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Abstract: perform important control functions, and
are based on micro controller.
The technical Brilliance and
The current topic “Automation of car”
Developments in different fields has led to
that we are going to present is one of the
a drastic change especially in the
fine examples of Embedded System.
communication field. Devices with
intelligence rule the world. Imbibing
intelligence to these devices is through a Autonomous car: There are many
system called “EMBEDDED SYSTEMS”. paradigm shifts taking place due to
It is the evolution or further development information explosion and the concept of
of the computing system. Its applications autonomous vehicle is one shift. The car,
provide marvelous opportunities for which is embedded, can simulate the
ingenious use of computer technology. human driver completely and direct the
Almost every new system introduced is an vehicle on the road. Autonomous vehicle
example of Embedded System. These is the drastic change in technical brilliance
systems are more intelligent and and developments in different fields with
autonomous. EMBEDDED SYSTEM as pioneer.
Embedded Systems are combinations of
hardware and software that are mounted Introduction:
on compact electronic circuit boards
The term embedded system is
integrated into devices. They are
quite a complex one. Simply it is a
engineered or intended to perform one
combination of hardware and software that
specific function in a specific
forms the component of a larger system;
environment. An important decision in the
this in turn is programmed to perform a
design of an embedded system is the
range of dedicated functions usually with
selection of the processor(s) around which
a minimal operator intervention. In
the rest of the system is to be built. It is a
embedded systems the hardware is
chip that contains a microprocessor, some
normally unique to a given application;
memory & I/O interface circuitry useful in
computer chips are embedded into the
embedded applications and is often called
control electronics to manage the products
‘MICRO CONTROLLER’ chips as they
Embedded systems are rapidly control, sudden accelerations or braking or
becoming a catalyst for change in even self-repair of modules.
computing data communications, The finger print technologies have been
telecommunications, industrial control and introduced to enter and start your car with
entertainment sectors. New innovative the touch of a finger. The fingerprint,
applications in these as well as other areas which is acting as a key, would trigger a
such as home networking and car check of the mirrors, steering wheel, radio
infotainment will roll out in the near and temperature to ensure that they're the
feature. way you like them. The convenience of
fingerprint recognition technology comes

The fine art of automation:

We load the code of our
destination in the dashboard computer and
turn the car on, while we remain seated
carefree on the rear seats. Then its all the
job of the ‘unknown’ to drive it on the
roads, bridges, thought the bazaars, past
the crossings to the destination, without
getting challenged even once for traffic
rule violations.
A fully computerized car
capable of doing almost every thing a car with heightened security. Unlike personal

lover would want to. Almost all identification numbers, passwords and

automobiles will interact with computer keys, each person's unique fingerprints

on dashboards. From ordering pizza to can't be duplicated, lost or forgotten.

booking tickets at the nearest theatre, Description:

things would be as easy as giving orders to
As stated above that a vehicle
your servant. As a matter of fact, vehicles
can run by itself with out the intervention
all over the world are now fitted with
of human beings by the embedded
intelligent devices that make the vehicles
intelligence in it. For this purpose Global
to respond to various factors –be it climate
Positioning System (G.P.S) using satellites its navigation sensors, perception unit and
can provide positioning information and computer control is incorporated.
proves to be a versatile all-time. For still The driver’s activity is
higher accuracy wide area differential influenced by several factors that depend
GPS is used, which offers a robust system on driver itself and is environment such
that readily deals with selective as traffic density, traffic status, time of
availability errors and satellite clock travel and weather. Thus the driving
errors. activity deals with a combined driver
The models for GPS also vehicle-environment system shown in
include aiding sensors, e.g. dead figure
reckoning, radar and camera. A computer
is simply required to feed destination into
a dashboard computer. Highly sensitive
actuators simulate a human driver
completely and direct the vehicle on the
road. The vehicle transmitter broadcasts
its position and velocity to other
immediate participants for collision-
avoidance and lane changing manoeuvres.
Forward and reverse motions and u-turns
are precisely achieved as per route
guidance requirements. Furthermore, an
accurate steering control is obtained using
Pulse Code Modulation technique and
acceleration/braking control is
successfully implemented using learning
adaptive system. The vehicle is required to
The reliability, efficiency and blend its environmental perception
cost effectiveness of an autonomous capabilities with its intelligent controls in
vehicle depend mainly on how judiciously order to affect optimal path-planning
strategies that not only avoid obstacles but
also minimize criteria such as time of to btain distance accuracy better than 99.9
travel, fuel consumption, exposure to percent.
Pollution/danger, etc. however basic
driving functions consists of lane-keeping,
safe distance maintenance, timely lane
changing and overtaking. The key to all
these driving tasks is collision avoidance.
The Master Control Station
(MCS) receives the positioning
information from the satellite by
employing WADGPS concept. The MCS
is linked to GPS instrumented position
location systems (PLS) installed on the
autonomous vehicles through a data link
sub system (DLS). The DLS can either use
VHF or UHF or L-band, incorporating
The new generation
time division multiple access protocol to
microprocessors promises further increase
handle on the roads. A block forward error
in system capabilities while
correction code is employed to protect
simultaneously shrinking both volume and
maintain the message integrity
power consumption of the autonomous
vehicle embedded system. The digital road
The desired destination and starting
maps, available on CD-ROM’s have
position of the vehicle together with the
substantially increased safety of
time of travel, manifest an optimal route
automobiles. These maps along with GPS
on the road network. Once the vehicle
navigation provide a feasible solution to
commences the journey the sensors
autonomous vehicle system. The expert
continuously keep track of the direction
system technologies are integrated with
and displacement of the vehicle initial
digital maps along with the CCD camera
calibration is a little crucial for dead
images, magnetic compass, and the GPS
reckoning performance; how ever a feed
system, for obtaining a real time
back calibration indicated in fig suggested
intelligent decision support navigation increments for a safe and accident free
package. The integration of GPS and Manoeuvre. The following figure gives an
communication suggests an efficient indication of all the technologies used in a
transportation system for increasing the car
road traffic safety smooth driving without
traffic jams and a comfortable driving
environment. Further more the
autonomous vehicle relies on such
intelligent system integration that leads to
complete collision free in time of real time
The internal platform and rate gyro and
accelerometer package keeps the vehicles
central processing unit (CPU) well
informed about the incremental changes in
the vehicles parameters. The wheel
odometers provide the vehicle traveling
distances by multiplying the number of
electronically generated pulses by a
constant, depending upon wheels
Advantages and comforts:
The information concerning deviation
from the road center is obtained by 1. The adoptive cruise
magnetic as well as optical sensors, and control ACC technology used in the cars

fed to the CPU. The GPS receiver updates from automobile makers keeps advancing

the vehicles position and velocity to to new levels of safety. In microwave

centimeter/decimeter levels as required for radar unit there is a laser transceiver, fixed

the lateral or longitudinal control actions. on the front of the car to determine the

The autonomous vehicle embedded distance and relative speed of any vehicle

software mission finally yields the in its path, which keeps safe distances

estimates for throttle and heading angle from other vehicles on the busy roads. The
driver can set the speed of his car and the either backward or forward for the safest
distance between his and other cars. When distance from the instrument panel,
traffic slows down vehicle speed is altered adjusting the seat belt for the correct
using moderate braking to maintain a tension, and even closing the sunroof in
constant distance between his and other case of a potential rollover. The idea is to
cars. "cradle" the car's occupants for maximum
2. In advanced systems just in safety.
the case the driver over speeds or suddenly
falls over and guides the car to a safe halt. Indian efforts in embedded
And if you have programmed it right, the
GPS in the car would take you to your
system development: -
destination .so, right from brakes to Our India too entered into the
automatic traction control to air bags and field of embedded systems and had great
fuel-air mixture control, the intelligence developments in this field. it got
takes over marvelous results in the field of

3. A few advanced car “Telematics” which is a part of technology

prototypes with embedded systems have used in cars.

been tried and tested where even if a smart Total telematics experience is

thief has managed to break in through the what they are looking for simply put

car, the car doesn’t start up even if it does telematics is the vehicles capability to

the computer I the car would lock the communicate with the outside world and

steering wheel and cutoff the fuel injection or the vehicle operator. It is a combination

supply … in the mean time a signal is set of telecommunication and computing

to the nearest police station and the owner Mistral software, which was

informing them about the thief. developed in India, has text-to-speech and
speech recognition technologies to give
4. Some designs now include
the car occupants the ultimate comfort. So
so-called "pre-safe" systems, which sense
whenever there is a call on your mobile.
possible collisions in advance based on
You need not get jump at the very onset of
emergency braking, skidding, and sudden
the call. Relax the computer in the cars
evasive maneuvers. They will prepare a
dashboard would do the job for you.
car by automatically moving the front seat
concentrate more in producing
GPS navigation guides you through the autonomous cars, which should not cost a
traffic. The GPS interface in the car lot, they should in the vicinity of
pinpoints your exact location on a map. In customers’ budget. With this type of
case the GPS signal cant be received due vehicles there will be great advantages in
to high density of tall buildings or other the coming feature. Due to speed control
magnetic interface, the ‘dead reckoning ‘ technique, accident free driving is possible
technique, which works for short durations and fuel savage is also made possible by
guides you effectively. The system is also the technique, which will make the car to
loaded with GSM/CDMA protocol travel through shortest path. In the near
standards further modified on the future, autonomous car become more
CANBUS standard t give uninterrupted common all over the world. Indian efforts
information. in the embedded technology can assure
Another device called the array that these autonomous cars will become
microphone cuts off the surrounding noise cheaper and may evolve with many more
and allows the speaker to communicate advantages. So that we could find
effectively. The person at the other end ourselves using these autonomous cars in
hears the voice of the speaker without any the near feature.
out side interference.

With the heights of the technology
autonomous car is no more a myth. It’s a
We would like to present that there must
be further developments in this technology
to make autonomous car more common all EMAIL:
over the world. This can be happened by
making the autonomous easy to operate
for the user and the designers should