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From the Editor
How Innovative Are India’s Young Technologists?
This question is answered by the second edition of India TR35.
year ago, we at the India edition of Technology Review embarked on a complex exercise to ferret out the young technology innovators in the country. We were armed with over a decade’s experience of the magazine’s US team which had built TR35 which identifies top innovators under the age of 35 into a much-awaited annual exercise by the community. The inaugural attempt in India in 2010 was a runaway success, measured by the attention the 20 innovators, selected by the India edition, received in the country. And two of them, Indrani Medhi and Rikin Gandhi, made to the celebrated global TR35 list in September 2010. The lessons we learnt during the 2010 exercise and the confidence generated by the success have come in handy as we unveil the list of hottest technology innovators in the country in this edition of Technology Review India. Our Innovator of the Year, Ajit Narayanan, 29, exemplifies the spirit of innovation that now exists in India. Toiling for a few years at a startup, Invention Labs Engineering, incubated at the Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, Narayanan has developed an alternate communication system for millions of people who remain incommunicado with the society due to their disabilities. Avaz, which in Hindi means voice, is the tool which uses a variety of software and hardware to provide a voice to these muted millions using just their muscle movements. Another celebrated innovator, identified by a wonderful panel of 24 jury members who helped us sift through nearly 200 entries this time, is a young medical student, Alefia Merchant, 32. She is currently pursuing her medical studies in Canada. During her short stint with Bangalore-based eye hospital, Narayana Nethralaya, Merchant has developed an easy method to spot eye disorders in young children. Millions of Indian children from poor families do not have access to cost-effective diagnostic tools to detect their vision threatening conditions before the age of five. Merchant has used the images taken using the widely used digital cameras to look for vision threatening symptoms. The simplicity of the method provides a handy tool in the hands of health workers in remote corners of the country. For this amazing invention, we have named Alefia Merchant, the Humanitarian of the Year, from the perspective of technology innovation.
Majority of the 18 young innovators we have chosen for India TR35 2011 have developed technological solutions to common problems faced by people. Take the case of Gautam Kumar, 26, named as the Social Innovator. Most urban homes in India use liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) supplied in cylinders for cooking. Leakages from the cylinder are common and thousands of people die every year due to cylinder blasts caused by leakages in kitchens. Kumar has developed a simple gas detection system using a sensor and communication module to issue warning to user’s registered mobile phone. Called Suraksha (safety in Hindi), it is another innovation that should improve safety levels in millions of Indian homes in the coming years. In 2010, we chose 20 from a field of 115. This year, we have selected only 18 innovations that passed the muster with the jury and the benchmarks we had set for this year. However, it is no reflection on the quality of other innovations. Nor does this indicate any decline in the area of technology innovations in the country. Agrees Technology Review India Editor and India TR35 project head, Ch. Srinivas Rao: “It was a very daunting task for us to shorten the list to 60 from nearly 200 odd entries. Each of the shortlisted entries were thoroughly evaluated by at least three jury members. We also sought the opinion of our international colleague, Brian Bergstein, who has been one of the key members to evaluate the global program, to give his feedback too. He went beyond his brief to evaluate all the shortlisted entries. We collectively spent over 500 hours to select the winners. It is heartening to see an increase in technology innovation in the country.” Added Technology Review’s deputy editor Brian Bergstein, “There were some great ideas in the shortlisted nominations. And now we’ll have a head start on incorporating these candidates into the running for the global TR35.” It was another daunting but rewarding exercise for the TR team. I invite you all to evaluate the 18 innovators in your own way and do join us in celebrating their success during the 3rd EmTech India Conference in Bangalore on March 22-23, 2011. Do write and let me know your views on these young innovators at email@example.com. —Narayanan Suresh
From the Editor
into speech. and also a sensor which detects body movements. mental retardation. The options are also arranged in optimized order of frequency which ACTION TO SPEECH Avaz is a communication device that can convert limited muscle movements. 29 Voice device for people with speech disabilities Invention Labs Engineering. This technology. 36 INDIA TR35 technology review | India Edition | A Cybermedia Publication March 2011 . and making it available in Indian languages. his lack of ﬁne motor control skills prevent him from writing or typing. His invention broadly falls under the category of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) technologies. It works by converting limited muscle prevented these devices from becoming as popular in the developing world. Jain graduated from high R movements. Avaz works on the principle of scanning. Avaz also tries to automatically predict words based on their starting alphabets and their preceding words. The child can now build a sentence under less than a minute using Avaz in text mode. autism. such as head or ﬁnger movements. This selects the highlighted option. into speech. ordering. This is another deterrent which has are used to intelligently create sentences which are then spoken out. making it affordable to a wide swath of the Indian disabled population. battery-operated device which constructs messages from coarse muscle movements. When a full sentence has been constructed. Chennai ohit Jain now studies Sociology at Loyola College in Chennai. Despite all these challenges. Scanning in Avaz is made faster using grouping. Jain’s determination would have taken him to his destination. They may not have speech but they have a lot to say. most AAC devices aren’t within the reach of the speechimpaired persons in the developing world and they mostly generate speech in English. school last year and registered for further studies. There are an estimated 10 million people in India who suffer from speech impediments. the child makes a large muscle movement such as shaking the head or touching anywhere on the screen with the hand.INDIA 35 C O M P U T E R & E L E C T R O N I C S H A R D WA R E Innovator of the Year Ajit Narayanan. When the highlight dwells upon the option that the child wishes to choose. Avaz is also available in picture mode with support for Indian languages. The options are arranged in groups so that it is quicker to navigate and correct mistakes. Avaz converts the message into speech. has the potential of morphing into a technology for the people without disabilities too like when one is at the steering wheel of a car or when one isn’t familiar with the local language of the place of visit. and prediction. Avaz is a portable. It has a micro-processor with a touch screen and multiple input sensor mechanisms. These messages are then converted into speech. He cannot speak as his vocal muscles are weak and neither is he able to achieve perfect muscle coordination in his limbs. What is so special about him? He was born with cerebral palsy. He was one of the ﬁrst users of Narayanan’s invention. Narayanan’s innovation lies in bringing down the cost of the device to one-tenth of the price of similar devices. such as head or ﬁnger movements. Besides. Though speech generating devices are effective. It shows various options on a screen and presents a highlight that moves between the different options. Avaz is a communication device for people with speech disorders such as cerebral palsy. but Ajit Narayanan’s technology has come to aid him to mingle into mainstream more freely. though developed for the differently-abled. and aphasia. AVAZ. To cater to a wider spectrum of disabilities. And they can beneﬁt from Narayanan’s device. Inputs from the sensor makes common words quicker to select.
.INNOVATOR OF THE YEAR Ajit Narayanan’s innovation lies in bringing down the cost of the communication device to one-tenth of the price of similar devices.
The technology has the potential to be developed as a secure identiﬁcation and authentication system based on individual speciﬁc ECG signature. 32 Secure system using human ECG to authenticate. head of Tata Consultancy Services Innovation Labs. wearable ECG device will continuously acquire and transmit the data to PC.. due to ECG’s unique feature it is more difficult to falsify and ECG signals can be used for aliveness detection as well. aliveness detection. even in identical twins. having very high levels of accuracy exist today. bio-signal processing. biometrics. Bangalore. Jayaraman has developed the prototype wearable ECG device with a wireless capability. he has also tested the performance of the algorithm and has validated it with MIT-BIH ECG database. For example. human system interface. NEW BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGY Srinivasan Jayaraman has developed a wearable ECG device with wireless capability which can use human ECG as a biometric to authenticate identity. Bangalore W ith research interests in areas like healthcare devices. respiration. and keyboard. these biometrics methods are either not robust against falsiﬁcation or are too costly like the iris technique. Further. Srinivasan Jayaraman has sought new ways of doing things. and more. Using a collection of ECG waveforms corresponding to different people at different times. He has demonstrated application of human electrocardiogram (ECG) as a biometric. the PC user will raise a request based on device ID and the wearable ECG device will acknowledge the request and acquire and transmit the data to the PC through wireless mode.” says Jayaraman.INDIA 35 C O M P U T E R & E L E C T R O N I C S H A R D WA R E Srinivasan Jayaraman. And it is unique for individuals.” says Jayraman. And he has tested it for a small group of individuals. glass. Facial images can also be stolen from any supermarket where one visits often. However. He is also exploring to add other physiological parameters like skin temperature. ECG is a record of time varying biopotential generated by electrical activity of the heart. He has implemented a miniature three-channel device to acquire ECG data and transmit it over bluetooth or USB for the data collection. 38 INDIA TR35 technology review | India Edition | A Cybermedia Publication March 2011 . such as fingerprint recognition systems. Jayaraman has ﬁled a patent for its potential in practical applications. and at military or nuclear installations. as biometric credentials are not secured. and ergonomics. The wearable ECG device is conﬁgurable either as continuous mode or on-demand mode. “The next step would be to test the system with a larger group of individuals and integrating an automatic emergency call for times when any abnormality is detected by the system. spooﬁng attack occurs either physically or digitally. In the continuous mode. Further. Though a number of biometric techniques. identify and diagnose Tata Consultancy Services. Major impact of this work. people working at high security zones. ﬁngerprints may be obtained from any physical surfaces that one touches such as doors. can be applied for pervasive authentication like in the case of vehicle drivers. according to Balamuralidhar P. and blood pressure measurements. “It has also been estimated that 2-3 percent of population fail to spot the features that are required for authentication or the data obtained for authentication is of poor quality. In the on-demand mode. or within a highly restricted area where the individual needs to be monitored continuously or queried wirelessly. he has developed an algorithm to extract relevant morphological features and cluster them with sufficient distance for mapping them to respective people.
encyclopaedia. promises information on almost any topic to the user on his mobile phone without asking him to click on any link. 22 A mobile based search engine to deliver information on any topic Innoz Technologies.” SMSGyan was launched in January 2009. Haryana Voice Text and Multimedia Messaging Video GYAN CONVERGENCE GATEWAY KNOWLEDGE ALERTS BREAKING NEWS REVIEWS Seamless Data Interchange GYAN USER CONTENT PARTNERS D IVR SM S eepak Ravindran calls it the “instant cup of knowledge”. such as railway enquiry. the algorithm spiders the World Wide Web or Wikis on the Web for the related information. low bandwidth medium as its delivery mechanism. and the SMSGyan provides myriad information services which include dictionary. movie reviews. live cricket scores. Gyan means “knowledge” in Hindi. was in transit and wanted to know the meaning of a word and found that his basic phone was of no use to get the information. and it currently caters to ﬁve million users. gadgets prices.” says Ravindran. The idea was seeded when one day. to know the stock price of Infosys. answering almost 20. Hisam had to do without knowing the meaning. stock market. zeroes in on the most relevant inputs. There are a host of services existing which would give users information on certain topics on their mobile phones but most of these are either limited to a sector. Ravindran now has plans of making information in local languages available for the beneﬁt of the rural masses. It delivers mobile-optimized results. The categories that are currently available are encyclopedia. stock market. Future tweaks to the service would also include translators and video or voice based on-demand results. job search. Other recent additions to premium services include localized searches. Trivandrum. Having added services for Facebook. “This kind of a thing has happened to each one of us and it can be frustrating. Twitter. one of the founders of Innoz Technologies. Though India has almost 700 million users today. and then shortens it to be sent to a mobile phone via the text message route. Once the Gyan engine gets a query from a mobile user. SMSGyan. the platform makes use of its content partners to deliver the required information. The team then sat down INFORMATION SERVICES The SMSGyan algorithm enables users to get information on any topic through a simple SMS from their cell phones. job search. says “Deepak’s product is a paradigm shift from standard mobile service offerings as it adopts a user centric learning approach using a low cost.INDIA 35 TE LECOMM UNI CATIONS Deepak Ravindran. and more via text messages. These text results support upto a maximum 500 characters of information across all operators in India. health. Hisam. the smart phone penetration still remains very low. Such services have not become very popular with the vast majority of the people because they don’t have GPRS connection on their mobile phones or the connection is weak. and calorie meter. book reviews. In some cases. Since the phone had no application and no Internet connection to go to a dictionary and enquire. dictionary. RC Dutt of Technopark. The SMSGyan platform can work with any number of databases or resources. acronym. www. For these services. pictures are also sent as results to support the text results to a user’s mobile device in answer to his or her query. His mobile based service.000 queries daily. a user would have to type “GYAN Stock Infosys” and send it to the speciﬁed number. and email via SMS over the SMSGyan platform. or they send links to the user’s mobile phone asking the user to click on them to access desired information.technologyreview. weather alerts. A user would have to type an SMS with the keyword GYAN followed by the query and send it to 56161. For example. to put together an answer engine which would give users answers to various kinds of queries from anywhere at any time.in INDIA TR35 39 . and even a health service over the phone. where Ravindran’s company is incubated and is being mentored.
40 INDIA TR35 technology review | India Edition | A Cybermedia Publication March 2011 . Bangalore W ith software becoming all pervasive in our daily lives. “Akash’s research has created an opportunity for developing precise and scalable tools for analyzing concurrent software. THE POIROT Akash Lal has made signiﬁcant advances on the problem of analyzing and verifying properties of concurrent programs. Lal’s approach is 30 times faster than any existing tool for verifying concurrent programs. Redmond. He has shown how a concurrent program can be efficiently transformed to a sequential one under certain conditions.” says Shaz Qadeer. The problem of automatically verifying concurrent programs is two-fold: one has to explore different inputs to the program. and many researchers including me are building on top of his work. Using a collection of models of concurrent programs. This is a concern as modern software is invariably concurrent. His approach is about 30 times faster than existing tools. Though automated veriﬁcation can signiﬁcantly improve the quality of software with little manual effort. His innovation bridges the worlds of sequential and concurrent programs. Lal’s colleague at Microsoft. 29 Improving software quality using automated veriﬁcation Microsoft Research. the available veriﬁcation tools have been used to test sequential programs. Lal. along with his colleagues at Microsoft Research Lab in Bangalore. it must become all the more reliable and shouldn’t crash or behave unexpectedly. Akash Lal’s work shows that veriﬁcation of real-world concurrent programs is possible.INDIA 35 S OF TWARE Akash Lal. And the way to address this is through automated veriﬁcation of programs. has built a tool called Poirot that is capable of ﬁnding bugs in real-world concurrent programs that are missed by conventional testing. and also explore different interleavings that happen between threads in the program for each input.
in INDIA TR35 41 . Incubation and Entrepreneurship. 2 feet long model for domestic purposes (since tank openings are small). The Gridbots is incubated at the Center for Innovation. To develop the Sausr has been tough.5&`12. Gaur has made the robot unique by adding peripherals like a totally waterproof robotic arm with a gripper attachment facility so that cleaning equipment can be attached to the robot. and acidity measurement.technologyreview. Maharashtra has a sticky sludge while Rajasthan has a sludge deposition which is sandy in nature. www. and a 3 feet wide and 2 feet long model for industrial purposes. small. The robot size and attachments vary according to the nature of the sludge in different geographies. The underwater robot from Gridbots is specially capable of cleaning deep water tanks and has found application in industries which have the need of a continuous supply of water but for whom cleaning the tank on a regular basis and keeping the water free of impurities is a major issue of water wastage and labor. and cost-effective than what was available anywhere else so that it would ﬁt in well in the multitudes of the Indian scene. Gaur has developed a smart waterproof robot capable of carrying various underwater operations with ease. The Sausr uses different kinds of pumps in different geographies. It is made of anodized aluminum and coated by hard chromium and is therefore rendered waterproof. Pulkit Gaur understood the value of creating a mechanism which could clean water storage tanks without emptying them or wasting water. The robot is controlled from an external source such as a keypad and a monitor. which are also capable of giving a feedback of live video for better control. Currently. Ahmedabad. Passionate about robots.INDIA 35 C O M P U T E R & E L E C T R O N I C S H A R D WA R E Pulkit Gaur. He calls his invention SaUsR (smart autonomous underwater service robot). The machine has onboard sludge collection units which are modular in nature to help in cleaning sludge deposited within tanks of various sizes. indigenous smart cleaning robots which would be light. but also of adding a camera feed and making everything work on a single phase power supply. The Sausr uses visual sensors with high resolution cameras mounted on its back. It has an attached cable of 50 meters and hence is rated for a 50 meter depth with a linear speed of ﬁve centimeters per second and an underwater payload capacity of 30 kilograms. The robot has sensors for direction. 29 Underwater robot to clean tanks and reduce water wastage Gridbots. It weighs 30 kilograms and comes in two models: a 2 feet wide.” says Gaur. For example. Gaur’s Sausr ensures smooth and fail-proof operations for such machines. temperature. Light emitting diodes are used for lighting. Gaur and his team had the challenge of not only creating an indigenous waterproof and rustproof device. Ahmedabad oming from the water scare region of Rajasthan. the Sausr costs `7.5 lakh. “We tried making C UNDERWATER ROBOT Pulkit Gaur’s Sausr is designed to help in cleaning water storage tanks without downtime or water wastage. Indian Institute of Management.
But the new trend shows that spammers outdo these blockers by constantly changing their numbers and the sender titles. the app has been downloaded by almost 70.” says Jaspal Riyat. Bedmutha explains that during the development. Based on the result. 42 INDIA TR35 technology review | India Edition | A Cybermedia Publication March 2011 . the user can manually change or add any rule or setting in the smsBlocker. “Most SMS blockers are not very effective as they are based on CAP-4 protocol platforms. the application transfers identiﬁed spam messages into a separate folder.000 mobile phone users from over 110 countries. As one witnesses the growth of mobile phones over that of PCs. “This app is successful in blocking spams 99 percent of the times. Bedmutha says he has studied more than 3. Many users find it easier to just delete such messages than to add them to a list.000 different predeﬁned spam cases created out of numerous permutations and combinations. smsBlocker deﬂects from the regular spam blockers in the manner that it doesn’t automatically pulls group messages from banks or others into the spam bin. The application runs in the background and keeps filtering SMSes as they pour in. Pune SMS received in the mobile smsBlocker’s Content Analysis Engine If spam detected SMS silently sent to ‘Blocked SMS’ folder S pam messages are a bane to any individual as they bring with them a host of problems such as ﬂooding the inbox. but the same accuracy and variety lacks in case of SMS blockers. Sagar Bedmutha. and more. Apart from the in-built logic. His product smsBlocker also allows users to restore a blocked message. infecting the system with malware.INDIA 35 TELE COMMUNI CATIONS Sagar Bedmutha. CEO of Pune-based Optinno Mobitech. has created an intelligent SMS blocker which automatically blocks spam without the need of user intervention. While a variety of email-spam blockers are available today. 29 An intelligent anti-spamming software for mobile phones Optinno Mobitech. Bharti Airtel. into a list. their focus was to make the app use phone memory efficiently and intercept a potential spam message without allowing the phone to vibrate or ring or even ﬂash on the screen. It displays a counter of the number of messages blocked on the home screen of a mobile phone for the user to see. The application comprises almost 6.” he comments. while the one from Optinno is different. it is needless to say that there is a need of good spam blockers. One interesting feature of the app which makes it localized and more effective for Indian users is that it identiﬁes the widely spoken Hinglish—English infused with regular Hindi words. it pops up a snapshot of the message for the user to If no spam detected SMS sent to ‘Inbox’ as usual If smsBlocker can not decide SMS ‘Preview’ shown for further action by user SPAM BLOCKER smsBlocker works on any mobile phone with least human intervention. Every message that comes from an unknown source is analyzed against all predefined cases. view and make the decision.000 patterns of promotion and other types of SMSes to identify spammers. senior mobile marketing manager. The anti-spam software available today require users to manually keep adding senders that they wish to block. The smsBlocker app costs `199 and since its launch in July 2010. In certain cases if the algorithm remains undecided whether a message is spam or not.
EMO The compact device connects to the onboard port of the vehicle to transmit emission values in real-time. www. a device aimed at reducing vehicular pollution. The better the driving behavior. Thus. allowing it to constantly exchange contextual information such as traffic status and infrastructure usage. patented algorithm which measures driving behavior and carbon emissions in realtime. Logica India. The solution has the capability to talk to other devices. The concept can then be used to offer differential fuel pricing. The fuel dispensers will then use predetermined logic to provide fuel at a price proportional to the carbon emissions of the vehicle as per the policy set by the government and oil companies. It makes the vehicle location. Under the concept. 32 A device that wirelessly monitors and reports vehicular emission in real-time Logica India.” says Ghosh. the solution provides a real and monetary way of providing incentive to drivers to improve their driving behavior. Research shows that vehicular emission constitutes 51 percent of an average household’s carbon footprint and close to a third of global world pollution. It has been extensively tested both in-house and with clients. has developed Logica EMO. It allows wireless monitoring and reporting of vehicular emissions in real-time. an idea pioneered by Ghosh at Logica. Logica EMO has successfully enabled users to reduce their carbon emissions on average by 15 percent along with similar reductions in fuel consumption. Logica EMO offers audible feedback on the driving behavior of the driver in real-time to allow him or her to alter the driving style to make most efficient use of fuel. It is now all set to reach various stakeholders across geographies. product manager – innovation. for example. “Deployed in hundreds of cars in multiple pilots. “The Logica EMO uses a unique. Ghosh believes that the success of EMO lies in individuals adopting better driving habits. Bangalore anjoy Ghosh.technologyreview. The compact Logica EMO is an integrated plug-in device that connects to the onboard port (OBD II) of vehicles and transmits emission values from the vehicle wirelessly to a central office. The device also acts as a connected node in the dynamic traffic network. The product also empowers a driver to improve his driving pattern and turn the vehicle more environment-friendly.in INDIA TR35 43 .” says Ghosh. the real-time vehicular emission data captured by the Logica EMO device will be transferred to fuel dispensers S at gas stations. the lesser the emis- sion will be and the lesser the fuel will cost to the driver. devices installed at fuel stations.and context-aware.INDIA 35 E NE RG Y Sanjoy Ghosh.
Canada A n estimated 1. and psychological. primarycare screening programs as an important barrier to improvements in current morbidity and mortality rates due to photograph is taken in a darkened room eye-related diseases. and readily-available digital camera technology to photograph a child’s eye for photograph is taken from a distance of several meters PHOTO-RED PROTOCOL A schematic diagram to show how the photograph must be taken to capture red reﬂex (above) and the principle of the physics of light behind the red reﬂex (below). Aleﬁa Merchant has developed a novel method of screening for eye disease in children under the age of ﬁve. these children often face a lifetime of disability. it undermines their function and acceptability in their families and in society.4 million children in the world are blind and 90 percent of them are found in developing countries. diagnosing. there are many hurdles in detecting. There is no organized screening program focused on identifying children under the age of five for sightthreatening eye conditions. In India. If children with visual disabilities were detected sufficiently early. Canada. low-cost. Bangalore. Merchant developed the method during September 2009 till June 2010 as part of her community pediatric ophthalmology project at the Narayana Nethralaya Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology. Merchant’s method exploits existing. Poor vision affects every aspect of their lives— economic. Third year medical student at University of Montreal. pupil size angle at which light enters the eye 44 INDIA TR35 technology review | India Edition | A Cybermedia Publication March 2011 . Montreal. Bangalore. The World Health Organization reports the lack of adequate community-based. approximately 40 percent of such cases could be prevented or treated and the remaining could be rehabilitated to minimize the child’s handicap.INDIA 35 BIOTE CHNO L O GY & MEDICINE Humanitarian of the Year Aleﬁa Merchant. social. and treating such children. 32 Novel method of screening for eye disease in children under the age of ﬁve University of Montreal. In India. She was the co-investigator of the project along with Ashwin Mallipatna who is consultant pediatric eye surgeon at Narayana Nethralaya. Ultimately. Karnataka.
We found that photographs taken in a dark room (maximizing pupil size) at a distance of 4 meters (such that the angle of reflec tion is sufficiently small) reliably produced a red reflex in each photograph. or an asymmetry in the size or quality of the reﬂexes could all indicate the presence of an eye abnormality. A symmetrical. Similarly. Merhcant’s method. the more light reaches the camera lens. red reﬂex is considered normal. all layers of the eye through which light passes must be transparent and the surface of the retina must be normal.” says Merchant. Merchant now intends to pilot and implement the new technology into programs that cater to very young children. uses a digital camera to elicit red reﬂexes. which she calls as Photo-Red protocol. www. such as immunization clinics.INDIA 35 FIELD STUDY Aleﬁa Merchant with some of the children from the village in which she did part of her work. the smaller the angle of reﬂection. A red-reﬂex examination works on the principle that light entering the eye is reﬂected off the back of the eye (the retina).in INDIA TR35 45 . The Photo-Red protocol can be performed by rural health workers or other laypersons in a community with little initial training. However. signs of vision-threatening disease as an alternative to standard medical technology in current use. the standard red-reﬂex test requires expertise and equipment which is not commonly available in India. The amount of reﬂected light captured by the camera is controlled by two important factors: the size of the pupil and the angle at which the light enters the eye. a white reﬂex. The larger the pupil.” she explains. To obtain a red reﬂex. “The Photo-Red protocol allows one to consistently elicit a standard. clinically-relevant red reﬂex in children and adults using a compact digital camera.technologyreview. and other community health services. This reﬂected light (or red reﬂex) is visible to the examiner when a specialized instrument called a direct ophthalmoscope is used. The loss of a reﬂex. Anganwadi services. the more light enters the eye. “Any significant change in the structure of the eye changes the optics of the reﬂected light and can alter the reﬂex seen in the photograph.
Some of its clients in India include Bluestar. the air conditioners need to do more work to achieve the same amount of cooling and therefore they start consuming more electricity than usual. While other duct-cleaners are available in European markets. While the ducts get ﬁlled with dirt and grime deposits. 19 centimeters in width and 9 centimeters in height and weighs just two kilograms. Fahad Azad with his team at Robosoft Systems has developed a robot. the Robosoft Systems’ DuctBot is the ﬁrst-of-its kind attempt in India. the team is also thinking of developing comprehensive cleaning solutions. Mumbai T he quality of the air that we breathe indoors depends on the air circulating in the air-conditioning ducts in our offices. dirtﬁlled ducts can cause the whole air conditioning system to break down. Azad’s innovation at Robosoft Systems was aimed at eliminating this practice. There are motors attached on both sides of the small vehicle on wheels which are controlled or turned by supplying differential voltage to the differential turning motors. The DuctBot can be controlled wirelessly by any playstation joystick without the need of any sort of programming. The cleaning process is carried out by placing the DuctBot inside the air duct from one end and blowing compressed air in the duct and helping the ﬁlter attached at the other end to collect the debris. thereby improving the energy efﬁciency of the air conditioners. Earlier practices in large enterprises and industries included sending humans inside the ducts who would clean them with dusting equipment. 23 centimeters in length.INDIA 35 COMPUTER & ELECTRONICS HARDWARE Fahad Azad. LED lights to move inside the duct. it is essential that the ducts are cleaned properly at regular intervals. Robosoft Systems is now developing multiple variants of the DuctBot ranging from robots suited for vertical ducts to those meant for extremely small ducts found on ships and submarines. Going forward. To maintain the health and quality of this air that is circulated within the premises of an office or a home facility. which is almost five times cheaper than what is available in global market. designed speciﬁcally to do this job effectively. 46 INDIA TR35 technology review | India Edition | A Cybermedia Publication March 2011 . which is presently the reason for 90 percent of failures in such systems. Duct cleaning in enterprises remains a challenge because of the tough accessibility of these narrow metallic passages and the requirement of shutting down the entire system. But they faced the risk of respiratory problems and other health hazards. and an onwards camera for a live feed. Robosoft Systems has also ﬁled a patent for DuctBot. The company has supplied DuctBots at various places successfully. The DuctBot in a way promises enterprises and individuals in achieving energy efficiency and reduce their electricity consumption. The toy-car sized DuctBot measures AIR PURIFICATION Azad’s automated DuctBot makes it easy to clean air-conditioner ducts from inside. called DuctBot. 29 Duct cleaning robot to improve quality of the air we breathe Robosoft Systems. EPSCO. Moreover. The system has attachments for cleaning. The DuctBot costs around `1 lakh. and the Indian Navy.
Once the blood drop is put on the microchip. who is pursuing PhD in biomedical engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology in Mumbai. His technology promises to reduce the cost of tests to `100. Sadawana. enzymes like glucose oxidase) to these QDs such that when the UV light is projected onto them the photo-luminescence of the QDs changes. Quantum dots are photo-luminescent nano particles of the size range of 2-10 nanometers.500. Today. and records the photo-luminescent effect. The captured data is then analyzed with the help of software also developed by Sadawana. cost-effective. visible light). throws UV light on the QDs. they emit photons of a lower energy (for example. and accurate system that requires just a drop of blood as sample for the estimation of multianalytes for DKA diagnosis. www. 2 3 NANOTE C HNO L OGY & MATERIALS Mayur M. he has created a glucose biosensor which will occupy one cell of the microchip. Mumbai D iabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complication of diabetes that occurs when the body cannot use sugar (glucose) as the energy source because it does not have enough insulin. The key to the management of DKA is early diagnosis and rigorous treatment. acid-base balance of the blood (pH). acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine.technologyreview. it costs the person nearly `1. they absorb the same and their electrons get excited into a higher energy level. To begin with.8 centimeter. turning them into biosensors. 26 Point-of-Care multianalyte sensor Indian Institute of Technology. As a result the body breaks down fat for use. All these tests require the patient to undergo a series of painful invasive blood tests and each time these tests are done. DKA diagnosis is based on glucose estimation and monitoring. In high levels. He is building more biosensors which can be incorporated onto the chip to test multianalytes for DKA diagnosis. ketones are poisonous and this condition is called ketoacidosis.in INDIA TR35 47 . Every diabetic case is a potential case of DKA. When these electrons return to the normal energy level. ultraviolet light). patient is closely monitored for electrolytes. This phenomenon is called photoluminescence. Once DKA is conﬁrmed. He uses quantum dots (QDs) as biosensors for sensing analytes. Sadawana. and glucose.INDIA 35 1 hv GOD hv’ hv GOD hv’ GOD CdSe-CdS GOD Glucose GOD CdSe-CdS GOD GOD O2 + GOD H2O2 + Glucose Gluconic Acid LAB-ON-CHIP The mechanism for glucose sensing (1) shows that tagged quantum dots will be present in one of the reactor chambers of the microchip (2). oxygen concentration of the arterial blood. which is programmed to record the change in photoluminescence of quantum dots due to various analytes and thus estimate their levels in interstitial ﬂuid. When the QDs are excited with highenergy photons (for example. has developed a minimally invasive. Nearly 10 microliters of biosensor QDs have been incorporated in a single cell of a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) microchip of a size of 0. The chip is held at the tip of the measuring device (3). the specially built pen-like instrument holds the chip. The error range in Sadawana’s glucose sensing is between 4 to 9 percent as compared to 20 percent in existing glucometers. As fats are broken down. Sadawana has attached biomolecules (for example. Mayur M.
such technologies have not taken off in countries like India where the masses are still comfortable using pen and paper to write in their regional languages. which are not very userfriendly. to be instantly digitized. Once the errors are reconciled. or they require users to digress totally from pen and paper to a personal digital assistant or a computer-based interaction. and digital slate solution for a low-cost digital record management system Microsoft Research. storage. As entries are made. At the end. and manipulation and digital devices allow real-time prompts and checks to ensure that data entered is accurate and complete. 29 A hybrid paper. Bangalore I mmediate digitization of data allows for easy aggregation. made with the pen on ordinary paper forms placed on the device. C O M P U T E R & E L E C T R O N I C S H A R D WA R E Aishwarya Lakshmi Ratan. a voice-over in the local language is played back to validate the data. Aishwarya Ratan has come up with a low-cost digital system which lets the users have the convenience of using a normal pen and a plain paper to record data and instantly store it in the digital form. they are automatically stored in their respective ﬁelds in the database. Aishwarya’s team chose a low-cost digital slate and pen prototype device that allows handwritten entries. Technologies that exist today either require users to use a digital pen and a digital slate. progressing from one module to the next using the back of the pen as a stylus. On top of the device they built a ﬁnancial record management application that followed the structure of the paper accounting system used by the SHGs.INDIA 35 SOCIAL IMPACT Aishwarya Ratan’s digital record management solution lets users write on paper using a normal pen. the data gets validated and saved. This solution has been piloted with self help groups (SHGs) who microﬁnance and maintain records of each person’s savings and loans. An account writer would have to simply make entries in a smaller version of the ledger book placed on the digital slate. And therefore. 48 INDIA TR35 technology review | India Edition | A Cybermedia Publication March 2011 . Conventionally. He would then simultaneously open the digital application on the slate. pen. the data was recorded at a site on papers and it was later converted into digital data. All of these technologies are expensive as compared to a pen and paper medium.
And Manav Bhatia’s security and authentication algorithms help in making the routing protocols more secure and less susceptible to attacks. such as Denial of Service (DoS) or traffic redirection. called KARP (keying and authentication for routing protocols). “Manav has been instrumental in driving the standards for securing the routing protocols (OSPF and IS-IS) that the service providers and enterprises depend upon. Bhatia made it possible by including the important parts of the IP header in the crypto computation that both the sender and the receiver do when they receive an IP routing protocol packet. operators. Bhatia started noticing that protocols were not as secure as they were always thought to be. His standards have been adopted by the IETF and various router vendors. The IETF is a global community of network designers. A new working group. IETF is now working on ﬁxing the issues that were found by Manav and he is spearheading that effort in different IETF working groups. has been formed in IETF that aims to develop new standards for secur- PROTECTING INTERNET Manav Bhatia is working towards making enterprise and Internet routing network more secure ing the routing packets as they transit a network. Bhatia is the co-author of two base documents that define how the work in KARP must be carried out. He looked closely at how these protocols used the cryptographic authentication mechanisms and saw vulnerabilities in almost all the popular protocols deployed in the service provider and enterprise networks.” adds Sundarajan. Bangalore R outing in the Internet is a very complex task and routing protocols play the key role in ensuring that Internet works in a sane way. He has published various standards like RFC 6039 that describe potential threats and how attackers could harm the networks despite using cryptographic authentication mechanisms in place. 32 Securing the Internet service provider’s routing network Alcatel-Lucent. Bhatia worked on the mechanisms that were deﬁned by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards and ﬁxed the vulnerabilities. Most of Bhatia’s work has been published as standards (RFCs) which most router vendors in India are supporting in their implementations. www. The RFC 5840 standard explains how ﬁrewalls can inspect the data that passes through it and RFC 5310 deﬁnes a new way to authenticate the IS-IS (intermediate system to intermediate system) packets. Another challenge was to secure the IP header without implementing any tunnelling mechanism where the original IP payload is tunnelled inside another IP packet.in INDIA TR35 49 . “He is one of the primary contributors to the KARP working group where he has been innovating on solving some of the toughest problems of securing the routing protocols. Having spent a considerable amount of time studying and working in routing protocols. These extensions are now available in the market and are being deployed and used by the service providers and enterprises. head of Alcatel-Lucent R&D Center in Bangalore. Bhatia’s innovation of introducing a Key ID in IS-IS helps the operators in maintaining key-agility so that an attacker cannot discover the key. These standards are called Requests for Comments (RFCs). and researchers responsible for producing technical speciﬁcations for the evolution of the Internet architecture and smooth operation of the Internet.” says Srini Sundarajan. Bhatia has worked on various such standards for authentication and security of data.technologyreview.INDIA 35 INTERNET & WEB Manav Bhatia. so that data transfers happen seamlessly over the Internet. The challenge is to change the security keys without affecting the routing session so that it doesn’t bounce.
Magik heats the gutta percha at 60 to 70 degrees Celsius to transform it from beta phase to alpha phase so that it ﬂows smoothly.25 lakh. 21 Innovative root canal machine MGV Dental College. As compared to similar machines in market which cost between `1Ω1. requires no special training and is easy enough to be operated by any dentist. The Magik also provides sonic vibrations that allow the formation of a homogenous mass of gutta percha devoid of any air spaces.” says Jain. It decreases the time of treatment by ten-fold. “Ide- ally the root canal ﬁlling should seal all portals of exit to impede any sort of communication or exchange between the endodontium (dental pulp) and periodontium (tissues that both surround and support the teeth). placing the gutta percha cones into the canal and compressing it tightly) for root canal obturation. The dental gutta percha is present in beta form. called Magik. A root canal obturating machine is used for ﬁlling the root canal of a tooth after the removal of the infected tooth pulp. discovered that though various studies mention that a proper root canal ﬁlling should achieve three-dimensional obturation of the root canal space to prevent micro organisms from entering and reinfecting the root canal system. The ﬁlling process consists of multiple steps: An access opening is made depending on the area affected. BIOTE CHNO L O GY & MED ICINE Sameer Jain. Jain has developed a prototype of the tool and he is now looking for a funding from a renowned dental company. There are often chances of air gaps and voids being present in cases of curved canals since the gutta percha is just mechanically compacted rather than allowed to ﬂow to achieve sealing. Nashik S ameer Jain has designed and developed a root canal obturating machine.” explains Jain. which is a small thread like tissue in the center of the tooth. If the tooth is not sealed properly the root canal may leak and lead to failure of treatment. tapered. Pune-born Jain. the Magik was developed under `1. conventionally. which could make a root canal treatment failure proof. The cold lateral compaction technique is far less reliable in preventing re-infection thus invariably leading to root canal failure. Nashik. The vibratory strokes also enable the gutta percha to adhere better to the canal walls achieving better coronal seal and lateral seal. and particularly in India. a final year student of Dentistry at Mahatma Gandhi Vidyamandir Dental College. dentists in India practice the cold lateral/vertical compaction technique (that is. the remaining space is cleaned (irrigated with antibacterial agent).INDIA 35 FAIL PROOF Magik’s three-dimensional tight seal in the root canal prevents re-infection of the canal. “Magik’s three-dimensional homogenous ﬂuid tight seal in the root canal prevents re-infection of the canal and fulﬁlls one of the main goals of endodontic treatment. and ﬁlled with a thin. and it guarantees prevention from re-infection with chances of the tooth lasting for more than 10 years. rubbery material called gutta percha coated with a sealing agent. 50 INDIA TR35 technology review | India Edition | A Cybermedia Publication March 2011 . the damaged. shaped (by ﬁling).000. diseased or dead pulp is removed. Jain’s invention has the potential to change the way root canal treatment is practiced across the globe. This ﬁnal step is called obturation which is the penultimate stage of a root canal treatment.
In the ﬁrst three months the project has demonstrated the ability to install smart grid infrastructure in Indian conditions using wireless standards. At Ecolibrium Soni has led the development of indigenous smart grid technologies. 27 Smart grid technology to optimize the use of electricity in India Ecolibrium Energy. and the real-time generation monitoring results have shown nearly 90 percent increase in power harnessed from the solar installations. The smart grid is essentially addition of communication and application layers on top of the existing power transmission layer. which increase the cost of each node. A humungous amount of electricity is wasted because of the lack of a feedback loop between suppliers and consumers. and real-time tracking of energy consumption and generation. Gujarat. Ecolibrium has reduced the cost of each node by developing Zigbee. Transmission losses amount to 1. Though smart grid technologies are available. The company offers solutions for S Zigbee Meter P Smart Meters Utility NOC – Ecolibrium Server Energy Storage Device Low cost proprietary Zigbee metering and communication devices Smart Routers Smart Meter Home Area Network SMART GRID Ecolibrium’s Zigbee helps in minimizing the wastage of electricity during transmission and distribution.technologyreview. automated metering which enables consumers to track generation of electricity from any distributed source in real-time. opines that achieving energy efficiency is more cost effective and environment-healthy than setting up new power plants to fulﬁl India’s power demands.INDIA 35 E NE RG Y Harit Soni. response. Harit Soni.5 percent of India’s gross domestic product. founder of Ecolibrium Energy. showcasing key concepts such as demand. theft detection. India has a power deﬁcit of 12 percent with almost 300 million people living without electricity. Soni has led the installation of a pilot smart grid in Gandhinagar. At present smart meters in India use GSM and GPRS based data acquisition systems. Ahmedabad upported by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy of the Government of India. as each node requires a SIM card and GSM network access. The pilot was commissioned in October 2010. www. India needs a customized solution to address the transmission and distribution losses. which tracks real-time energy consumption and can also control the switch on/off function from an online portal or from a cell phone.in INDIA TR35 51 . the ability to perform automated and manual demand response during peak hours based on predeﬁned conditions. Ecolibrium is a smart-grid startup aimed at enabling consumers to manage power consumption in real-time. a free radio frequency network-based proprietary device.
And the SMSes are also sent again once the leakage stops. Gautam Kumar has developed a system that detects leakage of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and sends warning messages to people connected with the device over their cell phones.” recalls Kumar. The team at Roboticwares had initially developed a leakage sensor with a buzzer alarm. LPG blasts account for a signiﬁcant chunk of burn and fire incidents in India. It sounds an alarm and sends a short message (SMS) to inform the registered users about the impending danger so that they are warned against starting any kind of ﬁre or lighting a cigarette in the affected area. a few years back. The buzzer remains on until the amount of LPG in the air reduces to a safer level. The duo immediately felt the need of an alarm system which could warn people in time to save lives or even avoid such hazards before it is too late.INDIA 35 C O M P U T E R & E L E C T R O N I C S H A R D WA R E Social Innovator Gautam Kumar. The alarm was improvised into an SMS-based feedback system which was connected to the sensor to detect gas leakage and immediately send SMS alerts to all the phone numbers registered in the system. The buzzer or the SMS alerts. It also comes in separate variants for industrial and domestic use. Roboticwares is now looking upto the government for a subsidy to further lower the price for the common man. The industry-optimized Suraksha is capable of sustaining extreme temperature conditions—from a range of minus 70 degrees centigrade to plus 70 degrees centigrade—as well as large voltage ﬂuctuations. however. The device from Roboticwares is based on the olfactory kind of sensors which enables an intelligent machine to detect a certain type of smell and based on preset rules perform the actions which are programmed in it. are set off once the amount of LPG reaches greater than or equal to 1000 ppm. The device starts checking the amount of LPG in the air if it reaches greater than or equal to seven parts per million (ppm). warn people of gas leakage so that safety measures can be taken in time.000. New Delhi. The Suraksha device would cost a user approximately `3. Bhubaneshwar P assionate to innovate. He calls the device Suraksha which means “safety” in Hindi. 26 System to detect gas leakages RoboticWares. Yet there are hardly any devices developed to detect and automatically ACCIDENT PREVENTION The Suraksha system detects gas leakages and sends immediate warning SMS alerts as well as rings an alarm. Kumar along with his cofounder Kushal Nahata got the idea to develop the device when he read about a gas leakage accident in Bhubaneshwar in which a few people lost their lives. Kumar’s Suraksha can be conﬁgured to communicate with a maximum of ﬁve people by registering their cell phone numbers on the device. 52 INDIA TR35 technology review | India Edition | A Cybermedia Publication March 2011 . Then they realized that a buzzer alarm is of no use in an empty house. “The incident reminded of a similar but bigger accident that occurred near Kushal’s parents’ house in Chandni Chowk.000–`4.
common people are afraid of going to the police and rarely go to court to seek justice. and PhD in the same discipline from University of Michigan. It enables people to quickly determine the standing law of the land on any issue and empowers them to seek justice. The portal has been designed to provide the most relevant Indian laws and court judgments in response to a query. Presently the Indian Kanoon hosts over 1. In May 2007. he started developing the portal and ﬁnally launched it on 4 January 2008. I started the project as a way to enrich court judgments by linking them with laws and other refer- ences. The legal acts are large and in most scenarios only a few sections of laws are applicable. Madras.nic. Sinha is now working on integrating the online channel further with all state laws and with different rules formed by government agencies. Even though there are a number of government initiatives to present all laws at indiacode. Sinha felt the need to generate awareness of laws among the citizens of India.in.in and all court judgments at judis. a signiﬁcant fraction of the population is completely ignorant of their rights and privileges. The website has gained quick attention and is used by roughly half a million unique visitors and has more than two million page views every month. He currently works in the Document Processing Team at Yahoo! India. With dual degree in computer science and engineering from Indian Institute of Technology. Moreover. Sinha’s Indian Kanoon is a free search engine for Indian law that breaks law documents into smallest possible clauses and integrates law/statutes with court judgments. 30 A search engine for Indian laws and court judgments Indian Kanoon. This tight integration of court judgments with laws allows automatic determination of the most relevant clauses and court judgments in India. Bangalore S ushant Sinha has developed Indian Kanoon. it is quite difficult for the common man to easily ﬁnd the required information or even to decipher it. As a result. laws are often vague and to ﬁnd judgments that interpret certain law clauses is again very difficult. It is integrated with the Supreme Court of India. Indian Kanoon makes it simpler for people to access information on any law or judgment. 22 High Courts. People continue to live under the fear of unknown laws and a corrupt police. “Even when laws empower citizens in a large number of ways.nic. Finding most applicable sections from hundreds of pages of law documents is a daunting task for anyone except lawyers.2 million documents.INDIA 35 INTERNET & WEB Sushant Sinha. The linking turned out to be so useful that I started building a search engine for Indian law.” explains Sinha. a search engine of Indian law. 54 INDIA TR35 technology review | India Edition | A Cybermedia Publication March 2011 . and 17 Tribunals to provide a real-time fresh judgments to the users.
0 Device Capability FLEXIBLE PLATFORM Akshay Shah has developed the Agilewiz platform that can help businesses create applications quickly. Shah’s Agilewiz has a non-wired structure available in the public or private domain with a ﬂexible architecture and a built-in workﬂow. chat integration. Mumbai APPLICATIONS ERP & Other Business Applications E-Governance Solutions Large Project Applications DELIVERY METHOD On-Premise SaaS/Hosted hile working in Pune for enterprise resource planning software maintenance and support. The Agilewiz technology is based on the concept of platform-as-a-service which can build fully functional application modules by feeding appropriate metadata as input. depending on the requirement changes. meta data creation and maintenance. email creation. Shah says that the platform has been designed from ground up and is technology independent.0 Akshay Shah. www. without having to depend for maintenance and support by any professional group. hospital management. Conventional ERP platforms are unable to create quick. a short form of agile wizard. page layout. The Agilewiz has a business rules management system (BRMS) which ensures that implementers do not have to repeatedly rely on software principals for critical but necessary customizations of the product. “The RAD tool of the Agilewiz blends ISO.” says Shah. 29 A business process management generator which can create applications on the ﬂy iWeb Technology Solutions. and Six Sigma standards and makes programming redundant. personalization of pages (changing theme).0 Snapshot SOF TWARE FRAMEWORK Agilewiz 2. The platform exists in cloud-based as well as Web-based models and is now also avail- W BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE Agile Analytics Agilewiz 2. and compilation. He developed a software platform called AgileWiz. CMMi. or a payroll application can be developed quickly using Agilewiz. Agilewiz is patented with its unique feature that allows the user to customize an application.technologyreview. Any ERP. on-the-ﬂy applications because of their embedded older and rigid technologies which have hardcoded knowledge base.in INDIA TR35 55 . The ﬁrst phase included database selection and maintenance. Akshay Shah realized that the popular ERPs available in the market were very complex in nature. He felt the need to develop a software which could churn out on-demand and cost effective applications for business process management. e-Governance. Furthur enhancements to the platform have added its capability to create runtime functionalities based on various business rules.INDIA Agilewiz 2. able as software-as-a-service platform. The engine is currently under the beta test phase.
causing no emissions during the process. it can be washed off by a mildly alkaline aqueous wash solution. Thus. the composi- tion of the ink renders the whole printing ecosystem to produce no harmful emissions. Delhi. has formulated a biodegradable printing ink which is mainly composed of the resin. chief technology officer of Ennatura Technology Ventures. Since the resin is pH-sensitive. Singh is presently working on a bench scale production. 29 Ecofriendly printing ink that reduces harmful emissions by almost 99 percent EnNatura Technology Ventures.INDIA 35 NANOTE CHNO L O GY & MATERIALS Krishna Gopal Singh. The current ecofriendly solutions available in the global market are either expensive or do not produce the same quality output as the widely-available petroleum based inks. This typical characteristic of the ink changes the way it dries after printing. the color pigment. thus eliminating the need of using hydrocarbon based wash solutions like kerosene. thus removing VOCs from ink formulation T itself. reducing the overall cost considerably. The major source of pollution is the petroleum components in such inks which are released in the atmosphere as harmful emissions during the drying and the washing processes of printing. Since a simple alkali solution can be used to wash off the inks effectively. Singh and his team created a functional resin from renewable feedstock so that all the chemical reactions involved in the printing process don’t result in emission of volatile organic compounds. This particular kind of resin is pH-sensitive and the inks formulated with it print well with mildly acidic fountain solutions used in lithography printing. 56 INDIA TR35 technology review | India Edition | A Cybermedia Publication March 2011 . These emissions are huge contributors to global warming and are also detrimental to the health of millions of workers in the global print industry. ECOFRIENDLY The new offset printing ink produces zero emissions. The Ennatura inks contain non-edible vegetable oil as the drying oil.000 tons of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) annually into the atmosphere. Printers who are exposed to regular emissions are in danger of acquiring respiratory ailments such as tuberculosis and even cancer. the solvent which is used to dissolve the resin. causing photochemical smog formation and ozone depletion. and additives. Delhi he offset printing industry emits 500. Krishna Gopal Singh. the washing costs could be brought down by 85 to 90 percent.
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.INDIA 35 2011 India TR35 Judges Aloknath De Director and Country Manager. TCS Innovation Labs – Bangalore. Shah CEO and Founder. Durgapur I. Reliance Venture Asset Management Cofounder and Director. R&D. Vijaya Kumar Chief Technology Ofﬁcer. and Head. NXP Semiconductors Balamuralidhar P. International Institute of Information Technology . Sadagopan Director. Solar Semiconductor Shantikumar Nair Dean of Research. Tata Steel Gautam Biswas Director.in INDIA TR35 57 . ST-Ericsson India. Sagar Vipula and Mahesh Chaturvedi Professor of Policy Studies. Cadence Design Systems Shankar MV Innovation Differentiation Leader. Bangalore. Honeywell Technology Solutions Lab.Bangalore Wido Menhardt Chief Executive Ofﬁcer. Ahuja Corporate Vice President and Managing Director . Ghosh Director. Amrita Centre for Nanosciences. and Adjunct Professor. Philips Electronics India GBS Bindra Global Innovation Director and Managing Director. Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences Madhusudan V.India. Infosys Technologies Neeraj Paliwal Vice President and NXP India Country Manager. Hewlett-Packard Labs India Ferose VR Managing Director. Reliance Industries Subrahmanyam Goparaju Senior Vice President and Head. Atlas Advisory Yalla Veera Prakash Vice President . Google India Director.technologyreview. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Jaswinder S. Philips Innovation Center. SAP Labs India Sumitesh Das Pushpito K. Council of Scientiﬁc and Industrial Research Chief. Logica India Sameer Mehta Harshal J. Global Research Programs. Department of Humanities and Social Sciences. Head. Council of Scientiﬁc and Industrial Research. Reliance Innovation Leadership Centre. Honeywell India Ambuj D.R&D Acme Telepower www. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi JN Roy Vice President. Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute. Applied Materials India Aravind Chinchure General Manager – Innovations. Wipro S. Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute. Atre President and Managing Director. Tata Consultancy Services Sudhir Dixit Peeyush Ranjan Managing Director – R&D. Software Engineering Technology Labs.
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