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INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1 ntroduction of Condenser:
The Work done in any heat engine is directly proportional to the temp. Range of the working fluid in the engine, OR For greater amount of expansion of working fluid, greater will be the work done. In case of steam engines, the lower limit of expansion (or exhaust) may be decreased below the atmospheric pressure. This is done by exhausting the steam into a closed vessel called condenser. In condenser exhaust steam is condensed & vacuum is maintained in it. Steam condenser is an appliance in which the steam exhausted from a steam engine is condensed. Condenser is installed such that the exhaust steam from a Steam Engine is delivered into it. In the condenser, the heat is removed from the exhausted steam in form of latent heat by means of cooling water which absorbs this latent heat. The exhaust steam after losing its latent heat changes its state into water, which is termed as Condensate and this process, is called as condensation. In effect a Condenser is a heat exchanger wherein the exhaust steam of a Steam Engine is condensed either in direct or indirect contact with cooling water through a heat transfer medium separating them. In short the purpose of the condenser in a vapor compression cycle is to accept the hot, highpressure gas from the compressor and cool it to remove first the superheat and then the latent heat, so that the refrigerant will condense back to a liquid. In addition, the liquid is usually slightly sub cooled. In nearly all cases, the cooling medium will be air or water.
1.2 Condenser in power plant:
• When the steam has completed its work in the turbine and before it can be returned to the boiler, it is necessary to change it back into water.
Figure 1.2.1: Inner view of steam condenser used in power plant • This is the duty the condenser must perform as efficiently as possible and, for this reason, it
is the largest and most important of the heat exchangers in a power station. The heat in the exhaust steam, which can no longer be converted into mechanical energy, must be transferred from the steam to the cooling water. • Steam condenser is a closed space into which steam exits the turbine and is forced to give up its latent heat of vaporization. It is a necessary component of a steam power plant because of two reasons. It converts dead steam into live feed water. It lowers the cost of supply of cleaning and treating of working fluid. It is far easier to pump a liquid than a steam. It increases the efficiency of the cycle by allowing the plant to operate on largest possible temperature difference between source and sink. • The steam’s latent heat of condensation is passed to the water flowing through the tubes of condenser. After steam condenses, the saturated water continues to transfer heat to cooling water as it falls to the bottom of the condenser called, hotwell.This is called sub cooling and certain amount is desirable. The difference between saturation temperature corresponding to condenser vacuum and temperature of condensate in hot well is called condensate depression.
Figure 1.2.2: Condenser after manufacturing
Fig 1.2.1 shows the Inner view of steam condenser used in power plant. It is shown the path of steam comes from the turbine & shown the process how the steam converts in to the water. Fig 1.2.2 shows Condenser after manufacturing. Fig 1.2.3 shows the line diagram of condenser.
Figure 1.2.3: Line diagram of condenser used in power plant
1.3 Functions of a Condenser:
By designing the turbine to exhaust into a condenser which maintains a pressure lower than atmospheric there are three important advantages to be gained. Saving in steam: o There is a big reduction in the amount of steam required to generate each unit of electricity by using a condenser. In a turbine without a condenser the lowest pressure to which the steam can be expanded is that of the atmosphere. It can be said that in this case the back pressure against which the steam is exhausted is atmospheric pressure.Atmospheric pressure is equivalent to the pressure which would support a column of mercury approximately 760 mm high. o If the last stages of the turbine were under vacuum, and the back pressure reduced by a condenser to 68 mbar, then the steam would be able to continue its expansion down to 68 mbar. During this expansion each pound of steam is capable of doing a great deal more work. For example, in a 62 bar turbine with a back pressure 51mbar, the steam does nearly 30% of its work as it expands below atmospheric pressure. Thus the use of a condenser brings considerable saving. Conservation of pure feed water: o Very large quantities of steam pass though a turbine, for example, a 660 MW machine on full load uses some 532 kg/sec. It would, of course, be not only very wasteful but almost impracticable to allow this vast amount of steam to be exhausted to atmosphere. By using a condenser the exhaust steam is converted back to hot water which is removed from the condenser for continuous use in the power station heat cycle. This water is known as condensate. It being free from impurities and non-condensable gases, does not produce
and must be made-up. some of the feed water in the boiler/turbine system is lost. steam soot blowing.4 About condensing plant: Figure1. the water flashes off to steam.3.. corrosive action and also it being hot (@ 40-50 C). where the air in contact with the water surface introduces oxygen into the RFW.1: Main elements of condensing unit 5 . o Make-up water is usually supplied from Reserve Feed Water (RFW) tanks. since oxygen causes corrosion of tubes and turbine internals. blowing down. o Recovery of the condensate to be fed to the boiler as a high quality feed water for reuse.4. o Reduce steam consumption for the same power output due to increased work done. Thus the overall efficiency of the plant is increased. where due to the very low pressure and corresponding low boiling point. o Economy in water softening plant as only make up water is to be treated instead of full feed water. of feed water entering to boiler. and dissolved oxygen separates off to be removed with other air and gases by the air-ejectors. 1.1 Based on above discussion here are the some advantages of condenser in power plant: o Improved work done & efficiency due to low pressure of condenser. 1. De aeration of make-up water: o Due to leakage. o Reduced thermal stresses due to high temp. Dissolved oxygen in feed water must be kept to the lowest practicable minimum. saves a considerable amount of fuel. o The most convenient method of removing oxygen form the make-up water is to admit this water to the condenser. etc.
2: Elements of a condensing plant Condensate Pump (extraction pump) to remove Condensate from the condenser. The main elements of a condenser are: Condenser where steam is condensed. supply of Circulating Cooling Water. which are essentially required for the proper functioning of a condensing plant. 1. Pump for circulating Cooling Water. 1.4. are known as elements of a condensing plant. Hot well in which the condensate is collected. Minimum steam condensed per M2 of surface area As the cooling water temperature entering the condenser increases vacuum decreases.2 Features of good condensing plant: The desirable features of a good condenser are: • • • • Minimum quantity of circulating cooling water. Air pump (or ejector) to remove air and non-condensing gases from the condenser Figure 1.1 Elements of a condensing plant: The auxiliaries.4. The following figure shows this: 6 . Minimum cooling surface area per kW capacity. Feed Pump for supplying feed water from De aerator to the boiler. Figure below shows Condensing plant lay-out.4. Minimum auxiliary power.
• • Evaporator load factor condenser load the provision of a separate oil cooler will reduce condenser load by the amount of heat lost to the oil and removed in the oil cooler. apart from comparatively small heat losses and gains through the circuit will be Heat taken in by evaporator heat of compression.3: Features of a good condenser Heat to be removed: • The heat to be removed in the condenser is shown in the p–h diagram and. • • This latter. Some manufacturers give ratings in terms of the evaporator load. where a high proportion of the compressor energy is taken away in the oil. This is of special note with oil-injected screw compressors. giving Evaporator load compressor input power condenser load. Condenser load is stated as the rate of heat rejection. • Here in the figure the condenser load p-h diagram is shown. and figures should be obtained from the compressor manufacturer for a particular application. This proportion varies with the exact method of oil cooling. again ignoring small heat gains and losses will be the power input to the compressor. together with a ‘de-rating’ factor. From the figure it is easily understand. which depends on the evaporating and condensing temperatures.4. Figure 1. 7 .
unless the unit is specifically designed to withstand this type of service. Be sure all condensate is drained from the steam units before admitting steam to avoid water hammer. The following procedure is generally applicable to all types of condensers: Start the moderate temperature fluid and operate vents to remove trapped air. Operate the vents. the system should be checked for correct piping and proper control and safety devices. Loss of capacity and increase of pressure drop will indicated the progress of fouling. stop the extreme temperature fluid first. Record operating pressures and temperature for future reference.5 Operation of condenser: Before starting up. When the exchanger has reached operating conditions.4. Gradually start the extreme temperature fluid. and then operate the vents. allowing the exchanger to adjust its temperature slowly. check all bolted connections for tightness. Figure 1.4: Condenser load p – h diagram 1. 8 . When shutting down. Avoid thermal shock due to rapidly altering the flow of either stream.
o Such dirt may be caught in a fine water filter. by a water hose. the apparatus will act as an air washer. the pump suction coming out well clear of the bottom. 1. Periodic maintenance of a condenser is limited to attention to the moving parts – fans. if fitted. External leaks can usually be seen or heard. once the end covers have been removed. its location and the type of exchanger. by the combination of a high-pressure air hose and a vacuum cleaner.6 Condenser maintenance: o As with any mechanical equipment. pumps – and cleaning of water filters. To locate leaks. o It will be appreciated that. Where plant security is vital. removing much of the dust from the air passing through it. since there will then be less chance of routine maintenance being carried out. the tube side of exchangers can be cleaned mechanically. o Where heavy contamination is expected. where air and water are present. and tanks 3 m deep are in use. Each cleaning job must be considered individually with the help of cleaning tool manufactures and chemical cleaning contractors. motors. but is more commonly allowed to settle into the bottom of the tank and must be flushed out once or twice a year. which may be cleaned alternately. condensers should never be located where they are difficult of access. o Air-cooled surfaces may be cleaned by brushing off the accumulation of dust and fluff where the air enters the coil. depending on the severity of local contamination. Internal leaks will be indicated by contamination of the low pressure stream. or. o Scale within the tubes of a straight double pipe or shell-and-tube condenser can be mechanically removed with suitable wire brushes or high-pressure water lances. belts. o Generally. Tubes which cannot be dealt with in this way must be chemically cleaned. 1. the tank is divided into two parts.7 Repairs of condenser: Cleaning: o The method of cleaning will be indicated by the composition of the dirt or scale. as in a water cooling tower or evaporative condenser. except for u-tubes where the small radius inside bends is usually not cleanable. o The overall performance will be monitored from the plant running log and the heat exchange surfaces must be kept clean for maximum efficiency – meaning the lowest head pressure and lowest power. with the obvious precautions. follow the procedure for testing a repaired exchanger. Removable bundles with tubes 9 . it is good practice to provide a deeper tank than usual.
If the maintenance department is not experienced in tube rolling. better tooling will probably be justified and may be necessary. it will probably be more satisfactory to return the bundle to the manufacturer for repairs. o Loosen one end of the tube with a knock-out tool. o On single tube sheet exchangers. o Face off the tube ends flush with the tube sheet with a cut-off tool. Lubricate the roller well and keep it clean. Removable bundles with triangular pitch can sometimes be cleaned by jetting but generally these and non-removable bundles must be cleaned chemically on the shell side. Sharp. o For larger units and stronger materials. on square pitch can be cleaned mechanically on the shell side. The following procedure is generally acceptable for average exchangers of ordinary materials. When using a pry. o Large bundles may be pulled with a chain fall. and then drive the tube out from the other end. Never use cleaning solutions containing hydrochloric acid on galvanized exchangers. follow the recommendations of the tool manufacture. the bundle may be pried out using a strong-back making sure that the strong back includes enough tube sheet bolt holes to prevent bending of the tube sheet. o Remove channels or cast iron heads. it may prove more practical to plug defective tubes than to replace them. The rolling is a skilled job and must be done carefully. hard cleaning tools should be avoided. be sure internal pressure is relieved. o Insert the new tube so that it projects 1 / 16 inch beyond the face of the tube sheet and roll. o Use wide slings or cradles when handling the bundle to prevent damage to individual tubes. Do not over expand the tubes. Some judgment is required here and several tries may be necessary before the tube can be driven out. Chemical cleaning solutions must be used with care and completely flushed out to avoid corrosion damage. Small bundles can usually be pulled out manually after starting with jackscrews or a pry. In these cases. Tube Bundle Removal: o Before attempting to dismantle a heat exchanger. o Mechanical cleaning tools must be applied carefully to avoid cutting or otherwise damaging the tubes. Tube Replacement: o Where a small portion of the bundle is concerned. o Clean the hole of all tube material and dirt. Remote valves should be locked closed. If an inner tube of a U-tube bundle is to be removed it will be necessary to remove some outer tubes to gain access to the faulty one. 10 . be careful not to damage gasket faces.
Routine Inspection: Exchangers should be painted and inspected periodically for corrosion. o To test tube joints. 1. o Be careful to protect instruments and fixtures which are not designed for the test pressure.8 Condenser fittings: o The inlet pipe bringing high-pressure gas from the compressor must enter at the top of the condenser. after the exchanger has reached operating temperature. o Replace the channels and pressurize both shell and tube side to test flange joints. Bolted Joints: Heat exchangers are pressure tested before leaving the manufacturer's shop in accordance with ASME Code requirements. Do not pressurize an exchanger with gas until it has been tested up to the gas pressure with a liquid. Therefore. alternating between diametrically opposed bolts to keep flange faces parallel. and the liquid outlet will be above this. all external bolted joints may require retightening after installation and. Heat exchangers are usually tested for tightness with water. fill and pressurize the shell side with the channels removed to expose the tube ends. Do not over-roll. Do not overstress bolts or flanges. o When replacing bolts. Leaking tube joints can be rolled lightly. and adjacent piping should slope in the direction of flow so that oil droplets and any liquid refrigerant which may form will continue in the right direction and not back to the compressor. However. but may have a short internal up stand so that any dirt such as pipe scale or metal swarf will be trapped and not taken around the circuit. Reassembly and Testing: o Clean all gasket faces and use new gaskets of the same material. nor cold fluid suddenly introduced when the unit is hot. be sure to use the same alloy and grade as originally supplied. Hot fluid must not be suddenly introduced when the unit is cold. Have the shell side pressure held at the test pressure stamped for tubes and hold for several minutes. Check for corrosion. thickness and dimensions as originally supplied. particularly around connections and under insulation. Temperature Shocks: Exchangers normally should not be subjected to abrupt temperature fluctuations. Do not exceed the test pressure stamped on the nameplate of the exchanger. Condensers for ammonia systems may have an oil trap. o The outlet pipe must always be from the lowest point. usually in the form of a drain pot. 11 . Pull up bolts only enough to produce a tight seal. normal relaxing of the gasketed joints may occur in the interval between testing in the manufacturer's shop and installation at the jobsite. if necessary.
and has been used to identify deficiencies in condenser design and problems with condenser operations and maintenance. ► Some of them are given below. With this information and other plant measurable. Intek developed a Comprehensive Condenser Model and Theory (CCMT) based on physical principles. which has been made possible with the RheoVac instrument. o Water connections to a shell-and-tube condenser must always be arranged so that the end covers can easily be removed for inspection. Manufacturers will be aware of these requirements. The RheoVac instrument measures the mixture of water vapor and no condensable gases in the vent line.1: Different parts of condenser Since 1994.9 Common Condenser Problems: Figure 1. and supports above the lifting points should be provided on installation to facilitate this work. o Condensers contain pressurized refrigerant and where they exceed certain volumes they will be subject to the requirements of the Pressure Vessel Directive (PED) and EN378. • • High Condenser Pressure Corrosion 12 .9. 1. and repair of the tubes. cleaning. and proprietary products will be correctly equipped. The CCMT has been validated under a variety of different operating conditions. o Heavy end covers require the use of lifting tackle. Intek has established itself as a leader in solving condenser related problems and improving condenser performance. Intek has been the leading source of new information on condenser dynamics.
) Low Cleanliness Factor Low Heat Transfer Coefficient Air In-Leakage Tube Fouling Low Pump/Exhaust Capacity Other Efficiency/Maintenance/Design/Operations Concerns High Condenser Pressure: 1. Ammonia. Corrosion leads to forced outages and increased maintenance costs. even a small excess back pressure will have a dramatic impact.1 High condenser back pressure is the most obvious plant measurable that results in lost revenue or excess operating costs. Carbon Dioxide. on a base loaded plant condenser. Low Cleanliness Factor/Low Heat Transfer Coefficient: Cleanliness Factor (CF) is calculated by measuring the actual heat transfer coefficient as a percent of the associated HEI specified design heat transfer coefficient. back pressure is directly related to the power output from the turbines and excess back pressure means reduced efficiency and dollars wasted. are major causes for a number of plant related problems such as excess back pressure. etc.17% in heat rate. These results are based on a PEPSE analysis of a 525MW generating unit which shows that each 0. thus.68MW of power and nearly $770. this is not always the case. correlates to a loss of 2. A common misconception is that high DO is concurrent with high air in-leak. Air in the steam path. Simply. Low CF measurement could be the result of one or many problems occurring in a plant.9.000/year lost revenue. and indicates a lower than desired power generation efficiency. In summary. dollars wasted. Quantifying this air in-leakage is essential for maintaining plant operations. How excess back pressure affects the bottom line: Revenue and profit loss can be significant.1”HgA rise in back pressure results in an increase of 0. • • • • • • • Dissolved Gases (Oxygen. and low cleanliness factor. 13 . dissolved oxygen.3” HgA of excess back pressure. High DO and condensate ammonia concurrent with low air in-leakage is an indication that the condenser configuration may be inadequate. Corrosion/Dissolved Gases: Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and other gases are a major cause of corrosion in the steam cycle. corrosion. along with deficiencies in condenser configuration. As shown in the charts below. a 0. Air In-Leakage: Multiple pathways for air to leak into the steam path are inherent to the sub-atmospheric side of steam turbine power plants.
1. Fouling can occur by a number of mechanisms operating either alone or in combination. When such information is not available. These include: 14 . The values given below in Table are representative of the data available in the public domain.2 Tube Fouling: Tube fouling occurs when biologic growth or material deposits obstruct the cooling circulating water flow through condenser tubes. which is available in Refs. RheoVac instruments provide plant operators with other essential data to respond to common plant maintenance issues.9.9. because it is the only instrument that is based on the direct measurement of vent line gas parameters to accurately calculate air in-leakage. and tube fouling. The most comprehensive tabulation of fouling factors is the one developed by TEMA. Figure1. other problems such as poor condenser configuration can lead to false presumption of tube fouling. vacuum quality. Without direct measurement of individual tube flow rates. It should be realized that there are very significant uncertainties associated with all such data. Intek offers instrumentation for monitoring individual tube fouling. recourse may be had to publish data. Tube fouling manifests itself in many plant measurable. Additionally. Fouling is a complex process that can be influenced by many variables that are not specifically accounted for in these tabulations. RheoVac instruments are the solution to measuring air in-leakage.2: Performance Loss Due to Scaling & Fouling Fouling factors are best determined from experience with similar units in the same or similar service. real-time verification of leak repairs. The RheoVac instrument succeeds where all other air flow monitors fail. however. such as monitoring exhaust pump capacity.
The concentration of un dissolved gases is high over air zone tubes. Since the solubility of these salts decreases with increasing temperature. River water with pollutants also is not desirable for condenser cooling water. Decomposition Some organic compounds may decompose when they are heated or come in contact with hot surface. Crystallization Crystallization typically occurs with cooling water streams containing dissolved sulfates and carbonates. forming carbonaceous deposits such as coke and tar. ► Why does corrosion occur? o The tubes. Sometimes these tubes are affected by stress corrosion cracking. 1. This will give rise to electrolytic corrosion which will start from more anodic materials first. they tend to precipitate on heat-transfer surfaces when the water is heated. The other parts of water boxes may also get affected in the long run requiring repairs or replacements involving long duration shut downs. This type of fouling can be minimized by restricting the outlet water temperature to a maximum of 110-125F. The condenser tubes being the lowest in series of anodic materials will be the first to be effected. This makes the condenser tube ends to get eaten away first. The circulating water.3 Corrosion: Corrosion products such as rust can gradually build up on tube walls. o To overcome these effects of corrosion some manufacturers provide higher corrosive resistant tubes in this area. the tube sheets and the water boxes are all made up of materials having different compositions. This type of fouling can be minimized or eliminated by the proper choice of corrosion-resistant materials of construction in the design process. o Sea water based condensers. has the worst corrosion characteristics. These materials are always in contact with circulating water. depending on its chemical composition will act as an electrolyte between the tubes and water boxes. which is harmful to steam generators. the corrosive effect of sea water or river water has to be tolerated and remedial methods have to be adopted in practice. resulting in reduced heat transmission and eventual tube failure. in particular when sea water has added chemicals pollutants.9. In cracking furnaces. Therefore these tubes are exposed to higher corrosion rates. forming scale. o However due to large quantity of water flow requirement for large condensers. if originally stress is not fully relieved during manufacture. partial 15 . ► Effects of corrosion on condenser • As the tube ends get corroded there is the possibility of cooling water leakage to the steam side contaminating the condensed steam or condensate.
Metabolic products of these organisms can also cause corrosion of metal surfaces. 1. However. values in the range 0. forming slimes that are very poor heat conductors.003 h*ft²*f/BTU are appropriate for the majority of cases.0005 h*ft²*f/BTU.01 h*ft²*f/BTU. whereas very dirty streams require values of 0. Or less are appropriate.001. The resulting reaction products can form a very tough plastic-like layer that can be extremely difficult to remove from heat-transfer surfaces.0.9.9. values of 0.005-0. Figure 1. Fouling occurs 16 . Sedimentation Sedimentation fouling results from the deposition of suspended solids entrained in many process streams such as cooling water and flue gases.3: The fouling effects A heat exchanger in a steam power station contaminated with macro fouling. Biocides and copper-nickel alloy tubing can be used to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms and mitigate this type of fouling.4 o Biological activity: Biological fouling is most commonly caused by micro-organisms. Polymerization Polymerization reactions can be initiated when certain unsaturated organic compounds are heated or come in contact with a hot metal tube wall. For very clean streams. although macroscopic marine organisms can sometimes cause problems as well. Cooling water and some other process streams may contain algae or bacteria that can attach and grow on heat-transfer surfaces. o It can be seen from above Table that the range of values of fouling factors spans more than an order of magnitude. decomposition of the hydrocarbon feedstock is the objective and coke formation is an undesired but unavoidable result. High fluid velocities tend to minimize the accumulation of deposits on heat-transfer surfaces.
Sub cooling of condensate is undesirable on two accounts It lowers the thermodynamic efficiency of the power cycle. high dissolved oxygen. 17 . Variation of Steam Partial Pressure & Saturation Temperature Figure 1. and low cleanliness factor. and the impurities in the fluid precipitate onto the surface of the tubes.4: Variation of Steam Partial Pressure & Saturation Temperature Condensate Depression • • • The temperature of condensate is always a few degrees lower than the coincident condensing steam temperature. Intec’s success is based on a fundamental understanding of physics and engineering backed by a team of knowledgeable and experienced science and engineering professionals.9. when a fluid goes through the heat exchanger. RheoVac instruments provide an accurate and real time measurement of pump capacity. Intek has solved flow and engineering problems for many customers. Insufficient air removal can lead to increased back pressure. Other Efficiency/Maintenance/Design Concerns For decades. Low Pump/Exhaust Capacity Exhaust pump capacity must be maintained to ensure proper air removal from the condenser.
9.5: Power Loss Due to Excess Back Pressure 18 . • It enhances the propensity of the condensate to reabsorb non-condensable. Power Loss Due to Excess Back Pressure: Figure 1.
SURFACE CONDENSER HISTORY 19 .
we can use steam ejector. 2. The surface condensers may be classified according to • • No. in surface condenser. If we think thermodynamically. Central flow surface condensers. Direction of condensate flow and tube and tube arrangement. The surface condenser requires three (or two) pumps -. where the cooling water and steam directly meet and come out as a single stream. It is shell and tube type heat exchanger. the latent heat of exhaust steam is being removed there by converting it into hot condensate. The heat released upon condensation is transferred to circulating cooling water through the walls of the tube. It is generally used where large quantity of inferior quality water is available & condensate formed from exhaust steam is to be recalculated to be used in boiler. Regenerative surface condensers. o They are classified in to three categories. Surface condenser is a shell & tubes type of heat exchanger where normally cooling water is on the tube side & exhaust steam is on the shell side. 20 . Down flow surface condensers.2 Surface condensers: It is also known as Non-mixing type of condenser as in this type of condenser the exhaust steam and the cooling water do not come in direct contact with each other. This results in considerable saving in make-up water to boiler. condensers are classified in to two categories. of water passes: single or multi pass. ► Direct contact type.one for circulating cooling water one for extracting the condenser & the third one is for removing air from condenser. o They are classified in to five categories. Inverted type surface condensers. Evaporative condensers Our main intension is to design the surface condenser so directly we go to the surface condenser description. In case of third pump. 2.1 Classification of condenser: Broadly. Spray condenser Barometric condenser Jet condenser ► Surface condensers (indirect contact type) where there is no mixing of cooling water and steam.
After having condensed on the surface of the water tubes. steam is converted into condensate which is discharged from the condenser bottom. quantity of water & surface are condenser causing the heat flow required are large for calculation purpose.1: down flow type surface condenser. In modern condensers.2. this also helps for de aeration of condensate before use in boiler. The rise in temperature of the cooling water passing through the condenser is maximum 10 degree C therefore. A good surface condenser should have a low-pressure drop. Heat given away by steam = Heat gain by cooling water Following are description for the types of surface condensers: 2. maximum effective surface arrangement and should be economical in first cost.2 Central flow type surface condenser: It is also a shell-and-tube type cross flow heat exchanger. Figure 2.2. In all surface condensers the cooling water is passed through the tubes & steam surrounds the tube. at the centre of which is located the suction of an air extraction pump so that the entire steam moves radially inward and 21 . Cooling water flows through the tubes and extracts heat from the steam which is on the shell-side. we can write. the volume occupied by these tubes in the condenser shell is hardly 10% of the total shell volume due to very large volume of exhaust steam. a steam bypass line is provided along the side of the shell to pass steam to the hot well for reheating the condensate.1 Down flow type: Exhaust steam is admitted to the top of the condenser which is tube-and-shell type cross flow heat exchanger. 2.2.
2. 22 . maintaining a steady upward current of steam which after having been condensed on the outer surface of the water tubes is removed by the condensate extraction pump.2. 2.2.3: Evaporative condenser by drawing enthalpy from the steam which upon losing its latent heat condenses and discharges out as condensate. The air extraction pump draws its suction from the top of the condenser.2: Central flow type surface condenser comes in better contact with the outer surface of the best of tubes through which the cooling water flows.4 Evaporative condenser: Exhaust steam is condensed inside the finned tubes as cooling water rains down from the to through the nozzles. Figure 2.2. 2. The steam condensate is extracted from the bottom by the condensate-extraction pump. Apart of the cooling water in contact with the tube surface evaporates Figure 2.3 Inverted type surface condenser: Steam is admitted at the bottom and flows upward in cross-flow with the cooling water flowing in the tubes.
DESIGN CONCEPT 23 .
The method is based on the usual heat transfer equation for the heat exchanger as given below- Q = U o Ao ∆Tm Where. • The circulating water side heat transfer co efficient depends upon its velocity. ∆Ti =difference between saturation stem temperature & inlet circulating water ( oC ) ∆Te = difference between saturation stem temperature & outlet circulating water ( oC ) 24 . When the condenser is new. the heat transfer mechanism and co efficient in various parts of condenser. They required the knowledge of the total heat load on the condenser. 3. the outside surfaces are usually clean but quickly developed an oily film that changes condensation from drop wise to film wise condensation. Where. and the existence of superheat steam if any. Thus the shell side heat transfer co efficient is conservatively based on the lower film wise condensation mechanism. Q = heat load on condenser (W) Uo = over all condenser heat transfer co efficient based on outside tube area ( W Ao = total outside tube surface area ( m 2 ) ∆Tm = log mean temperature difference in condenser ( oC ) m2 K ) ∆Tm is expressed by below given equation. manufacturers have usually based their design in general proposed by the Heat Exchanger Institutes Standards for Steam Surface Condenser. Owing to the large number of variables with many uncertainties. the extant of non condensable.1 Design aspects of surface condenser: • The calculation of heat transfer for determining the tubes and total surface area required by a surface condenser are rather complex. temperature and cleanliness of the inside surface. • The shell side heat transfer co efficient depends upon the difference between the steam saturation temperature and tube well temperature. the relative position of the tubes steam velocity and turbulence. ∆Te is define below. ∆Tm = ∆Ti − ∆Te ⎛ ∆T ⎞ ln ⎜ i ⎟ ⎝ ∆Te ⎠ ∆Ti .
Cw = circulating cold water velocity in tubes inlet ( m ) s C1 = dimensionless factor depending upon the tube outer diameter C 2 = dimensionless correction factor for circulating water inlet temperature C3 = dimensionless correction factor for tube material and gauge C 4 = values of these factors are given in table Figure 3.1.1 Heat Exchanger Institutes (HEI) method: The overall heat transfer co efficient ( Uo ) is expressed empirically by U o = C1C2C3C4 Cw Where. 3.1: Temperature distribution in a condenser 25 .1.
66 32.98 0.94 0.04 1.55 21. ⎡ k 3 ρ 2 gh fg ⎤ 4 f f = ho = 0.22 10 12.725 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ N µ f d oθ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 N =no of horizontal tubes in vertical tier θ = Tsat − Twall h fg = latent heat of condensation of steam µ f = viscosity of condensate (fluid) 26 .96 0. the usual head transfer equations are used to calculate Uo .44 7.54 0.70-30 - Aluminum brass. Aluminum muntz metal bronze 90-10 Cu-Ni Cu-Ni C3 C3 C3 C4 0.22 37.2 Conventional method: In conventional method.85 1..89 0.00 1.91 0.83 0. Table 3.7 .4 Cw Water temperature ( oC ) 2777 2705 2582 1.77 15.92 1.80 0.66 4.58 0. less for algae covered or sludge tubes 3.1.1: Standard factors ( C1C2C3C4 ) values Tube outer 19 diameter (mm) 22 25 .64 0.11 26.- C2 Tube material 0.79 0. ( hav )ss Where.96 0.90 0.56 0.57 0.10 .87 0.76 - for clean tubes.86 304 Stainless steel Admiralty arsenic copper 0.08 1.72 0.. For film wise condensation the average heat transfer coefficient on steam side for a horizontal tube is given by Nusselt.00 0.
023Re0. vapor velocity. turbulence and the inside released gases and air leaked. ρ f = density of condensate (fluid) k f = thermal conductivity of condensate (fluid) do = outside tube diameter It should be noted that Nusselt’s equation for ho gives a conservative value for the condensing film coefficient for heat transfer.8 Pr 0.4 k Re =Reynolds number due to flow of circulating water through tubes = Cd i µ Pr = Prandtle number = Cpµ k The overall heat transfer co efficient for a condenser is given by x 1 1 1 1 = + + wall + U o Ao hi Ai hscale Ai kwall Aim ho Ao Where. hi di = 0. hscale = heat transfer co efficient of scale formed kwall = thermal conductivity of wall Aim = mean inside area including scale formed xscale = wall thickness For simplicity. 1 1 1 1 = + + U o hi hscale ho 27 . The inside heat transfer co efficient on the water side is given by Mc Adams equation Nu = Where. Hence. However this value also be influenced by many factors such as super heat. the tube wall resistance due to thin tube and good thermal conductivity may be neglected.
A= 1 1 1 B= + & k f ρr0. In practice. the under cooling of the condensate (Tsatu − Tcondensate ) is around 4 oC o Now the mass flow rate of coolant. water ( mc ) is given by mc = o ms ( hsteam − hcondensate ) c pc Tc −Tc 2 28 o ( 1 ) The outside surface area Ao is thus calculated from above equations . ∆T c i is around 11 to 17 o C and ∆Te =TTD should not be less than 3 C .8 hiα Cw hi and U o mainly depends on water velocity as 1 1 = A + B 0.023 0. It is to be noted that ho is much larger then 0. i. due to losses in condenser.2 0. o ( ) ms = mass flow rate of steam entering to condenser o mc = mass flow rate of coolant Tc1 & Tc2 = inlet and outlet temperature Generally Tc2 − Tc1 o ( ) is around10 C .e.8 Uo Cw Where.8 di v f o The rate of heat transfer from the condensing vapor to the cooling water is expressed as Q = m ( hsteam − hcondensate ) s o = m C pc Tc2 − Tc1 c = U o Ao ∆Tm Where.4 ho hscale 0.
8 to 2. capacity. the length and number of tubes can be calculated from above equations. s + m air • • pc = psteam + pair pc ≈ psteam Tsat Figure 3.2: Variation of Steam-air Mixture Parameters 29 . The ratio of the quantity of gas that enters the condenser to the quantity of steam is called the • • ∆P = ρ gH relative air content.1. ρw = density of water ( 103 Kg m3 ) Cw = velocity of water which varies from 1. the number of tubes may be high as 50000 or even more. In the case of large power plant. load and design dimensions of the condenser plant. Ao = ms ( h o steam − hcondensate ) U o ∆Tm nπ d ol ⎛ nπ 2 ⎞ mc = ⎜ d i ⎟ ρ wC w ⎝ 4 ⎠ Where. Generally tube length and diameter are selected so the estimation is made for number of tubes.5 m s Therefore. Variation of Steam-air Mixture Parameters: mc . s • The value of e depends on type. The pressure drop in terms of head is Thermal Processes Occurring in Condensers • • • The condenser never receives pure seam from the turbine. ε= m air mc . A mixture of steam and non-condensable gases (Air-steam mixture) enters the condenser.The pressure drop in the condenser is composed of the pressure drop in the water box and the friction pressure drop in the tubes.
∆pc = pc − pce • • • • The partial pressure of air at the bottom of the condenser cannot be neglected. • Using Dalon’s Law: pc = ps + pa • Gas laws: pa v a = m a RaTa & ps v s = m s RsTs • Volumes and temperatures are same: • pa ⎛ Ra ⎞ ⎛ m a = ⎜ ⎟×⎜ • ps ⎝ Rs ⎠ ⎜ m ⎝ s • • • • ⎞ ⎟ = 0.622ε ⎟ ⎠ ps = pc 1 + 0. This is due to increase in relative content of air in the mixture. 30 . The pressure drop from inlet to exit of condenser is called steam exhaust resistance of a condenser. Accordingly. As air-steam mixture moves in the condenser. The temperature of steam is a function of condenser pressure. The pressure in the bottom portion of condenser is lower than that of the top portion. steam is condensed and the relative content of air increases. The pressure also decreases due to resistance to flow of steam.622ε • • • • • At the entry to condenser the relative content of air is very low and partial pressure of steam is almost equal to condenser pressure. the partial pressure of steam drops down.
in & mcwc p .3: Variation of Steam-air Mixture Parameters Cooling Water Outlet Temperature Calculation: The outlet temperature for the fluid flowing through the tube is Tcw.1. Ltube Γ= Recondensation = 4Γ • • µ film Flow is considered laminar if this Reynolds number is less than 1800. π d0 & m Γ = condensate for horizontal tubes.out = & msteam ( ∆h ) + Tcw. pc ≈ psteam Tsat ε ε ' Tc pse Ts p e a Tc = Tse Figure 3. The driving force for condensation is the temperature difference between the cold wall surface and the bulk temperature of the saturated vapor ∆Tdriving = Tsat − Twall ≈ Tvapour − Tsurface 31 .cw The surface area of the heat exchanger for the fouled condition is: Condensate Loading & & Qtransfer = AsurfaceU f F [ LMTD ] = m∆h This can be used to calculate a Reynolds number Mass flor of condensate Perimeter & m Γ = condensate for vertical tubes.
etc. the recommended correlation is: ⎧ k 3 ρ f ( ρ f − ρv ) g ⎫ 3 ⎪ f ⎪ hcond ⎨ ⎬ 2 µf ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ • Since the vapor density is usually much smaller than that of the condensate film. • The viscosity and most other properties used in the condensing correlations are evaluated at the film temperature. The summarized procedure is: Assume a film temperature.2=1. If not equal. reevaluate the properties and repeat. density.925*1. a weighted mean of the cold surface (wall) temperature and the (hot) vapor saturation temperature T film = Tsat − Wall Temperatures • • 3∆T 3 (Tsaturation − Twall ) = Tsat − driving 4 4 It is often necessary to calculate the wall temperature by an iterative approach.47 = 3 Re condensation authors neglect it and use the film density squared in the denominator.) at this temperature Use the properties to calculate a condensing heat transfer coefficient (using the correlations to be presented) Calculate the wall temperature. so some authors advocate increasing the value of the coefficient by about 20%. Turbulent Flow outside Vertical Tubes: 32 . Another form of writing h is: hcond ⎧ k 3 ρ f ( ρ f − ρv ) g ⎫ ⎪ f ⎪ = 0. with a condensate loading such that the condensate Reynolds Number is less than 1800. • The presence of ripples (slight turbulence) improves heat transfer. T f Evaluate the fluid properties (viscosity.11).925 ⎨ ⎬ µfΓ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 1 3 This may also be compensated for rippling (0. some 1 1. Laminar Flow outside Vertical Tubes If condensation is occurring on the outside surface of vertical tubes. The relationship will typically be something like Twall ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ UA ⎪ = Tsat − ⎨ ⎬ (Tsat − Tcoolant ) ⎪ 1h A ⎪ ⎩ o o⎭ Use the wall temperature to calculate a film temperature Compare the calculated film temperature to that from the initial step.
there are two forms of the same relationship: hcond 1. When the condensate Reynolds Number is greater than 1800.0076 Re ⎨ ⎬ 2 µf ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 1 3 Laminar Flow outside Horizontal Tubes: • • When vapor condenses on the surface of horizontal tubes.725 ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ N µ f ∆Tdriving d 0 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 1 4 = htop 4 N Splashing of the falling fluid further reduces heat transfer. Condenser tubes are typically arranged in banks. the recommended correlation is: hcond ⎧ k 3 ρ f ( ρ f − ρv ) g ⎫ ⎪ 0. • • • • The rippling condition (add 20%) is suggested for condensate Reynolds Numbers greater than 40. so some authors recommend a different adjustment.4 ⎪ f = 0. Again. The flow path is too short for turbulence to develop. The bottom tubes in a stack thus have thicker liquid films and consequently poorer heat transfer.729. The correlation is adjusted by a factor for the number of tubes. hcond • ⎧ k 3 ρ f ( ρ f − ρ v ) gh fg ⎫ ⎪ f ⎪ = 0. the flow is almost always laminar.725 to⎭ 0. so that the condensate which falls off one tube will typically fall onto a tube below.51 = 3 Re condensation ⎧ k 3 ρ f ( ρ f − ρv ) g ⎫ ⎪ f ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ 2 µf ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 1 1 3 ⎧ k 3 ρ f ( ρ f − ρ v ) gh fg ⎫ 4 ⎪ f ⎪ hcond = 0.725 ⎨ ⎬ µ f ∆Tdriving d 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ • The constant in the second form varies from 0. becoming for the nth tube in the stack. ► Performance of Condensers:• • The following needs to be computed: Condenser heat load = Q x T x Cp 33 .
of tubes per pass − no. Table 3.860 x (Pgen + Pgen losses + heat loss due to radiation) • Condenser tube velocity (m/s) = *106 hr 3600 x tube area ( mm 2 ) * ( no.2: Parameter Details for Performance of Condensers Parameter Q T Cp Details Water flow rate Average CW temperature rise Specific heat Unit Kg/h o C o kcal/kg C • • • Calculated condenser vacuum =Atmospheric pressure – Condenser back-pressure Deviation in condenser vacuum =Expected condenser vacuum .25 f w =correction for water flow rate 34 . of tubes plugged per pass 3 Cooling water flow rate m ( ) ) Determination of actual LMTD LMTD = Tout − Tin T −T ln sat in Tsat − Tout LMTD expected = LMTD test x ft x fw x fq ft =Correction for cooling water inlet temperature ⎛ SaturationTemperature during test – LMTD during test ⎞ ft = ⎜ ⎟ SaturationTemperature design – LMTD design ⎝ ⎠ 0.Measured condenser vacuu Condenser TTD = Saturation temperature – Cooling water outlet temperature • • Condenser Effectiveness = Rise incooling water temperature Saturation temperature − Cooling water inlet temperature Condenser heat duty in kcal/h =Heat added by main steam + heat added by reheater + heat added by SH attemperation + heat added by RH attemperation + heat added by BFP .
50 f q =correction for cooling water heat load ⎛ Condenser designduty ⎞ fq = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ Condenser dutyduring test ⎠ • Observations during Condenser Energy Audit Tubes in operation Vs total installed. Cleaning system operation. Pressure drop on water side and choking. Modifications carried out in the recent past. 35 . temperatures. flow. Accurate metering of vacuum. Filtering system for cooling water. Comparison of LMTD. condenser vacuum. Cooling water flow. ⎛ Tube velocityduring test ⎞ fw = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ Tube velocitydesign ⎠ 0. with design / PG test. pressures.arriving the factors causing deviation. heat load. Affect of present performance of cooling tower. Absolute back pressure deviation from expected value. Regular monitoring system for performance. TTD.
PROBLEM FORMULATION 36 .
of pass Inner and outer dia.1: Input design data for condenser Steam inlet temp. Of tube Velocity of water 180 ˚C to 30˚C 55˚C to 90˚C 0. No.1 Data for designing the surface condenser for 60 MW capacity power plant: Table 4. Out let temperature of cooling water Numbers of tubes Tube length Condenser area Over all heat transfer co efficient Mass flow rate of condensation Condenser efficiency 37 . 4. Pressure within condenser Mass flow rate of steam Mass flow rate of water Cooling water inlet temp.1 bar 30 tone 165.5 tone 25˚C to 40˚C 4 as well as 2 10 mm & 12 mm 1 m/s From above given data we have to design the surface condenser for steam power plant and we have to find. Steam outlet temp.
W 2 m K LMTD : log mine temperature. of tubes W Tw1 : Inlet temperature of cooling water. . L : Length. bar Kg s Q : Heat transfer rate per unit time. m Do : Outer diameter. oC W H i : Heat transfer rate at inner surface. NOMENCLATURE: 2 A : Area. Kj Kg K Di : Inner diameter. m W mK M : Mass flow rate. p : Pressure. oC Tw2 : Outlet temperature of cooling water. oC Ts2 : Outlet temperature of steam oC These nomenclatures are used when we designing the steam condenser which we are used in power plant. m K : Thermal conductivity. 38 . m C p : Specific heat. m 2 K H o : Heat transfer rate at outer surface. oC U : Over all heat transfer coefficient. m 2 K N : No. watt T : Temperature. oC Ts1 : Inlet temperature of steam.
DESIGN OF CONDENSER 39 .
000 ∗ 2.186 ∗ ( 39. Tube sheet design consideration that will enhance the steam flow over and through the tube bundle to achieve maximum performance efficiencies. Shell design parameters that provide maximum supports to the tube bundle without impacting pressure drop. The moisture content of incoming steam.186 ∗ Tw2 − 30 3600 ……… (Answer) ∴Tw2 = 39. Plus many more design variables that impact condenser performance. Some of them are given below:The configuration of the exhaust flow pattern entering the condenser. De-aeration and reheat requirements for the steam condensate.33 Kg = hrs s Heat lost by steam = Heat gain by water ∴ ms C ps Ts1 − Ts2 = mwC pw Tw1 − Tw2 ∴ ( ) ( ) ( ) 30.99 − 30 ) ∴ Q = 1925560 W 40 .1 Steps taken under consideration when designing the condenser: Effective steam condenser design of necessity must take many performance variables into consideration. ∴ Q = mwC pw Tw2 − Tw1 ( ) = 46 ∗ 4. The design of the transition piece to achieve the most uniform distribution of incoming steam over the tube bundle.99 oC Rate of heat transfer is given by. 5.2 Design calculation for condenser: Mass of steam:- ms = 30 tone 30 × 103 3600 = 8.1 ∗ (150 − 40 ) = 46 ∗ 4. 5.
010 ) 2 1000 ∗1 ∗ N ∴ N = 585.98 No of passes = 4 No of tubes = 585. ∴ mw = ∴ 46 = π 4 di2 ρ ∗ V ∗ N π 4 ( 0.98 ∗ 4 = 2345 ……… (Answer) Figure 5.1: Tubing process 41 .1. Mass flow rate of water.
Nos.95 ∗ 0.53 ∗102 2 Heat transfer co efficient of inside boundary of tube:- And also.023 ∗ (284.53)0.010 ∴ 6.176 KgK ρ = 993.64 d ∗ hi ∴ Nu = k h ∗ 0.752*106 m 2 α = 5.4 = 6. Reynolds number: R e = ρVd µ = 993.86 Now from all these data we calculate Rey.8 ∗ (17.5343 ∗102 Pr = 4.49)0.43*104 m 2 / hr k = 62.176 = 62.73 ∗ 4. 42 . Property of water at 35o C Kg m3 Kj C p = 4.95 µ = 262.49 Prenatal number: Pr = µC p k 262.73 ∗102 = 284. & Prant.023Re0.53 Nusset number: Nu = 0.53 ∗102 = 17.8 Pr0.010 262.4 = 0.64 = i 62.73*102 Kg / hr m v = 0.752 ∗106 ∗ 0.
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