical system Consider the simple one-dimensional mechanical system depicted in Fig 15. I(t) L R Vi(t) C Vo(t) Figure 14: Simple RLC circuit. This requires external conditions which cannot be inferred from the equations alone.

4 Example: ﬂow system Consider the ﬂuid tank depicted in Fig 16.3 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 21 is measured (calibrated such that 0 corresponds to the equilibrium position). a1 = B M. a0 = K M and b0 = 1 M. Suppose we ﬁx the input ﬂow to Qi (t) = Q for some constant ¯ ¯ Q. Newton’s second law gives F (t) − Ky(t) − B which we can rearrange to give d2 y B dy K 1 (t) + (t) + y(t) = F (t) dt2 M dt M M dy d2 y (t) = M 2 (t) dt dt F(t) M K y(t) B Figure 15: Simple mechanical system. m = 0: d2 y dy + a1 + a0 = b 0 u dt2 dt with u = F . 3.) . whereas the ﬂow out Qo (t) is determined by the height of the ¯ ﬂuid in the tank. After a while the height of the tank will settle to some H and the out-ﬂow ¯ will equal the input ﬂow Qo (t) = Qi (t) = Q. Thus if the force is determined independently from the system we may associate it with an input u(t) and our equation takes the standard form with n = 2. If the tank has constant area A then dH A (t) = Qi (t) − Qo (t) dt We will assume that the ﬂow in Qi (t) is determined independently from conditions in the tank. The ﬂow in is Qi (t) and the ﬂow out is Qo (t) while the measured ﬂuid height is H(t). Then for small variation in input ﬂow we can say to good approximation ¯ ¯ Qo (t) − Q = λ H(t) − H for some constant λ (The value of λ will depend on the cross sectional area of the outﬂow pipe and the settings of downstream valves as well as the properties of the ﬂuid itself.

Often a system has elements from each (for example both electric motors and dvd players have both electrical and mechanical components). Both the electrical circuit and the mechanical system are well modelled using second order linear diﬀerential equations.3 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 22 dH ¯ ¯ (t) = Qi (t) − Q − λ H(t) − H dt If we set our measured variable Y (t) to be the deviation of height from this ¯ steady state value y(t) = H(t) − H and similarly set the manipulated variable ¯ u(t) to be the deviation of input ﬂow from the ﬁxed value u(t) = Qi (t) − Q then we obtain dy A (t) + λy(t) = u(t) dt or equivalently dy + a0 y = b 0 u dt A with a0 = λ A 1 and b0 = λ . The ﬂow system is approximately modelled using a simpler ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation. although the practicalities of such implementation are beyond the scope of this course. 3. Worked Example 5 concerns a pair of tanks which can be approximately modelled using a second order diﬀerential equation. As a discipline control engineering has spanned all three branches of engineering. it is . Most controllers are nowadays computer based. More generally a description in terms of linear diﬀerential equations is often appropriate from the point of view of control system design Historically the systems are prototypes for electrical. mechanical and chemical engineering. Thus Qi(t) H(t) Qo(t) Figure 16: Flow system.5 Discussion We have seen that three diﬀerent systems can be described by similar dynamic equations.

3 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 23 entirely appropriate that all control engineering should now be seen as a subdiscipline of electrical engineering. .

the objects Y (s) and U (s). To avoid ambiguity we will usually consider signals that are zero for t < 0.) 4. but we are in fact using 0− . However we can express (4) in the form of (3) by use of the Laplace transform.e. If U (s) and Y (s) are the respective Laplace transforms of u(t) and y(t). ∞ ∞ (Note for mathematicians only: there is a distinction between 0− and 0+ .2 4.1 Examples Unit step We deﬁne the unit step h(t) to be h(t) = 1 for t ≥ 0 0 for t < 0 .1 Deﬁnition ∞ 0 The Laplace transform of a signal x(t) is deﬁned as X(s) = L [x(t)] = x(t)e−st dt Note that if we have two signals x1 (t) and x2 (t) that are equal for all t ≥ 0 then their Laplace transforms are equal. The object G(s) is a transfer function and we will not discuss it until Section 5.2. and if u and y are related by the diﬀerential equation (4) then Y (s) = G(s)U (s) with G(s) = b m sm + · · · + b 0 sn + · · · + a0 (5) provided certain initial conditions are satisﬁed. ∞ Such subtleties are beyond the scope of this course. 4. In this section we will consider the Laplace transform of signals—i.4 LAPLACE TRANSFORMS 24 4 Laplace transforms In Section 2 we saw that it would be desirable to model plants using an inputoutput description y = Gu (3) In Section 3 we found a generic description of the form dn y dm u (t) + · · · + a0 y(t) = bm u (t) + · · · + b0 u(t) (4) n dt dt We used operator notation to write this as y = G(u). but this is not in the form required (3).

4 LAPLACE TRANSFORMS 25 Its Laplace transform H(s) can be computed as H(s) = 0 ∞ 1e−st dt ∞ 0 = = 4.3 Sinusoid 1 −(s+a)t e s+a 1 s+a − Suppose x(t) = sin ωt We may use sine formulae to express x(t) as x(t) = 1 jωt e − e−jωt 2j It follows from the Laplace transform of an exponential that X(s) = = = 1 1 1 − 2j s − jω s + jω 1 2jω × 2 2j s + ω2 ω 2 + ω2 s . Its Laplace transform is X(s) = 0 ∞ ∞ 0 e−at e−st dt e−(s+a)t dt ∞ 0 = = = 4.2.2 Exponential function 1 − e−st s 1 s Suppose x(t) is an exponential function x(t) = e−at for some a.2.

3.2. It has the fundamental property ∞ −∞ f (t)δ(t)dt = f (0) for any f (t) Thus its Laplace transform is L[δ(t)] = = e ∞ δ(t)e−st dt 0 −s×0 = 1 4.4 LAPLACE TRANSFORMS 26 4. 4. That is to say L [α1 x1 (t) + α2 x2 (t)] = α1 L [x1 (t)] + α2 L [x2 (t)] 4.2 Diﬀerentiation L dx (t) dt = 0 ∞ dx (t)e−st dt dt ∞ 0 = x(t)e−st − ∞ ∞ 0 (−s)x(t)e−st dt by parts = −x(0) + s x(t)e−st dt 0 = sL[x(t)] − x(0) = sX(s) − x(0) Example: Suppose u(t) and y(t) are related by the ﬁrst order diﬀerential equations dy (t) + a0 y(t) = b0 u(t) dt Then taking Laplace transforms yields sY (s) − y(0) + a0 Y (s) = b0 U (s) .4 Dirac delta function The Dirac delta function δ(t) is an impulse of inﬁnite magnitude. inﬁnitesimal duration and unit area.3 Laplace transform properties The Laplace transform has many useful properties.3. In the following we will assume x(t) has Laplace transform X(s).1 Linearity The Laplace transform is linear.

3.4 LAPLACE TRANSFORMS 27 Thus. Similar relations follow for higher derivatives.3 Integration t Suppose y(t) = 0 u(τ )dτ Then dy (t) = u(t) and y(0) = 0 dt Y (s) = 1 U (s) s It follows that 4. For example.4 Delay y(t) = u(t − τ ) Suppose Then Y (s) = L[u(t − τ )] = 0 ∞ ∞ −τ ∞ 0 u(t − τ )e−st dt u(t′ )e−s(t +τ ) dt′ u(t′ )e−s(t +τ ) dt′ ∞ 0 ′ ′ = = = e −sτ u(t′ )e−st dt′ ′ = e−sτ U (s) .3. provided y(0) = 0 we have Y (s) = b0 U (s) s + a0 This veriﬁes (5) for ﬁrst order diﬀerential equations. if follows immediately that the Laplace transform of the second derivative of x(t) satisﬁes L d2 x (t) dt2 dx dx (t) − (0) dt dt dx (0) = s2 X(s) − sx(0) − dt = sL 4.

s→0 0 ∞ dx (t)e−st dt dt .4 LAPLACE TRANSFORMS 28 4.5 Final value theorem Suppose x(t) converges for large t to some steady state value xss . That is to say lim x(t) = xss exists t→∞ We have the relation sX(s) = x(0) + 0 ∞ dx (t)e−st dt dt If we let s → 0 we ﬁnd s→0 lim sX(s) = x(0) + lim = x(0) + ∞ dx (t)dt dt 0 ∞ = x(0) + [x(t)]0 = xss This is the ﬁnal value theorem for the Laplace transform of signals.3.

5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 29 5 Transfer functions Y (s) = G(s)U (s) We have succeeded in our aim of an input-output description that captures linear dynamics. If it has a pole on the imaginary axis (i. 5. Proper transfer functions can be further classiﬁed as strictly proper when n > m and bi-proper when n = m. It is a versatile tool for studying closed-loop systems (systems with controllers). an input-output relation determined by a diﬀerential equation is usually simulated using integrators. The relative degree of G is n − m. We also need to consider what plant properties we can discern from (or model with) G(s). 5. In particular. Example: Suppose G(s) = s+1 s(s2 + s + 1) √ √ 1 1 Then G has three poles at s = 0. its real part is zero) but with no poles in the right half-plane then we say it is marginally stable. G(s) is strictly proper (because its relative degree is greater than zero) and marginally stable (because it has one pole on the imaginary axis and the remainder in the left half plane). It is unstable if it has any pole in the right half plane.1 Deﬁnitions G(s) = bm sm + bm−1 sm−1 + · · · b0 sn + an−1 sn−1 + · · · + a0 We write The order of G is n. It has one zero at s = −1.e. . The order of G is 3 while the relative degree of G is 2.2 Simulation The notion of a transfer function being proper or improper is closely related to whether it is possible to simulate the system it represents. The object G(s) is called the (linear) transfer function. s = − 2 + j 23 and s = − 2 − j 23 . We do not allow improper transfer functions. We may write n(s) G(s) = d(s) where the polynomials n(s) and d(s) are respectively the numerator and denominator of the transfer function. A transfer function is said to be proper if n ≥ m and improper if n < m. We say a transfer function is stable if all its poles are in the left half plane. The poles of G are the roots of d(s) while the zeros of G are the roots of n(s).

A transfer function is only proper if the causal relation between the input and output can be realised using a network of integrators.5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 30 X E V \ D Figure 17: Simulation of a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation using Simulink. such as that depicted in Fig 4. So the feedback loop can be depicted as in Fig 18. and no noise or disturbance signals. with transfer functions that include a description of dynamic behaviour. using block diagrams. Example: Suppose d y(t) + ay(t) = bu(t) dt Equivalently we may write t t y(t) + a 0 y dt = b 0 u dt This is represented in the Laplace domain as 1 1 Y (s) + a Y (s) = b U (s) s s This can be simulated as in Fig 17. . which are beyond the scope of this course.3 Closed-loop response Our key innovation is that we can represent control systems. such as that depicted in Fig 5. 5. For simplicity we assume there is no pre-ﬁlter P (s). Example: Suppose a plant can be represented by the transfer function G(s) given by 1 G(s) = s(s + 1) The controller is a simple gain given by C(s) = kp We wish the plant output y(t) to track some reference signal r(t). The ideas are more formally expressed using state space methods.

5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 31 r(t) + - e(t) C u(t) G y(t) Figure 18: Simple closed loop system. We have the following relationships Y (s) = U (s) = E(s) Solving gives Y (s) = = = If r(t) is a unit step r(t) = then R(s) = 1/s and Y (s) = 1 kp × s2 + s + kp s 0 for t < 0 1 for t ≥ 1 GC R(s) 1 + GC 1 kp s(s+1) 1 1 + kp s(s+1) G(s)U (s) C(s)E(s) R(s) − Y (s) = R(s) kp R(s) s2 + s + kp The evolution of the corresponding y(t) is shown in Fig 19 for various values of kp . .

We may generalise our analysis provided we work in the Laplace domain. C = C(s) and P = P (s).4 Sensitivity and complementary sensitivity A more general model of a closed-loop system is given in Fig 5. See Fig 20. . the plant output. repeated below as Fig 20. Di (s) to the input disturbance and N (s) to the noise. 0. As we increase kp the speed of response gets faster. Do (s) to the output disturbance. but with G.1 0 0 10 20 30 Time (sec) 40 50 60 Figure 19: Closed-loop step responses for kp = 0. 5.5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS Step Response 1.5 1 Amplitude kp = 0. Thus Yp (s) U (s) Ym (s) = Do (s) + G(s)U (s) + G(s)Di (s) = C(s)P (s)R(s) − C(s)Ym (s) = Yp (s) + N (s) Here Yp (s) is the Laplace transform of yp (t). Similarly Ym (s) corresponds to the measured output. di(t) r(t) P + e(t) C u(t) + + do(t) n(t) G + y (t) + y (t) p m + + Figure 20: Closed loop system. For this example all three responses have the same steady state response yss = 1. but the response also becomes more oscillatory.5 32 kp = 2.1.5.5 0.5 kp = 0.5 and 2. C and P (the pre-ﬁlter) generalised to transfer functions G = G(s). U (s) to the input.

nc (s) and dc (s) all polynomials.5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 33 Substituting as before yields Yp (s) = G(s)C(s) G(s)C(s) P (s)R(s) − N (s) 1 + G(s)C(s) 1 + G(s)C(s) G(s) 1 + Di (s) + Do (s) 1 + G(s)C(s) 1 + G(s)C(s) Once again we deﬁne: Sensitivity S(s) = Complementary sensitivity T (s) = 1 1 + G(s)C(s) G(s)C(s) 1 + G(s)C(s) so that Yp (s) = T (s)P (s)R(s) − T (s)N (s) + G(s)S(s)Di (s) + S(s)Do (s) As before we have the relations T (s) = G(s)C(s)S(s) and S(s) + T (s) = 1 Suppose G(s) = nc (s) n(s) and C(s) = d(s) dc (s) n(s) nc (s) d(s) dc (s) d(s)dc (s) d(s)dc (s) + n(s)nc (s) with n(s). d(s). Then S(s) = 1/ 1 + = and T (s) = = n(s) nc (s) n(s) nc (s) / 1+ d(s) dc (s) d(s) dc (s) n(s)nc (s) d(s)dc (s) + n(s)nc (s) Note that S(s) and T (s) share the same denominator polynomial. .

Given either a simulation package or the use of inverse Laplace transforms it is also straightforward to compute closed-loop time responses. as demonstrated in Fig 24.2 + e−2s 2 + 0. we will build up our intuition of open-loop responses.5 Open-loop step responses The previous example illustrated that it is straightforward to compute closedloop transfer functions. Nevertheless uss = 1 and G(0) = 1. Suppose Y (s) = G(s)U (s) and u(t) is such that uss = lim u(t) t→∞ exists.4 1. 5.5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 34 5.6s + 2 s + 0. we may say yss = = = t→∞ s→0 s→0 lim y(t) lim sY (s) lim sG(s)U (s) = G(0)uss If G(0) exists we call it the steady state gain. we can make a general observation about steady state behaviour. in Section 6 we will study frequency response. It follows that yss = 1 also. Clearly this is a complicated system with peculiar dynamics. b Example 1 Suppose G(s) = s+a . if it exists. In this section we will study step-responses. Example 2 Suppose G(s) = e−s s2 1. .4s + 4 The system is depicted in Fig 22.1 Steady state gain Before we consider step responses. Before we analyse such relations.5. although we require the further proviso that G(s) be stable for it to be well deﬁned. Suppose further u(t) is as illustrated in Fig 23. The ﬁnal value theorem states that uss = lim sU (s) s→0 Thus. Then the steady state gain is b/a. However the relation between the response and the gain kp is not necessarily straightforward. This is illustrated in Fig 21 with b = 2 and a = 1.

5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

35

Step Response

3

2.5

2

Amplitude

1.5

1

0.5

0

0

1

2

3 Time (sec)

4

5

6

**Figure 21: First order step response.
**

1s delay u(t) 1.2 s2+0.4s+4 1.4 s2+0.6s+2 + y(t) + 2s delay

Figure 22: G(s) for the example.

5.6

**First order systems
**

b s+a

A ﬁrst order system has transfer function G(s) =

or equivalently, satisﬁes the ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation dy (t) + ay(t) = bu(t) dt Its time response to a unit step can be derived via Laplace transforms: Y (s) = = = So for t ≥ 0 we have G(s)U (s) b 1 × s+a s b 1 1 − a s s+a b 1 − e−at a

y(t) =

This is illustrated in Fig 25. We may observe the following:

5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

36

2

1.5

1

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−0.5

u

−1

−1.5

−2

−2.5

−3

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5

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25 time

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35

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**Figure 23: Input for the example.
**

2 1.5

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0.5

0 y and u

−0.5

−1

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−2

−2.5

−3

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Figure 24: Output for the example. • Provided a is positive, y(t) settles to a steady state value for large t. As b t → ∞, we ﬁnd y(t) → a . This agrees with the ﬁnal value theorem. • The response reaches approximately 63.21% of its ﬁnal value at t = 1/a. The value 1/a is the time constant. The larger the time constant (or equivalently, the smaller the value of a), the slower the system response. • Similarly the response reaches 10% of its ﬁnal value after t = 0.1054/a and 90% of its ﬁnal value after t = 2.306/a. Some authors deﬁne the rise time to be the diﬀerence between these two values (i.e. the time it takes to go from 10% to 90% of its ﬁnal value), while some authors deﬁne it simply to be the time from 0 to 90% of its ﬁnal value. • The slope of the response at t = 0 is b. • If a is negative then y(t) blows up to inﬁnity; in this case the response is said to be unstable.

5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

37

y b/a 0.9 b/a 0.63 b/a

0.1 b/a 0.11/a 1/a 2.20/a 2.31/a t

**Figure 25: First order step response.
**

y b/a

τ

t

Figure 26: First order step response with delay of τ seconds. Example: Consider a plant described by a ﬁrst order transfer function G(s) = bo s + ao

in feedback with a proportional gain kp . The closed-loop system is depicted in Fig 27. The closed-loop transfer function is Y (s) = kp bo R(s) s + ao + kp bo

with steady state gain kp bo /(ao + kp bo ) and time constant 1/(ao + kp bo ).

a0 and a1 . then the transfer function is G(s) = e−sτ The response is illustrated in Fig 26. Speciﬁcally the transfer function G(s) = e−sτ can be approximated as G(s) = −τ s/2 + 1 b × τ s/2 + 1 s+a b s+a This is known as a Pad´ approximation.7 Second order systems b1 s + b0 + a1 s + a0 Second order systems take the general form G(s) = s2 and show a much wider variety of dynamic response.6. we will still need to consider separate cases. The response for other values of k can be found by scaling the following results. See Fig 28.1 First order system with delay Many systems can be adequately modeled as a ﬁrst order system with a delay. or a complex conjugate pair. e We need to understand how systems with second order transfer functions will behave for diﬀerent values of b0 . We will classify the behaviour according to the roots of the denominator. If the delay is τ seconds. This means the steady state gain G(0) = 1. We saw in Section 3 that second order systems are often adequate to describe simple electrical and mechanical systems. They may also be used to loosely approximate ﬁrst order systems with delay. Despite these simpliﬁcations. . We will also set b0 = ka0 . b s+a 5. They are either both real. To simplify matters we will begin by assuming b1 = 0. which are termed the poles of the system. and assume that k = 1. b1 .5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 38 r + - kp bo s+ao y Figure 27: First order transfer function with proportional feedback 5.

4 0. The main signiﬁcant diﬀerence is that the gradient of the second order response at t = 0 is 0.7. similar to that of a ﬁrst order system with a pole at −p2 and we say the smaller pole dominates. to the eye.8 Amplitude 0. . If both p1 and p2 are positive (i.e.2 0 −0.5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 39 Step Response 1.e. • If p1 >> p2 then the step response may be approximated as y(t) ≈ 1 − e−p2 t The response is. the corresponding poles are negative) then the transfer function is stable.6 0. s/2+1 5.2 0 1 2 3 Time (sec) 4 5 6 7 1 Figure 28: Step response of a ﬁrst order system with delay G(s) = e−s s+1 (dashed) and the step response of its approximation: a second order system 1 G(s) = −s/2+1 × s+1 (solid). the corresponding pole is positive) then the step response blows up and we say the transfer function is unstable.2 1 0. The step response has Laplace transform Y (s) = = p1 p2 1 (s + p1 )(s + p2 ) s p2 1 1 + − s p1 − p2 s + p1 p2 p1 − p2 p1 p1 − p2 p1 p1 − p2 1 s + p2 Hence the step response itself takes the form y(t) = 1 + e−p1 t − e−p2 t We may observe the following (see Fig 29): • If either p1 or p2 is negative (i.1 The poles are separate and real G(s) = p1 p2 (s + p1 )(s + p2 ) Suppose we may write with both p1 and p2 real.

5.3 The poles are complex If the poles form a complex conjugate pair.2 The poles are identical and real Suppose both poles are identical and we may write G(s) = p2 (s + p)2 The step response has Laplace transform Y (s) = = p2 1 (s + p)2 s 1 1 1 − −p s s+p (s + p)2 Hence the step response itself takes the form y(t) = 1 − e−pt − pte−pt Although mathematically this looks quite diﬀerent from the case where the poles are separate.8 0.6 1. the response is signiﬁcantly diﬀerent from any ﬁrst order response. then it is standard to write the transfer function as 2 kωn G(s) = 2 2 s + 2ζωn s + ωn .1 (s+1)(s+1.4 0. Once again we must have both poles negative for the response to be stable. with reference to Fig 32 we see that the behaviour is in fact very similar.2 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 29: Step responses for second order transfer functions with real poles • If p1 and p2 are similar.7.7.1) 10 (s+1)(s+10) 0.5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 40 1 1 s+1 0. 5.

5 1 0. Fixing ωn and varying ζ gives a locus of poles on a semi-circle. all with ζ set arbitrarily to 0. diﬀer. ωn varying ωn fixed. A tedious calculation gives the step response as y(t) = 1 − 1 1 − ζ2 e−ζωn t sin ωn 1 − ζ2t + θ (6) Just as varying k changes only the magnitude of the response. Zeta takes values 0 < ζ < 1. with ωn = 1 and k = 1 + 1.5 1 1.3. radius ωn .e. Respectively they show step responses for: G(s) G(s) G(s) = = = 1 .5 0 0. so changing ωn changes only the speed of the response. ζ varying θ 1 0.4s + 1 10 .4s + 1 100 . indicated by the x.5 2 2 1.and y-axes.5 ζ fixed.5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 41 2 1. . Once again we assume k = 1.e.5 0 0. Only the relative scalings. Fixing ζ and varying ωn gives a locus of poles on a ray at angle θ satisfying tan θ = 1 − ζ2 ζ These loci are illustrated in Fig 30. i.5 1 1. Fig 31 shows three step responses.5 2 Figure 30: Locus of poles when the denominator of the transfer function is 2 s2 + 2ζωn s + ωn . i. with ωn = 10 and k = 1 s2 + 14s + 100 s2 The shapes of the three plots are identical. The poles lie at p = −ωn ζ ± jωn 1 − ζ2 Omega (ωn ) is the natural frequency while zeta (ζ) is the damping ratio. i. which intersects the real axis at −ωn when ζ = 1 and the imaginary axis at ±ωn j when ζ = 0. with ωn = 1 and k = 10 s2 + 1.e.

7 and -1.3j 0. If ζ is near 1 then once again the response is similar to that with two identical poles on the real axis.8 1 1.09 G3 (s) = = 2 (s + 1 + j0.91 = 2 (s + 0. For ζ < 1 there is some overshoot to the step response. Now suppose we ﬁx ωn and k but allow ζ to vary.2 0.4 1.5 1 0.03)(s + 1 − j0.5 0 15 10 5 0 1.5 1 0.09 1.3) s + 2s + 1.09 √ Note that G3 (s) has natural frequency ωn = 1.6 poles at -0. G1 (s) = .2 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 32: Step responses with two poles close together.5 0 ωn=1. k=1 0 0. k=10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 ωn=10.3j and -1-0.3 0. k=1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 ωn=1. As ζ decreases.6 0.2 1.7 × 1.6 1.4 0. the overshoot increases.5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 42 1.3 both poles at -1 poles at -1+0.8 2 Figure 31: Step responses of second order systems with diﬀering values of ωn and k.4 0.8 0. Fig 32 shows the step response of the following three transfer functions: 0.91 1 1 G2 (s) = = 2 2 (s + 1) s + 2s + 1 1. Various step responses are shown in Figs 33 and 34. 1 0.09 ≈ 1.04 and damping ratio ζ ≈ 0.7)(s + 1.3) s + 2s + 0.96.

For ζ < 0 the poles lie in the right half plane (i.7.2 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 33: Locus of poles with high damping.7 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 34: Locus of poles with low damping. 5. so we say the response is marginally stable.8 ζ=0. For a stable response with a well-deﬁned ﬁnal value yss = limt→∞ y(t) the peak value Mp is given by Mp = ymax − yss yss where ymax is the maximum value of y(t).4 Time domain step response speciﬁcations There are three standard time response speciﬁcations. the response tends to ζ→0 lim y(t) = 1 − sin ωt + π 2 The poles for this limit lie on the imaginary axis.3 ζ=0.5 1 0.5 ζ=0.6 ζ=0.4 ζ=0.e.7 0. Peak overshoot Mp .6 0. . G(s) is unstable) and the response blows up.8 ζ=1 ζ=0.9 ζ=0.4 0.5 ζ=0. 1.5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 43 1 0. In the limit as ζ → 0.

The deﬁnition applies to more general responses.9 Mp 0.8/ ωn 1.5 rise time 2 1.1 tr ts t Figure 35: Time domain step response speciﬁcations.16 0.5 3 tr 2.1% y(t) 1 0. but is less useful when there is overshoot.2 Figure 36: Rise time for second order system with no zero against damping ratio ζ with natural frequency ωn = 1.9 1 0 0 0.5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 44 +/. We deﬁned the rise time for ﬁrst order systems as the time for the response to go from 10% to 90% of the ﬁnal value.4 0. We ﬁnd the peak occurs at π t= ωn 1 − ζ 2 and Mp = e −√ ζ 1−ζ 2 π Rise time.6 damping ratio 0.1 0.3 0. For a second order response with ζ < 1 and no zero we can ﬁnd the peak value by evaluating where the derivative of (6) is zero.5 ζ+ 0. Figure 36 shows the rise time against damping ratio for a second order system with no zero when the natural frequency ωn = 1. 4 3.6)/ωn 0.7 0.5 1 (2.8 0. Two commonly .5 0.

The settling time is the time for which the response reaches to within ±1% of the ﬁnal value and then stays there. Suppose G is given by the transfer function G(s) = We will ﬁnd it useful to write G(s) = G1 (s) + G2 (s) with G1 (s) G2 (s) = = 2 kωn 2 + 2ζωn s + ωn 2 bkωn s 2 + 2ζω s + ω 2 s n n 2 (bs + 1)kωn 2 s2 + 2ζωn s + ωn s2 If the corresponding time response is y1 (t) + y2 (t) then y1 takes the form we studied in the previous section.7.16ζ + 0.6 ωn 1. dy1 y2 (t) = b (t) dt We will not analyse y2 too closely. y(t) − yss < 0.8 ωn Settling time.01 for all t ≥ ts yss For a second order system we may approximate ts ≈ 4.5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 45 used approximations are also shown: tr tr ≈ ≈ 2.5 Second order transfer functions with a zero A zero in a transfer function can have a signiﬁcant eﬀect on the time response. though it derives from the less good approxiation y(t) ≈ 1 − e−ωn ζt for large t 5.6 ζωn The approximation is surprisingly good for ζ < 1. except to note y2 (0) = lim y2 (t) = 0 t→∞ . by the properties of Laplace transforms. Meanwhile.

Note in particular the case b = −2.5 y(t) b = -2 0 0. Its steady state gain is 1 for all values of b. Consider the second order transfer function G(s) = s2 bs + 1 + 1. rise time tr and settling time ts .5 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 t 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 37: Step response for second order systems with a zero. Allowing b to be non-zero aﬀects the peak overshoot Mp .7.5 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 1.5 46 b = 2 1 b = 0 0. Transfer functions with such zeros are termed “non-minimum phase” transfer functions. for reasons we will discuss in the next section. Figure 37 shows the time response for the values b = −2. This so-called “inverse-response” is characteristic of transfer functions with zeros in the right half plane.4s + 1 This has a natural frequency ωn = 1 and a damping ratio ζ = 0. b = 0 and b = 2. The response dips below zero before rising to the steady state value. the approximations of the previous section are no longer valid. .

Remarkably. if limt→∞ u(t) exists and if G(s) is stable then t→∞ lim y(t) = G(0) lim u(t) t→∞ The relation is valid for G(s) of any order. the result may be generalised to the case where u(t) is a sine wave. suppose t→∞ lim [u(t) − sin(ωt)] = 0 and G(s) is stable. if we write G(jω) = |G(jω)| exp (j∠G(jω)) then g = |G(jω)| φ = ∠G(jω) We usually say (loosely) that if u(t) = sin(ωt) and if G(s) is stable then y(t) = |G(jω)| sin (ωt + ∠G(jω)) provided we ignore initial transient conditions. Furthermore. each at frequency ω. even when we write the transfer function in terms of natural frequency ωn and damping ratio ζ. Speciﬁcally. An exception is the steady state response.6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS 47 6 Frequency response analysis In the previous section we classiﬁed step responses for low order transfer functions. We call |G(jω)| the gain of G and ∠G(jω) the phase of G. Speciﬁcally. The classiﬁcation is not straightforward. Then t→∞ lim [y(t) − g sin (ωt + φ)] = 0 for some g and φ. .

1 First order system G(s) = k s+a Suppose Then G(jω) = |G(jω)| = = = = = = ∠G(jω) = = = k a + jω k a + jω 1 a − jω k × a + jω a − jω a ω k 2 −j 2 a + ω2 a + ω2 k k a a2 + ω 2 a2 + ω 2 (a2 + ω 2 )2 2 + ω a2 + ω 2 2 k √ a2 + ω 2 atan ω a2 + ω 2 atan [−ω/a] − −atan[ω/a] / a a2 + ω 2 . 6.6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS 48 Imaginary G(jω) |G(jω)| <G(jω) Real Figure 38: Gain and phase of G evaluated at a speciﬁc frequency G(jω).

5 ω=1 0 0. Note the time scales are diﬀerent for each plot.6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS 49 u(t) 1 0. to sine waves at ω = 0.5 ω=10 0 0. For practical reasons it is useful to show the log of the gain versus the log of the frequency.1. Suppose G(jω) = G1 (jω) × G2 (jω)/G3 (jω) = g1 ejφ1 × g2 ejφ2 ÷ g3 ejφ3 g1 g2 j(φ1 +φ2 −φ3 ) = e g3 g1 g2 g3 Then the gain of G is given by |G(jω)| = . • when ω is small • when ω = a • when ω is large |G(jω)| ≈ k and ∠G(jω) ≈ 0o a 1 k |G(jω)| = √ and ∠G(jω) = −45o 2a |G(jω)| ≈ k and ∠G(jω) ≈ −90o ω 1 1+s Fig 39 shows the response of G(s) = and ω = 10. ω = 1 6. ω = 1 and ω = 10.2 Bode plot The Bode plot shows gain and phase against frequency on separate graphs.5 ω=0.5 1 1.1 0.5 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0 |G(jω)|sin(ωt+<G(jω)) y(t) 1 Figure 39: Sine wave response for the ﬁrst order plant G(s) = s+1 at frequencies ω = 0.5 1 1 0.5 1 1 0.5 time 3 3.5 1 0 0.5 4 4.1.5 2 2.

. and similarly if ω = 102 a |G(j10a)|dB ≈ 20 log10 (k/a) − 20 |G(jω)|dB ≈ 20 log10 (k/ω) |G(j102 a)|dB ≈ 20 log10 (k/a) − 40 On a log-log scale the gain follows the horizontal line 20 log10 (k/a) for small frequencies and then drops at 20dB per decade for large frequencies. Here |G(jω)|dB = 20 log10 k √ 2a2 √ = 20 log10 (k/a) − 20 log10 2 ≈ 20 log10 k/a − 3dB Similarly the phase of G is given by ∠G(jω) = φ1 + φ2 − φ3 Therefore on a Bode plot the phase is drawn on a linear scale. At ω = a we have ∠G(ja) = −atan[a/a] = −45o and near ω = a we may approximate ∠G(jω) ≈ − π 1 ω − log (in radians) 4 2 a This corresponds to a tangent that touches 0o when ω/a = e−π/2 ≈ 0. as for the gain.2 and touches −90o when ω/a = eπ/2 ≈ 5.6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS 50 and log |G(jω)| = log g1 + log g2 − log g3 By tradition the gain is shown in decibels deﬁned as |G|dB = 20 log10 |G| For a ﬁrst order system G(s) = • when ω is small k s+a we ﬁnd |G(jω)|dB ≈ 20 log10 (k/a) In particular a steady state gain of 1 corresponds to 0dB . but against frequency scaled in a logarithmic manner. • when ω is large If ω = 10a. This frequency is known as the break frequency. It deviates most from these two asymptotes where they meet at ω = a.

where the complex operator s is mapped onto the positive imaginary axis.e. . 6. 0 20 40 2 10 10 1 1 10s+1 1 s+1 10 0 10 s+1 10 1 10 2 0 20 40 60 80 10 2 Phase (degrees) 1 10s+1 10 1 1 . As the gain is usually expressed in decibels. The Bode plot of as+1 is the same as s+1 but with −20dB-per-decade asymptote intersecting 0dB at ω = 1/a. while the second is a graph of phase against log frequency.6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS 51 10 0 Gain (dB) −10 −20 −30 −40 −2 10 10 −1 10 0 10 1 10 2 0 −20 −40 −60 −80 10 −2 Phase (degrees) 10 −1 10 ω 0 10 1 10 2 Figure 40: Bode plot of the ﬁrst order plant G(s) = 40 20 Gain (dB) 1 s+1 . jω with 0 ≤ ω < ∞). the corresponding y-axis scale becomes linear. Therefore the standard convention for gridlines is for them to be linear for both gain and phase. Grid lines: The Bode plot shows two graphs: the ﬁrst is a graph of log gain against log frequency. 10 s+1 s+1 10 ω 0 10 1 10 2 Figure 41: Bode plots of G(s) = 1 s+1 . G(s) = 10 s+1 and G(s) = 1 10s+1 .3 Closed-loop response Since G(jω) is a special case of G(s) (i. we may use the same description of closed-loop response we used with Laplace transforms. but logarithmic for frequency. k 1 Scaling relations: the Bode plot of s+1 is the same as s+1 but moved up by 1 1 k. See Fig 42. See Fig 41.

6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS 52 10 5 0 −5 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) −10 −15 −20 −25 −30 −35 −40 0 −45 −90 10 −2 10 −1 10 ω (rad/sec) 0 10 1 10 2 Figure 42: Bode plot of G(s) = lines. and no noise or disturbance signals. showing the standard convention for grid r(t) + - e(t) C u(t) G y(t) Figure 43: Simple closed loop system. We saw before that Y (s) = = so we may also say Y (jω) = kp R(jω) −ω 2 + jω + kp GC R(s) 1 + GC kp R(s) 2+s+k s p . So the feedback loop can be depicted as in Fig 43. For simplicity we assume there is no pre-ﬁlter P (s). Example: Suppose (as before) a plant can be represented by the transfer function G(s) given by 1 G(s) = s(s + 1) The controller is a simple gain given by C(s) = kp We wish the plant output y(t) to track some reference signal r(t). 1 s+1 .

4 First order elements It is useful to be able to draw the Bode plots for the objects s + 1. s−1 and 1+s . Note that the ﬁrst three of these are improper while the fourth and ﬁfth are unstable.6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS 53 Our deﬁnitions of sensitivity and complementary sensitivity carry over to the frequency domain: Sensitivity S(jω) = Complementary sensitivity T (jω) = As before we have the relations T (jω) = G(jω)C(jω)S(jω) and S(jω) + T (jω) = 1 at all frequencies ω. • G(s) = s + 1 |(1 + jω)| = 0dB for ω << 1 +3dB for ω = 1 1 + ω2 ≈ 20 log10 ω for ω >> 1 • G(s) = s − 1 The phase may also be expressed as −360o for ω → 0 −315o for ω = 1 ∠(1 + jω) = −270o for ω → ∞ |(−1 + jω)| = ∠(−1 + jω) = 0dB for ω << 1 1 + ω2 ≈ +3dB for ω = 1 20 log10 ω for ω >> 1 o 0 for ω → 0 45o for ω = 1 ∠(1 + jω) = 90o for ω → ∞ −180o for ω → 0 −225o for ω = 1 −270o for ω → ∞ . s − 1. 1 1−s 1 1−s . G(jω)C(jω) 1 + G(jω)C(jω) 1 1 + G(jω)C(jω) 6. s − 1.

The gain is |G(kω))|dB = 0dB while the phase is ∠G(jω) = ∠e−jωτ = −ωτ .6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS 54 • G(s) = 1 − s |(1 − jω)| = 0dB for ω << 1 +3dB for ω = 1 1 + ω2 ≈ 20 log10 ω for ω >> 1 • G(s) = 1 1−s o 0 for ω → 0 ∠(1 − jω) = −45o for ω = 1 −90o for ω → ∞ 1 | = 1 − jω 1 1 − jω = | ∠ • G(s) = 1 s−1 0dB for ω << 1 1 √ −3dB for ω = 1 ≈ 1 + ω 2 −20 log ω for ω >> 1 10 −360o for ω → 0 −315o for ω = 1 −270o for ω → ∞ 0dB for ω << 1 1 √ ≈ −3dB for ω = 1 1 + ω 2 −20 log ω for ω >> 1 10 o −180 for ω → 0 −135o for ω = 1 −90o for ω → ∞ 1 | | = 1 − jω ∠ 1 jω − 1 = These are shown in Fig 44 • G(s) = 1−s 1+s The gain is given by |G(jω)|dB = 20 log10 (1 + ω 2 ) − 20 log10 (1 + ω 2 ) = 0dB The phase is ∠G(jω) = ∠(1 − jω) − ∠(1 + jω) = −2∠(1 + jω) • A delay of τ given by G(s) = e−τ s .

6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS

55

40

20 Gain (dB)

s+1, s-1,1-s 1 1 1-s , s-1

10

0

0

20

40 2 10

10

1

10

1

10

2

0

Phase (degrees)

90

180

270

360 2 10

s+1, 1 1-s

10

1

1 s-1

1-s s-1

10 ω

0

10

1

10

2

**Figure 44: Superimposed Bode plots for s + 1, s − 1, 1 − s,
**

20 10 Gain (dB) 0

1 1−s

and

1 s−1 .

10

20 2 10

10

1

10

0

10

1

10

2

0

Phase (degrees)

50

100

150

2 1

e-2s

10 10 ω

0

1-s 1+s

10

1

10

10

2

Figure 45: Superimposed Bode plots for

1−s 1+s

and e−2s .

Since the gain is everywhere 1 (i.e. 0dB) these are known as all-pass ﬁlters. For any transfer function with a pole or zero in the right half-plane, or with delay, there is a corresponding transfer function with the same gain but reduced (negative) phase. Thus linear transfer functions with all poles and zeros in the left half plane (and with no delay) are termed non-minimum phase transfer functions. We have seen that transfer functions of the form G(s) = 1 − sτ /2 1 + sτ /2

are often used to approximate the eﬀects of delay.

6.5

6.5.1

**Second order systems
**

Separate real poles k (s + p1 )(s + p2 )

Consider the stable second order transfer function G(s) =

6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS

56

with both p1 and p2 positive. Without loss of generality suppose p1 ≤ p2 . This has steady state gain k/(p1 p2 ) and two break frequencies ω = p1 and ω = p2 . Hence we may say: At low frequencies ω < p1 . The gain can be approximated by a horizonal line at k/(p1 p2 ). The phase tends to 0o as ω → 0. At mid-frequencies p1 < ω < p2 . The gain can be approximated by an asymptote dropping at −20dB/decade. The phase passes through −90o √ at ω = p1 p2 . At high frequencies ω > p2 . The gain can be approximated by an asymptote dropping at −40dB/decade. The phase tends to −180o as ω → ∞. At ω = p1 . The gain is approximately −3dB below the steady state value. The phase is approximately −45o . If p2 is close in value to p1 both these values will be lower. At ω = p2 . The gain is approximately −3dB below the intersection of the two sloping asymptotes. The phase is approximately −135o. If p2 is close in value to p1 both these values will be higher. Figs 46 and 47 show Bode plots of two such transfer functions, one with the poles far apart (in frequency) and one with the poles close (in frequency). Grid lines are included so that the intersections of the asymptotes can be seen. 6.5.2 Identical real poles

Suppose we have the stable second order transfer function G(s) = k (s + p)2

Its steady state gain is k/p2 . We can obtain the remaining characteristics from superimposing two ﬁrst order transfer functions, each with a pole at s = −p. Hence: At low frequencies ω < p. The gain can be approximated by a horizonal line at k/p2 . The phase tends to 0o as ω → 0. At high frequencies ω > p. The gain can be approximated by an asymptote dropping at −40dB/decade. The phase tends to −180o as ω → ∞. At ω = p. The gain is approximately −6dB below the steady state value. The phase is approximately −90o.

6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS

57

**20 0 magnitude (dB) −20 −40 −60 −80 −100 −3 10
**

−2 −1 0 1 2 3

10

10

10

10

10

10

0

−45 phase

−90

−135

−180 −3 10

10

−2

10

−1

10 ω

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

**Figure 46: Bode plot of G(s) =
**

20 0 magnitude (dB) −20 −40 −60 −80 −100 −3 10

−2

1 (s+0.1)(s+10) .

The two real poles are far apart.

10

10

−1

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

0

−45 phase

−90

−135

−180 −3 10

10

−2

10

−1

10 ω

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

Figure 47: Bode plot of G(s) = together. 6.5.3

1 (s+0.5)(s+2) .

The two real poles are close

**Complex conjugate poles
**

2 kωn 2 + 2ζωn s + ωn

Consider the second order transfer function G(s) = s2

**Its frequency response at frequency ω is G(jω) = = When ω is small,
**

2 kωn 2 ωn − ω 2 + 2jζωn ω k 2 /ω 2 + 2jζω/ω 1−ω n n

|G(jω)| ≈ ∠G(jω) ≈

G(jω) ≈

k 20 log10 kdB 0o

9 gain ζ=0.6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS 58 20 0 20 ζ=0. G(jω) ≈ ∠G(jω) ≈ |G(jω)| ≈ − 2 kωn 2 ω (20 log10 k + 40 log10 ωn − 40 log10 ω)dB −180o When ω = ωn for the more general case G(jω) |G(jω)| = = k 2jζ (20 log10 k − 20 log10 2ζ)dB = −90o √ If the damping ratio ζ < 1/ 2 there is a peak in the gain.5 150 1 0 1 2 10 10 10 frequency 10 10 Figure 48: Bode plot of three second order systems with damping ratios ζ = 0. ζ = 0. Diﬀerentiating with respect to ω 2 gives df (ω 2 ) 2 2 = 2(ω 2 − ωn ) + 4ζ 2 ωn d(ω 2 ) which is zero when 2 ω 2 = ωn (1 − 2ζ 2 ) or equivalently ω = ωn 1 − 2ζ 2 .1 ζ=0.5 and ζ = 0. Since we have ∠G(jω) |G(jω)|2 = the peak occurs where 2 f (ω 2 ) = (ωn − ω 2 )2 + (2ζωωn )2 2 (ωn 2 (kωn )2 − + (2ζωωn )2 ω 2 )2 is minimum.9.9 2 ζ=0. When ω is large.5 40 60 2 10 10 1 10 0 10 1 10 2 0 50 phase 100 ζ=0.1.1 ζ=0.

.. −p2 . .+ s + jω s − jω s + p1 s + pn w s2 + ω 2 by partial fraction expansion for some A1 . A2 .6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS 59 At this frequency we ﬁnd G(jω) = |G(jω)| = k 2ζ 2 2ζ + 2jζ k 1 − ζ2 1 − 2ζ 2 Bode plots of second order systems with k = 1 and ωn = 1 are shown in Fig 48 for three diﬀerent damping ratios. leaving yss (t) = A1 e−jωt + A2 ejωt . . . Suppose the input to the plant is a sine wave u(t) = sin ωt with Laplace transform U (s) = The output is Y (s) = = = G(s)U (s) b(s) w (s + p1 )(s + p2 ) · · · (s + pn ) (s + jω)(s − jω) A1 A2 B1 Bn + + + . . . 6. Note that in the limit as ζ → 0 the peak gain tends to inﬁnity and the phase transition from 0o to −180o tends to a step with respect to frequency. B1 . We may write G(s) = b(s) (s + p1 )(s + p2 ) · · · (s + pn ) for some numerator polynomial b(s). Since G(s) is stable we must have Real[pi ] > 0 for all i. .6 *Derivation of the main result Suppose G(s) is a stable rational transfer function with separate poles −p1 . So y(t) = A1 e−jωt + A2 ejωt + B1 e−p1 t + · · · + Bn e−pn t For large t the terms with coeﬃcients Bi die out. −pn (these may have complex values)... Bn .

6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS 60 From the partial fraction expansion we ﬁnd A1 = = A2 = = It is possible to show that |G(−jω)| = |G(jω)| and ∠G(−jω) = −∠G(jω) Hence yss (t) = = = = j j G(−jω)e−jωt − G(jω)ejωt 2 2 j −j∠G(jω) −jωt |G(jω)| e e − ej∠G(jω) ejωt 2 j |G(jω)|(−2j) sin (ωt + ∠G(jω)) 2 |G(jω)| sin (ωt + ∠G(jω)) G(s) ω s − jω s=−jω j G(−jω) 2 ω G(s) s + jω −j G(jω) 2 s=jω The result is readily extendable to more general transfer functions. .

φ = φ(ω) and K = K(ω). u(t) = sin ωt for some frequency ω. The general solution is y(t) = M sin(ωt + φ) + Ke−at for some M = M (ω). Once again. This is really easy. 2. Frequency domain analysis. Laplace domain analysis. though we lose sight of the initial transients. Suppose our inputoutput relation is dy + ay = bu dt and the input is a sine wave.7 REVIEW OF ANALYSIS TOOLS 61 7 Review of analysis tools: ﬁrst order response to a sine wave u(t) = sin ωt dy dt + ay = bu y(t) =? Figure 49: Response of a system with ﬁrst order dynamics to a sine wave input. Time domain analysis. Substituting back into the diﬀerential equation we ﬁnd M ω cos(ωt + φ) + aM sin(ωt + φ) = b sin ωt This becomes M ω cos ωt cos φ − M ω sin ωt sin φ + aM sin ωt cos φ + aM cos ωt sin φ = b sin ωt Equation coeﬃcients in cos ωt gives M ω cos φ + aM sin φ = 0 . 3. Finding the solution is simpler than with time domain analysis. We will derive the solution for y in three ways: 1. though ﬁnding the parameters (via partial fraction expansion) can be tricky.1 Time domain analysis We can ﬁnd a complete solution using time domain analysis. This provides a complete solution. Let us pause to compare the analytical tools we now have available. We will consider a simple dynamic system with a simple input. this provides a complete solution. but is not straightforward. 7.

7 REVIEW OF ANALYSIS TOOLS 62 and hence tan φ = − Equating coeﬃcients in sin ωt gives ω a −M ω sin φ + aM cos φ = b and hence which reduces to −M ω tan φ + aM = b 1 + tan2 φ b M=√ 2 + a2 ω Checking initial conditions (we assume both y and u are zero for t ≤ 0) we ﬁnd M sin φ + K = 0 Hence bω ω 2 + a2 decays over time (provided a > 0). we have the K= But since the term in e−at solution y(t) ≈ M sin(ωt + φ) for large t 7.B = − 2 . We have U (s) = and Y (s) = G(s)U (s) with G(s) = Hence Y (s) = = with A+B aB + C 2 ω A + aC This has solution A= ω2 bω bω abω .C = 2 2 2 +a ω +a ω + a2 = 0 = 0 = bω b ω × s + a s2 + ω 2 A Bs + C + s + a s2 + ω 2 s2 .2 Laplace domain analysis ω + ω2 b s+a It is usually easier to ﬁnd y(t) in the Laplace domain.

7 REVIEW OF ANALYSIS TOOLS 63 So y(t) = = where tan φ = −ω/a. If we ignore initial transients. then y(t) = |G(jω)| sin(ωt + φ) with φ = ∠G(jω) We have G(s) = so G(jω) = Hence |G(jω)| = and b s+a b b(a − jω) = 2 jω + a a + ω2 a2 + ω 2 = √ b ω 2 + a2 b a2 + ω 2 ω a Note that even these equations disguise the simple nature of the response which becomes clear when expressed in a Bode plot. tan ∠G(jω) = − . bω bω ab e−at − 2 cos ωt + 2 sin ωt ω 2 + a2 ω + a2 ω + a2 bω b e−at + √ sin(ωt + φ) 2 + a2 ω 2 + a2 ω 7.3 Frequency domain analysis It is even more straight forward to derive the frequency response directly.

b > 0. d(t) disturbances and noise measured output ym(t) Plant input r(t) set point PID Controller u(t) Figure 50: PID controller in a closed-loop system. Laplace domain and frequency domain properties. using our insight in time domain. Then the sensitivity is S(s) = 1 s+a = 1 + kp G(s) s + a + kp b kp b kp G(s) = 1 + kp G(s) s + a + kp b b s+a and similarly the complementary sensitivity is T (s) = . If the open-loop response is Y (s) = G(s)U (s) + D(s) then in closed loop we have Y (s) = 8. We will introduce the basic concepts. 8.1.1 kp G(s) 1 R(s) + D(s) 1 + kp G(s) 1 + kp G(s) Stable ﬁrst order plant Suppose the plant is ﬁrst order with G(s) = with a.8 PID CONTROL 64 8 PID Control PID control is the standard form of control. Loops with PID controllers can be found in many diverse industrial applications. where for some proportional gain kp > 0.1 Proportional control u(t) = kp (r(t) − y(t)) The most simple form of continuous feedback is proportional control.

Also shown is its closed-loop step response with proportional control kp = 10. . • At steady state we ﬁnd yss = T (0)rss + S(0)dss = kp b a rss + dss a + kp b a + kp b • S(s) and T (s) are both ﬁrst order. consider the ﬁrst order system Y (s) = 1 R(s) + D(s) 1+s Its open loop time response to a square wave set point change and a step disturbance at time t = 30 is shown in Fig 51. Fig 52 shows the open-loop gain |G(jω)| and the closed-loop sensitivities S(jω) and T (jω). They share the same denominator with break frequency a + kp b.2 Unstable ﬁrst order plant Suppose instead G(s) is given by G(s) = b s+a with b > 0 but a < 0. • The closed-loop bandwidth is higher than the open-loop bandwidth. • The closed-loop response is always stable. but the closed-loop response kp b s+a Y (s) = R(s) + D(s) s + a + kp b s + a + kp b is stable provided a + kp b > 0 This is an example of negative feedback stabilizing an open-loop unstable plant.1.8 PID CONTROL 65 Thus in closed-loop we have Y (s) = kp b s+a R(s) + D(s) s + a + kp b s + a + kp b We should observe the following: • We have the usual relation S(s) + T (s) = 1. 8. The plant is open-loop unstable. and increases with kp . As an example.

we should observe: • The steady state gain is kp b0 a0 + kp b0 . 8.8 PID CONTROL 66 1 0.4 0.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 0.1.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 time 25 30 35 40 Figure 51: Open and closed-loop time responses for ﬁrst order plant with proportional control. 10 5 0 G(s) T(s) −5 gain (dB) −10 −15 −20 S(s) −25 −30 −3 10 10 −2 10 −1 10 frequency 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 Figure 52: Open and closed-loop frequency responses for ﬁrst order plant with proportional control.4 0.6 0.8 open loop 0.3 Stable second order plant (with no zero) b0 s2 + a1 s + a0 The closed-loop response is determined by the sensitivities G(s) = S(s) = T (s) = 1 s2 + a1 s + a0 = 2 1 + kp G(s) s + a1 s + a0 + kp b kp G(s) kp b0 = 2 1 + kp G(s) s + a1 s + a0 + kp b Suppose the plant is Focusing on the complementary sensitivity T (s).8 closed loop 0.6 0.

The most simple form is PI (proportional integral) control. • The natural frequency is ωn = and increases as kp increases. which takes the form u(t) = kp e(t) + Taking Laplace transforms Y (s) = kp 1 + 1 Ti s U (s) = kp (Ti s + 1) U (s) Ti s kp Ti t e(τ )dτ So the transfer function for a PI controller is C(s) = kp (Ti s + 1) Ti s . 8.2 Integral action and PI control We have seen that high gain control is desirable in that it reduces steady state error (to both set point changes and to disturbances). For most plants it is possible to ensure zero steady state error (to step set point changes and to step disturbances) by introducing integral action.4 Higher order plants and plants with delay If the gain is suﬃciently high then proportional control will destabilize any higher order plant with relative degree greater than two. • The damping ratio is ζ= a1 a0 + kp b0 a0 + kp b0 2 and approaches 0 for large kp . it leads to low damping ratios with second order plants and leads to instability with higher order plants or when there is any delay.8 PID CONTROL 67 and approaches 1 for large kp . However it is often unachievable. This is illustrated in Figs 53 and 54 where we show the open and closed-loop responses of 4 G(s) = 2 s + 5s + 4 with the proportional controller kp = 10. 8. Thus we expect a faster but more oscillatory response as we increase kp .1. Suﬃciently high gain proportional control will also destabilize any plant with delay.

High values of Ti reduce the integral action.6 0. The term Ti is called the integral time.2 1 0.6 0.2 0 5 10 15 20 time 25 30 35 40 Figure 53: Open and closed-loop time responses for second order plant with proportional control. 10 5 0 G(s) T(s) −5 gain (dB) −10 −15 −20 S(s) −25 −30 −3 10 10 −2 10 −1 10 frequency 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 Figure 54: Open and closed-loop frequency responses for second order plant with proportional control.4 0. while low values increase it.2 1 closed loop 0.2 0 −0.8 PID CONTROL 68 1. The Bode plot of a PI controller is illustrated in Fig 55 For a ﬁrst order plant b G(s) = s+a we ﬁnd s(s + a) S(s) = s2 + (a + kp b)s + kp b/Ti kp b(s + 1/Ti ) T (s) = s2 + (a + kp b)s + kp b/Ti In particular S(0) = 0 T (0) = 1 .8 open loop 0.2 0 −0.4 0.2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1.8 0.

A similar phenomenon occurs with more general plants.8 PID CONTROL 69 gain kp 1/Ti 0 −20 phase −40 −60 −80 1/Ti frequency Figure 55: Bode plot of a PI controller. C(s) = 4 1 + 1 s and C(s) = 4 1 + 5 4s 1 s+1 Fig 57 illustrates the corresponding sensitivities and complementary sensitivities. Fig 56 illustrates the closed-loop response of the plant G(s) = with the controllers C(s) = 4 1 + 3 4s . Thus G(s) = and T (s) = S(s) = n(s)nc (s) n(s)nc (s) + d(s)dc (s) d(s)dc (s) n(s)nc (s) + d(s)dc (s) nc (s) n(s) . In this case we may write ˜ dc (s) = sdc (s) . C(s) = d(s) dc (s) The controller has integral action if |C(jω)| → ∞ as ω → 0 This occurs if dc (0) = 0 but nc (0) = 0. and with more general controllers. Suppose the plant has numerator n(s) and denominator d(s) while the controller has numerator nc (s) and denominator dc (s).

8 PID CONTROL

70

1

0.5

0 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

0.5

0 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

0.5

0 0 5 10 15 20 time 25 30 35 40

**Figure 56: Closed loop responses of plant with three diﬀerent PI controllers.
**

20 10

Complementary sensitivities 0

Sensitivities

gain

−10

−20

−30

−40 −3 10

10

−2

10

−1

10 frequency

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

Figure 57: Closed-loop sensitivities of plant with three diﬀerent PI controllers. for some other polynomial dc˜ (s). Suppose further that n(0) = 0. Then we have T (0) = S(0) = n(0)nc (0) =1 n(0)nc (0) 0 =0 n(0)nc (0)

8.3

8.3.1

**Derivative action and PD control
**

PD and PDγ control

High gain control is also desirable in that it increases the bandwidth. But in the case where high gain proportional control is unachievable, integral action will not generally increase the bandwidth. In this case derivative action is useful, and the simplest form is PD (proportional derivative) control. An idealised PD controller takes the form u(t) = kp e(t) + kp Td de(t) dt

8 PID CONTROL

71

Td is called the derivative time. The transfer function of an idealised PD controller is CP D (s) = kp (1 + Td s) This is improper (and hence unrealisable). In practice analog PD controllers are usually implemented with transfer function CP Dγ (s) = kp 1 + Td s 1 + γTd s

with γ small. This is sometimes called PDγ control. 8.3.2 Frequency response

Typical frequency responses of CP D and CP Dγ are shown in Fig 58. The gain of CP D is kp at low frequency, but increases with ω at high frequencies, with a break point at 1/Td. By contrast, the gain of CP Dγ reaches a maximum of kp (1 + γ)/γ with break points at 1/(Td + Td γ) and 1/(Tdγ). The phase of CP D rises from 0o to 90o , while the phase of CP Dγ returns to 0o at high frequency.

C k (1+γ)/γ p gain

PD

CPDγ

kp

1/Td or 1/(Td+γ Td) 1/(Tdγ)

90 C

PD

phase

45 C

PDγ

0

1/Td or 1/(Td+γ Td) 1/(T γ) d frequency

Figure 58: Typical Bode plots of PD and PDγ controllers.

8.3.3

Second order plant

Consider the second order system G(s) = b0 s2 + a1 s + a0

8 PID CONTROL

72

together with an idealised PD controller CP D . The closed-loop sensitivities are T (s) = = S(s) = = G(s)CP D (s) 1 + G(s)CP D (s) kp b0 (1 + Td s) 2 + (a + k T b )s + (a + k b ) s 1 p d 0 0 p 0 1 1 + G(s)CP D (s) s2 + a1 s + a0 s2 + (a1 + kp Td b0 )s + (a0 + kp b0 )

The derivative action gives us an extra degree of freedom, that allows us to choose the closed-loop natural frequency ωn and the closed-loop damping ζ independently. Speciﬁcally we can choose kp Td = =

2 ω n − a0 b0 2ζωn − a1 kp b0

Example: Consider the second order plant G(s) = 4 s2 + 5s + 4

We saw that a proportional only controller with kp = 10 led to a step response with some brief oscillations. This gain gives a closed-loop natural frequency

2 ωn = b0 kp + a0 = 4 × 10 + 4 = 44

With Td = 0 the damping ratio is ζ= 5 a1 = √ ≈ 0.38 2ωn 2 44

Suppose we require a damping ratio ζ = 0.75. Then we should set √ 2 × 0.75 × 44 − 5 2ζωn − a1 Td = = ≈ 0.12 kp b0 10 × 4 A PDγ controller with γ = 0.1 takes the form C(s) = 10 1 + 0.12s 1 + 0.012s

Fig 59 shows the closed-loop response of the plant with such a controller, and should be compared with Fig 53 where only proportional action was used.

The standard form is: U (s) = CP ID (s)E(s) with e(t) = r(t) − ym (t) and CP ID (s) = kp 1 + 1 + Td s Ti s As with the idealised PD controller this is unrealisable.6 0. Ti and Td in a PID controller. .2 0 −0.2 1 0.2 0 5 10 15 20 time 25 30 35 40 Figure 59: Closed-loop time response for a second order plant with PDγ control. 8.2 0 −0. There are many tuning rules for choosing kp .8 PID CONTROL 73 1. and a PID controller usually takes the form CP IDγ (s) = kp 1 + with γ small.6 0.8 open loop 0.2 1 closed loop 0. integral and derivative action.4 0.4 PID control and Ziegler-Nichols tuning PID controllers include proportional.8 0.2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1.4 0. The Ziegler-Nichols rules are the most popular: there are two diﬀerent sets of rules. Td s 1+ Td s + e(t) kp + u(t) 1 Td s + Ti s 1 + γTds γ + 1 Ti s Figure 60: Idealised structure for PIDγ controller.

it is sometimes possible to tune a PID controller using the Ziegler-Nichols frequency response method.and a-axes respectively.6Ku Ti 0.8 PID CONTROL 74 Ziegler-Nichols step response method The Ziegler-Nichols step response tuning rules are appropriate for plants whose unit step response appears similar to that in Fig 61 (this is reasonable for many process control applications). and the parameters a and L determined from where the tangent intersects the y.5Tu Td 0.5Ku 0. Here the plant is kept in closed-loop. In this case a tangent line is drawn at the steepest part of the slope. Ziegler-Nichols frequency response method For some plants it is inappropriate to perform open-loop step tests (for example. The gain of the controller is increased until the plant oscillates with steady amplitude (ie with a higher gain the . Gains are then chosen according to Table 1. the plant may be marginally stable in open loop). tangent y(t) L a t Figure 61: Measurements for Ziegler-Nichols step response method.4Ku 0. In this case.8Tu 0. Controller P PI PID kp 1/a 0.9/a 1. The Bode plot of a typical PID controller with Ziegler-Nichols tuning is shown in Fig 62.125Tu Table 2: Ziegler-Nichols frequency response method gains. but with a proportional only controller.2/a Ti 3L 2L Td L/2 Table 1: Ziegler-Nichols step response method gains Controller P PI PID kp 0.

Interaction form where ′ C(s) = kp 1 + ki + kd s s 1 sTi′ ′ (1 + sTd ) . and the response can be improved by reducing the proportional gain. Parallel form where C(s) = kp + 2. Often they lead to an underdamped closed-loop response. Where precise tuning is required the rules can usually be improved on by taking into account the particular control system design speciﬁcations. In particular: • Sometimes an integral gain ki is used instead of integral time Ti . The corresponding gain is called the ultimate gain Ku and the period of the corresponding oscillations is called the ultimate period Tu .8 PID CONTROL 75 PID gain PIDγ 90 PID 45 phase 0 PIDγ −45 −90 frequency Figure 62: Typical Bode plots of PID and PIDγ controllers. PID gains should then be set according to Table 2. • So far we have discussed the so-called “standard form”.5 PID implementation PID controllers are often implemented using oﬀ-the-shelf software. Increasing ki increases integral action (as opposed to increasing Ti which reduces integral action). Similarly a derivative gain kd may be used with diﬀerent units (scaling) to Td . 8. the Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules should be taken as ﬁrst pass only. plant goes unstable and with a lower gain the closed-loop step response of the plant attenuates). Such controllers often have non-standard conﬁguration and use non-standard terminology. As with any tuning rule. There are two other forms: 1.

If actuators reach their .7 Anti-windup So far we have assumed that the input signal (manipulated variable) has an inﬁnite range.1 and Td = 0. Note that the closed-loop poles are not aﬀected by these changes. The two disturbance responses are identical. The dashed lines show the signals when the derivative and proportional gains act on the error. consider the plant G(s) = 1 s3 + 3s2 + 3s + 1 If the controller is a simple gain kp this is stable in closed-loop for kp < 8 and unstable for kp > 8. Ti = 1. so the controller becomes U (s) = kp λR(s) − kp Y (s) + kp Td s E(s) − kp Y (s) Ti s 1 + γTd s with λ a tuning parameter. The Ziegler-Nichols frequency response tuning rules suggest PID gains kp = 4. In particular step response demands may lead to sharp changes in actuator demands and output overshoot. In practice there are always limits to actuator movement—for example a valve may cannot be more than 100% open. This phenomenon is known as derivative kick. The PID controller becomes U (s) = kp E(s) + kp Td s E(s) − kp Y (s) Ti s 1 + γTds Similarly it may be advantageous to limit the amount the proportional action acts on the set point. This is straightforward to verify either by simulation or by computing the closed-loop response. usually between 0 and 1. When kp = 8 the plant output oscillates with a period of 2π/ (8) ≈ 3. it is often overly severe for set point tracking. while the solid lines show the signals when they act only on the output. Also the integral action continues to act on the error. PID gains (and structures) may be tailored to such implementation—this is beyond the scope of this course. As an example. but the set point responses are very diﬀerent. an output disturbance at t = 40 and a set point change at t = 60. One solution is to include a pre-ﬁlter.8 PID CONTROL 76 • Modern PID controllers are implemented digitally. Fig 63 shows the outputs and inputs of the plant with a PIDγ controller subject to an output disturbance at t = 20.6. Another is to allow the derivative action to act on the output only (and not the set point). 8.6.56. Thus the ultimate gain is 8 and the ultimate period is 2π/ (3) ≈ 3.6 Set-point tracking While derivative action is used to improve disturbance rejection. 8.8.

Fig 64 shows one possible structure that is commonly used.5 0 −0. These entail some kind of integrator management (one possibility is simply to switch oﬀ the integration when an actuator is at its limit). Under these circumstances it can take a long time for the control system to recover. limits during normal operation. 8. The .8 Internal model principle We have seen that integral action guarantees zero steady state error to step changes in the set point (provided the closed-loop response is stable). Fig 65 compares input and output behaviour for the previous example when the actuator is limited to lie between −2 ≤ u(t) ≤ 2 Td s 1+ Td s + e(t) kp + u(t) γ saturation + 1 Ti s + + + Ti Tt Figure 64: Anti-windup structure for a PID controller.5 1 y(t) 0.5 −1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 60 40 20 u(t) 0 −20 −40 −60 0 10 20 30 40 50 time 60 70 80 90 100 Figure 63: Input and output response of a third order plant with PIDγ control. To remedy this.8 PID CONTROL 77 2 1. this causes degradation of performance. The worst case scenario is with a PI or PID controller where the set-point or disturbance is such that the actuator sits on its limit for a period of time without the output reaching its set-point. In this case the error will not go zero. anti-windup structures are implemented. and the I term will continue integrating. Note that an additional tuning gain Tt is introduced.

5 y(t) 0 −0. while the dashed line shows the response when anti-windup is included.) Then the error response to a unit step is E(s) = R(s) − Y (s) = 1 − We ﬁnd t→∞ kL(s) 1 1 1 dL (s) = = 1 + kL(s) s 1 + kL(s) s sdL (s) + knL (s) sdL (s) 0 = =0 sdL (s) + knL (s) knL (0) lim e(t) = lim sE(s) = lim s→0 s→0 as required. with nL (0) non-zero. (We will ﬁnd it useful to separate the gain k in later sections. The input is limited to lie between −2 and 2.5 −1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 3 2 1 u(t) 0 −1 −2 −3 0 10 20 30 40 50 time 60 70 80 90 100 Figure 65: Input and output response of a third order plant with PIDγ. Similarly we ﬁnd the response to an step output disturbance in steady state is zero: if all other signals entering the loop are zero then Y (s) = and t→∞ 1 1 1 Do (s) = 1 + kL(s) 1 + kL(s) s lim y(t) = lim sY (s) = 0 s→0 If we require zero steady state error to both input and output step disturbance then we require the integral action to be in the controller: recall that the response to an input disturbance is Y (s) = G(s) Di (s) 1 + G(s)C(s) .8 PID CONTROL 78 1. The solid line shows the response without anti-windup. integral action may occur in either the controller C(s) or the plant G(s). Deﬁne the forward loop transfer function kL(s) as kL(s) = G(s)C(s) = k nL (s) sdL (s) where nL (s) and dL (s) are polynomials.5 1 0.

so that n(s) nc (s) C(s) = k . The response to an input disturbance is Y (s) = and sn(s)dc (s) 1 sd(s)dc (s) + kn(s)nc (s) s sn(s)dc (s) =0 sd(s)dc (s) + kn(s)nc (s) Similarly the response to an output disturbance is t→∞ lim y(t) = lim s→0 Y (s) = and t→∞ sd(s)dc (s) 1 sd(s)dc (s) + kn(s)nc (s) s sd(s)dc (s) =0 sd(s)dc (s) + kn(s)nc (s) lim y(t) = lim s→0 2. and G(s) = sdc (s) d(s) 1. then we must have di (s) in the denominator of the controller (unless di (s) is in the numerator of the plant). Similarly if we have an input disturbance with Laplace transform Di (s) = ni (s) di (s) and we want the output to be zero in steady state. so that C(s) = k with nc (0) non-zero.8 PID CONTROL 79 while the response to an output disturbance is Y (s) = 1 Do (s) 1 + G(s)C(s) nc (s) n(s) . Suppose instead the plant is integrating but the controller has no integral action. Examples: . Suppose the integral action is in the controller. and G(s) = dc (s) sd(s) with dc (s) and n(s) non-zero. Suppose we wish to have zero steady state error to a setpoint with Laplace transform R(s) = nr (s) dr (s) Then dr (s) must be in the denominator of the forward loop transfer function. Then the response to a step input is Y (s) = and t→∞ n(s)dc (s) 1 sd(s)dc (s) + kn(s)nc (s) s n(s)dc (s) =0 sd(s)dc (s) + kn(s)nc (s) lim y(t) = lim s→0 This is an example of the internal model principle.

Suppose we require zero steady state error to a ramp set point r(t) = t. 2. Suppose a plant is subject to sine wave disturbances with known frequency ω at both input and output. then we require the controller to take the form C(s) = for some n(s) and d(s).8 PID CONTROL 80 1. R(s) = 1 s2 Then we require there to be a double integrator in the forward loop transfer function. If we want the steady state output to be zero. 1 n(s) s2 + ω 2 d(s) .

. Since we do not change the structure of the controller in the analysis. it is convenient to deﬁne the forward loop transfer function kL(s) as kL(s) = C(s)G(s) The root locus maps the poles of the closed-loop transfer function for the system depicted in Fig 67 as we vary k. The order of dL (s) + knL (s) is the same as the order of dL (s). We write nL (s) L(s) = dL (s) where nL (s) and dL (s) are polynomials. kL(s) Figure 67: Equivalent closed loop system with forward loop transfer function kL(s). The root locus is the map of the closed-loop poles as we change the control gain from zero to inﬁnity (root refers to the roots of the closed loop denominator while locus is Latin for place).1 Root locus analysis The root locus plot Consider the closed-loop system depicted in Fig 66.9 ROOT LOCUS ANALYSIS 81 9 9. C(s) - G(s) Figure 66: Closed loop system with transfer functions for controller C(s) and plant G(s). so the number of closed-loop poles is equal to the number of open-loop poles. The map is in the complex s-plane. so the closed-loop sensitivities are S(s) = T (s) = dL (s) 1 = 1 + kL(s) dL (s) + knL (s) kL(s) knL (s) = 1 + kL(s) dL (s) + knL (s) We are seeking the roots of the polynomial dL (s) + knL (s) as we vary k.

When k is very large. In particular. That is to say.9 ROOT LOCUS ANALYSIS 82 When k is small. We can interpret this as saying the closed-loop poles are very close to the open loop poles. Similarly. Traditional classical control textbooks devote considerable attention to drawing root locus diagrams by hand. they can easily be generated using computer software. Property 2: the open-loop zeros are part of the locus. dL (s) + knL (s) ≈ dL (s). Hence the locus comprises np continuous curves (which may intersect) in the complex plane. then small gain control cannot stabilize the system. the expression dL (s) + knL (s) is dominated by knL (s). if the open-loop system is stable. the order of nL (s)) then dL (s)+knL (s) has an additional np − nz poles. But if the relative degree of the plant np − nz is greater than zero (i. . there are closed-loop poles near the open-loop zeros when k is large. given a forward loop transfer function L. if np . Property 4: as k → 0. We begin my stating the following properties which will be seen in all the examples: Property 1: the open-loop poles are part of the locus. Property 3: the location of the roots varies continuously with k. However. the curves of the root locus approach the open-loop poles. Property 5: as k → ∞ the curves of the root locus either approach the openloop zeros or go to inﬁnity.e. if the open-loop system is unstable. then the closed-loop system with small gain will also be stable. is greater than nz . These additional poles tend to inﬁnity (not necessarily on the real line) as k tends to inﬁnity. the root locus plot can be generated by typing: >>rlocus(L) In this course we will consider the interpretation of such computer generated plots. For example in Matlab. the order of dL (s).

9 ROOT LOCUS ANALYSIS 83 9.5 −1 −0. As the gain is further increased. When k ≈ 0 the pole is near +1 and so for small gain k the closed-loop system is also unstable. When k = 1 the closed-loop pole is at 0 (i. the closed-loop system becomes faster. The plot is obtained by using the “rlocus” command in Matlab. As we increase k the closed-loop pole moves to the left.2 Root locus examples We have 1 .5 −1 −1. When k > 1 the closed-loop system is stable.5 0 Real Axis 0.5 1 0. .5 −2 −2 −1.5 2 Figure 68: Root locus for example 1.5 Imaginary Axis 0 −0. C(s) = k s−1 L(s) = Example 1: G(s) = 1 s−1 Root Locus 2 1. Interpretation In this case it is easy to calculate the closed-loop poles by hand.5 1 1. The complementary sensitivity is: T (s) = kL(s) 1 + kL(s) k = s+k−1 The plant is open loop unstable with a pole at +1.e. marginally stable). The closed-loop pole is at 1 − k.

25 the closed-loop poles form a complex conjugate pair. whose imaginary part increases as k increases. Interpretation The complementary sensitivity is: T (s) = kL(s) 1 + kL(s) k = 2 s +s+k−2 The plant is open loop unstable. When k = 2 the closed-loop denominator is s2 + s with poles at 0 and −1. For small gain k the closed-loop system is also unstable.25 the closedloop denominator is (s + 0. For k > 2. C(s) = k +s−2 L(s) = 84 Example 2: G(s) = We have s2 1 1 = s2 + s − 2 (s + 2)(s − 1) Root Locus 3 2 1 Imaginary Axis 0 −1 −2 −3 −3 −2 −1 0 Real Axis 1 2 3 Figure 69: Root locus for example 2.5)2 so the two closed-loop poles coincide. When k = 2. with closed-loop poles close to the open-loop poles. When k > 2 the closed-loop system is stable. For high gain the closed-loop system becomes highly oscillatory. .9 ROOT LOCUS ANALYSIS 1 .

As the gain is increased. .9 ROOT LOCUS ANALYSIS 1 . C(s) = k +s+1 1 (3)/2)(s + 1/2 + j (3)/2) 85 Example 3: G(s) = We have L(s) = s2 s2 1 = +s+1 (s + 1/2 − j Root Locus 3 2 1 Imaginary Axis 0 −1 −2 −3 −3 −2 −1 0 Real Axis 1 2 3 Figure 70: Root locus for example 3. the closed-loop response becomes more oscillatory. Interpretation We see that the locus of Example 3 is a subset of the locus of Example 2.

As k is increased the closed-loop poles become a complex conjugate pair. For high values of gain k both poles return to the real line. Interpretation The open loop system has a pole at the origin and is marginally stable.9 ROOT LOCUS ANALYSIS 1 s+2 . For any value of k > 0 the closed-loop system is stable. one tends to the zero at −2 while the other tends to −∞. C(s) = s+1 s L(s) = s+2 s(s + 1) 86 Example 4: G(s) = We have Root Locus 3 2 1 Imaginary Axis 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −3 −2 −1 Real Axis 0 1 2 Figure 71: Root locus for example 4. . However the presence of the zero stops the damping ratio from dropping too low.

We have s2 L(s) = s+1 (s − 1)(s + 2) Root Locus 3 2 1 Imaginary Axis 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −3 −2 −1 Real Axis 0 1 2 Figure 72: Root locus for example 5. Interpretation The plant is unstable in open loop.9 ROOT LOCUS ANALYSIS 87 Example 5: G(s) = 1 . Both poles are real for all values of k > 0. . The closed-loop system is stable for k > 2. C(s) = (s + 1) +s−2 Note that the PD controller C(s) is not proper for this example.

for some α and ω: s3 + 3s2 + 4s + 2 + k = (s + α)(s2 + ω 2 ) . For k suﬃciently large the poles move to the right half plane so the closed-loop system becomes unstable.e. Hence we need to ﬁnd k such that. The complementary sensitivity is: T (s) = = kL(s) 1 + kL(s) k (s + 1)(s2 + 2s + 2) + k k = 3 2 + 4s + 2 + k s + 3s The transition value of k is the value where the closed-loop denominator has poles on the imaginary axis—i.9 ROOT LOCUS ANALYSIS 1 . All three poles are stable in open loop. Interpretation The relative degree is 3. In the next chapter we will see how to ﬁnd the transition value of k via the Nyquist criterion. where there is a factor (s2 + ω 2 ) for some ω in the closed-loop denominator. However the two complex poles move to the right in a direction that reduces the damping ratio. It is also possible to calculate this value of k by hand. C(s) = k + 2s + 2) Root Locus 3 88 Example 6: G(s) = (s + 1)(s2 2 1 Imaginary Axis 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −3 −2 −1 Real Axis 0 1 2 Figure 73: Root locus for example 6. As k is increased the real pole becomes faster (moves to the left).

9 ROOT LOCUS ANALYSIS 89 Equating coeﬃcients gives: α=3 ω2 = 4 αω 2 = 2 + k Hence the transition value is k = 10. . When k > 10 the closed-loop system becomes unstable.

However the two complex conjugate poles move to the right as k increases and there is also a transition value where they move into the right half plane. The transition value for the complex conjugate poles is where s3 + 3s2 + 4s + k − 8 = (s + α)(s2 + ω 2 ) for some α and ω. Interpretation The relative degree is 3. Equating coeﬃcients gives: α=3 ω2 = 4 αω 2 = k − 8 k (s − + 4s + 8) + k k = 3 s + 3s2 + 4s + k − 8 . so the closedloop system is also unstable for small k. The plant is unstable in open loop. The complementary sensitivity is: T (s) = = kL(s) 1 + kL(s) 1)(s2 It is easy to see the transition value for the real pole is k = 8. As k is increased the real pole moves to the left. C(s) = k + 4s + 8) Root Locus 3 90 Example 7: G(s) = (s − 1)(s2 2 1 Imaginary Axis 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −3 −2 −1 Real Axis 0 1 2 Figure 74: Root locus for example 7. and there is some value k for which it moves into the left half plane.9 ROOT LOCUS ANALYSIS 1 .

64 −2 0.86 2 0.76 0. We conclude that the closed-loop system is stable for 8 < k < 20.3 Grid lines If grid lines are included in a root locus plot. . This eﬀect is reversed for higher gains.76 −3 −4 −3 0.5 0. it is conventional to show lines of constant frequency and damping ratio for second order systems corresponding to pairs of conjugate poles.9 ROOT LOCUS ANALYSIS 91 Hence the transition value is k = 20.5 2 1.5 0.34 −1 Real Axis 0. Root Locus 3 0.94 1 Imaginary Axis 0.985 −1 0.5 3 2. 9.5 0. Note in particular for this example that for small gain the closed-loop damping ratio increases as we increase the gain.5 1 0.86 0.64 0.16 0 1 2 Figure 75: Root locus for example 7 with grid lines.985 4 0 3. Grid lines for Example 7 are shown in Fig 75.94 −2 0.34 0.16 0.

We will then see how closed-loop performance and closed-loop stability can be inferred from this plot. Recall that we have the relations S(jω) = kL(jω) 1 and T (jω) = 1 + kL(jω) 1 + kL(jω) We will ﬁnd it useful to represent the frequency response of kL(jω) with the Nyquist plot. provides useful information about a system’s behaviour. We have seen that the frequency response. the Nyquist plot shows Im [kL(jω)] against Re [kL(jω)].10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 92 10 10. encapsulated by the Bode diagram. Example 1: kL(s) = We have 1 − jω 1 − jω So k 1 + ω2 −kω Im [kL(jω)] = 1 + ω2 Re [kL(jω)] = . peaks in the gain of the sensitivity S(jω) or complementary sensitivity T (jω) are indicative of poor closed-loop behaviour. This plots the imaginary part of kL(jω) against the real part of kL(jω).2 The Nyquist plot k s+1 kL(jω) = k 1 + jω 1 =k 1 + jω 1 − jω =k 1 + ω2 As stated above. 10.1 The Nyquist criterion Introduction kL(s) Figure 76: Closed loop system with forward loop transfer function kL(s). In this section we will examine how the closed-loop response can be inferred from the frequency response of the forward loop transfer function kL(jω). For example.

We see from the tabulated values that with ω ≥ 0 it forms the semicircle whose imaginary part is less than or equal to zero. it is possible to ﬁnd the curve analytically. See Fig 77. We ﬁnd Re [kL(jω)] − k 2 2 + Im [kL(jω)]2 = k2 = k2 =k =k = 1 1 − 2 1+ω 2 2 − (1 + ω 2 ) 2 + k2 2 −ω 1 + ω2 2 + (2ω)2 2 4 (1 + ω 2 ) 2 4 2 2 1 − 2ω + ω + 4ω 4 (1 + ω 2 ) 2 4 2 1 + 2ω + ω 4 (1 + ω 2 )2 2 k2 4 So the Nyquist plot lies on the circle radius k/2. For this particular example. either by calculation or by reading them from the Bode plot. k Im[kL(jω)] Re[kL(jω)] 0 k k 0 k Figure 77: Nyquist plot for Example 1.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 93 We can quickly check the following values: ω 0 1 →∞ Re [kL(jω)] k k/2 →0 Im [kL(jω)] 0 −k/2 →0 It would be straightforward to include more values in the table. . In fact the Nyquist plot shows the same information as a Bode plot. except for the dependence on frequency. centred on +k/2.

Im[kL(jω)] 0 Re[kL(jω)] 5k 10k k 0 k Figure 78: Nyquist plot for Example 2.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION k s(s + 1) k (jω)(1 + jω) −jk(1 − jω) = ω(1 + ω 2 ) 94 Example 2: kL(s) = We have kL(jω) = So −k 1 + ω2 −k Im [kL(jω)] = ω(1 + ω 2 ) Re [kL(jω)] = Once again we can quickly check the following values: ω →0 1 →∞ Re [kL(jω)] → −k −k/2 →0 Im [kL(jω)] → −∞ −k/2 →0 The curve for positive values of ω is shown in Fig 78. .

At this frequency we ﬁnd kL(jω) = k k =− −3ω 2 + 1 8 • Re [kL(jω)] = 0 when −3ω 2 + 1 = 0.125k 0 Re[kL(jω)] j0.650k k k 0 k Figure 79: Nyquist plot for Example 3.e. We can ﬁnd these values by equating coeﬃcients in our original expression for kL(jω). • Im [kL(jω)] = 0 when −ω 3 + 3ω = 0. k Im[kL(jω)] 0. when ω 2 = 1/3. when ω 2 = 3. At this frequency we ﬁnd √ k k3 3 kL(jω) = = −j −jω 3 + 3jω 8 The curve for positive values of ω is shown in Fig 79. . I.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION k (s + 1)3 k −jω 3 − 3ω 2 + 3jω + 1 95 Example 3: kL(s) = We have kL(jω) = So we can quickly check the following values: ω 0 1 →∞ kL(jω) k k/(-2+2j) 0 Re [kL(jω)] k −k/4 →0 Im [kL(jω)] 0 −k/4 →0 We know from the Bode plot that the phase drops to −270o for high frequency. I.e. so the curve must cross both the real and the imaginary axes.

05 k 0 0.01 k 0. The imaginary part is zero when ω = 0.2031k 0 0.125k −0.02 k 0.05k −0.0103k →0 Im [kL(jω)] 0 −0.05 k 0. Hence we can tabulate the following values: ω 0 1 2 4 →∞ Re [kL(jω)] −0.15 k Figure 80: Nyquist plot for Example 4. 0. .10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION k + 4s + 8) 96 Example 4: kL(s) = We have (s − 1)(s2 kL(jω) = k (jω − 1)(−ω 2 + 4jω + 8) k(−jω − 1)(−ω 2 + 8 − 4jω) = (1 + ω 2 )(64 + ω 4 ) k(−8 − 3ω 2 ) k(−4ω + ω 3 ) +j = (1 + ω 2 )(64 + ω 4 ) (1 + ω 2 )(64 + ω 4 ) The real part is always negative for ω > 0.01 k Re[kL(jω)] 0 0.0846k −0.0088k →0 The curve for positive values of ω is shown in Fig 80. but tends to zero as ω → ∞.03 k Im[kL(jω)] 0.1k 0.03 k 0.02 k 0. ω = 2 and as ω → ∞.15 k 0.1k 0.

at −k/8 (when ω = 0) and at −k/20 (when ω = 2). Similarly if kL(jω) passes near −1 then the sensitivity and complementary sensitivity will be large at the corresponding frequency. If the Nyquist plot of kL(jω) passes through −1 for some frequency ω. which corresponds to Example 7 from the root locus section. This in turn corresponds to the rootlocus passing through the imaginary axis. We have retained the automatic scaling from Matlab. Example: consider Example 4 from the previous section. Also. then at that frequency we have 1 + kL(jω) = 0 Hence the sensitivity and complementary sensitivity will be inﬁnite at that frequency. The Nyquist curve crosses the real axis at 0 (as ω → ∞). This is clearly undesirable. Thus if we vary k the Nyquist plot passes through −1 when k = 8 and k = 20. but ﬁrst we need to extend the Nyquist diagram to include negative frequencies.4 The Nyquist criterion The Nyquist criterion allows us to assess whether the closed-loop system is stable directly from the Nyquist diagram of the forward loop transfer function kL(jω). It is often useful to re-scale the axes. It is easily stated. the value k is a candidate for the transition between closed-loop stability and instability.3 The reason we draw the Nyquist plot of the forward loop transfer function kL(jω) is to infer the behaviour of the closed-loop system: in particular the sensitivity S(jω) and complementary sensitivity T (jω). We saw in the root locus section that the example is stable for 8 < k < 20. Hence if the gain is varied. if the closed-loop sensitivities are inﬁnite at a certain frequency ω. . this corresponds to a closed-loop pole at jω.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 97 10. We exploit the relations L(−jω) = L(jω)∗ where * denotes complex conjugate Re [L(−jω)] = Re [L(jω)] Im [L(−jω)] = −Im [L(jω)] Figures 81 to 84 show the extended Nyquist diagrams for Examples 1 to 4 with k = 1 plotted using the Matlab function >>nyquist. The −1 point 10.

7 −0.2 0.6 −0.8 −1 −1 −0.2 0 Real Axis 0.6 0.4 −0.5 Real Axis −0.4 −0. The Nyquist criterion can then be stated: Let Z be the number of closed-loop unstable poles.6 −0.2 0 −0.2 −0. so P = 0. Let P be the number of open-loop unstable poles.8 −0.8 −0.4 Imaginary Axis 0. From Fig 81 we see that the Nyquist curve never .9 −0.8 0.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 98 Nyquist Diagram 1 0.8 1 Figure 81: Extended Nyquist plot for Example 1 with k = 1 Nyquist Diagram 20 15 10 5 Imaginary Axis 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 −1 −0.6 0. 3 and 4 the extended Nyquist curve forms a continuous loop.3 −0.4 −0.2 −0.1 0 Figure 82: Extended Nyquist plot for Example 2 with k = 1.6 −0. In Examples 1. Let N be the number of times the Nyquist curve of kL encircles the −1 point clockwise. Then Z =N +P Example 1: kL(s) = k s+1 The forward loop transfer function kL(s) has one stable pole and no unstable poles.4 0.

6 −0.8 −1 −1 −0. But when k = 8 the curve passes exactly through the −1 point.6 0. so P = 0.2 −0.8 1 Figure 83: Extended Nyquist plot for Example 3 with k = 1.9 −0. The Nyquist criterion states that Z = 0 for k > 0—i. the system is stable in closed loop for any positive k.8 −0.4 −0.6 −0.4 −0.4 −0.4 Imaginary Axis 0.5 Real Axis −0.8 −1 −1 −0. From Fig 82 we see that the Nyquist curve does not encircle −1 for k positive and k < 8. For k > 8 the curve encircles the −1 point twice clockwise. Hence N = 0 for k > 0.2 0 Real Axis 0.e. Example 3: kL(s) = k (s + 1)3 The forward loop transfer function kL(s) has three stable poles and no unstable poles.2 −0.8 −0. Hence N = 0 for 0 < k < 8.1 0 Figure 84: Extended Nyquist plot for Example 4 with k = 1.4 0.8 0.2 0. encircles −1 for k > 0.4 Imaginary Axis 0.2 −0.e. So for k > 8 the system is unstable in closed-loop. In this case the Nyquist criterion states that Z = 0—i.6 0.2 0 −0.7 −0. Fig 85 shows the curve with k = 20.2 0 −0.4 −0.3 −0.8 0.6 −0. As P remains 0 we have Z = 2. the system is stable in closed loop for 0 < k < 8.6 −0.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 99 Nyquist Diagram 1 0.6 0. so N = 2. Nyquist Diagram 1 0. .

5 −1 −0.8 −1 −1.2 0 −0.5 −2 Real Axis −1.2 −0. .4 −0.2 −0.8 Real Axis −0.4 −0.2 0 −0.4 Imaginary Axis 0.8 0.6 −0.4 −1.8 0.6 0.6 −0. Nyquist Diagram 1 0.6 −0.2 0 Figure 86: Extended Nyquist plot for Example 4 with k = 10.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 100 Nyquist Diagram 15 10 5 Imaginary Axis 0 −5 −10 −15 −5 0 5 Real Axis 10 15 20 Figure 85: Extended Nyquist plot for Example 3 with k = 20.4 −0.2 −1 −0.6 0.5 0 Figure 87: Extended Nyquist plot for Example 4 with k = 30. Nyquist Diagram 1 0.4 Imaginary Axis 0.8 −1 −4 −3.5 −3 −2.

rather than trace the Nyquist curve along all frequencies from −∞ to +∞. Hence Z = 1 and the system is unstable in closed-loop. Im s to +j 8 ε Re s pole at 0 from -j Figure 88: Path in the s-plane along which we evaluate kL(s) for Example 2. we take a small detour to the right around the pole at s = 0. 8 . we see from Fig 84 that the curve does not encircle the −1 point. For 8 < k < 20 the curve encircles −1 once anti-clockwise so N = −1. Hence Z = 2 and the system is unstable in closed-loop. Fig 87 shows the curve when k = 30. by deeming the pole at s = 0 to be in the left half plane. with a semicircle of inﬁnitesimal radius ε (Fig 88). We have not yet considered Example 2. 1)(s2 When k < 8. More generally. We can still apply the Nyquist criterion. We know the curve crosses the real axis at −1 when k = 8 and when k = 20. so P is deemed to be 0. For this example there is one other stable pole. so N = 0.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 101 Example 4: kL(s) = k (s − + 4s + 8) The forward loop transfer function kL(s) has two stable poles and one unstable pole so P = 1. Then. For 20 < k the curve encircles −1 once clockwise so N = 1. any open-loop pole on the imaginary axis will result in a discontinuity in the Nyquist curve. With reference to Fig 82 we see that the extended Nyquist curve does not form a closed loop. Fig 86 shows the curve when k = 10. Hence Z = 0 and the system is stable in closed-loop. This is because there is an open-loop pole at 0.

Since kL(ε) is positive. The quantity maxω |S(jω)| is termed the inﬁnity norm of S(s). Hence the Nyquist curve does not encircle −1. the gain margin and the phase margin. We ﬁnd r = min |(−1) − kL(jω)| ω ω = min |1 + kL(jω)| = min ω 1 S(jω) 1 = maxω |S(jω)| ∞. For this reason. The corresponding Nyquist curve of kL(s) then includes a semicircle of inﬁnite radius from j∞ to −j∞. then the closed-loop sensitivity S(s) and complementary sensitivity T (s) will be large at the corresponding frequency. the semicircle must be around the right half plane (Fig 89). written S so r = S −1 ∞ In classical control there are two standard stability margins. . compensators C(s) are designed so that kL(s) = C(s)G(s) are an acceptable distance from −1.5 Stability margins If the Nyquist plot of the forward loop transfer function kL(s) passes near the −1 point.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 102 Im kL(s) k 0 0 Re kL(s) Figure 89: Values of kL(s) for Example 2. We conclude that Z = 0 for this case. so N = 0. the usual measure is the minimum radius r of a circle centred at −1 touching kL(jω) (see Fig 90). The measure of distance is called a stability margin. In modern control. and the closed-loop system is stable for all positive values of k. 10.

5 1 0.5 2 2 1. It is usually measured in decibels.5 0 0.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 103 2 1.5 2 Figure 90: Inﬁnity norm of the sensitivity as a stability margin. the gain margin is the gain below 0dB at the frequency where the phase drops to −180o. Note that 6dB approximates .5 1 0. Gain and phase margins for the Example 3 with k = 4 are shown on a Nyquist plot in Fig 93 and on a Bode plot in Fig 94.5 0 0.5 1 1. See Fig 92.5 1 0.5 1 1.5 1/||S|| ∞ 0 0. Similarly the phase margin is the phase above −180o at the frequency where the gain drops to 0dB.5 2 2 1. See Fig 91. Phase margin: The phase margin φm is measured where kL(jω) crosses a circle with unit radius centred at the origin. Gain margin: If kL(jω) crosses the negative real axis between 0 and −1 at 1/gm .5 1 kL(jω) 1. The frequency at which the gain drops to 0dB is termed the crossover frequency ωc .5 1 kL(jω) 1. then gm is the gain margin. The gain and phase margins are popular because they can be read directly from the Bode plot of kL(jω). It is the angle between L(jω) at this point and the negative real axis. 2 1.5 1/g m 0 0. It can be interpreted as the amount of phase change required for kL(jω) to pass through −1.5 1 0. It is the amount of extra gain required for gm kL(kω) to pass through −1. Speciﬁcally.5 2 Figure 91: Gain margin.

to a gain of 2 since 20 log10 2 ≈ 6.1 −0. In the last section we saw that it is easy to infer the corresponding closed-loop sensitivity.5 0 Real 0. In the jargon these are called M-circles. contours of constant sensitivity magnitude form circles centred on the −1 point (see Fig 90).5 1 1.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 104 2 1. It is useful to include contours of constant complementary sensitivity magnitude.5 1 0.5 Figure 93: Gain and phase margins for Example 3 with k = 4 on a Nyquist plot of kL(jω).5 Imaginary −0.6 *Grid lines The Nyquist plot shows the frequency response corresponding to the open-loop forward loop transfer function.5 −1 −0.5 −1.02 10. 1.5 1 1.5 φm kL(jω) 1 1. There is a bifurcation when g = 1 (or 0dB) where the radius goes to inﬁnity and the M-circle for 0dB is in fact a vertical straight line intersecting −1/2 on the real line.5 0 0.5 2 Figure 92: Phase margin.5 0 0.5 1 0. and are given as follows: The M-circle corresponding to gain g is a circle centred at g 2 /(1 − g 2 ) with radius |g/(1 − g 2 )|.5 2 2 1.5 o −1 −1.5 1 0. . Speciﬁcally.5 0 27.

5 0 Real Axis 0. The ﬁgure is focused on the region near −1. Fig 95 shows the Nyquist plot for Example 3 with gain k = 4 and with grid-lines shown.1 deg (at 1.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 105 Bode Diagram Gm = 6.5 −1 −1.5 4 dB 1 6 dB 0.5 −1 −0. It is conventional to show M-circles as grid lines on a Nyquist plot.5 1 1.02 dB (at 1.23 rad/sec) 20 10 0 Magnitude (dB) 6.73 rad/sec) .1 −180 o −270 10 −1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 10 1 Figure 94: Gain and phase margins for Example 3 with k = 4 on a Bode plot of kL(jω). Nyquist Diagram 2 2 dB 0 dB −2 dB 1.5 Imaginary Axis 10 dB 20 dB 0 −10 dB −20 dB −6 dB −4 dB −0.02 dB −10 −20 −30 −40 −50 −60 0 Phase (deg) −90 27. Pm = 27.5 2 Figure 95: Nyquist plot for Example 3 with k = 4 and with M-circles shown.5 −2 −2 −1. .

and carries the advantage that the magnitude of closed-loop sensitivity and complementary sensitivity can be easily inferred from it. Nichols Chart 40 0 dB 0.5 dB 20 1 dB 3 dB 6 dB 0 Open−Loop Gain (dB) −1 dB −3 dB −6 dB −12 dB −20 −20 dB −40 −40 dB −60 −60 dB −80 −80 dB −100 −360 −100 dB −315 −270 −225 −180 −135 Open−Loop Phase (deg) −90 −45 0 Figure 97: Nichols chart for Example 3 with k = 4. N-circles are contours of constant phase of the complementary sensitivity. In the previous section we introduced M-circles as contours of constant magnitude of the complementary sensitivity.25 dB 0.5 dB 20 1 dB −1 dB 10 Open−Loop Gain (dB) 3 dB 6 dB −3 dB −6 dB 0 −10 −12 dB −20 −20 dB −30 −40 −40 dB −50 −60 −360 −60 dB −315 −270 −225 −180 −135 Open−Loop Phase (deg) −90 −45 0 Figure 96: Nichols chart for Example 2 with k = 1. In classical control the Nichols chart combines many of the advantages of Nyquist and Bode plots. . It is arguable that it would be more useful to show contours of constant magnitude of the sensitivity in place of N-circles.7 *Nichols charts The Nyquist plot can be read (almost) directly from a Bode plot. The Nichols chart is a graph of log magnitude against phase.25 dB 0. Fig 96 shows the Nichols chart for Example 2 (with k = 1) and Fig 97 shows the Nichols chart for Example 3 (with k = 4). The standard convention is to draw M-circles and N-circles as grid lines. However it loses the neat scaling of a Bode plot whose gain is drawn on a logarithmic scale. Nichols Chart 40 0 dB 30 0. Note that neither appear as actual circles on the Nichols cahrt.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 106 10.

the openloop poles. Thus P corresponds to the number of poles of H(s) enclosed by P . See Figs 98 and 99. Then ∆P H = −(nz − np ) × 3600 and H(s) encircles the origin nz − np times when evaluated around P . Example: Suppose H(s) = s − z for some zero z.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 107 10. clockwise. . But suppose P encloses the origin. This concerns how the argument (angle) of a transfer function H(s) changes around a simple closed curve P in the s-plane. But this corresponds to the number of times kL(s) = H(s) − 1 encircles the −1 point. We now apply the principle of the argument to H(s) = 1 + kL(s). For more general transfer functions.e. Thus the Nyquist path consists of the imaginary axis together with a semicircular sweep to the right of the imaginary axis with inﬁnite radius (see Fig 101). Let ∆P H denote the change in argument as we move around P in a clockwise direction.8 *Justiﬁcation of the Nyquist criterion The Nyquist criterion can be derived from Cauchy’s principle of the argument. i. Then H(s) encircles the origin if and only if P encloses z (see Fig 100). while Z corresponds to the number of zeros of H(s) enclosed by P . It is tautologous to say that H(s) encircles the origin if and only if P also encircles the origin. Hence N = Z − P . Then ∆P H = −360o (NB phase is measured in an anti-clockwise direction). Example: Suppose H(s) = s and P does not enclose the origin. So H(s) encircles the origin P − Z times. Then ∆P H = 0. This is the Nyquist criterion. The zeros of H(s) are the closed-loop poles. For the Nyquist criterion. we let P be the Nyquist path which encloses the whole of the right half plane. The poles of H(s) are also the poles of kL(s). we can exploit relations of the form ∠ s−z (s − p1 )(s − p2 ) = ∠(s − z) − ∠(s − p1 ) − ∠(s − p2 ) Hence we may say: Suppose a transfer function H(s) has np poles and nz zeros within a simple closed curve P .

neither encircling the origin.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 108 Im s P Re s s Figure 98: Path P and H(s) = s. . Im s P Re s s Figure 99: Path P and H(s) = s. Im s P Re s z s-z s Figure 100: Path P and H(s) = s − z. both encircling the origin. with P encircling z.

.10 THE NYQUIST CRITERION 109 Im s R P Re s Figure 101: P corresponds to the Nyquist curve as R → ∞.

The usual design compromise is to choose S(jω) ≈ 0 and T (jω) ≈ 1 at low frequencies S(jω) ≈ 1 and T (jω) ≈ 0 at high frequencies Typical (good) values of S and T are shown in Fig 103. The Laplace transform of the plant output is Yp (s) = T (s)P (s)R(s) − T (s)N (s) + G(s)S(s)Di (s) + S(s)Do (s) where R represents the reference signal. Di the input disturbance and Do the output disturbance. N the sensor noise. The closed-loop bandwidth ωb is shown. Recall our standard closed-loop conﬁguration. • Noise suppression: T (s) ≈ 0. by 1 1 + kL(s) kL(s) T (s) = 1 + kL(s) S(s) = with kL(s) = G(s)C(s) We have the following mutually contradictory requirements: • Set point tracking: T (s)P (s) ≈ 1. Achieving such a closed-loop response . • Disturbance rejection: S(s) ≈ 0. as before.1 Design of compensators Design considerations and constraints di r P + e C u + + G + do +y p + n +y m Figure 102: Standard closed loop system. In particular we are constrained by the identity S(jω) + T (jω) = 1 at all frequencies so we cannot set both S(jω) and T (jω) to zero at the same frequency.11 DESIGN OF COMPENSATORS 110 11 11. usually deﬁned as the frequency at which the complementary sensitivity drops below −3dB. Here S(s) and T (s) are respectively the closed-loop sensitivity and complementary sensitivity given.

while the sensitivity rolls oﬀ to zero at low frequency. The closed-loop response may often be approximated as a second order transfer function with damping ratio φm ζ≈ 100 Thus for a closed-loop damping ratio of 0.11 DESIGN OF COMPENSATORS 111 Sensitivity 10 0 gain dB 10 20 30 40 Complementary sensitivity 10 0 gain dB 10 20 30 40 ωb frequency Figure 103: Well-designed closed-loop sensitivity and complementary sensitivity. However. Neither peaks badly at midfrequencies.2 Phase lead design A phase lead compensator “buys” extra phase margin at the “expense” of increased gain. The Nyquist plot of a phase lead compensator is shown in Fig 104. The cross-over frequency is usually near to. so the phase margin at our chosen k may be arbitrarily small or even negative (leading to an unstable closed-loop system). We need to ensure the phase margin is suﬃciently large. Observe that it has the same structure as a PDγ controller. Unfortunately we cannot increase the phase independent of gain. In terms of performance the following rule of thumb is sometimes useful. 11. Varying k allows us to choose any cross-over frequency we like. Nor can we change the shape of the gain independent of phase. The plot is a .5 or above. varying k has no eﬀect on the phase. Care must be taken at the cross-over frequency ωc . but a bit smaller than. the closed-loop bandwidth. The complementary sensitivity rolls oﬀ to zero at high frequency. It takes the form C(s) = k 1 + TL s 1 + αTL s with α < 1. we require a phase margin of 50o or above. Its original popularity stemmed from it being implementable using passive electronic components. corresponds to choosing |kL(jω)| to be big at low frequencies and small at high frequencies.

11 DESIGN OF COMPENSATORS 112 φa k k/α Figure 104: Nyquist plot of a phase lead compensator. . The gain is 20 log10 k at low frequencies and rises to 20 log10 (k/α) at high frequencies. we may specify α= 1 − sin φa 1 + sin φa √ Put ωL = 1/TL and ωa = ωL / α. From the Bode plot (Fig 105) we see that the maximum phase advance occurs when ω = ωa . semicircle with centre at c= and radius 1 2 k+ k α = k (1 + α) 2α k (1 − α) 2α It follows that the maximum phase advance φa occurs when r =c−k = sin φa = r 1−α = c 1+α Equivalently. Bode Diagram φa Phase (deg) Magnitude (dB) 0 ωL ωa ωL /α Frequency (rad/sec) Figure 105: Bode plot of a phase lead compensator. given a desired phase advance φa .

8o (Fig 106). Pm = 51. s(s + 1) Example: G(s) = If C(s) = 1 so that kL(s) = G(s). The gain margin is still inﬁnite. We need a phase lead compensator with a maximum of 32o phase advance at 3 rad/s.11 DESIGN OF COMPENSATORS 113 Bode Diagram Gm = Inf dB (at Inf rad/sec) . The closed-loop sensitivities show some nasty peaks (Fig 109). with a closed-loop bandwidth of 1. the gain margin is inﬁnite and the phase margin is 51.27 rad/s (Fig 107). 1 . Suppose we have a design speciﬁcation that the cross-over frequency should be 3 rad/s but the phase margin should be at least 50o . Suppose instead C(s) = 10. Sensitivity 20 10 0 Gain dB −10 −20 −30 −40 −2 10 −1 0 1 2 10 10 10 10 Complementary sensitivity 20 10 0 Gain dB −10 −20 −30 −40 −2 10 −1 0 1 2 10 10 Frequency rad/s 10 10 Figure 107: Closed-loop sensitivities with k = 1.8 deg (at 0. This gives a cross-over frequency of around 3 rad/s and a closed-loop bandwidth of around 5 rad/s. The resulting sensitivities have reasonably small overshoot. .786 rad/sec) 100 80 60 40 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 20 0 −20 −40 −60 −80 −100 −90 −135 −180 10 −2 10 −1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 10 1 10 2 Figure 106: Phase margin of example with k = 1. but the phase margin is only 18o (Fig 108).

we need to raise k to 5. So put 1 − sin 32o ≈ 0. we have 20 log10 5. Sensitivity 20 10 0 Gain dB −10 −20 −30 −40 −2 10 −1 0 1 2 10 10 10 10 Complementary sensitivity 20 10 0 Gain dB −10 −20 −30 −40 −2 10 −1 0 1 2 10 10 Frequency rad/s 10 10 Figure 109: Closed-loop sensitivities with k = 10. where the gain of GC with k = 1 is −14dB at ω = 3. .31s α= The Bode plot of the compensator with k = 1 is shown in Fig 110.31 1 + sin 32o ωa = 3 √ ωL = ωa α ≈ 1.25 ≈ 14). The resulting sensitivities are shown in Fig 113.25 (this can be read from Fig 111. The phase margin is then 50o as required (Fig 112).08 rad/sec) 100 80 60 40 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 20 0 −20 −40 −60 −80 −100 −90 −135 −180 10 −2 10 −1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 10 1 10 2 Figure 108: Phase margin of example with k = 10.11 DESIGN OF COMPENSATORS 114 Bode Diagram Gm = Inf dB (at Inf rad/sec) . The Bode plot GC (with k = 1) together with that of G is shown in Fig 111. To attain the cross-over frequency ωc = 3.66 + 0.66 + s C(s) = k ≈k ωL + αs 1.66 ωL + s 1. Pm = 18 deg (at 3.

In the example we have speciﬁed the cross-over frequency and the phase margin. we may require higher low frequency gain to improve disturbance rejection) in which case an iterative design procedure is more appropriate. Diﬀerent textbooks recommend diﬀerent procedures.11 DESIGN OF COMPENSATORS 115 Bode Diagram 12 10 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 8 6 4 2 0 40 30 20 10 0 10 −1 10 0 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 1 10 2 Figure 110: Phase lead compensator for example (with k = 1). Deﬁned frequencies in phase-lead compensator design. Usually we will have further speciﬁcations (for example. ωc cross-over frequency of the forward loop transfer function ωb bandwidth of the complementary sensitivity ωa frequency of compensator peak phase advance ωL ﬁrst break frequency of compensator Table 1. . Bode Diagram 100 80 60 40 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 20 0 −20 −40 −60 −80 −100 −90 −135 −180 10 −2 10 −1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 10 1 10 2 Figure 111: Comparison of compensated (solid) and uncompensated (dashed) forward loop transfer functions for example (with k = 1). This allowed us to choose the phase lead compensator directly.

25).25). If we write ωL = 1/TL so that C(s) = k s + ωL αs + ωL then we should choose ωL well below the cross-over frequency. it “buys” extra gain at low frequencies. so that the phase margin is not aﬀected. . Once again it may be implemented using passive electronic components. at the “expense” of increased phase. Sensitivity 20 10 0 Gain dB −10 −20 −30 −40 −2 10 −1 0 1 2 10 10 10 10 Complementary sensitivity 20 10 0 Gain dB −10 −20 −30 −40 −2 10 −1 0 1 2 10 10 Frequency rad/s 10 10 Figure 113: Closed-loop sensitivities with phase lead compensator (k = 5.3 Phase lag design 1 + TL s 1 + αTL s A phase lag compensator has the same structure as a phase lead compensator C(s) = k but with α > 0. Pm = 50. Its eﬀect is opposite to that of a phase lead compensator. 11.11 DESIGN OF COMPENSATORS 116 Bode Diagram Gm = Inf dB (at Inf rad/sec) . In this sense its role is similar to that of a PI controller.5 deg (at 3 rad/sec) 40 30 20 10 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 0 −10 −20 −30 −40 −50 −60 −90 −135 −180 10 −1 10 0 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 1 10 2 Figure 112: Phase margin of example with phase lead compensator (k = 5.

Example: Consider our previous example G(s) = compensator 1 with phase lead s(s + 1) 1. Sensitivity 20 0 −20 Gain (dB) −40 −60 −80 −100 −120 −4 10 10 −3 10 −2 10 −1 10 0 10 1 10 2 Complementary sensitivity 10 0 −10 Gain (dB) −20 −30 −40 −50 −60 −4 10 10 −3 10 −2 10 Frequency (rad/s) −1 10 0 10 1 10 2 Figure 115: Closed-loop sensitivities for the example. .11 DESIGN OF COMPENSATORS 117 Bode Diagram 150 100 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 50 0 −50 −100 −90 −135 −180 10 −4 10 −3 10 −2 10 Frequency (rad/sec) −1 10 0 10 1 10 2 Figure 114: Bode plot of forward loop transfer function for the example with phase lead compensation (dashed) and both phase lead and phase lag compensation (solid).05 Clag (s) = s + 0.66 + 0.005 We will include a phase lag compensator so that the overall controller is given by C(s) = Clead (s)Clag (s) The Bode plots of both G(s)Clead (s) and G(s)Clead (s)Clag (s) are shown in Fig 114.31s s + 0. Lead compensation is shown dashed while combined lead and lag compensation is shown solid.66 + s Clead (s) = 5.25 1.

1 0. For this example the phase lag compensator gives a signiﬁcant improvement to the rejection of input disturbances. The combined compensator has transfer .16 0.14 0.04 0. The two complementary sensitivities look similar for this example. The gain with lead compensation is signiﬁcantly smaller at low frequencies. 11. The corresponding step responses to unit input disturbances are shown in Fig 117. The sensitivity with a phase lag compensator has lower gain at very low frequency.12 Output 0.08 0.02 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time (sec) 120 140 160 180 200 Figure 117: Responses to a unit step input disturbance. Lead compensation is shown dashed while combined lead and lag compensation is shown solid. Fig 116 shows the gains of GS for each case.06 0. Step Response 0.2 0.4 Lead-lag compensators In the previous section we saw that phase lead compensators and phase lag compensators can by usefully combined.11 DESIGN OF COMPENSATORS 118 −10 −20 −30 Gain (dB) −40 −50 −60 −70 −80 −4 10 10 −3 10 −2 10 Frequency (rad/s) −1 10 0 10 1 10 2 Figure 116: Gain of GS for the two cases. The performance is considerably improved with the inclusion of a phase lag compensator.18 0. Lead compensation is shown dashed while combined lead and lag compensation is shown solid. The closed loop sensitivities are shown in Fig 115.

together with phase and gain margins. It is apparent that the notch ﬁlter . As an illustrative example. C(s) might be chosen as C(s) = s2 s2 + s + 81 + 18s + 81 The Bode plot of C is shown in Fig 119 and the Bode plot of GC (together with gain and phase margins) is shown in Fig 120. For example. 11.5 Notch ﬁlters Notch ﬁlters provide an additional tool in classical control. but eﬀectively limits the closed-loop bandwidth without careful control design. However. They are usually used when the plant has a resonant response at high frequency: this may not be apparent in open loop. historically it was common to implement such a compensator with α = α1 = 1 α2 1 + T1 s 1 + α1 T1 s 1 + T2 s 1 + α2 T2 s In this case the compensator has transfer function Clead-lag (s) = k =k 1 + T1 s 1 + T2 s 1 + αT1 s 1 + (T2 /α)s s + 1/T1 s + 1/T2 s + 1/(αT1 ) s + α/T2 The advantage of such a restriction is that the compensator (without the gain also set to k = 1) can be implemented as a passive circuit with only two resistors and two capacitors. is shown in Fig 118. However the structure of such circuits is beyond the scope of this course. Both lead and lag compensators can also be implemented using such a passive circuit realization. A suitable notch ﬁlter would have zeros near the two resonant poles.11 DESIGN OF COMPENSATORS 119 function C(s) = Clead (s)Clag (s) =k with α1 < 0 and α2 > 0 Any such compensator is termed a “lead-lag” compensator. consider a plant with transfer function 1 1 G(s) = e−s/10 + 10s + 1 s2 + s + 100 Its Bode plot.

.0142 rad/sec) 20 10 0 −10 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) −20 −30 −40 −50 −60 −70 −80 90 0 −90 −180 −270 −360 −450 −540 −3 10 10 −2 10 −1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 Figure 118: Bode plot of a plant with a high frequency resonance. Bode Diagram Gm = 21. Note that a notch ﬁlter eﬀectively ensures there is no control action near the problematic frequency. This means the technique will be ineﬀectual if input disturbances in this band region are problematic. Bode Diagram 10 5 0 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) −5 −10 −15 −20 −25 −30 90 45 0 −45 −90 10 −3 10 −2 10 −1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 Figure 119: Bode plot of a notch ﬁlter.11 DESIGN OF COMPENSATORS 120 allows higher control gain. Pm = 172 deg (at 0. Fig 121 shows the complementary sensitivities for the plant with and without a notch ﬁlter when the proportional gain is 5.3 rad/sec) .1 dB (at 10. To illustrate this.

.11 DESIGN OF COMPENSATORS 121 Bode Diagram Gm = 47 dB (at 17.0142 rad/sec) 20 10 0 −10 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) −20 −30 −40 −50 −60 −70 −80 90 0 −90 −180 −270 −360 −450 −540 −3 10 10 −2 10 −1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 Figure 120: Bode plot of the forward loop transfer function with a notch ﬁlter. Pm = 172 deg (at 0.8 rad/sec) . 20 10 0 −10 −20 −30 −40 −50 −60 −70 −80 −3 10 10 −2 10 −1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 Figure 121: Complementary sensitivities with (dashed) and without (solid) a notch ﬁlter. the proportional gain is 5 in both cases.

R = 0.5 then: (a) After a step change in θr .1. what is the 1% settling time ts ? (b) What condition must Kp satisfy for the peak overshoot to be less than 17%? . so that v = Kp (θr − θ) for some angle demand signal θr . Suppose v is used as a manipulated variable to control the shaft angle (with Tl considered as an input disturbance). θ Figure WE1. Tm be the motor torque and Tl be the load torque. Find the transfer function and draw a block diagram of the plant with inputs and v and Tl and with output θ. we have Tm = Km i ˙ eb = K m θ R i J v e b . shaft compliance and friction.1 and Km = 0. Also let R be the armature resistance. Then assuming that the ﬁeld is constant.12 WORKED EXAMPLES 122 12 Worked examples Problem 1 The armature voltage v is used to control the shaft angle θ of a DC motor. Neglecting inductance. Suppose further that proportional feedback with gain Kp is used. the motor can be described by the equations ¨ J θ = Tm + Tl v = Ri + eb Let Km be the motor constant.1: Schematic of a DC motor. let i be the armature current and let eb be the back emf. whose schematic is shown in Fig WE1. Let J be the motor shaft inertia. If J = 0. 1. 2.1.

and that this measurement is used for velocity feedback of the form ˙ v = Kp (θr − θ) − KT θ Draw the block diagram of the closed-loop system such that the plant ˙ output is θ. .12 WORKED EXAMPLES 123 3.1. What is the closed-loop transfer function from θr to θ? 4. with θ obtained via an additional integrator. Suppose in addition that a tachometer is used to measure the motor speed ˙ θ. Find values of Kp and KT such that the peak overshoot is no more than 17% and the 1% settling time is no more than 0.

Propose a modiﬁcation to the PD controller such that the design speciﬁcations can be met with the controller realizable.1 is required to meet the following speciﬁcations: • The eﬀect of a constant input disturbance di in steady state operation should be reduced to less than 10%.e. di r + - + C(s) + 9 s(s+2) y Figure WE2.7. (b) Can the speciﬁcations be met? If so. 2. 1. C(s) = KP (a) Use Matlab to draw the root locus of the system. Suppose an idealised PD control is used with. (b) Use Matlab to draw the root locus of the system with this value of Td . C(s) = KP (1 + TD s) (a) Can the speciﬁcation be met? If so. . i. Suppose proportional feedback is used. ﬁnd suitable values for Kp and Td .1: Control system block diagram. 3. • The damping ratio ζ should not be less than 0. ﬁnd a suitable value for Kp .12 WORKED EXAMPLES 124 Problem 2 The control system shown in Fig WE2.

Design a lead compensator C(s) that meets both speciﬁcations.05. and the peak overshoot of the step response is no more than 17%. 1.12 WORKED EXAMPLES 125 Problem 3 A controller is to be designed for a plant with transfer function G(s) = 4 s(s + 2) such that the steady state error to a unit ramp set point is less than 0. What phase margin is required to achieve the peak overshoot speciﬁcation? 4.1: Bode plot of G(s). and under what condition on the gain KP can the ramp set point speciﬁcation be met? 2. what is the largest achievable phase margin? 3.1. The Bode plot of G(s) is shown in Fig WE3. With a controller gain that meets the condition on the ramp set point. what is the steady state error to a unit ramp set point. Bode Diagram 60 40 20 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 0 −20 −40 −60 −80 −90 −100 −110 −120 −130 −140 −150 −160 −170 −180 −2 10 −1 0 1 2 10 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 10 10 Figure WE3. . When proportional feedback C(s) = Kp is used.

. r + - y kp G(s) Figure WE4. Use Matlab to draw the root locus for the system and hence conﬁrm your statements on closed-loop stability. what is the phase angle for s = jω with frequencies ω → −∞ and ω → ∞? If ε > 0 is a small constant. Bode Diagram 60 40 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 20 0 −20 −40 −60 −90 −135 −180 −225 −270 10 −2 10 −1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 Frequency (rad/sec) Figure WE4. 4. what is the phase angle for s = jω at frequencies ω = −ε and ω = ε? What are the properties of G(s) take when s = ε? 2. The transfer function of the plant is s+2 G(s) = s(s − 5) Its Bode plot is shown in Fig WE4. 3.1.2. Sketch the Nyquist plot of G(s). 1.1: Control system block diagram.2: Bode plot of G(s). Discuss closed-loop stability when KP is allowed to take values from 0 to ∞.12 WORKED EXAMPLES 126 Problem 4 Consider the control loop shown in Fig WE4. When G(s) is evaluated along the Nyquist path.

• q1 .the outﬂow rate of tank 2.the liquid level in tank 2. The variables are: • qi . The liquid level in tank 1 is governed by the equations ˙ A1 h1 = qi − q1 h1 − h2 R1 = q1 where R1 is the resistance at the outlet and A1 is the cross-sectional area of the tank.the outﬂow rate of tank 1.1: Coupled tanks with ﬂows and liquid levels. which is the inﬂow rate of tank 2. Similarly the liquid level in tank 2 is governed by ˙ A2 h2 = q1 − q2 h2 R2 = q2 Suppose we have the numerical values: R1 = 4.12 WORKED EXAMPLES 127 Problem 5 The ﬂow of a liquid through a system of two coupled tanks illustrated in Fig WE5.the inﬂow rate into tank 1. A2 = 2 GE D G D G Figure WE5. • h2 . • h1 . We consider only the deviation of ﬂow rates from the steady state value. • q2 . A1 = 1. .the liquid level in tank 1.1 is to be controlled. R2 = 2.

What is the relative steady state error to a step input with the above controllers? . Suppose instead a PD controller is used. Find the transfer function G(s) from tank 1 inﬂow qi to tank 2 outﬂow q2 . 3. With the inﬂow qi as control input and the outﬂow q2 as measured output. What gain KP is required to achieve a rise time of approximately 1 after a unit step as reference input? Estimate the peak overshoot with this controller. suppose a proportional controller is used. 2. What derivative time TD is required to keep the peak overshoot below 10% when the gain is chosen to achieve a rise time of 1? 4.12 WORKED EXAMPLES 128 1.

5 and KI = 6. express the closed-loop damping ratio as a function of KP . When proportional feedback is used to control the output of the plant. (c) Use Matlab to draw the root locus diagrams for the three cases KI = 3. Suppose the controller is given as pure integral action C(s) = KP s Use Matlab to draw the root locus for the forward loop transfer function in this case. . express the closed-loop damping ratio as a function of KP . 3. Suppose the controller is given as C(s) = KP s + KI s (a) If KI = 3. what is the minimum value of the gain KP required to achieve a steady state error of less than 10% to a step set point change? 2.12 WORKED EXAMPLES 129 Problem 6 A plant has transfer function G(s) = 1 (s + 3)(s + 6) 1. (b) If KI = 6. KI = 4. Compare them brieﬂy. Explain why such a controller would lead to a poor transient response.

. 2. Apply the Nyquist criterion to ﬁnd the values of the gain KP for which the closed-loop system is stable. 1. Roughly sketch the Nyquist plot of the plant. Sketch the Bode plot of the plant.12 WORKED EXAMPLES 130 Problem 7 A plant with transfer function G(s) = 10 (s − 1)(s + 100) is to be controlled with proportional feedback. 3.

1. Design a phase-lead compensator to meet the following speciﬁcations: • The closed-loop bandwidth should be at least 3 rad/sec.12 WORKED EXAMPLES 131 Problem 8 A plant with the frequency response shown in Fig WE8. 2. Bode Diagram 20 0 −20 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) −40 −60 −80 −100 −120 −90 −135 −180 −225 −270 −2 10 10 −1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 10 1 10 2 Figure WE8.1: Bode plot of plant.1 is to be controlled. How does the controller aﬀect the sensitivity of the control system to high frequency noise? . • The peak overshoot should be less than 10%.

Tl R v + Km 1 s(JRs+Km ) 2 θ + Figure WE1. First eliminate Tm (s) and Eb (s): Js2 Θ(s) = Km I(s) + Tl (s) V (s) = RI(s) + Km sΘ(s) Now eliminate I(s): JRs2 Θ(s) = Km [V (s) − Km sΘ(s)] + RTl (s) This simpliﬁes to Θ(s) = 1 [Km V (s) + RTl (s)] 2 s(JRs + Km ) The block diagram of the open-loop system is shown in Fig WE1. Taking Laplace transforms we ﬁnd Js2 Θ(s) = Tm (s) + Tl (s) V (s) = RI(s) + Eb (s) Tm (s) = Km I(s) Eb (s) = Km sΘ(s) We need to substitute for Tm (s).25s 50 = 2 s + 25s JRs2 .2.5 = 0.01s2 + 0. (a) The transfer function from V (s) to Θ(s) is G(s) = Km 2 + Km s 0. 2.2: Block diagram of DC motor. I(s) and Eb (s).13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 132 13 Worked example solutions Problem 1 1.

17| π 2 + (log 0.17 π 2 ζ 2 ≥ (log 0.6 ζωn = 0.17)2 (1 − ζ 2 ) ζ≥ | log 0.368 (b) The peak overshoot is given by Mp = exp − So we require − Hence Hence πζ 1 − ζ2 πζ 1 − ζ2 ≤ log 0.5 But ζ= 25 2ωn 25 = 2 50Kp .13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 133 If then the closed-loop transfer function from Θr to Θ is H(s) = Kp G(s) 1 + Kp G(s) 50Kp = 2 s + 25s + 50Kp 2 kωn 2 + 2ζωn s + ωn v = Kp (θr − θ) If we write this as H(s) = then k=1 2 ωn = 50Kp s2 2ζωn = 25 The 1% settling time can be approximated as ts ≈ 4.17)2 ≈ 0.

3: Closed-loop system.3. Introduce Tl R θr + + - Kp v + Km + 1 JRs+Km2 θ . The block diagram of the closed-loop system is shown in Fig WE1.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 134 So we require 25 1 ≥ 2 2 50Kp 50Kp ≤ 252 This gives and hence Kp ≤ 12. 1 s θ KT Figure WE1. ˙ φ=θ Then the transfer function of the inner loop (ignoring Tl ) is Φ(s) = 2 Km /(JRs + Km ) Kp [Θr (s) − Θ(s)] 2 1 + KT Km /(JRs + Km ) Km Kp = [Θr (s) − Θ(s)] 2 JRs + Km + KT Km Hence the transfer function from θr to θ is Θ(s) = 2 Km Kp /(JRs2 + (Km + KT Km )s) Θr (s) 2 1 + Km Kp /(JRs2 + (Km + KT Km )s) Km Kp = Θr (s) 2 JRs2 + (Km + KT Km )s + Km Kp 50Kp = 2 Θr (s) s + (25 + 50KT )s + 50Kp 4. We have 2 ωn = 50Kp 2ζωn = 25 + 50KT .5 3.

1 (25 + 50KT )/2 25 + 50KT ≥ 0.5 Hence we require 4.6 ≤ 0.1 ζωn ζ ≥ 0.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 135 The two conditions are 4.34 If KT = 1.5 2 50Kp The ﬁrst gives KT ≥ 1.34 then the second is satisﬁed with Kp ≥ 170 .6 ≤ 0.

5 1 0.5 −2 −1.7 2 9Kp 2 9 The two conditions cannot be satisﬁed simultaneously.2.5 −1 Real Axis −0. >>rlocus(L). Root Locus 2 1.2: Root locus of the system. The locus is shown in Fig WE2.[1 2 0]).1 > and hence Kp > 10 To achieve the damping ratio speciﬁcation we require 2 > 0.5 −1 −1.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 136 Problem 2 1. (b) The closed-loop system is given by Y (s) = G(s) G(s)C(s) Di (s) + R(s) 1 + G(s)C(s) 1 + G(s)C(s) 9 9Kp = 2 Di (s) + 2 R(s) s + 2s + 9Kp s + 2s + 9Kp To achieve the input disturbance speciﬁcation we require 0.5 Imaginary Axis 0 −0.5 0 0.5 1 Figure WE2.5 −2 −3 −2. (a) In Matlab the root locus can be generated as follows: >>L = tf(9. Kp < and hence s2 9 + 2s + 9Kp = s=0 1 Kp .

Root Locus 4 3 2 1 Imaginary Axis 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −10 −9 −8 −7 −6 −5 Real Axis −4 −3 −2 −1 0 Figure WE2. 3.2s) s(s + 2) The conditions are satisﬁed with Kp = 10 and In Matlab the root locus can be generated as follows: >>L = tf(9*[0.3: Root locus of the system.3. >>rlocus(L).1254 Td = 0.2 (b) The forward loop transfer function is kL(s) = Kp 9(1 + 0. choose Td ≥ 0. Td s 1 + γTd s .[1 2 0]).7 2 90 Which gives For simplicity. The locus is shown in Fig WE2. (a) The closed-loop system is given by Y (s) = 9 Di (s) s2 + (2 + 9Kp Td )s + 9Kp 9Kp (1 + Td s) R(s) + 2 s + (2 + 9Kp Td )s + 9Kp 2 + 90Td √ ≥ 0.2 1]. The PD controller should be replaced by a PDγ controller with structure C(s) = Kp 1 + with γ small.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 137 2.

If Kp = 10. The Bode plot of G(s) crosses the −20dB point at ω ≈ 6. so we require a phase advance of 40o . To meet the overshoot speciﬁcation we require the damping ratio ζ ≥ 0. So the phase margin with Kp = 10 is φm = 18o. . so R(s) = 1/s2 . which in turn corresponds to a phase margin φm ≥ 50o .56 −√ ζ π 4. the phase margin is reduced. The closed loop transfer function from set point r to output y is Y (s)/R(s) = G(s)C(s) 1 + G(s)C(s) 4Kp = 2 s + 2s + 4Kp The transfer function from r to error e = r − y is E(s)/R(s) = 1 − Y (s)/R(s) = s2 s2 + 2s + 2s + 4Kp The set point is a unit ramp. 3.05. The ﬁnal value theorem gives t→∞ lim e(t) = lim sE(s) s→0 s2 + 2s 1 s→0 + 2s + 4Kp s2 s+2 = lim 2 s→0 s + 2s + 4Kp 1 = 2Kp = lim s s2 So we require Kp > 10 for an error less than 0. where the phase is ∠G(jω) ≈ −162o. If the gain is further increased. The rule of thumb ζ ≈ φm /100 gives a closed-loop damping ratio of approximately 0. so a phase lead compensator will increase the cross-over frequency.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 138 Problem 3 1. We also need to preserve the gain at low frequency. From the Bode plot.5. 2. Let us assume the cross-over frequency is doubled to ωc ≈ 12. the gain in the Bode plot is raised by 20 log10 10 = 20dB.2. the phase is approximately −170o at this frequency. The overshoot is then Mp = e 1−ζ2 ≈ 0.

2: Bode plot of 10G (dashed) and GC (solid) where C is the phase lead compensator. See Fig WE3. .22s α= This gives a phase margin of 51o with a cross over frequency 8 rad/s. For this particular case we have satisﬁed the speciﬁcations and it is not necessary to iterate further.6 ωl + s 5.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 139 Put 1 − sin 40o ≈ 0. Bode Diagram 40 20 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 0 −20 −40 −60 −80 −90 −120 −150 −180 −1 10 10 0 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 1 10 2 10 3 Figure WE3.6 + 0.2.6 + s = 10 C(s) = Kp ωl + αs 5.22 1 + sin 40o √ ωl = α12 ≈ 5.

4 0. G(jω) = 2 + jω jω(jω − 5) −j(2 + jω)(−5 − jω) = ω(252 + ω 2 ) −7 10 − ω 2 +j = (25 + ω 2 ) ω(25 + ω 2 ) The imaginary part is zero when ω 2 = 10. At this frequency √ G(j 10) = −7 25 + 10 −1 = 5 . Similarly for small frequencies ω → 0+ we can read ∠G(jω) → −270o. we have ∠G(jω) → +90o = −270o as ω → −∞ and ∠G(jω) → 270o = −90o as ω → 0− .4 Imaginary Axis 0. 3. See Fig WE4. When s = ε > 0 with ε small.6 0. 2.6 0.2 0.6 0.8 0.4 1.2 1 Real Axis 0.6 1. For large frequencies ω → ∞ we can read from the Bode plot ∠G(jω) → −90o .8 1. Nyquist Diagram 1 0.8 0.2 0 Figure WE4. G(ε) is large but negative. By symmetry.4 0.3. We need to ﬁnd when G(jω) crosses the real axis.8 1 2 1.2 0 0.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 140 Problem 4 1.3: Nyquist plot of G(s).

. so N = 1 and the number of unstable closed-loop poles is Z = N + P = 2. But if Kp > 5 the Nyquist plot encircles −1 once anticlockwise. conﬁrming that it represents the transition from instability to stability. The root locus can be drawn in Matlab using the commands: >>L = tf([1 2]. Root Locus 4 3 2 1 Imaginary Axis 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −10 −5 Real Axis 0 5 Figure WE4.[1 -5 0]). so N = −1 and so Z = 0. but for k suﬃciently large the closed-loop poles move into the left half plane. So the closed-loop system is stable for Kp > 5. the number of open-loop poles in the right half plane is P = 1. If KP < 5 the Nyquist plot encircles −1 once clockwise.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 141 Applying the Nyquist criterion. >>rlocus(L).4: Root locus plot of G(s). This shows that the locus is unstable for low gains. 4. When Kp = 5 the closed-loop denominator is: d(s) = 5(s + 2) + s(s − 5) = s2 + 10 With this value the closed-loop poles lie on the imaginary axis.

82 − 1 ≈ 51 The damping ratio is given by ζ= 10/16 ≈ 0.8 ωn 1 + Kp 16 So the speciﬁcation is satisﬁed when Kp ≈ 16 × 1. The peak overshoot is Mp = e −√ ζ 1−ζ 2 π ≈ 0.17 2ωn for this value of Kp . Taking Laplace transforms: sA1 H1 (s) = Qi (s) − Q1 (s) R1 Q1 (s) = H1 (s) − H2 (s) sA2 H2 (s) = Q1 (s) − Q2 (s) R2 Q2 (s) = H2 (s) Substituting for H1 and H2 gives sA1 (R1 Q1 (s) + R2 Q2 (s)) = Qi (s) − Q1 (s) sA2 R2 Q2 (s) = Q1 (s) − Q2 (s) Substituting for Q1 (s) gives sA1 [R1 (1 + sA2 R2 )Q2 (s) + R2 Q2 (s)] = Qi (s) − (1 + sA2 R2 )Q2 (s) This simpliﬁes to (1 + s(A1 R1 + A1 R2 + A2 R2 ) + s2 A1 A2 R1 R2 )Q2 (s) = Qi (s) Inserting the numerical values gives Q2 (s) = 2.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 142 Problem 5 1.58 . The closed-loop response is G(s)C(s) Kp = 2 + 10s + 1 + K 1 + G(s)C(s) 16s p The rise time can be approximated as tr ≈ with 2 ωn = 16s2 1 Qi (s) + 10s + 1 1.

8 which gives Td ≈ 0.6 = 2 × 1.48 Note that this analysis disregards the eﬀect of the zero that the PD controller introduces.98 1 + G(0)C(0) 1 + Kp so the percentage error is 2%.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 143 3. 4.6. With a PD controller C(s) = Kp (1 + Td s) the closed-loop response is G(s)C(s) Kp (1 + Td ) = 1 + G(s)C(s) 16s2 + (10 + Kp Td )s + 1 + Kp We still require Kp = 51. . In each case the steady state closed-loop gain is G(0)C(0) Kp = ≈ 0. A peak overshoot of 10% corresponds to ζ ≈ 0. So we require (10 + 51Td)/16 0.

So we require Kp ≥ 162 2. The pure integral action “pulls” the location of the closedRoot Locus 15 10 5 Imaginary Axis 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 −15 −10 Real Axis −5 0 5 Figure WE6.[1 6]). See Fig WE6. 3.1: Root locus plot of L(s) with pure integral control. so the closed-loop transfer function is second order: (a) KI = 3.[1 3]) * tf(1. The forward loop transfer function is Kp L(s) = Kp s(s + 3)(s + 6) Hence the root locus can be drawn in Matlab using the commands: >>L = tf(1.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 144 Problem 6 1.[1 0]) * tf(1. The transfer function from set point r to error e = r − y is 1 (s + 3)(s + 6) = 1 + G(s)C(s) (s + 3)(s + 6) + Kp which has steady sate gain 18/(18 + Kp ). If KI = 3 or KI = 6 it cancels one of the open-loop poles. For medium to high gain they will be oscillatory or unstable. For a PI controller there is an extra zero at −KI . G(s)C(s) = KP s(s + 6) .1. >>rlocus(L). loop poles to the right.

13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 145 GC KP = 2 1 + GC s + 6s + KP √ The natural frequency is ωn = KP .5 can be drawn as follows: >>G = tf(1. KI = 3.2 to WE6. Hence 3 ζ= √ KP (b) KI = 6. When KI = 4.conv([1 3].5].[1 6])).4. The root locus diagrams for the three cases are shown in Figs WE6. Hence 1.5 ζ= √ KP (c) The root locus for the case (say) KI = 4. In each case there is a pair of complex conjugate poles when KP is suﬃciently high. >>C = tf([1 4. The damping ratio is given by 2ζωn = 6. >>rlocus(G*C). When KI = 3 or KI = 6 the locus of these poles is a straight vertical line.2: Root locus plot with PI control. . The vertical lines move to the right as we increase KI .[1 0]).5 the locus tends to a vertical asymptote. G(s)C(s) = KP s(s + 3) GC KP = 2 1 + GC s + 3s + KP √ The natural frequency is ωn = KP as before. Root Locus 20 15 10 5 Imaginary Axis 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 Real Axis −2 −1 0 1 Figure WE6. The damping ratio is given by 2ζωn = 3.

.4: Root locus plot with PI control. Root Locus 20 15 10 5 Imaginary Axis 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 Real Axis −2 −1 0 1 Figure WE6.5. KI = 4.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 146 Root Locus 20 15 10 5 Imaginary Axis 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 Real Axis −2 −1 0 1 Figure WE6.3: Root locus plot with PI control. KI = 6.

If Kp > 10 then there is one anticlockwise encirclement. There is one unstable open-loop pole so P = 1. Hence for Kp > 0 the system is stable in closed-loop. Note that there is a small cusp near the origin—see Fig WE7.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 147 Problem 7 1. .3. 3.2. The Nyquist plot is shown in Fig WE7. The frequency response is 10 G(jω) = −ω 2 + 99jω − 100 We create the following table: Frequency ω << 1 Approximate transfer function 10 −100 10 (j − 1)100 10 10j × 100 10 100j × (100 + 100j) 10 −ω 2 Gain (dB) −20 Phase −180o ω=1 −20 − 3 −180o + 45o ω = 10 −40 −90o (approx) ω = 100 −60 − 3 −90o − 45o ω >> 100 20 − 40 log10 ω −180o The Bode plot is shown in Fig WE7. so N = −1 and Z = 1 − 1 = 0. so N = 0 and hence the number of closedloop unstable poles is Z = N + P = 1. If Kp < 10 the Nyquist plot does not encircle the −1.1 2. The two break-frequencies are ω = 1 and ω = 100.

1 −0.005 −0.005 Imaginary Axis 0 −0. Nyquist Diagram 0.06 Real Axis −0. .04 −0.02 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 Real Axis 1 2 3 4 x 10 5 −3 Figure WE7.04 −0. Nyquist Diagram 0.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 148 Bode Diagram −20 −40 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) −60 −80 −100 −120 −140 −90 −120 −150 −180 10 −2 10 −1 10 0 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 Figure WE7.02 0.02 Imaginary Axis 0 −0.04 0.2: Nyquist plot of plant.01 −0.08 −0.015 0.3: Nyquist plot of plant near the origin.1: Bode plot of plant.06 −0.02 0 Figure WE7.015 −0.01 0.06 0.02 −0.

33 √ √ ωl = ωc α = 3 × 0.73 s + ωl C(s) = k αs + ωl s + 1.2/20 = 57. . The gain of C with k = 1 at ωc = 3 is 20 log1 0(1/0. This corresponds to k = 1035.6.8dB. This in turn corresponds to a phase margin φm = 60o using the approximation ζ≈ φm 100 We also require a closed-loop bandwidth of at least 3 rad/s. So we require k to be 40 − 4. The gain of G at ωc = 3 is approximately −40dB.5 2.33)/2 = 4.13 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLUTIONS 149 Problem 8 1. It should be suﬃcient to choose the cross-over frequency to be 3 rad/s. so we need a phase advance of 30o . The formula Mp = e −√ ζ 1−ζ 2 π gives a peak overshoot less than 10% for a damping ratio ζ ≥ 0.2dB.73 α= for some k.33 = 1. Choose 1 − sin 30o 1 + sin 30o = 0.8 = 35. the phase at 3 rad/s is approximately −150o. From the Bode plot. A high gain controller will make the system more sensitive to high frequency noise.33s + 1.73 =k 0.

2 0 0 0. 2 1. Sketch it for 0 ≤ t ≤ 10. .1: Input voltage u(t).4 0.6 0.5 1 1.1 is an exponential function.1 The voltage u(t) shown in Figure T1.5 3 Figure T1.2 u(t) 1 0.8 0.5 time 2 2.8 1.TUTORIAL 1 150 Tutorial 1 Question 1.6 1. Its tangent at time t = 0 is also shown.4 1. It is applied as the input of a plant with the transfer function 3 G(s) = (s + 1)(s + 4) Propose an appropriate expression for the input u(t) and hence compute the output signal y(t).

2. R2 .. C and L.TUTORIAL 1 151 Question 1.2: RLC network. (b) R1 = 10Ω. . Suppose C = 10µF and L = 1mH. For the RLC network in Figure T1. ﬁnd the transfer function G(s) = Y (s) U (s) Give an expression for the natural frequency ωn and the damping ratio ζ in terms of R1 . What shape step response do you expect for the following values of R1 and R2 ? (a) R1 = 2Ω. R2 = 2Ω. R2 = 10Ω. how good are the approximations? L R2 u(t) R1 y(t) C Figure T1.7 4.6 ζ . ts ≈ 0.2 1. You may ﬁnd the following approximations useful: Mp ≈ 1 − 1. tr ≈ .6 ωn ωn ζ Plot the responses using Matlab.2.

TUTORIAL 2

152

Tutorial 2

Question 2.1

Consider the speed control system shown in Fig T2.1. When k0 = 1 and τ = 0.2, what gain kv is required to keep the steady state error vr − v to a step input less than 0.05 when vr = 1?

vr

+ -

kv

k0 v τs+1

Figure T2.1: Speed control loop.

Question 2.2

The control loop in Problem 1 has been modiﬁed from speed control to control t of the position y = t0 v dt, as shown in Fig T2.2. Numerical values are k0 = 1 and τ = 0.2.

r

+ -

kp

k0 v τs+1

1 s

y

Figure T2.2: Position control loop.

1. What is the steady state error to a unit step position demand? 2. What is the fastest 1% settling time ts that can be achieved with proportional gain? 3. Assume that both the position y(t) and the speed v(t) are measured and used for feedback control according to u(t) = kp [r(t) − y(t)] − kv v(t) Redraw the block diagram and ﬁnd controller gains kp and kv such that the damping ratio is not less than 0.7 and the settling time is no more than 0.5.

TUTORIAL 2

153

Question 2.3

Fig T2.3 shows the Bode plot of a plant. Estimate its transfer function G(s).

Bode Diagram 100

50

Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg)

0

−50

−100

−150

−200 −90

−135

−180

−225

−270 10

−3

10

−2

10

−1

10 Frequency (rad/sec)

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

Figure T2.3: Bode plot of a plant.

TUTORIAL 3

154

Tutorial 3

Question 3.1

Consider the control system depicted in ﬁgure T3.1. The plant has transfer function 18 G(s) = s(s + 6) and is subject to step input disturbances di (t). The plant output is required to track a reference signal r(t) in closed-loop. Suppose C(s) is a proportional feedback controller C(s) = kp a) Use Matlab to draw the root locus for the forward loop transfer function. b) What gain kp is required to ensure the peak overshoot in the response to a step change in r(t) is less than 17%? c) What gain kp is required to ensure that a unit step change in di (t) should change the steady state value of the output by less than 0.05? d) Is it possible to satisfy both performance speciﬁcations at once?

di r + e C u + + G y

Figure T3.1: Feedback control system.

1. . For the same value of TD . Use Matlab to draw the root locus of the forward loop transfer function with an appropriate value of TD .3 Suppose the controller is implemented as a PDγ controller C(s) = kp 1 + TD s 1 + γTD s with γ = 0. Question 3.2 Design a PD controller C(s) = kp (1 + TD s) for the plant that meets both performance speciﬁcations. use Matlab to draw the root locus of the forward loop transfer function.TUTORIAL 3 155 Question 3.

1: Bode plot.1)(s + 10) is controlled using proportional feedback with gain k. Use the Nyquist stability criterion to determine closed-loop stability for both large and small k.2 A plant has frequency response shown in Fig T4. Question 4. 2.1 Suppose a plant with transfer function G(s) = 5 s(s + 0. Conﬁrm your answer by drawing the root locus using Matlab. 1. . 3. Bode Diagram 40 20 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 0 −20 −40 −60 −80 −90 −120 −150 −180 −2 10 10 −1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 0 10 1 10 2 Figure T4.1. It is to be controlled using proportional feedback with gain k.TUTORIAL 4 156 Tutorial 4 Question 4. Draw the Nyquist plot of the forward loop transfer function when k = 1.

1.3 For the same plant whose frequency response is shown in Fig T4.TUTORIAL 4 157 1. • the phase margin is at least 30o . . 2.01? Question 4. What is the minimum steady state error to a unit ramp set point if the phase margin should be at least 30o ? 3. design a phase lead compensator C(s) that ensures the following: • the steady state error to a unit ramp set point is at most 0. Estimate the transfer function of the plant. What is maximum phase margin if the gain is suﬃciently large for the steady state error to a unit ramp set point to be less than 0.01.

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- Teaching PID and Fuzzy Controllers using LABVIEW
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- QFTmanual
- ELEC324_2014
- anti slug
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- UT Dallas Syllabus for mech4310.001.11f taught by James Hilkert (jmh011500)
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- Tuning of PI Controller using Integral Performance Criteria for FOPTD System
- Position Control of Satellite In Geo-Stationary Orbit Using Sliding Mode Control Algorithm
- A Review on Model Based Methods to Degrade Nonlinearity Effects for Control Prosthetic Arm
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- UT Dallas Syllabus for ee4310.501.11f taught by Gerald Burnham (burnham)
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- Design And Fabrication Of A.C.V. -A Review
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- PSO based optimization of a PI controller for a Real time Pressure process
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- UT Dallas Syllabus for ee4310.0u1.11u taught by Nicholas Gans (nrg092000)
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