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1.

Calculation for the Value of Stabilizing Resistor & Relay Setting

Enter the values on cells highlighted in white,Result will be displayed in cells highlighted in Green & general datas in Blue

The CT requirements are class X with a knee point voltage in excess of twice the setting voltage.

Setting:
The setting volatge may be determined by:
VS = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra ]
VS = Setting Voltage
IS = Setting Current
IF = Fault level in CT Primary
n = CT Ratio
Rct = Resistance of CT at operating temperature
RL = Lead resistance at operating temperature
Ra = Additional resistance due to relay,contact/connection resistance etc at operating temperature
The Full CT requirement is therefore : Class X, ratio N,CT resistance Rct and knee point voltage > 2 x Vs

Transformer Details
TRF Capacity = 1000 kVA
TRF Primary = 11000 Volts
TRF Secondary = 400 Volts
TRF Impedance = 5 %
CT Primary(n) = 2000 Amps
CT Secondary = 1 Amps
n = 2000
CT Secondary wiring Length = 30 Meters Neutral CT traveling distance
CT Secondary wiring size = 2.5 Sq.mm
Resistance of conductor = 7.41 Ohms / KM Refer the chart
CT resistance(RCT) = 8 Ohms CT Manufacturer to advice
CT magnitization current(Im) = 64 mA CT Manufacturer to advice

Fault level in CT Primary:

IF = TRF Capacity x 1000 Example: IF=1600 x 1000 / 415 x 1.732 x 0.06 = 37100 Amps
TRF Secondary x 1.732 x Imp
IF = 28868 Amps

Dated:3/12/2011
1.Calculation For The Value of Stabilizing Resistor_1000kVA

RL = CT Secondary wiring Length x Resistance of conductor per meter
RL = 0.22 Ohms Example: RL=20 x 7.41/1000 = 0.15 Ohms

Ra is usually ignored,but may have the value 0.01ohms
Ra = 0.01 Ohms
VS = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra ] Example: VS=37000/2500 [8 + 2(0.15) + 0.01] = 123 Volts
VS = 122 Volt

CT Knee Point voltage must be in excess of 2 x V S:

VKn = 244 Volts Example: Vkn=2 x 123 = 246 Volt

Required Loop Resistance Value:

RS = VS / IS
IS = 40 %
IS = 0.4 Amps Example: IS=0.2 x 1(CT Secondary Amps) = 0.2A
VS = 122 Volts RS=123 / 0.2 = 615 Ohms
RS = 305 Ohms

With the MREF relay the relay burden is less than 0.005VA and may therefore be neglected
Rstab = 305 Ohms Stabilizing Resistor Value

Note:
Under Fault Condition this resistor must pass
Value = 14.43 Amps Example: 37000 / (2500/1) = 14.8A

Peak Voltages:
Under Fault conditions the peak voltage ignoring saturation of the C.T given by
VP = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra + Rstab + Rr ] Rr = Relay resistance can be neglected
= 4524 Volts Example: VP=37100/2500 [8 + 2(0.15) +0 .01 + 615] = 9250 Volt
VP = 4.524 KV

Dated:3/12/2011
1.Calculation For The Value of Stabilizing Resistor_1000kVA

Peak Voltage including saturation of the CT given by

Vpk Value must be below approximately 3KV
Vpk = 2 √ 2 Vkn [ Vp - Vkn ] Example: Vpk=2 √ 2 246 [ 9250 - 246 ] = 4209 Volt
= 2890 Volt
Vpk = 2.89 KV

In Case the value exceed 3KV,we must adjust the setting current and re-caulculate as below:
If the VPK value was less than 3KV please fill the same setting current value so as to attain the P.O.C value.
RS = VS / IS Example: IS=0.4 x 1 = 0.4A
IS = Setting Current ( May be taken in % ) RS=123 / 0.4 = 307.5 Ohms
IS = 20 % Enter the value until VPK falls below 3KV
IS = 0.2 Amps
VS = 122 Volts
RS = 610 Ohms
Rstab = 610 Ohms Stabilizing Resistor Value
VP = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra + Rstab + Rr ] Rr = Relay resistance can be neglected
= 8927 Volt
V lt
VP = 8.927 KV
Vpk = 2 √ 2 Vkn [ Vp - Vkn ]
= 4117 Volt
Vpk = 4.12 KV

Effective setting [ Primary operating Current ] 20 %Setting Current

P.O.C = n [N x Im + Inr + Is]
N = The number of connected CTs
Im = The magnitization current for a single CT at setting Voltage
Is = Setting current
Inr = Non Linear resistor current at setting Voltage
Inr = [(Vs) / (MI)] 4
Inr = 0 Amps Inr Value is Zero since Non-Linear Resistor not used.
P.O.C = 912 Amps Example: POC = 2500 [(4 x 0.013) + 0 + 0.4] = 1130Amps
% of Transformer rating = 45.6 %
As per ESI 48-3 standard,the fault current setting shall be between 10% to 60% of the rated current of the winding.

Dated:3/12/2011
1.Calculation For The Value of Stabilizing Resistor_1000kVA

Limiting Peak Voltage

If it is not possible to limit the peak voltage,by careful selection of setting current,a voltage dependent Non-Linear resistor should be used.
A Non-Linear Resistor Must be used with 40 % setting

Vp = MV [ IF / n ]0.25
MV = Coefficient Value Refer the chart
0.25
MV = 900 Example: Vp=450[3700/2500] = 883Volt
IF = 28868 Amps
n = 2000 Amps
Vp = 1754 Volt

Inr = [(Vs) / (MI)] 4

Vs = 122 Volt
MI = Coefficient Value
= 900
Inr = 0.0003 Amps Example: Inr =[123/450]4 =0.0056Amps

P.O.C = 1312.6 Amps Example: POC = 2500 [(4 x 0.013) + 0.0056 + 0.2] = 644Amps
% of Transformer rating = 65.63 %
As per ESI 48-3 standard,the fault current setting shall be between 10% to 60% of the rated current of the winding.

Dated:3/12/2011
1.Calculation For The Value of Stabilizing Resistor_1000kVA

Dated:3/12/2011
Calculation for the Value of Stabilizing Resistor & Relay Setting
Enter the values on cells highlighted in white,Result will be displayed in cells highlighted in Green & general datas in Blue

The CT requirements are class X with a knee point voltage in excess of twice the setting voltage.

Setting:
The setting volatge may be determined by:
VS = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra ]
VS = Setting Voltage
IS = Setting Current
IF = Fault level in CT Primary
n = CT Ratio
Rct = Resistance of CT at operating temperature
RL = Lead resistance at operating temperature
Ra = Additional resistance due to relay,contact/connection resistance etc at operating temperature
The Full CT requirement is therefore : Class X, ratio N,CT resistance Rct and knee point voltage > 2 x Vs

Transformer Details
TRF Capacity = 2000 kVA
TRF Primary = 11000 Volts
TRF Secondary = 400 Volts
TRF Impedance = 6.3 %
CT Primary(n) = 4000 Amps
CT Secondary = 1 Amps
n = 4000
CT Secondary wiring Length = 30 Meters Neutral CT traveling distance
CT Secondary wiring size = 2.5 Sq.mm
Resistance of conductor = 7.41 Ohms / KM Refer the chart
CT resistance(RCT) = 17 Ohms CT Manufacturer to advice
CT magnitization current(Im) = 64 mA CT Manufacturer to advice

Fault level in CT Primary:

IF = TRF Capacity x 1000 Example: IF=1600 x 1000 / 415 x 1.732 x 0.06 = 37100 Amps
TRF Secondary x 1.732 x Imp
IF = 45823 Amps
RL = CT Secondary wiring Length x Resistance of conductor per meter
RL = 0.22 Ohms Example: RL=20 x 7.41/1000 = 0.15 Ohms

Ra is usually ignored,but may have the value 0.01ohms
Ra = 0.01 Ohms
VS = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra ] Example: VS=37000/2500 [8 + 2(0.15) + 0.01] = 123 Volts
VS = 200 Volt

CT Knee Point voltage must be in excess of 2 x V S:

VKn = 400 Volts Example: Vkn=2 x 123 = 246 Volt

Required Loop Resistance Value:

RS = VS / IS
IS = 20 %
IS = 0.2 Amps Example: IS=0.2 x 1(CT Secondary Amps) = 0.2A
VS = 200 Volts RS=123 / 0.2 = 615 Ohms
RS = 1000 Ohms

With the MREF relay the relay burden is less than 0.005VA and may therefore be neglected
Rstab = 1000 Ohms Stabilizing Resistor Value

Note:
Under Fault Condition this resistor must pass
Value = 11.46 Amps Example: 37000 / (2500/1) = 14.8A

Peak Voltages:
Under Fault conditions the peak voltage ignoring saturation of the C.T given by
VP = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra + Rstab + Rr ] Rr = Relay resistance can be neglected
= 11656 Volts Example: VP=37100/2500 [8 + 2(0.15) +0 .01 + 615] = 9250 Volt
VP = 11.656 KV
Peak Voltage including saturation of the CT given by
Vpk Value must be below approximately 3KV
Vpk = 2 √ 2 Vkn [ Vp - Vkn ] Example: Vpk=2 √ 2 246 [ 9250 - 246 ] = 4209 Volt
= 6002 Volt
Vpk = 6 KV

In Case the value exceed 3KV,we must adjust the setting current and re-caulculate as below:
If the VPK value was less than 3KV please fill the same setting current value so as to attain the P.O.C value.
RS = VS / IS Example: IS=0.4 x 1 = 0.4A
IS = Setting Current ( May be taken in % ) RS=123 / 0.4 = 307.5 Ohms
IS = 20 % Enter the value until VPK falls below 3KV
IS = 0.2 Amps
VS = 200 Volts
RS = 1000 Ohms
Rstab = 1000 Ohms Stabilizing Resistor Value
VP = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra + Rstab + Rr ] Rr = Relay resistance can be neglected
= 11656 Volt
V lt
VP = 11.656 KV
Vpk = 2 √ 2 Vkn [ Vp - Vkn ]
= 6002 Volt
Vpk = 6 KV

Effective setting [ Primary operating Current ] 20 %Setting Current

P.O.C = n [N x Im + Inr + Is]
N = The number of connected CTs
Im = The magnitization current for a single CT at setting Voltage
Is = Setting current
Inr = Non Linear resistor current at setting Voltage
Inr = [(Vs) / (MI)] 4
Inr = 0 Amps Inr Value is Zero since Non-Linear Resistor not used.
P.O.C = 1824 Amps Example: POC = 2500 [(4 x 0.013) + 0 + 0.4] = 1130Amps
% of Transformer rating = 45.6 %
As per ESI 48-3 standard,the fault current setting shall be between 10% to 60% of the rated current of the winding.
Limiting Peak Voltage
If it is not possible to limit the peak voltage,by careful selection of setting current,a voltage dependent Non-Linear resistor should be used.
A Non-Linear Resistor Must be used with 20 % setting

Vp = MV [ IF / n ]0.25
MV = Coefficient Value Refer the chart
0.25
MV = 900 Example: Vp=450[3700/2500] = 883Volt
IF = 45823 Amps
n = 4000 Amps
Vp = 1656 Volt

Inr = [(Vs) / (MI)] 4

Vs = 200 Volt
MI = Coefficient Value
= 900
Inr = 0.0024 Amps Example: Inr =[123/450]4 =0.0056Amps

P.O.C = 1833.6 Amps Example: POC = 2500 [(4 x 0.013) + 0.0056 + 0.2] = 644Amps
% of Transformer rating = 45.84 %
As per ESI 48-3 standard,the fault current setting shall be between 10% to 60% of the rated current of the winding.
Calculation for the Value of Stabilizing Resistor & Relay Setting
Enter the values on cells highlighted in white,Result will be displayed in cells highlighted in Green & general datas in Blue

The CT requirements are class X with a knee point voltage in excess of twice the setting voltage.

Setting:
The setting volatge may be determined by:
VS = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra ]
VS = Setting Voltage
IS = Setting Current
IF = Fault level in CT Primary
n = CT Ratio
Rct = Resistance of CT at operating temperature
RL = Lead resistance at operating temperature
Ra = Additional resistance due to relay,contact/connection resistance etc at operating temperature
The Full CT requirement is therefore : Class X, ratio N,CT resistance Rct and knee point voltage > 2 x Vs

Transformer Details
TRF Capacity = 1600 kVA
TRF Primary = 11000 Volts
TRF Secondary = 400 Volts
TRF Impedance = 6.3 %
CT Primary(n) = 3000 Amps
CT Secondary = 1 Amps
n = 3000
CT Secondary wiring Length = 30 Meters Neutral CT traveling distance
CT Secondary wiring size = 2.5 Sq.mm
Resistance of conductor = 7.41 Ohms / KM Refer the chart
CT resistance(RCT) = 12 Ohms CT Manufacturer to advice
CT magnitization current(Im) = 64 mA CT Manufacturer to advice

Fault level in CT Primary:

IF = TRF Capacity x 1000 Example: IF=1600 x 1000 / 415 x 1.732 x 0.06 = 37100 Amps
TRF Secondary x 1.732 x Imp
IF = 36658 Amps
RL = CT Secondary wiring Length x Resistance of conductor per meter
RL = 0.22 Ohms Example: RL=20 x 7.41/1000 = 0.15 Ohms

Ra is usually ignored,but may have the value 0.01ohms
Ra = 0.01 Ohms
VS = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra ] Example: VS=37000/2500 [8 + 2(0.15) + 0.01] = 123 Volts
VS = 152 Volt

CT Knee Point voltage must be in excess of 2 x V S:

VKn = 304 Volts Example: Vkn=2 x 123 = 246 Volt

Required Loop Resistance Value:

RS = VS / IS
IS = 50 %
IS = 0.5 Amps Example: IS=0.2 x 1(CT Secondary Amps) = 0.2A
VS = 152 Volts RS=123 / 0.2 = 615 Ohms
RS = 304 Ohms

With the MREF relay the relay burden is less than 0.005VA and may therefore be neglected
Rstab = 304 Ohms Stabilizing Resistor Value

Note:
Under Fault Condition this resistor must pass
Value = 12.22 Amps Example: 37000 / (2500/1) = 14.8A

Peak Voltages:
Under Fault conditions the peak voltage ignoring saturation of the C.T given by
VP = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra + Rstab + Rr ] Rr = Relay resistance can be neglected
= 3867 Volts Example: VP=37100/2500 [8 + 2(0.15) +0 .01 + 615] = 9250 Volt
VP = 3.867 KV
Peak Voltage including saturation of the CT given by
Vpk Value must be below approximately 3KV
Vpk = 2 √ 2 Vkn [ Vp - Vkn ] Example: Vpk=2 √ 2 246 [ 9250 - 246 ] = 4209 Volt
= 2944 Volt
Vpk = 2.94 KV

In Case the value exceed 3KV,we must adjust the setting current and re-caulculate as below:
If the VPK value was less than 3KV please fill the same setting current value so as to attain the P.O.C value.
RS = VS / IS Example: IS=0.4 x 1 = 0.4A
IS = Setting Current ( May be taken in % ) RS=123 / 0.4 = 307.5 Ohms
IS = 20 % Enter the value until VPK falls below 3KV
IS = 0.2 Amps
VS = 152 Volts
RS = 760 Ohms
Rstab = 760 Ohms Stabilizing Resistor Value
VP = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra + Rstab + Rr ] Rr = Relay resistance can be neglected
= 9439 Volt
V lt
VP = 9.439 KV
Vpk = 2 √ 2 Vkn [ Vp - Vkn ]
= 4713 Volt
Vpk = 4.71 KV

Effective setting [ Primary operating Current ] 20 %Setting Current

P.O.C = n [N x Im + Inr + Is]
N = The number of connected CTs
Im = The magnitization current for a single CT at setting Voltage
Is = Setting current
Inr = Non Linear resistor current at setting Voltage
Inr = [(Vs) / (MI)] 4
Inr = 0 Amps Inr Value is Zero since Non-Linear Resistor not used.
P.O.C = 1368 Amps Example: POC = 2500 [(4 x 0.013) + 0 + 0.4] = 1130Amps
% of Transformer rating = 45.6 %
As per ESI 48-3 standard,the fault current setting shall be between 10% to 60% of the rated current of the winding.
Limiting Peak Voltage
If it is not possible to limit the peak voltage,by careful selection of setting current,a voltage dependent Non-Linear resistor should be used.
A Non-Linear Resistor Must be used with 50 % setting

Vp = MV [ IF / n ]0.25
MV = Coefficient Value Refer the chart
0.25
MV = 900 Example: Vp=450[3700/2500] = 883Volt
IF = 36658 Amps
n = 3000 Amps
Vp = 1683 Volt

Inr = [(Vs) / (MI)] 4

Vs = 152 Volt
MI = Coefficient Value
= 900
Inr = 0.0008 Amps Example: Inr =[123/450]4 =0.0056Amps

P.O.C = 2270.4 Amps Example: POC = 2500 [(4 x 0.013) + 0.0056 + 0.2] = 644Amps
% of Transformer rating = 75.68 %
As per ESI 48-3 standard,the fault current setting shall be between 10% to 60% of the rated current of the winding.
P+B MREF Restricted Earth Fault Relay
Relay Setting - Front Panel - DIP Switch Position
2000kVA 1000kVA 1600kVA
Is = 20% Is = 40% Is = 50%

5 1 7.5 5 1 7.5 5 1 7.5

0 2 5 0 2 5 0 2 5
0 3 10 0 3 10 0 3 10
0 4 20 0 4 20 0 4 20
0 5 40 0 5 40 0 5 40
6 6 6
Summary Sheet For Stabilizing Resistor

6594_Resistor Vaue

Transfomer Transfomer Transfomer Transfomer

Busbar Rating Fault Level Incomer
Capacity Primary Secondary % Impedance

Current Transformer Details

Distance Between Cable Size From Star
Restricted Earth CT Knee Point CT Resistance CT magnetizing
Star Point(Neutral) Point(Neutral) of
Fault Relay CT's Voltage [Vkn] [RCT] current [Im]
of ''CT'' To Relay ''CT'' To Relay

Calculated Fault Calculated "CT" Non-Linear Primary % of

Relay Setting Stabilizing
Current in "CT" Knee point Voltage Resistor Operating Transformer
[% Is] Resistor [Rstab]
Primary [IF] [Vkn] (Metrosil) Current Rating

1 of 1 Dated : 3/12/2011