Core Network Planning

Planning the UMTS core network consist of GSN (GPRS Service Node) system design, MSC and registers dimensioning, OMC dimensioning, Core network interface dimensioning. The Core Network has several interfaces, which need to be configured and dimensioned. This dimensioning is out of the scope of this page, but these are the interfaces that need to be configured: Gn: Interface between SGSN and GGSN  Gi: Interface between GGSN and external packet data network Other interfaces are between MSCs, to PSTN, HLR, AUC, EIR, SMS, Billing Centre, Voice Mail, OMC, WAP & Multi Media Servers and other network elements. The main inputs to dimensioning of GSN system are similar to what is required in air interface design. Hardware configuration is vendor specific, but here is a general list of things that need to be considered when configuring GSN System:       Number of Subscribers Number of PDP Contexts Service Activation Rate Peak Traffic amount and overheads (bits/s or packets/s) Number of required links Number of RNC in served area

The Core Network hardware configuration is also vendor specific. Network vendors have very extensive documentation how to design all aspects of core network starting from the room environmental requirements up to the post integration system quality audit. Here is a general list of things that need to be considered when dimensioning MSCs:               Number of Subscribers Average call lengths Call mix Total CS traffic (Erlangs) System features Interconnection to other equipment MSC software features Required redundancies (e.g. 2N, N+1) Total traffic and signaling loads Iu-cs and other interface dimensioning Type of transmission interfaces Expansion possibilities MSC capacity and configuration options Most cost effective deployment method

Radio Access 6. Number of RNC in served area All other network equipment will be designed in a similar way. 2 and 3 RR specification . Terminals. 3G Systems 2. UMTS Architecture 4. User Equipment 1. Core Network 5. messaging. In 1998 Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed to continue the technical specification work. referred to as International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000). 3G Systems 3G Systems are intended to provide a global mobility with wide range of services including telephony. 3GPP Radio Access group is responsible of:  Radio Layer 1. Once the main components are designed. Internet and broadband data. In Europe European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) was responsible of UMTS standardisation process. UMTS Services 3. 3GPP has five main UMTS standardisation areas: Radio Access Network. July 2002) Table of Contents 1. paging. Services and System Aspects and GERAN. Core Network. the rest is easy! Other core network plans:          Numbering plan Traffic and interconnectivity routing plan Signalling network plan Synchronisation plan Expansion plan Logical and physical node dimentioning PS and CS network plan Network security plan Redundancy and QoS plan Overview of The Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (DRAFT. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) started the process of defining the standard for third generation systems.

 Definition of interworking functions between the core network and external networks.2025 and 2110 .  Core network aspects of the lu interface and Operation and Maintenance requirements 3GPP Terminal group is responsible of:       Service capability protocols Messaging Services end-to-end interworking USIM to Mobile Terminal interface Model/framework for terminal interfaces and services (application) execution Conformance test specifications of terminals. Iur and Iu Interfaces UTRAN Operation and Maintenance requirements BTS radio performance specification Conformance test specification for testing of radio aspects of base stations Specifications for radio performance aspects from the system point of view 3GPP Core Network group is responsible of:  Mobility management. In February 1992 World Radio Conference allocated frequencies for UMTS use. 2. UMTS History page has a list of all major 3G and UMTS milestones. See the UMTS Frequency page for more details. and maintenance of overall architecture. In 1999 ETSI Standardisation finished for UMTS Phase 1 (Release '99. All 3G standards are still under constant development.  Core network signalling between the core network nodes. including radio aspects 3GPP Services and System Aspects group is responsible of:  Definition of services and feature requirements. Most of the European countries and some countries round the world have already issued UMTS licenses either by beauty contest or auctions. evolution. Frequencies 1885 . fixed and cordless applications.  Charging and Accounting  Network Management and Security Aspects  Definition.     Iub. version 3) and next release is due December 2001. UMTS Services . Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP) was formed for technical development of cdma2000 technology which is a member of IMT-2000 family.2200 MHz were identified for IMT-2000 use.  Packet related issues. call connection control signalling between the user equipment and the core network.  Development of service capabilities and service architecture for cellular.

wherever the user may be located. UMTS Architecture A UMTS network consist of three interacting domains. SMS. 3. delay variation and bit error rate. UMTS also has improved network security and location based services. The UTRAN provides the air interface access method for User Equipment. The basic Core Network architecture for UMTS is based on GSM network with GPRS. routing and transit for user traffic. how UMTS network could be build. database access) Background class (email. UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) and User Equipment (UE). network gaming. Core Network (CN). It is possible to negotiate and renegotiate the characteristics of a bearer service at session or connection establishment and during ongoing session or connection. All equipment has to be modified for UMTS operation and services. which provide the capability for information transfer between access points. It is necessary for a network to know the approximate location in order to be able to page user equipment.UMTS offers teleservices (like speech or SMS) and bearer services. Core network also contains the databases and network management functions. video telephony. User Interface customisation and services in whatever network or terminal. Offered data rate targets are:  144 kbits/s satellite and rural outdoor  384 kbits/s urban outdoor  2048 kbits/s indoor and low range outdoor UMTS network services have different QoS classes for four types of traffic:     Conversational class (voice. UMTS system page has an example. Here is the list of system areas from largest to smallest. video on demand. webcast) Interactive class (web browsing. downloading) UMTS will also have a Virtual Home Environment (VHE). It is a concept for personal service environment portability across network boundaries and between terminals. Bearer services have different QoS parameters for maximum transfer delay. video gaming) Streaming class (multimedia.  UMTS systems (including satellite)  Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN)  MSC/VLR or SGSN . Personal service environment means that users are consistently presented with the same personalised features. Both connection oriented and connectionless services are offered for Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint communication. The main function of the core network is to provide switching. Base Station is referred as Node-B and control equipment for Node-B's is called Radio Network Controller (RNC).

Radio Access Wide band CDMA technology was selected to for UTRAN air interface. 5. ATM Adaptation Layer type 2 (AAL2) handles circuit switched connection and packet connection protocol AAL5 is designed for data delivery. MSC. like EIR. Gateway Location Register (GLR) may be used to optimise the subscriber handling between network boundaries. in addition to channelisation. Core Network The Core Network is divided in circuit switched and packet switched domains. The architecture of the Core Network may change when new services and features are introduced. Some network elements. VLR and SGSN can merge to become a UMTS MSC. Number Portability DataBase (NPDB) will be used to enable user to change the network while keeping their old phone number. Some of the circuit switched elements are Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC). The functions of Node-B are:       Air interface Transmission / Reception Modulation / Demodulation CDMA Physical Channel coding Micro Diversity Error Handing Closed loop power control The functions of RNC are: . Codes are used for synchronisation and scrambling. Packet switched elements are Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). WCDMA has two basic modes of operation: Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD). In UMTS. The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is defined for UMTS core transmission. UTRAN interfaces are shown on UMTS Network page. HLR. Visitor location register (VLR) and Gateway MSC.     Location Area Routing Area (PS domain) UTRAN Registration Area (PS domain) Cell Sub cell 4. UMTS WCDMA is a Direct Sequence CDMA system where user data is multiplied with quasi-random bits derived from WCDMA Spreading codes. VLR and AUC are shared by both domains.

and the MS is capable of simultaneously operating PS services and CS services.        International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) Packet Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (P-TMSI) Temporary Logical Link Identity (TLLI) Mobile station ISDN (MSISDN) International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI) International Mobile Station Equipment Identity and Software Number (IMEISV) UMTS mobile station can operate in one of three modes of operation:  PS/CS mode of operation: The MS is attached to both the PS domain and CS domain. However. this does not prevent CS-like services to be offered over the PS domain (like VoIP). UMTS IC card has same physical characteristics as GSM SIM card. It has several functions:        Support of one User Service Identity Module (USIM) application (optionally more that one) Support of one or more user profile on the USIM Update USIM specific information over the air Security functions User authentication Optional inclusion of payment methods Optional secure downloading of new applications .          Radio Resource Control Admission Control Channel Allocation Power Control Settings Handover Control Macro Diversity Ciphering Segmentation / Reassembly Broadcast Signalling Open Loop Power Control 6.  CS mode of operation: The MS is attached to the CS domain only and may only operate services of the CS domain.  PS mode of operation: The MS is attached to the PS domain only and may only operate services of the PS domain. User Equipment The UMTS standard does not restrict the functionality of the User Equipment in any way. Terminals work as an air interface counter part for Node-B and have many different types of identities. Most of these UMTS identity types are taken directly from GSM specifications.

The Internet has become an integral aspect of many people's lives. The UMTS packet core inherits many of the GPRS architectural decisions and features but moves all radio-related functionality into the access network. The bandwidth increase enables new IP services in addition to the "basic" ones GPRS can provide. The requirements can be categorized into the following primary drivers: • • • • Access to information and content on the Internet: As the Internet has grown. Global roaming: With the wide disparity in types of networks deployed globally. Multimedia services such as audio and video streaming. video telephony.UMTS Requirements and Features UMTS requirements are driven by market needs and anticipation of new services that make it possible to create a mobile information society. roaming across networks has become an issue. From the IP networking perspective. . wireless networks are set to follow suit. in addition to the radio access handover in place today. and hence a network that is essentially moving in the direction of being a packet based network is another trend. The achievable data rates with the new WCDMA interface can be as high as 2 Mbps in the hotspots (at pedestrian speeds) and up to 10 Mbps with HSDPA. in UMTS the network also authenticates toward the user. and business. their access speed. and access network coverage in the best possible way. The radio resource optimization is a complex issue. Since packet data access in 2G wireless networks is limited by slow speeds and inefficient spectral use. and clarify the functional split between the access and core networks. the networks will have to support quality of service (QoS). UMTS networks increase data rates in the radio interface. How the improvements are achieved—the radio protocols and so on—is irrelevant to IP. The 3G networks are feature rich. New services: UMTS networks are also intended to provide new types of services in addition to traditional voice. In order to support such real-time services. but with monetary transactions in UMTS the subscriber really wants to be sure whose network he or she is using. 3G networks are expected to alleviate this problem by addressing the shortcomings and thereby enabling the creation of the wireless Internet. entertainment. the high access data rate alone is a huge improvement over GPRS. roaming across heterogeneous access types becomes easier since the core and the protocols to access the network and services remain the same. With this. The WCDMA technology provides flexibility in radio resource allocation. realtime services like voice over IP (VoIP) and streaming video will be among the driving applications for UMTS. whose goal is to optimize the number of users. and integration of voice and data to provide a rich user experience are expected to be possible with these networks. so has the dependence of its users for information. Subscriber security improvement comes from the stronger cryptography and the two-way authentication UMTS deploys. Convergence of datacom and telecom: With wired networks moving in the direction of convergence. High-bit-rate users consume capacity and leave lower speeds for other users. UMTS requires that a common core network be able to support different types of access networks. improve subscriber security. With the basic GSM voice service the difference is not that significant. In GSM and GPRS only the subscriber authenticates himself or herself to the network. Core and service network access independence is clearly an essential enabling feature to make a session handover possible.

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