The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of an estimated 800,000 people.
Over the course of approximately 100 days from the assassination of Juvénal Habyarimana on April 6 through mid-July, at least 800,000 people were killed, according to a Human Rights Watch estimate. Other estimates of the death toll have ranged between 500,000 and 1,000,000  (a commonly quoted figure is 800,000) or as much as 20% of the country's total population. In 1990, a rebel group composed mostly of Tutsi refugees called the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invaded northern Rwanda from Uganda. The Rwandan Civil War, fought between the Hutu regime, with support from Francophone nations of Africa and France itself, and the RPF, with support from Uganda, vastly increased the ethnic tensions in the country and led to the rise of Hutu Power. As an ideology, Hutu Power asserted that the Tutsi intended to enslave Hutus and must be resisted at all costs. Despite continuing ethnic strife, including the displacement of large numbers of Hutu in the north by the rebels and periodic localized extermination of Tutsi to the south, pressure on the government of Juvénal Habyarimana resulted in a cease-fire in 1993 and the preliminary implementation of the Arusha Accords. The assassination of Habyarimana in April 1994 was the proximate cause of the mass killings of Tutsis and pro-peace Hutus. The mass killings were carried out primarily by two Hutu militias associated with political parties: the Interahamwe and the Impuzamugambi. The genocide was directed by a Hutu power group known as the Akazu. The mass killing also marked the end of the peace agreement meant to end the war, and the Tutsi RPF restarted their offensive, eventually defeating the army and seizing control of the country. Background In 1957, the Hutu Emancipation Movement (Parmehutu) published the Hutu Manifesto (sometimes called "Bahutu Manifesto"), in which it alleged a monopoly of power held by the Tutsi minority. In the 1960s, these denunciations led to the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the Republic headed by Gregoire Kayibanda. This was a regime that persecuted the Tutsi, who were forced to flee in many cases. The persecution also went on under the regime of Juvénal Habyarimana, who had seized power in 1973 and promised progress. In neighboring Burundi, there were two preceding genocides since the country’s independence in 1962: the 1972 mass killings of Hutu by the Tutsi army  and the 1994 killing of Tutsi by the Hutu population.  Civil war Main article: Rwandan Civil War The Tutsi refugee diaspora was a coherent political and military organization by the late 1980s. Large numbers of Tutsi refugees in Uganda had joined the victorious rebel National Resistance Movement during the Ugandan Bush War and made themselves a separate movement. The journal Kangura, a Hutu counteraction towards the Tutsi journal Kanguka active from 1990 to 1993, was instrumental in incitement of Hutu disdain for Tutsis, on the basis of their ethnicity rather than their previous economic advantages. Hassan Ngeze, founder and editor of Kangura, published the widely read Hutu Ten Commandments, which called for the formal installment of Hutu Power ideology in schools and the establishment of an exclusively Hutu army. Among the commandments was the dictum, "The Hutu should stop having mercy on the Tutsi." Tanzania (with the support of the West) brokered peace talks. In August 1993, the rebels and the Government of Rwanda signed the Arusha Accords peace treaty to end the civil war. The accords rolled back the authoritarian power of President Juvénal Habyarimana, vesting authority in the Transitional Broad Based
Government (TBBG). The TBBG would include the RPF as well as the five political parties that had formed the coalition government, in place since April 1992, to govern until proper elections could be held. The Transitional National Assembly (TNA), the legislative branch of the transitional government, was open to all parties, including the RPF. The extremist Hutu Coalition for the Defence of the Republic (CDR), nominally controlled by President Habyarimana, was strongly opposed to sharing power with the RPF and refused to sign the accords. When at last it decided to agree to the terms, the accords were opposed by the RPF. UN Peacekeepers were deployed to patrol ceasefire and assist in demilitarization and demobilization. A March 1993 report found that 10,000 Tutsi had been detained and 2,000 murdered since the RPF's 1990 invasion. In August 1993, Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire, commander of the UN forces, made a reconnaissance trip to evaluate the situation and requested 5,000 troops; he was given 2,548 military personnel and 60 civilian police. He saw the situation as a standard peacekeeping mission.  Preparations for the genocide The killing was well organized, and by the time it had started, the Rwandan militia numbered around 30,000 — one militia member for every ten families — and was organized nationwide with representatives in every neighborhood. Some militia members were able to acquire AK-47 assault rifles by completing requisition forms. Other weapons, such as grenades, required no paperwork and were widely distributed. Many members of the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi were armed only with machetes. Rwandan Prime Minister Jean Kambanda revealed in his testimony before the International Criminal Tribunal that the genocide was openly discussed in cabinet meetings and that "...one cabinet minister said she was personally in favor of getting rid of all Tutsi; without the Tutsi, she told ministers, all of Rwanda's problems would be over." In addition to Kambanda, the genocide's organizers included Colonel Théoneste Bagosora, a retired army officer, and many top ranking government officials and members of the army such as General Augustin Bizimungu. On the local level, the genocide's planners included Burgomasters, or mayors, and members of the police. Both Hutus and Tutsis were given ID cards which specified an ethnic group. These cards served as symbols that the Interhamwe could check via the threat of force. Skin color was a general physical trait that was typically used in "ethnic" identification. The lighter-colored Rwandans were typically Tutsi, the minority group, while the darker-skinned Rwandans were typically Hutu, the majority group in Rwanda. In many cases, Tutsi men, women, and children were separated from the general population and sometimes forced to be Hutu slaves. As for the Tutsi women, they were often referred to as "gypsies" and frequently fell victim to sexual violence. Government leaders communicated with figures among the population to form and arm militias called Interahamwe, "those who stand (fight, kill) together", and Impuzamugambi, "those who have the same (or a single) goal". These groups, particularly their youth wings, were responsible for much of the violence.  Media propaganda According to recent commentators, the news media played a crucial role in the genocide; local print and radio media fueled the killings while the international media either ignored or seriously misconstrued events on the ground. The print media in Rwanda is believed to have started hate speech against Tutsis, which was later continued by radio stations. According to commentators, anti-Tutsi hate speech "...became so systemic as to seem the norm." The state-owned newspaper Kangura had a central role, starting an anti-Tutsi and anti-RPF campaign in October 1990. In the ongoing International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the individuals behind Kangura have been accused of producing leaflets in 1992 picturing a machete and
The January 11 telegram later played an important role in discussion about what information was available to the United Nations prior to the genocide. the RTLM accused the Belgian peacekeepers of having shot down – or of helping to shoot down – the president's plane. Radio Rwanda repeatedly broadcast a communiqué warning that Hutu in Bugesera would be attacked by Tutsi. Kangura also published the infamous "10 Hutu Commandments. Major-General Maurice Baril. After April 6. and generally communicated the message that the RPF had a devious grand strategy (one feature article was titled "Tutsi colonization plan"). Though religious factors were not prominent (the event was ethnically motivated). Bishop Misago was accused of corruption and complicity in the genocide but was cleared of all charges in 2000. after the UN Mandate of the French mission was at an end. believing these actions lay within his mission's mandate.asking "What shall we do to complete the social revolution of 1959?" . From late October 1993. its requests for authorization to end it were refused and its intervention capacity was even reduced. the Interhamwe would have an excuse to engage the Belgian troops and the RPF battalion. and the Netherlands provided consistent support for the UN mission under the command of Roméo Dallaire. the Human Rights Watch reported that a number of religious authorities. headquarters stated in another cable that the outlined actions went beyond the mandate granted to UNAMIR under Security Council Resolution 872.000 Tutsis to flee to neighboring Burundi and Uganda. mainly headed to Zaire (Now the Democratic Republic of Congo). Instead. which was the backbone of the peacekeeping mission. Several Belgians were to be killed. Dallaire made immediate plans for UNAMIR troops to seize the arms caches and advised UN Headquarters of his intentions. particularly Roman Catholic. the disproportionate share of Tutsi wealth and power. under Operation Turquoise. Led by soldiers. Eventually. Both radio stations were used to incite and mobilize then give specific directions for carrying out the killings. The majority of Rwandans. There were 50. The RPF successfully brought the country under their sway although their efforts towards a conclusion to the conflict were delayed after the UNmandated French-led force. and UNAMIR failed to gain approval to investigate the murder. In March 1992. Examples of gender-based hate propaganda used to incite war rape include statements by perpetrators such as "You Tutsi women think that you are too good for us" and "Let us see what a Tutsi woman tastes like ". The goal of the demonstrations was to provoke an RPF battalion in Kigali into firing upon demonstrators and Belgian United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) troops into using force. are Catholic. The RTLM also repeatedly stressed the need to be alert to Tutsi plots and possible attacks and called upon Hutu to prepare to 'defend' themselves against the Tutsi. Security Council. some Tutsi kings castrated defeated enemy rulers).
. 1994. Women were part of the anti-Tutsi propaganda prior the 1994 genocide. the "Ten Hutu Commandments" published in December 1990 by "Kangura" included four commandments which portrayed Tutsi women as tools of the Tutsi people and as sexual weapons that would be used by the Tutsi to weaken and ultimately destroy the Hutu men. This broadcast has been linked to the killing of ten Belgian UN troops by Rwandan army soldiers. Due to high rates of illiteracy at the time of the genocide. for example. of four major weapons caches and plans by the Hutus for extermination of Tutsis. although it was left without an appropriate mandate for the capacity to intervene from the U. and the horrors of past Tutsi rule. including castration of the victim (in pre-colonial times. radio was an important way for the government to deliver messages to the public. specifically in areas where the killings were initially resisted. The situation proved too "risky" for the United Nations to attempt to help . Some in its religious hierarchy have been brought to trial by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and convicted. The UN's mandate forbids intervening in the internal politics of any country unless the crime of genocide is being committed. Despite emphatic demands from UNAMIR's commanders in Rwanda before and throughout the genocide. These broadcasts gave the impression that all Tutsi were necessarily supporters of the RPF force fighting against the government. was used to underline supposed Tutsi brutality. south of the national capital Kigali.  United Nations On January 11. The following day. the foreign origin of Tutsi. authorities used the RTLM and Radio Rwanda to spur and direct killings.N. On February 21. The presence of Hutu refugees (see Great Lakes refugee crisis) on the border with Rwanda was the cause for the First and Second Congo Wars. At the end of 1993. 1994 Canadian Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire (United Nations Force Commander in Rwanda) notified Military Advisor to the Secretary-General. and he was ordered to register all the Kigali Tutsis. On April 6.  Religion Main article: Religion in Rwanda The Roman Catholic Church affirms that genocide took place but argues that those who took part in it did so without the permission of the Church. President Habyarimana was to be informed of possible Arusha Accords violations and the discovered concerns and report back on measures taken." which regulated all dealings with Tutsis and how Hutus are to treat them.
Under such a scenario. the RTLM's highly sensationalized reporting on the assassination of the Burundi president. Gender-based propaganda also include cartoons printed in newspapers depicting Tutsi women as sex objects. 1. Canada. The RTLM falsely reported that the president had been tortured. Radio Rwanda was first used in directly promoting the killing of Tutsi in Bugesera. Ghana. a message used by local officials to convince Hutu that they needed to protect themselves by attacking first. 1994. The telegram from Dallaire stated that an informant who was a top level Interahamwe militia trainer was in charge of demonstrations carried out a few days before.a reference to the Hutu revolt that overthrew the Tutsi monarchy and the subsequent politically orchestrated communal violence that resulted in thousands of mostly Tutsi casualties and forced roughly 300. underlining the inherent differences between Hutu and Tutsi. which would guarantee a withdrawal of the Belgian contingent. the RTLM repeatedly broadcast themes developed by the extremist written press. a Hutu. France has been accused of aiding the Hutu regime to flee by creating what is known as Operation Turquoise.700 Interhamwe militiamen were trained in Governmental Forces camps. established and maintained a "safe zone" for Hutu refugees to flee to in the southwest. millions of refugees left Rwanda.  Catalyst and initial events
The RTLM had used terms such as inyenzi (cockroach in Kinyarwandan) and Tutsi interchangeably with others referring to the RPF combatants and warned specifically that RPF combatants dressed in civilian clothes were mingling among displaced people fleeing combat zones. extremists assassinated the Minister of Public Works. Hutu civilians and members of the Interahamwe subsequently attacked and killed hundreds of Tutsi. According to the informant. and of Tutsis in particular. in Rwanda failed to condemn the genocide. Two radio stations key to inciting violence before and during the genocide were Radio Rwanda and Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM). with clashes between these groups and the Rwandan government continuing.000 civilian deaths in Burundi in 1993. The Tutsis would then be eliminated.
While killing occurred in other towns immediately after Habyarimana's assassination. National radio. The UNAMIR-protected VIPs .Main articles: Assassination of Habyarimana and Ntaryamira and Initial events of the Rwandan Genocide
Skulls in Murambi Technical School Numerous elite Hutu politicians have been found guilty for the organization of the genocide. systematically set out to murder all the Tutsis they could capture. The Rwandan Military and Hutu militia groups. On April 6. Major Bernard Ntuyahaga was convicted of the murders in 2007. until he was deposed in lieu of an extremist. the staff of the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and Colonel Theoneste Bagosora clashed verbally with the UNAMIR Force commander Lieutenant General Dallaire. and Dallaire gave an escort of Belgian and Ghanaian personnel to Mrs. In his book Shake Hands with the Devil. On April 9. Dallaire sent cable to NY indicating ethnicity was the driving force of killings. Sylvain Ndikumana. By then. On April 9–10. the peacekeepers were taken prisoner and their weapons were confiscated. Lieutenant-General Dallaire and UNAMIR were in Kigali escorting Tutsis and were unable to stop the Hutus from escalating their attacks. the Hutus also targeted Lieutenant-General Dallaire. who stressed the legal authority of Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana to take control of the situation as outlined in the Arusha Accords. with both the RPF and Hutu extremists being blamed. US Ambassador Rawson and 250 Americans were evacuated.
Skulls of genocide victims in museum Killings quickly took place throughout most of the country. UN observers witnessed the massacre of children at a Polish church in Gikondo. irrespective of their age or sex. Responsibility for the attack was initially disputed. JeanBaptiste Habyarimana was the only Tutsi prefect. Dallaire recalled the events from April 7. Uwilingiyimana had to cancel her speech. and UNAMIR personnel through the RTLM. Habyarimana opposed the genocide. it took several days for them to become organized on a similar scale. The cable detailed killings of politicians and peacekeepers (Chairman of Liberal party. Uwilingiyimana was assassinated by the presidential guard. who was now at the Force HQ. Both presidents died when the plane crashed. the airplane carrying Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira. the government
. Minister of Labor. Dallaire informed the UN that campaign of violence is well organized and is deliberately conducted primarily by presidential guard. along with their families [. The same day. as well as the political moderates.000 heavily armed and trained European troops arrived to escort European civilian personnel out of the country. and Mrs. In Butare. the presidential guard had occupied the radio station. Hundreds of roadblocks were put up by the militia around the country. the Hutu president of Burundi. who on the evening of April 6 called a meeting to distribute arms and send out militias to kill Tutsis. When the Rwandan army stormed the building. notably the Interahamwe. Minister of Agriculture. In the middle of the day. The first person to organize killings on a genocidal scale was the mayor of the northwestern town of Gisenyi. During this time. Protected by UNAMIR. both as the homeland of the Akazu and as a refuge for thousands of people displaced by the rebel occupation of large areas in the south. Bagosora disputed the authority. and dozens more). On April 6 and April 7. A later investigation by the Rwandan government blamed Hutu extremists in the Rwandan army.. In spite of disagreements about the identities of its perpetrators. 1994. resulting in the province becoming a haven of relative calm. Mrs. Other moderate officials who favored the Arusha Accords were quickly assassinated. 1. Uwilingiyimana to protect her and to allow her to send a calming message on the radio the next morning. with the exacerbation of the situation. Media coverage picked up on the 9th as the Washington Post reported the execution of Rwandan employees of relief agencies in front of their horrified expatriate colleagues.. was shot down as it prepared to land in Kigali. and many other moderates had been abducted by the Presidential Guard and had been killed. advised people to stay in their homes. Most nations evacuated their nationals from Kigali and abandoned their embassies in the initial stages of the violence. the attack on the plane is to many observers the catalyst for the genocide. On April 8. He had horrifying news. Hutu civilians were forced to participate in the killings or be shot and were instructed to kill their Tutsi neighbours. The major exception to this pattern was in Butare Province. but the ten Belgian soldiers were led away and killed. and the province was the only one dominated by an opposition party.Lando Ndasingwa [the head of the Parti libéral]. The Ghanaian soldiers were released. Joseph Kavaruganda [president of the constitutional court]. The troops did not stay to assist UNAMIR. the first day of the genocide: I called the Force HQ and got through to Ghanaian Brigadier General Henry Anyidoho. Faustin Twagiramungu escaped execution.] UNAMIR had been able to rescue Prime Minister Faustin.
Memorial for the dead Belgian UNAMIR personnel in Kigali. and the Hutu power station RTLM broadcast vitriolic propaganda against Tutsis and Hutu moderates. Finding the population of Butare unenthusiastic about the killings. Gisenyi was a center of anti-Tutsi sentiment.
which were often displayed in public. Unlike the genocides carried out by the Nazi Germany and by the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia. and "Marchal".071. Rene Degni-Segui stated that "rape was the rule and its absence the exception. In another case. Ordinary citizens were called on by local officials and government-sponsored radio to kill their neighbors. manifesting the specific intent required for those acts to constitute genocide. but frequently included mutilation of the genitals. acting in concert with the other local authorities.the official figures published by the Rwandan government estimated the number of victims of the genocide to 1. There was an attempt to eliminate Tutsis — men.  War rape In 1998.000 were killed. The victims were mostly Tutsi women and girls.500 Tutsis sought refuge in a Catholic church in Nyange. Among
A school chalkboard in Kigali. of all ages.000. The Special Rapporteur estimated that between 250. Other sources put the death toll to 800. Victims were often found hiding in churches and school buildings. the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda made the landmark decisions that war rape in Rwanda was an element of the crime of genocide. There is no consensus on the number of dead between April 6 and mid-July. more than 1. Several individuals were active in attempting to halt the Rwandan genocide. and those who refused to kill were often murdered themselves. Militia members typically murdered their victims by hacking them with machetes. first in the Arusha process
. A 2000 report prepared by the Organization of African Unity’s International Panel of Eminent Personalities concluded that "we can be certain that almost all females who survived the genocide were direct victims of rape or other sexual violence. many of whom were subjected to rape. The Trial Chamber held that "sexual assault formed an integral part of the process of destroying the Tutsi ethnic group and that the rape was systematic and had been perpetrated against Tutsi women only.000. are now HIV-positive. Note the names "Dallaire". War rape during the genocide was also directed against Hutu women considered moderates. including the Presidential Guard. who were reluctant to become involved. without making efforts to stop them.000 murdered every day. and the killing began immediately. 20% of whom were Hutus. Jacqueline Mukansonera." James Smith of Aegis Trust notes. The perpetrators of war rape during the Rwanda genocide were mainly members of the Hutu militia." Although no explicit written orders to rape or commit sexual violence have been found. where Hutu gangs massacred them. Rapes were also committed by military soldiers of the Rwandan Armed Forced (RAF). The RPF government has stated that 1. and civilians. evidence suggests that military leaders encouraged or ordered their men to rape Tutsi as well as condoned the acts taking place.000 of them have become heads of families. while the United Nations lists the toll as 800. 7 every minute). with young or beautiful women being targeted based only on their gender. then in Kivumu commune. and children — and to erase any memory of their existence. and André Sibomana. is now a genocide museum. Antonia Locatelli. Belgian soldiers withdrew from the school and members of the Rwandan armed forces and militia killed all the Tutsis who were hiding there. However.000 Tutsis survived the genocide." One such massacre occurred at Nyarubuye. while men were only seldom the victims of war rape.000 orphans and nearly 85. "What's important to remember is that there was a genocide. Sexual violence against men was much less common. as the genocide was being carried out. then used bulldozers to knock down the church building." The report also stated that "rape was systematic and was used as a weapon" by the perpetrators of the massacres.
them there are Pierantonio Costa.proceeded to fly in militia members from Kigali by helicopter. Local Interahamwe. This can be estimated from the number and nature of the victims as well as from the forms of rape. The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) was hampered from the outset by resistance from numerous UN Security Council members. often by their neighbors and fellow villagers.000 in 100 days (10. UNAMIR Kigali sector commander. women. "Either you took part in the massacres or you were massacred yourself. 15% Tutsi and 1% Twa . Most of the victims were killed in their villages or in towns. Paul Rusesabagina. but also occurred regardless of ethnicity or political affiliation. On April 12. There are about 400. Alex de Waal and Rakiya Omar of African Rights estimates the number as "around 750.174.  UNAMIR and the international community Main articles: UNAMIR and Role of the international community in the Rwandan Genocide
Murambi Technical School. Philip Gourevitch agrees with an estimate of one million.000.000 Rwandese women and girls had been raped. where many victims were killed. 10% of whom were Hutu. the very public nature of the rapes and the level of brutality towards the women." Out of a population of 7.3 million people .84% of whom where Hutu. UNAMIR Force Commander." while Alison Des Forges of Human Rights Watch states that it was "at least 500. It is estimated that about 300. or were profoundly affected by it". 400 every hour. or to shelter vulnerable Tutsis. Local priest Athanase Seromba was later found guilty and sentenced to life in prison by the ICTR for his role in the demolition of his church and convicted of the crime of genocide and crimes against humanity.000 and 500. although some army units used rifles. the "Interahamwe". Carl Wilkens. In his 1996 report the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Rwanda.  Compared to other conflicts the sexual violence in Rwanda stands out in terms of the organized nature of the propaganda that contributed significantly to fueling sexual violence against Tutsi women. authorities made no attempts to record deaths. People who tried to escape were hacked with machetes or shot. thousands sought refuge in Ecole Technique Officielle school in Kigali where Belgian UNAMIR soldiers were stationed. on April 11. Thousands of widows.000.
and the head of the Rwandan commission. The change in orders led Belgian peacekeepers to abandon a technical school filled with 2. Deployment of these forces was delayed due to arguments over their cost and other factors. government was reluctant to involve itself in the "local conflict" in Rwanda and refused to label the killings as "genocide". former Cameroonian foreign minister Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh. Rwanda at that time had a seat on the Security Council and its ambassador argued that the claims of genocide were exaggerated and that the government was doing all that it could to stop it. While stressing there can be no equation between genocide and
. five years after the genocide.000 U.  French role
Francophone country. then-Foreign Minister Alain Juppe. The policy had been made by a secretive network of military officers. In Melvern's analysis." quelling the genocide and stopping the fighting there. Army. including hundreds of children.K.5 million (U. businessmen. adjusts the concertina wire surrounding the airport. who later testified. 2007. In the midst of the crisis. led by interim President Théodore Sindikubwabo. which by then included broader indictments against 40 Rwandan army officers by Spanish judge Fernando Andreu. named 33 senior French military and political officials of involvement in the genocide. They deployed throughout southwest Rwanda in an area they called "Zone Turquoise. The U. The political character of that investigation was in turn further averred when the commission issued its report solely to Kagame . mostly from African countries. Lt. On June 22. The administrative head of UNAMIR.500 troops. has been criticized for downplaying the significance of Dallaire's reports and for holding close ties to the Hutu militant elite.symbolically on November 17. Findings of the commission were released at Kagame's order on August 5. Ghanaian. involving the President of Uganda. 2006. but often arriving in areas only after genocidaires had expelled or killed Tutsi citizens.S. "Operation Turquoise was aimed only at protecting genocide perpetrators. stated that the commission would now "wait for President Kagame to declare whether the inquiry was valid. In the interview. while Hutu militants waited outside."  Following an investigation of the plane crash of 6 April 1994 that killed both the Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana and Burundian President Cyprien Ntaryamira and precipitated the genocide. and his chief aide at the time. In recent years uncomfortable questions have been raised about the war crimes the RPF are alleged to have committed during and after 1994. The UN also requested 50 armoured personnel carriers from the United States. The new Rwandan government. and senior intelligence operatives. diplomats. with no sign of UN deployment taking place. a decision which thenpresident Bill Clinton later came to regret in a Frontline television interview. the French judge Jean-Louis Bruguière indicted eight associates of Rwandan president Paul Kagame on November 17. Dominique de Villepin A statement accompanying the release claimed that "French soldiers themselves directly were involved in assassinations of Tutsis and Hutus accused of hiding Tutsis. denied French responsibility in connection with the genocide but said that political errors had been made. The documents are said to argue that the RPF was a part of an "Anglophone plot". Clinton stated that he believes if he had sent 5.000 refugees. 1994. as he had immunity under French law as a head of state. the militants entered the school and massacred those inside. then-Prime Minister Edouard Balladur." In July 2008. politicians. French forces committed several rapes on Tutsi survivors". drinking beer and chanting "Hutu Power.) by the U. Belgium pulled out of the peacekeeping mission. Bernard Kouchner. Another BBC report delved into the motivations for the Rwandan report and stated that
A French soldier. decrying them as politically motivated.S. Four days later the Security Council voted to reduce UNAMIR to 260 men in Resolution 912. and in which three French crew had also died. bringing President Paul Kagame to power. The UN conceded that "acts of genocide may have been committed" on May 17.S. 2008 and accused the French government of knowing of preparations for the genocide and helping to train the ethnic Hutu militia members. The UN and its member states appeared largely detached from the realities on the ground.000 Tutsis. In the analysis of U. By that time. including then-President Mitterrand and his then general secretary Hubert Védrine. peacekeepers. Linda Melvern. General Roméo Dallaire was instructed to focus UNAMIR on only evacuating foreign nationals from Rwanda. President Kagame himself was not indicted. the Red Cross estimated that 500. Only Belgium had asked for a strong UNAMIR mandate. This was the original number of troops requested by General Dallaire before the killing escalated. Zaire on a humanitarian mission. Jean de Dieu Mucyo. At its centre was Mitterrand. Kagame threatened to indict French nationals over the genocide if European courts did not withdraw arrest warrants issued against Rwandan officials. part of the international force supporting the relief effort for Rwandan refugees. to Rwanda. A BBC report commented that French Foreign Minister. worked to minimize international criticism." After the Belgians left. Kagame denied the allegations. French policy had been unaccountable to either parliament or the press. to create an English-speaking "Tutsi-land" and increase Anglophone influence at the expense of French influence. though the latter was not documented in the report..and then the genocide. His actions directly saved the lives of 20. Dallaire consolidated his contingent of Canadian.000 lives could have been saved. Operation Turquoise was charged with aiding the Hutu army against the RPF by Jacques Bihozagara.000 Rwandans had been killed. rather than on the role of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). Following the withdrawal of the Belgian forces. the Security Council authorized French forces to land in Goma. but after the murder of ten Belgian peacekeepers protecting the Prime Minister in early April. and broke diplomatic relationships with France in November 2006. documents recently released from the Paris archive of former president François Mitterrand show how the RPF invasion was considered as clear aggression by an Anglophone neighbour on a
Chief among them has been an iron determination to keep the world's attention focused on the genocide. the then-Rwandan ambassador to France. The UN agreed to send 5. the policy of France was to avoid a military victory by the RPF. He then ordered the formation of a commission of his own Rwandan Justice Ministry's employees that was officially "charged with assembling proof of the involvement of France in the genocide". exactly one year after Bruguière's announcement ..S. the force that took power in 1994. but for the transport alone they were charged $6. and Dutch soldiers in urban areas and focused on providing areas of "safe control". more than 500. because the genocide continued even within the Turquoise zone.
response to the genocide in general. French President Nicolas Sarkozy acknowledged that France made "mistakes" during the genocide. which accused the French army of protecting the Hutus during the genocide. was instrumental in establishing this Parliamentary commission. U. A National Security Archive report points out five ways in which decisions made by the U.N.  American role Prior to the war. The nature of the genocide was not immediately apparent to foreign observers. a Tutsi officer in exile in Uganda who had co-founded the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) in 1986 and was in open conflict with the incumbent Rwandan government.S. 1998. but a definite and systematic attempt (though not fast enough as far as then-General Paul Kagame of the opposing RPF forces was concerned. government had aligned itself with Tutsi interests. There's a shooting war and a genocide war. The report documented mixed success at disarming the Rwandan Army and militias. support to the opposition.S. overreliance on the UNIMAR mission without awareness that it would be undercut by the United States and other parties. to disable genocideinciting radio broadcasts. arranged the return of Kagame to Uganda from where he became the military commander of the RPF. 1998. and actually spoke with those leaders to urge an end to the violence but did not follow up with concrete action. refused to jam extremist radio broadcasts inciting the killing. The report concluded that there had been errors of judgment pertaining to the Rwanda Armed Forces. but also distinct.
The U.war crimes. and even then. troops officially in Rwanda at the onset of the genocide. U. was invited to receive military training at Fort Leavenworth. which published its report on December 15. Regarding Operation Turquoise. 1997. in documentation of the latter's communications with the French forces). Bureaucratic infighting slowed the U. authored by its Southern African bureau chief Lynne Duke. 1994
. government contributed to the slow U. indicates that the connection continued as RPF elements received counterinsurgency and combat training from U. is involved in mass killings.S.S. upon which the U. officials waited another three weeks before using the term in public. but before the genocide only. Paul Kagame. 2. governments to such a response. the U. Only two days into the invasion. the correspondent for the BBC News in Kigali.
There were no U. to the contrary.S. for a total withdrawal of U. The two are connected. In October 1990. In January 1994 NSC member Richard Clark developed formal US peacekeeping doctrine. The victory of the RPF rebels and overthrow of the Hutu regime ended the genocide in July 1994. In the shooting war. The battalion fought its way out of Kigali and joined up with RPF units in the north. lobbied the U. Special Forces. the government side with help from civilians. The resulting civil war raged concurrently with the genocide for two months. Ultimately. and ineffective diplomacy. An article in the Washington Post of August 16.S. all at least partly successful. it regretted that the intervention took place too late. (UNAMIR) forces in Rwanda in April 1994. The U. Mark Doyle.S. and in the genocide war. 5. officials knew exactly who was leading the genocide.
4. The Parliamentary Commission did not find any evidence of French participation in the genocide. It documented ambiguities and confusion in both the French and UN responses. his close friend and RPF co-founder Fred Rwigema was killed. Presidential Decision Directive 25 (PDD-25). and U. In 2010.S. the RPF started an invasion of Rwanda.S. In particular. citing costs and concern with international law. at the onset of the genocide.
 Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) renewed invasion Main article: Rwandan Civil War See also: Great Lakes refugee crisis The Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) battalion of Tutsi rebels stationed in Kigali under the Arusha Accords came under attack immediately after the shooting down of the president's plane. while Kagame was at Fort Leavenworth.S. tasks which the UN and the United States had rejected calls for assistance with. or of willful disengagement from endangered populations. there are two conventional armies at each other. The commission released its final report on December 15. and worldwide response to the genocide:
1. Alison Des Forges of Human Rights Watch says RPF leaders do have a case to answer. "Their victims also deserve justice. former president of the French NGO Survie. Kansas." she says. Secretary of State Warren Christopher did not authorize officials to use the term "genocide" until May 21.  Aftermath
Refugee camp in Zaire. it concluded that France had been the foreign power most involved in limiting the scale of the genocide once it got started. though it noted that this was better than the non-response from the UN and the opposition by the U.S. home of the Command and General Staff College.S. It documented multiple French operations.K.  French Parliamentary Commission on Rwanda Further information: French Parliamentary Commission on Rwanda The suspicions about United Nations and French policies in Rwanda between 1990 and 1994 and allegations that France supported the Hutus led to the creation of a French Parliamentary Commission on Rwanda. in turn raising Hutu concerns about potential U.N. but did not offer an apology. 100 days after it began. one of those armies. and was initially explained as a violent phase of the civil war. though it regretted that more had not been done. of collaboration with the militias. tried to explain the complex situation in late April 1994 thus: Look you have to understand that there are two wars going on here. further errors of judgment about the scale of the threat. François-Xavier Verschave.
(Data from U. the Arusha accords.  Political development After its military victory in July 1995. Tanzania. However. After the victory of the RPF. Various successor organizations to the Hutu militants operated in eastern DR Congo until May 22.Approximately two million Hutus. Thousands of them died in epidemics of diseases common to the squalor of refugee camps. to Burundi. In October 1996. Food and Agriculture Organization) The biggest problems facing the government are reintegration of the more than two million refugees. fled from Rwanda. The first post-war presidential and legislative elections were held in August and September 2003 respectively. The prison population will continue to be an urgent problem for the foreseeable future. 2009. an uprising by the ethnic Tutsi Banyamulenge people in eastern Zaire marked the beginning of the First Congo War. and for the most part Zaire.000 to Rwanda during the last two weeks of November. domestic tensions continued over support for the death penalty. The UN Tribunal has jurisdiction over high level members of the government and armed forces. the government began implementing a participatory justice system.
The current government prohibits discrimination on the basis of ethnicity. the Rwandan Patriotic Front organized a coalition government similar to that established by President Juvénal Habyarimana in 1994. The long-term effects of war rape in Rwanda for the victims include social isolation (social stigma attached to rape meant some husbands left wives who had become victims of war rape. which had an uncertain start at the end of 1996 and inched forward in 1997. and Rwandan involvement in the First and Second Congo Wars in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts. The Special Rapporteur on Rwanda estimated that between 2. In 2003. Tensions arose between Rwanda and the UN over the use of the death penalty. people lived next to rapists. such as cholera and dysentery. and the bystanders. in 2000 a series of popular tribunals called gacaca courts were setup.N. U. Political organizing was banned until 2003. In 2001. The government has also passed laws prohibiting emphasis on Hutu or Tutsi identity in most types of political activity. Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms. In ten years the Arusha tribunal only succeeded in sentencing 20 people.000 pregnancies resulted from war rape (between 250. Uganda. its fundamental law is based on a combination of the constitution. after removing Pasteur Bizimungu. whether or not they had any involvement in the genocide. participants in the genocide. the UN appointed Hassan Bubacar Jallow chief prosecutor with exclusive jurisdiction over Rwanda.
Graph showing the population of Rwanda from 1961 to 2003. Four years after the genocide. [citation
 Economic and social developments This section requires expansion. government or the international community. while Rwanda is responsible for prosecuting lower level leaders and local people. The main issue involving reintegration
is the fact that the violence that had occurred often involved neighbors. Called The Broad Based Government of National Unity. race or religion.S. or that the victims were rendered unsuitable for marriage). In March 2000. Faced with the local criminal system's inability to cope with a number of detainees awaiting trial in Rwandan jails reaching 90. This massive repatriation was followed at the end of December 1996 by the return of 500. Clinton issued what is now known as the "Clinton apology. On August 25. underlining that war rape occurred in the context of genocide. a nagging Hutu extremist insurgency.000 and 500. and the interest in conducting the trials at home. Tanzania. and political declarations by the parties. but not formally apologizing for inaction by the U. the UN set up the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.000 more from Tanzania after they were ejected by the Tanzanian government. President Bill Clinton spoke to the crowd assembled on the tarmac at Kigali Airport: "We come here today partly in recognition of the fact that we in the United States and the world community did not do as much as we could have and should have done to try to limit what occurred" in Rwanda.000 and 5. on a visit to Rwanda. unwanted pregnancies and babies (some women resorted to self-induced abortions). including syphilis. with anticipation of Tutsi retaliation. The United States staged the Operation Support Hope airlift from July to September 1994 to stabilize the situation in the camps. 2003 Kagame won the first national elections since the RPF took power in 1994. It was very difficult right after the genocide for Tutsis to trust Hutus. A series of massive population displacements. In March 1998. Trying this many suspects of genocide will tax Rwanda's resources sorely." acknowledging his failure to efficiently deal with the situation in Rwanda. Rwanda is a patriarchal society and children therefore take the ethnicity of the father. remaining in Rwanda until March 8. and led to a return of more than 600. having swelled to more than 100. The convicted
. currently based in Arusha. the size of UNAMIR (henceforth called UNAMIR 2) was increased to its full strength. known as Gacaca. The MRND party was outlawed. Meanwhile.000 in the three years after the war.000. Paul Kagame became President of Rwanda.S. in an attempt to redress this mismanagement. sexually transmitted diseases. With the return of the refugees. murderers and torturers. and the shift away from crisis to medium and longterm development planning. ending the insurgency among ex-soldiers and Interahamwe militia fighters and the Rwandan Patriotic Army in the north and southwest of the country. though these were largely resolved once Rwanda abolished the punishment in 2007. 1996.000 Rwandan women and girls had been raped). the government began the long-awaited genocide trials. gonorrhoea and HIV/AIDS. the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output and to foster reconciliation. in order to address the enormous backlog of cases.
Immaculée Ilibagiza survived the genocide and documented her story in Left to Tell: Discovering God Amidst the Rwandan Holocaust (2006).  Accusations of revisionism The context of the 1994 Rwandan genocide continues to be a matter of historical debate. films for popular audiences on the subject greatly increased the "widespread realization of the horror that had taken the lives of more than half a million Tutsi". Jean-Pierre Chrétien. the controversial book by French investigative journalist Pierre Péan. which also focuses on events in Kigali during the genocide. and sentenced to life in prison. a French-Canadian writer. December 18. In 2007. no larger than 3 feet (0. Alison Des Forges wrote that eleven years after the genocide.91 m) long and 4 feet (1. made the following observation: "How many people saw the movie Hotel Rwanda? [it is] ironically the way that most people now relate to Rwanda. Another person accused of genocide revisionism with respect to Rwanda is the Montreal writer Robin Philpot. There have been frequent charges of revisionism. 2008. is promulgated in Black Furies. He was charged by UN judge Erik Møse." He further charges that Philpot argued "[t]here was no one-sided conspiracy by armed Hutu forces and militias against a
million defenceless Tutsi.  Media and popular culture See also: Filmography of the Rwandan Genocide and Bibliography of the Rwandan Genocide Lieutenant-General Roméo Dallaire became the most well-known eyewitness to the genocide after co-writing the 2003 book Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda describing his experiences with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. A "double genocides" theory. It is listed by the American Film Institute as one of the 100 most inspirational movies of all time. Gil Courtemanche." criticizes Péan's "amazing revisionist passion". The court also found Bagosora responsible for the deaths of former Rwandan Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana and 10 Belgian peacekeepers. Another firsthand account of the Rwandan genocide is offered by Dr." The critically acclaimed and multiple Academy Award-nominated 2004 film Hotel Rwanda is based on the experiences of Paul Rusesabagina."
. Philpot churns out a strange. Theoneste Bagosora was found guilty of crimes against humanity. White Liars (2005). Charlie Beckett. rumours and speculation tied together solely by his unwavering determination to deny the truth. This same story is related in Rusesabagina's autobiography An Ordinary Man. Director of POLIS. In 2006. In 2005." The song Rwanda by the punk-ska band Rancid from the album Rancid (2000 album) is about the Rwandan genocide. authored "Dimanche à la piscine à Kigali" ("A Sunday at the Pool in Kigali").2 m) wide.are invited to admit their guilt in exchange for significant reductions in their sentences. a French historian whom Péan describes as an active member of the "pro-Tutsi lobby. Since the evidence completely contradicts these assertions. a Kigali hotelier at the Hôtel des Mille Collines who sheltered over a thousand refugees during the genocide. Left to Tell recounts how Immaculée Ilibagiza survived for 91 days with seven other women during the holocaust in a damp and small bathroom. James Orbinski in his book "An Imperfect Offering: Humanitarian Action in the Twenty-first Century. incoherent series of assertions. he says. accusing the Tutsis of engaging in a "countergenocide" against the Hutus. whom Gerald Caplan identified in a 2007 Globe and Mail article as believing that "many people were killed in 1994 by both sides making those who carried out the genocide and their enemies morally equivalent. On Thursday. Mr.